Prehospital pediatric cardiac arrest is a rare event compared with adult cardiac arrest. Despite the recent advancements in postresuscitation care improving the outcome of adult patients, similar evidence is lacking in pediatric victims of cardiac arrest. In this brief article, the current data on pediatric cardiac arrest occurring in the prehospital setting are reviewed. The annual incidence of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is approximately 8-10 cases per 100,000 persons. The outc...
Full Text Available Prehospital pediatric cardiac arrest is a rare event compared with adult cardiac arrest. Despite the recent advancements in postresuscitation care improving the outcome of adult patients, similar evidence is lacking in pediatric victims of cardiac arrest. In this brief article, the current data on pediatric cardiac arrest occurring in the prehospital setting are reviewed. The annual incidence of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is approximately 8-10 cases per 100,000 persons. The outcome is generally poor, as only 2-9.6% of patients survive to hospital discharge. The neurologic outcome of survivors is good in 24-31% of patients. Current evidence is insufficient to strongly support or refute the use of mild therapeutic hypothermia during the postresuscitation phase in pediatric patients. The application of a goal-directed treatment protocol for pediatric cardiac arrest and postresuscitation syndrome needs to be evaluated.
Introduction: The reported incidences of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in western countries vary considerably. According to the latest report from Danish Cardiac Arrest Database (DCAD) the incidence rate in Denmark in 2004 was 51/100,000/year. The report states however that this number is uncertain. As the first region in the country, North Denmark Region has introduced a prehospital electronic healthcare record (designated amPHIâ?¢) in all of its 50 emergency ambulances. We used data from amPHIâ?¢ to examine the incidence of OHCA in the region. Â Methods: We extracted patient data from the amPHIâ?¢ database from 1st May to 31st December 2006. We then identified the patients who met the criteria for OHCA set by the DCAD: â??Situations to which an ambulance is called, and where either the ambulance-staff or others have performed chest compressions or given electrical defibrillationâ?. We stratified those patients according to whether they received first aid, the identity of the first aid provider and the initial cardiac rhythm as diagnosed by the patient monitor. Â Results: 18,666 patients where in contact with an emergency ambulance in the study period. Of those 296 (89/100,000/year) met the definition of cardiac arrest. 83 of those (28 %) received first aid. The first aid was provided by layman (68 %), physicians (11 %), nurses (11 %) and first-aiders (4 %). In 6 % the identity of the first aid provider was unknown. The majority of the patients (n = 177 (58 %)) had asystole upon ambulance arrival. 37 (12 %) had ventricular fibrillation, 32 (10 %) had other arrhythmias, 21 (7 %) had sinus rhythm and a single patient (0.3 %) had ventricular tachycardia. Â Conclusions: We have shown amPHIâ?¢ to be a valuable tool for accessing information about OHCA. By a stringent electronic registration we found a considerably higher incidence rate for OHCA, than documented by the analogue nationwide registry. Further we discovered a high rate of first aid to OHCA-patients. Finally our data showed a high occurence of asystolia in patients who met the official criteria for OHCA.
Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Dahl, Michael
For out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) to be predicted and prevented, it is imperative the healthcare system has access to those vulnerable before the event occurs. We aimed to determine the extent of contact to the healthcare system before OHCA.
Weeke, Peter; Folke, Fredrik
BACKGROUND: The underlying etiology of sudden cardiac death varies with age and is likely to be reflected in type and number of healthcare contacts. We aimed to determine the specific type of healthcare contact shortly before out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) across ages. METHODS: OHCA patients were identified in the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Register and Copenhagen Medical Emergency Care Unit (2001-2006). We matched every OHCA patients with 10 controls on sex and age. Healthcare contacts were evaluated 30 days before event by individual-level-linkage of nationwide registers. RESULTS: We identified 16,924 OHCA patients, median age 70.0 years (Q1-Q3: 59-80). OHCA patients had a higher number of hospitalizations and received more pharmacotherapy compared to the control population across all ages (p for difference 89) were
Weeke, Peter; Folke, Fredrik
Abstract Background Although there are numerous supraglottic airway alternatives to endotracheal intubation, it remains unclear which airway technique is optimal for use in prehospital cardiac arrests. We evaluated the use of the laryngeal tube (LT) as an airway management tool among adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients treated by our ambulance services in the Haukeland and Innlandet hospital districts. Methods Post-resuscitation forms and data c...
Sunde Geir A; Brattebø Guttorm; Ødegården Terje; Kjernlie Dag F; Rødne Emma; Heltne Jon-Kenneth
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was studied in suburban King County, Washington in an attempt to determine the impact of paramedic services on community cardiac mortality. A portion of the study area received paramedic services and the remainder received basic emergency medical technician (EMT) services. A surveillance system identified all prehospital cardiac arrest incidents. The etiology and outcome were determined. Deaths due to primary heart disease (ICDA) codes 410-414) were compared to community cardiac mortality figures for the same period of time and in the paramedic and EMT areas. Between April 1, 1976 and August 31, 1977, 1,449 deaths due to primary heart disease occurred (annual rate of 19.2/10,000 in the EMT area and 13.4/10,000 in the paramedic area). For the same period, 487 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest received emergency resuscitation. The annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was similar in the EMT and paramedic areas (5.6 and 6.0/10,000 respectively). Proportionately more lives of persons with cardiac arrest were saved in the paramedic area than in the MET area. During this 17 month period, the reduction in community cardiac mortality was 8.4 per cent in the paramedic area and 1.3 per cent in the EMT area. These findings suggest that paramedic services have a small but measurable effect on community cardiac mortality. PMID:420354
Eisenberg, M; Bergner, L; Hallstrom, A
The Flying Squad (MEDIC I) based at the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, commenced operation in 1980. The MEDIC I response to out of hospital non-traumatic cardiac arrest over the past decade is reported. On-scene resuscitation was attempted in 384 patients. A total of 149 (39%) patients were successfully resuscitated and transferred to hospital. Thirty-six (9.4%) patients survived to discharge from hospital. Patients receiving basic life support prior to the arrival of MEDIC I and in ventricular ...
Cusack, S.; Steedman, D. J.; Robertson, C. E.; Little, K.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of extended trained ambulance personnel (paramedics) for the management of out of hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients who suffered a cardiac arrest between 1 January 1992 and 31 July 1994, and who were transported to their local accident and emergency (A&E) department. Data were collected on basic demography, operational time intervals, and ambulance crew status. Further clinical data were collected, and outcome ...
Nguyen-van-tam, J. S.; Dove, A. F.; Bradley, M. P.; Pearson, J. C.; Durston, P.; Madeley, R. J.
Whereas the gap between organ supply and demand remains a worldwide concern, resuscitation of out-of-hospital traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) remains controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate, in a prehospital medical care system, the number of organs transplanted from victims of out-of-hospital TCA. This is a descriptive study. Victims of TCA are collected in the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest registry of the French North Alpine Emergency Network from 2004 to 2008. In addition to the rates of admission and survival, brain-dead patients and the organ transplanted are described. Among the 540 resuscitated patients with suspected TCA, 79 were admitted to a hospital, 15 were discharged alive from the hospital, and 22 developed brain death. Nine of these became eventually organ donors, with 31 organs transplanted, all functional after 1 year. Out-of-hospital TCA should be resuscitated just as medical CA. With a steady prevalence in our network, 19% of admitted TCA survived to discharge, and 11% became organ donors. It is essential to raise awareness among rescue teams that out-of-hospital TCA are an organ source to consider seriously. PMID:24118355
Faucher, Anna; Savary, Dominique; Jund, Jérôme; Dorez, Didier; Debaty, Guillaume; Gaillard, Arnaud; Atchabahian, Arthur; Tazarourte, Karim
Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death globally and air pollution can be a contributing cause. Acute myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest are frequent manifestations of coronary heart disease. The objectives of the study were to investigate the association between 4 657 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) and hourly and daily outdoor levels of PM10, PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM (PM10-2.5), ultrafine particle proxies, NOx, NO2, O3 and CO in Copenhagen, Denmark, for the ...
Wichmann, Janine; Folke, Fredrik; Torp-pedersen, Christian; Lippert, Freddy; Ketzel, Matthias; Ellermann, Thomas; Loft, Steffen
There is a developing body of literature documenting adverse survival outcome of out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation for critical multiple trauma and head injury patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of survival to hospital admission and discharge of nontraumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who received successful out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation and those who were not intubated. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis from an ongoing database of OHCA patients brought to a large suburban tertiary care emergency department by paramedic services between 1995 and 2006. We dichotomized patients by whether they were successfully endotracheally intubated or not prior to hospital arrival. Utstein style cardiac arrest variables were abstracted for all cases. All survivors to hospital admission were reviewed to exclude those patients in whom intubation was not attempted or unnecessary, such as those who had successful first-shock recovery of spontaneous circulation. We used chi square and logistic regression techniques for analysis, using survival to discharge as the primary outcome and survival to admission as a secondary outcome. RESULTS: There were 1,515 total cases with 33 early survivors excluded. Overall, 1,220 (86.2%) were intubated; of those intubated, 270 (20.2%) survived to admission and 93 (7.0%) survived to discharge. Upon univariate analysis, there was no difference in survival between intubated and non intubated groups (6.5% vs 10.0%, OR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.37,1.08). For patients initially in ventricular fibrillation\\/ventricular tachycardia (VT\\/VF), in a multivariate Logit model, intubation significantly decreased survival to discharge, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.52 (95% confidence interval 0.27, 0.998). Intubated non-VF patients were more likely to survive to admission, adjusted OR 2.96 (1.04, 8.43), but not to discharge (1.8% vs. 1.0%, p = 1.0). CONCLUSION: This observational study in an unselected population shows that patients in VF\\/VT arrest who underwent out-of-hospital intubation were less likely to survive to discharge than those not intubated. Out-of-hospital intubation of patients with non-VF arrest was associated with an increased rate of survival to admission, but not survival to discharge. Future prospective studies are needed to define the role of out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation in cardiac arrest patients.
Full Text Available Marcus EH Ong1, Faith SP Ng2, Susan Yap1, Kok Leong Yong1, Mary A Peberdy3, Joseph P Ornato41Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore; 2Clinical Trials and Epidemiology Research Unit (now known as Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore; 3Division of Cardiology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, USA; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: We aimed to determine whether there is a seasonal variation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA in an equatorial climate, which does not experience seasonal environmental change.Methods: We conducted an observational prospective study looking at the occurrence of OHCA in Singapore. Included were all patients with OHCA presented to Emergency Departments across the country. We examined the monthly, daily, and hourly number of cases over a threeyear period. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA.Results: From October, 1st 2001 to October, 14th 2004, 2428 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age for cardiac arrests was 60.6 years with 68.0% male. Ethnic distribution was 69.5% Chinese, 15.0% Malay, 11.0% Indian, and 4.4% Others. There was no significant seasonal variation (spring/summer/fall/winter of events (ANOVA P = 0.71, monthly variation (P = 0.88 or yearly variation (P = 0.26. We did find weekly peaks on Mondays and a circadian pattern with daily peaks from 910 am.Conclusions: We did not find any discernable seasonal pattern of cardiac arrests. This contrasts with findings from temperate countries and suggests a climatic influence on cardiac arrest occurrence. We also found that sudden cardiac arrests follow a circadian pattern.Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac arrest, seasonal pattern, circadian pattern
Marcus EH Ong
SAVES, the name used to describe a register of survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), was established in rural Northwest Ireland in 1992. From 1992 to 2008, 80 survivors were identified (population 239,000 (2006)). Most incidents were witnessed (69\\/70) and all were in shockable rhythm at the time of first rhythm analysis (66\\/66). Of 66 patients who could be traced, 46 were alive in December 2008. Average survival rates appeared to increase over the lifetime of the database. SAVES has also contributed to the development of a national OHCA register.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there are numerous supraglottic airway alternatives to endotracheal intubation, it remains unclear which airway technique is optimal for use in prehospital cardiac arrests. We evaluated the use of the laryngeal tube (LT as an airway management tool among adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patients treated by our ambulance services in the Haukeland and Innlandet hospital districts. Methods Post-resuscitation forms and data concerning airway management in 347 adult OHCA victims were retrospectively assessed with regard to LT insertion success rates, ease and speed of insertion and insertion-related problems. Results A total of 402 insertions were performed on 347 OHCA patients. Overall, LT insertion was successful in 85.3% of the patients, with a 74.4% first-attempt success rate. In the minority of patients (n?=?46, 13.3%, the LT insertion time exceeded 30 seconds. Insertion-related problems were recorded in 52.7% of the patients. Lack of respiratory sounds on auscultation (n?=?100, 28.8%, problematic initial tube positioning (n?=?85, 24.5%, air leakage (n?=?61, 17.6%, vomitus/aspiration (n?=?44, 12.7%, and tube dislocation (n?=?17, 4.9% were the most common problems reported. Insertion difficulty was graded and documented for 95.4% of the patients, with the majority of insertions assessed as being Easy (62.5% or Intermediate (24.8%. Only 8.1% of the insertions were considered to be Difficult. Conclusions We found a high number of insertion related problems, indicating that supraglottic airway devices offering promising results in manikin studies may be less reliable in real-life resuscitations. Still, we consider the laryngeal tube to be an important alternative for airway management in prehospital cardiac arrest victims.
Sunde Geir A
Out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with an extremely poor survival rate, with mortality in most cases being related to neurological injury. Among patients who experience return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the only proven intervention shown to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcome. First described in 1958, the field of TH has rapidly evolved in recent years. While recent technological advances in TH will likely improve outcomes in OHCA survivors, several fundamental questions remain to be answered including the optimal speed of cooling, which patients benefit from an early invasive strategy, and whether technological advances will facilitate application of TH in the field. An increased awareness and understanding of TH strategies, devices, monitoring, techniques, and complications will allow for a more widespread adoption of this important treatment modality. PMID:23475635
Alkadri, Mohi E; Peters, Matthew N; Katz, Morgan J; White, Christopher J
Full Text Available Background. We examined factors associated with the successful resuscitation, in the emergency department (ED, of adult, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patients.Methods. The study cohort consisted of adult patients (over 18 years of age who presented to the ED in 2009 with a diagnosis of cardiac arrest. Data were retrieved from the institutional database. Results. A total of 122 adult, non-traumatic, OHCA patients were enrolled in the study. There were no significant differences between the sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC and non-sustained ROSC groups in initial body temperature (P = 0.420, time to successful intubation (P = 0.524, time to first intravenous epinephrine injection (P = 0.108, blood sugar levels (P = 0.122, hematocrit (P = 0.977, cardiac enzymes (P = 0.116 and serum sodium level (P = 0.429. Leukocytosis (P = 0.047 and cardiac rhythm of pulseless ventricular tachycardia/ ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity (P = 0.022, were significantly associated with sustained ROSC. In contrast, patients with more severe acidosis (P = 0.003 and hyperkalemia (P < 0.001 had a reduced likelihood of achieving sustained ROSC. After multiple variable logistic regression analysis adjusting for variables, the correlation between sustained ROSC and leukocytosis and hyperkalemia remained high (leukocytosis, P = 0.007, odds ratio [OR] 3.655, 95% CI 1.422-9.395; hyperkalemia, P = 0.001, OR 0.169, 95% CI 0.057-0.500Conclusion. Patients suffering an OHCA were appropriately resuscitated after arriving at the ED. Successful resuscitation in adult OHCA victims was determined by the patient's status, in particular their white blood cell count and potassium level.
Abstract Aims The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to address the question: In pre-hospital adult cardiac arrest (asystole, pulseless electrical activity, pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation), does the use of mechanical Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) devices compared to manual CPR during Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and ambulance transport, improve outcomes (e.g. Quality of CPR, Return Of Sp...
Ong Marcus; Mackey Kevin E; Zhang Zhong; Tanaka Hideharu; Ma Matthew; Swor Robert; Shin Sang
BACKGROUND: An out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that the implementations of 2005 European Resuscitation Council resuscitation guidelines were associated with improved 30-day survival after OHCA. METHODS: We prospectively recorded data on all patients with OHCA treated by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit of Copenhagen in two periods: 1 June 2004 until 31 August 2005 (before implementation) and 1 January 2006 until 31 March 2007 (after implementation), separated by a 4-month period in which the above-mentioned change took place. RESULTS: We found that 30-day survival increased after the implementation from 31/372 (8.3%) to 67/419 (16%), P=0.001. ROSC at hospital admission, as well as survival to hospital discharge, were obtained in a significantly higher proportion from 23.4% to 39.1%, P<0.0001, and from 7.9% to 16.3%, P=0.0004, respectively. Treatment after implementation was confirmed as a significant predictor of better 30-day survival in a logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The implementation of new resuscitation guidelines was associated with improved 30-day survival after OHCA Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8
Steinmetz, Jacob; Barnung, S.
Recently published evidence has challenged some protocols related to oxygenation, ventilation, and airway management for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Interrupting chest compressions to attempt airway intervention in the early stages of OHCA in adults may worsen patient outcomes. The change of BLS algorithms from ABC to CAB was recommended by the AHA in 2010. Passive insufflation of oxygen into a patent airway may provide oxygenation in the early stages of cardiac arrest. Various alternatives to tracheal intubation or bag-mask ventilation have been trialled for prehospital airway management. Simple methods of airway management are associated with similar outcomes as tracheal intubation in patients with OHCA. The insertion of a laryngeal mask airway is probably associated with worse neurologically intact survival rates in comparison with other methods of airway management. Hyperoxemia following OHCA may have a deleterious effect on the neurological recovery of patients. Extracorporeal oxygenation techniques have been utilized by specialized centers, though their use in OHCA remains controversial. Chest hyperinflation and positive airway pressure may have a negative impact on hemodynamics during resuscitation and should be avoided. Dyscarbia in the postresuscitation period is relatively common, mainly in association with therapeutic hypothermia, and may worsen neurological outcome. PMID:24724081
Henlin, Tomas; Michalek, Pavel; Tyll, Tomas; Hinds, John D; Dobias, Milos
Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is a common medical emergency with significant mortality and significant neurological morbidity. Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS may be tasked to OHCA. We sought to assess the impact of tasking a HEMS service to OHCA and characterise the nature of these calls. Method Retrospective case review of all HEMS calls to Surrey and Sussex Air Ambulance, United Kingdom, over a 1-year period (1/9/2010-1/9/2011. All missions to cases of suspected OHCA, of presumed medical origin, were reviewed systematically. Results HEMS was activated 89 times to suspected OHCA. This represented 11% of the total HEMS missions. In 23 cases HEMS was stood-down en-route and in 2 cases the patient had not suffered an OHCA on arrival of HEMS. 25 patients achieved return-of-spontaneous circulation (ROSC, 13 (52% prior to HEMS arrival. The HEMS team were never first on-scene. The median time from first collapse to HEMS arrival was 31 minutes (IQR 2240. The median time from HEMS activation to arrival on scene was 17 minutes (IQR 11.5-21. 19 patients underwent pre-hospital anaesthesia, 5 patients had electrical or chemical cardioversion and 19 patients had therapeutic hypothermia initiated by HEMS. Only 1 post-OHCA patient was transported to hospital by air. The survival to discharge rate was 6.3%. Conclusion OHCA represents a significant proportion of HEMS call outs. HEMS most commonly attend post-ROSC OHCA patients and interventions, including pre-hospital anaesthesia and therapeutic hypothermia should be targeted to this phase. HEMS are rarely first on-scene and should only be tasked as a first response to OHCA in remote locations. HEMS may be most appropriately utilised in OHCA by only attending the scene if a patient achieves ROSC.
Lyon Richard M
Out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of death all over the world. Although the outcome of OHCA resulting from 'nonshockable' rhythms (asystole and pulseless electrical activity) is poor regardless of resuscitation efforts, 'shockable' rhythms such as ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation may carry a good prognosis if early defibrillation is performed. At present, simplified cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques (hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and automated external defibrillators (AEDs) offer lay people the possibility to provide lifesaving treatment to OHCA victims in the critical minutes before the arrival of the emergency medical system. Programs aimed at increasing provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of AEDs by lay people have been set up in different countries, including Italy, and have contributed to improve survival rates. However, success of these programs critically depends on appropriate planning and design, and on cultural predisposition of witnesses to undertake immediate measures of resuscitation in the case of OHCA. Placement of a large number of AEDs may carry high costs and little benefits if it is uncoordinated and not preceded by educational campaigns to spread widely the 'culture of resuscitation' in the population. PMID:24950347
Zorzi, Alessandro; Gasparetto, Nicola; Stella, Federica; Bortoluzzi, Andrea; Cacciavillani, Luisa; Basso, Cristina
BACKGROUND: The safety of therapeutic hypothermia combined with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has been challenged after reports of high risk of stent thrombosis. METHODS: We searched the Western Denmark Heart Registry to identify patients with an acute coronary angiography due to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest performed at our institution between September 2010 and September 2013. We identified 68 unconscious patients, who were resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and underwent acute PCI with stent implantation and immediate therapeutic hypothermia, and followed these for 30 days. Target temperature of 32-34Â°C was achieved by either an invasive or a non-invasive cooling system. RESULTS: All patients had elevated myocardial biomarkers and 37 patients had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Bare metal stents were implanted in 14 and drug-eluting stents in 54 patients. All patients received antithrombotic treatment with a standard loading dose of 300 mg acetylsalicylic acid and 10,000 units heparin intravenously prior PCI. Clopidogrel or ticagrelor was administered orally through a gastric tube immediately after PCI. During the procedure abciximab or bivalirudin was administered in 44 patients. Electrocardiographic and clinical signs of stent thrombosis were found in one patient. CONCLUSIONS: We observed one stent thrombosis in this cohort of 68 consecutive patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who were treated with PCI and therapeutic hypothermia. This suggests that PCI with stent implantation can be performed with acceptable safety in these patients.
Chisholm, Gro E; Grejs, Anders
The majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occur in residential locations, but knowledge about strategic placement of automated external defibrillators in residential areas is lacking. We examined whether residential OHCA areas suitable for placement of automated external defibrillators could be identified on the basis of demographic characteristics and characterized individuals with OHCA in residential locations.
Folke, Fredrik; Gislason, Gunnar H
Full Text Available Abstract Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is a significant public health problem in most westernized industrialized nations. In spite of national and international guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care, the overall survival of patients with OHCA was essentially unchanged for 30 years--from 1978 to 2008 at 7.6%. Perhaps a better indicator of Emergency Medical System (EMS effectiveness in treating patients with OHCA is to focus on the subgroup that has a reasonable chance of survival, e.g., patients found to be in ventricular fibrillation (VF. But even in this subgroup, the average survival rate was 17.7% in the United States, unchanged between 1980 and 2003, and 21% in Europe, unchanged between 1980 and 2004. Prior to 2003, the survival of patients with OHCA, in VF in Tucson, Arizona was less than 9% in spite of incorporating previous guideline recommendations. An alternative (non-guidelines approach to the therapy of patients with OHCA and a shockable rhythm, called Cardiocerebral Resuscitation, based on our extensive physiologic laboratory studies, was introduced in Tucson in 2003, in rural Wisconsin in 2004, and in selected EMS areas in the metropolitan Phoenix area in 2005. Survival of patients with OHCA due to VF treated with Cardiocerebral Resuscitation in rural Wisconsin increased to 38% and in 60 EMS systems in Arizona to 39%. In 2004, we began a statewide program to advocate chest compression-only CPR for bystanders of witnessed primary OHCA. Over the next five years, we found that survival of patients with a shockable rhythm was 17.7% in those treated with standard bystander CPR (mouth-to-mouth ventilations plus chest compression compared to 33.7% for those who received bystander chest-compression-only CPR. This article on Cardiocerebral Resuscitation, by invitation following a presentation at the 2011 Danish Society Emergency Medical Conference, summarizes the results of therapy of patients with primary OHCA treated with Cardiocerebral Resuscitation, with requested emphasis on the EMS protocol.
Ewy Gordon A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the effects of geographic variation on outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. The present study investigated the relationship between population density, time between emergency call and ambulance arrival, and survival of OHCA, using the All-Japan Utstein-style registry database, coupled with geographic information system (GIS data. Methods We examined data from 101,287 bystander-witnessed OHCA patients who received emergency medical services (EMS through 4,729 ambulatory centers in Japan between 2005 and 2007. Latitudes and longitudes of each center were determined with address-match geocoding, and linked with the Population Census data using GIS. The endpoints were 1-month survival and neurologically favorable 1-month survival defined as Glasgow-Pittsburgh cerebral performance categories 1 or 2. Results Overall 1-month survival was 7.8%. Neurologically favorable 1-month survival was 3.6%. In very low-density (2 and very high-density (?10,000/km2 areas, the mean call-response intervals were 9.3 and 6.2 minutes, 1-month survival rates were 5.4% and 9.1%, and neurologically favorable 1-month survival rates were 2.7% and 4.3%, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, cause of arrest, first aid by bystander and the proportion of neighborhood elderly people ?65 yrs, patients in very high-density areas had a significantly higher survival rate (odds ratio (OR, 1.64; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.44 - 1.87; p Conclusion Living in a low-density area was associated with an independent risk of delay in ambulance response, and a low survival rate in cases of OHCA. Distribution of EMS centers according to population size may lead to inequality in health outcomes between urban and rural areas.
Abstract Background A large proportion of patients who suffer from out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outside home are theoretically candidates for public access defibrillation (PAD). We describe the change in characteristics and outcome among these candidates in a 14 years perspective in Sweden. Methods All patients who suffered an OHCA in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted between 1992 and 2005 and who were included in the Swedish Cardia...
Ringh Mattias; Herlitz Johan; Hollenberg Jacob; Rosenqvist Mårten; Svensson Leif
Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest : Studies on neurological and cardiological outcome and prediction of outcome in hypothermia-treated patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
The outcome of the successfully resuscitated patient is mainly determined by the extent of hypoxic-ischemic cerebral injury, and hypothermia has multiple mechanisms of action in mitigating such injury. The present study was undertaken from 1997 to 2001 in Helsinki as a part of the European multicenter study Hypothermia after cardiac arrest (HACA) to test the neuroprotective effect of therapeutic hypothermia in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac ...
Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to address the question: In pre-hospital adult cardiac arrest (asystole, pulseless electrical activity, pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation, does the use of mechanical Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR devices compared to manual CPR during Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and ambulance transport, improve outcomes (e.g. Quality of CPR, Return Of Spontaneous Circulation, Survival. Methods Databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library (including Cochrane database for systematic reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, and AHA EndNote Master Library were systematically searched. Further references were gathered from cross-references from articles and reviews as well as forward search using SCOPUS and Google scholar. The inclusion criteria for this review included manikin and human studies of adult cardiac arrest and anti-arrhythmic agents, peer-review. Excluded were review articles, case series and case reports. Results Out of 88 articles identified, only 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for further review. Of these 10 articles, 1 was Level of Evidence (LOE 1, 4 LOE 2, 3 LOE 3, 0 LOE 4, 2 LOE 5. 4 studies evaluated the quality of CPR in terms of compression adequacy while the remaining six studies evaluated on clinical outcomes in terms of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, survival to hospital admission, survival to discharge and Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC. 7 studies were supporting the clinical question, 1 neutral and 2 opposing. Conclusion In this review, we found insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of mechanical CPR devices in settings of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and during ambulance transport. While there is some low quality evidence suggesting that mechanical CPR can improve consistency and reduce interruptions in chest compressions, there is no evidence that mechanical CPR devices improve survival, to the contrary they may worsen neurological outcome.
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death in the United States and most other Western nations. Among these deaths, sudden, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest claims approximately 1000 lives each day in the United States alone. Most of these cardiac arrests are due to ventricular fibrillation. Though highly reversible with the rapid application of a defibrillator, ventricular fibrillation is otherwise fatal within minutes, even when cardiopulmonary resuscitation is provided immediately. The overall survival rate in the United States is estimated to be less than 5 percent. Recent developments in automated-external-defibrillator technology have provided a means of increasing the rate of prompt defibrillation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. After minimal training, nonmedical personnel (e.g., flight attendants and casino workers are also able to use defibrillators in the workplace, with lifesaving effects. Nonetheless, such programs have involved designated personnel whose job description includes assisting persons who have had sudden cardiac arrest. Data are still lacking on the success of programs in which automated external defibrillators have been installed in public places to be used by persons who have no specific training or duty to act. Materials and Methods: All patients who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between January 2003 and December 2004 and who received early defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation were included. We conducted a 24 months retrospective population-based analysis of the outcome in our population. Results: Over a 24 month period, 446 people had nontraumatic cardiac arrest, and in all of them it was observed to be ventricular fibrillation. In a very few cases, the defibrillator operators were good Samaritans, acting voluntarily. Eighty-nine patients (about 19% with ventricular fibrillation were successfully resuscitated, including eighteen who regained consciousness before hospital admission. Conclusion: Automated external defibrillators deployed in readily accessible, well-marked areas, are really very effective in assisting patients with cardiac arrest. However, it's quite true that, in the cases of survivors, most of our users had good prior training in the use of these devices.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current 2005 guidelines for advanced cardiac life support strongly recommend immediate defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, findings from experimental and clinical studies have indicated a potential advantage of pretreatment with chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR prior to defibrillation in improving outcomes. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the beneficial effect of chest compression-first versus defibrillation-first on survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods Main outcome measures were survival to hospital discharge (primary endpoint, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, neurologic outcome and long-term survival. Randomized, controlled clinical trials that were published between January 1, 1950, and June 19, 2010, were identified by a computerized search using SCOPUS, MEDLINE, BIOS, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, and Web of Science and supplemented by conference proceedings. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs. A subgroup analysis was conducted to explore the effects of response interval greater than 5 min on outcomes. Results A total of four trials enrolling 1503 subjects were integrated into this analysis. No difference was found between chest compression-first versus defibrillation-first in the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (OR 1.01 [0.82-1.26]; P = 0.979, survival to hospital discharge (OR 1.10 [0.70-1.70]; P = 0.686 or favorable neurologic outcomes (OR 1.02 [0.31-3.38]; P = 0.979. For 1-year survival, however, the OR point estimates favored chest compression first (OR 1.38 [0.95-2.02]; P = 0.092 but the 95% CI crossed 1.0, suggesting insufficient estimate precision. Similarly, for cases with prolonged response times (> 5 min point estimates pointed toward superiority of chest compression first (OR 1.45 [0.66-3.20]; P = 0.353, but the 95% CI again crossed 1.0. Conclusions Current evidence does not support the notion that chest compression first prior to defibrillation improves the outcome of patients in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. It appears that both treatments are equivalent. However, subgroup analyses indicate that chest compression first may be beneficial for cardiac arrests with a prolonged response time.
Full Text Available Edouard Matevossian1, Dietrich Doll4, Jakob Säckl1, Inga Sinicina5, Jürgen Schneider2, Gerhard Simon3, Norbert Hüser11Department of Surgery, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive-Care Medicine; 3Department of Radiology, Technische Universität of Munich, Germany; 4Department of Visceral, Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Philips University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 5Institute of Clinical Forensic Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, GermanyAbstract: Saving more human lives through more effective reanimation measures is the goal of the new international guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation as the decisive aspect for survival after cardiovascular arrest is that basic resuscitation should start immediately. According to the updated guidelines, the greatest efficacy in cardiac massage is only achieved when the right compression point, an adequate compression depth, vertical pressure, the correct frequency, and equally long phases of compression and decompression are achieved. The very highest priority is placed on restoring continuous circulation. Against this background, standardized continuous chest compression with active decompression has contributed to a favorable outcome in this case. The hydraulically operated and variably adjustable automatic Lund University Cardiac Arrest System (LUCAS device (Jolife, Lund, Sweden undoubtedly meets these requirements. This case report describes a 44-year-old patient who approximately 15 min after the onset of clinical death due to apparent ventricular fibrillation received cardiopulmonary resuscitation, initially by laypersons and then by the emergency medical team (manual chest compressions followed by situation-adjusted LUCAS compressions. Sinus rhythm was restored after more than 90 min of continuous resuscitation, with seven defibrillations. Interventional diagnostic workup did not reveal a causal morphological correlate for the condition on coronary angiography. After a 16-day period of hospital convalescence, with preventive implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and several weeks of rehabilitation, the patient was able to return home with no evidence of health impairment.Keywords: resuscitation, cardiac arrest, cardiac massage, LUCAS
Full Text Available In the US alone, several hundred thousands die of sudden cardiac arrests each year. Basic life support defined as chest compressions and ventilations and early defibrillation are the only factors proven to increase the survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and are key elements in the chain of survival defined by the American Heart Association. The current cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines treat all patients the same, but studies show need for more individualiza- tion of treatment. This review will focus on ideas on how to strengthen the weak parts of the chain of survival including the ability to measure the effects of therapy, improve time efficiency, and optimize the sequence and quality of the various components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficacy of a Pulsed Biphasic Waveform (PBW for treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patients in ventricular fibrillation (VF. Large database (2001-2006, collected with automated external defibrillators (AED, (FREDÂ®, Schiller Medical SAS, France, is processed.In Study1 we compared the defibrillation efficacy of two energy stacks (90-130-180 J vs. (130-130-180 J in 248 OHCA VF patients. The analysis of the first shock PBW efficacy proves that energies as low as 90 J are able to terminate VF in a large proportion of OHCA patients (77% at 5 s and 69% at 30 s. Although the results show a trend towards the benefit of higher energy PBW with 130 J (86% at 5 s, 73% at 30 s, the difference in shock efficacy does not reach statistical significance. Both PBW energy stacks (90-130-180 J and (130-130-180 J achieve equal success rates of defibrillation. Analysis of the post-shock rhythm after the first shock is also provided.For Study2 of 21 patients with PBW shocks (130-130-180 J, we assessed some attending OHCA circumstances: call-to-shock delay (median 16min, range 11-41 min, phone advices of CPR (67%. About 50% of the patients were admitted alive to hospital, and 19% were discharged from hospital. After the first shock, patients admitted to hospital are more often presenting organized rhythm (OR (27% to 55% than patients not admitted (0% to 10%, with significant difference at 15 s and 30 s. Post-shock VFs appear significantly rare until 15s for patients admitted to hospital (0% to 9% than for patients not admitted to hospital (40% to 50%. Return of OR (ROOR and efficacy to defibrillate VF at 5 s and 15 s with first shock are important markers to predict patient admission to hospital.
Full Text Available
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in the city of Okayama, Japan, during a 1-year period after the reorganization of defibrillation by Emergency Life-Saving Technicians (ELSTs with standing orders of CPR. The data were collected prospectively according to an Utstein style between June 1, 2003 and May 31, 2004; OHCA was confirmed in 363 patients. Cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology (179 was witnessed by a bystander in 62 (34.6% cases. Of this group, ventricular fibrillation (VF was documented in 20 cases (32.3%, and 1 patient (5% was discharged alive without severe neurological disability. This outcome is average in Japan, but it is quite low level compared with Western countries because there is less VF in Japan. The Utstein style revealed that we must try to detect VF before the rhythm changes and to provide defibrillation as soon as possible in order to improve outcomes. Further research will be required to accurately evaluate OHCA in Okayama city.
INDLEDNING Chancen for at overleve et hjertestop udenfor hospital er i de fÃ¸rste minutter efter kollaps afhÃ¦ngig af hjÃ¦lpen fra nÃ¦rmeste tilstedevÃ¦rende. Dette har faciliteret strategier for placering af automatiske eksterne defibrillatorer (AED) i det offentlige rum og muliggjort hurtig defibrillering fÃ¸r ambulance ankomst. SÃ¥danne strategier betegnes â??defibrillering med offentlig adgangâ?? (public access defibrillation (PAD)). Megen forskning har fokuseret pÃ¥ placering af og overlevelse med brug af AED i udvalgte omrÃ¥der, hvorimod der er meget begrÃ¦nset viden om hvor udbredt AEDâ??er bÃ¸r vÃ¦re i det offentlige rum. Tilsvarende er der begrÃ¦nset viden om hvor AEDâ??er strategisk bÃ¸r opsÃ¦ttes uden for hospital, nÃ¥r forekomst af hjertestop i omrÃ¥det er ukendt. I denne afhandling fokuseres pÃ¥ analyser af hjertestop i boligomrÃ¥der og offentligt rum og har fÃ¸lgende formÃ¥l: 1) At undersÃ¸ge hvordan forskellige AED placeringsstrategier pÃ¥virker PAD i boligomrÃ¥der og det offentligt rum; 2) at estimere risikoen for hjertestop afhÃ¦ngig af et omrÃ¥des geografiske- og demografiske karakteristika, hvilket kan tjene som rettesnor for hvor AED bÃ¸r placeres strategisk udenfor hospital; 3) at undersÃ¸ge om der er forskelle i patientkarakteristika afhÃ¦ngigt af hvor hjertestoppet forekommer (boligomrÃ¥de versus offentligt rum); 4) at estimere omkostnings-effektiviteten for PAD programmer i boligomrÃ¥der og det offentligt rum afhÃ¦ngigt af valgte AED placeringsstrategi. METODE OG RESULTATER I perioden 1994-2005 blev alle personer med hjertestop udenfor hospital registreret af AkutlÃ¦gebilen i KÃ¸benhavn. Det EuropÃ¦iske Kvadratnet, et defineret og harmoniseret kvadratnet for hele Europa med standardiseret stÃ¸rrelse og lokalisering af alle kvadratnetceller, blev benyttet til optÃ¦lling af hjertestop forekommet i hver enkelt 100x100-meter celle i KÃ¸benhavn. Antallet af hjertestop i hver enkelt celle blev analyseret i forhold til cellens underliggende geografiske og demografiske karakteristika. I alt blev 4828 hjertestop inkluderet i studieperioden; 3554 (74%) forekom i boligomrÃ¥der og 1274 (26%) i offentligt rum. Hvis anbefalingerne for AED placering fra det EuropÃ¦iske RÃ¥d for Genoplivning fulgtes (1 hjertestop hvert 2. Ã¥r), ville dette krÃ¦ve AED opsÃ¦tning svarende til 1% af det samlede areal for KÃ¸benhavn og medfÃ¸re dÃ¦kning af 20% af alle hjertestop i offentligt rum. En stÃ¸rre dÃ¦kningsgrad kunne opnÃ¥s ved at fÃ¸lge anbefalingerne fra den Amerikanske Hjerteforening (1 hjertestop hvert 5. Ã¥r). Dette ville krÃ¦ve AED opsÃ¦tning svarende til 10% af KÃ¸benhavns areal og medfÃ¸re dÃ¦kning af nÃ¦sten 70% af samtlige hjertestop i offentligt rum. Endvidere pÃ¥vistes en paradoksal AED placering i offentligt rum, hvor hovedparten af opsatte AEDâ??er skete i omrÃ¥der med lav hjertestop forekomst. Baseret pÃ¥ simple, demografiske karakteristika for beboede omrÃ¥der (befolkningstÃ¦thed, gennemsnitsalder, gennemsnitlig indkomst og andelen med kort uddannelse) var det muligt at identificere omrÃ¥der med hÃ¸j forekomst af hjertestop. Disse omrÃ¥der udgjorde mindre end 3% af alle boligomrÃ¥der men inkluderede op mod 9% af alle hjertestop i boligomrÃ¥der. Personer med hjertestop i boligomrÃ¥der havde imidlertid Ã¸get forekomst af karakteristika forbundet med dÃ¥rlig prognose, herunder hÃ¸jere alder, mandligt kÃ¸n, oftere hjertestop om natten, lÃ¦ngere responstid for ambulance og mindre sandsynlighed for at have stÃ¸dbar hjerterytme sammenlignet med hjertestop i offentligt rum. KONKLUSION Denne afhandling viser, at en stor andel af hjertestop i offentligt rum kan dÃ¦kkes ved strategisk opsÃ¦tning af AEDâ??er indenfor et begrÃ¦nset geografisk omrÃ¥de. SÃ¥fremt AED opsÃ¦tning styres af tilfÃ¦ldige lokale eller politiske initiativer, fandtes en stor risiko for paradoksal AED placering, hvor opsÃ¦tning primÃ¦rt forekom i omrÃ¥der med lav h
Background There is limited information regarding the clinical characteristics and outcome of out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Middle Eastern patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes in patients admitted following OHCA at a single center in the Middle East over a 20-year period. Methods The data used for this hospital-based study were collected for patients hospitalized with OHCA in Doha, Qatar, between 1991 and 2010. Baseline clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcomes were studied in comparison with the rest of the admissions. Results A total of 41,453 consecutive patients were admitted during the study period, of whom 987 (2.4%) had a diagnosis of OHCA. Their average age was 57±15 years, and 72.7% were males, 56.5% were Arabs, and 30.9% were South Asians. When compared with the rest of the admissions taken as a reference, patients with OHCA were more likely to have diabetes mellitus (42.8% versus 39.1%, respectively, P=0.02), prior myocardial infarction (21.8% versus 19.2%, P=0.04), and chronic renal failure (7.4% versus 3.9%, P=0.001), but were less likely to have dyslipidemia (16.9% versus 25.4%, P=0.001). Further, 52.6% of patients had preceding symptoms, the most common of which was chest pain (27.2%) followed by dyspnea (24.8%). An initially shockable rhythm (ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia) was present in 25.1% of OHCA patients, with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction documented in 30.0%. Severely reduced left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction ?35%) was present in 53.2% of OHCA patients; 42.9% had cardiogenic shock requiring use of inotropes at presentation. An intra-aortic balloon pump was inserted in 3.6% of cases. Antiarrhythmic medications were used in 27.4% and thrombolytic therapy in 13.9%, and 10.8% underwent a percutaneous coronary procedure (coronary angiography ± percutaneous coronary intervention). The in-hospital mortality rate was 59.8%. Conclusion OHCA was associated with higher incidences of diabetes, prior myocardial infarction, and chronic kidney disease as compared with the remaining admissions. Approximately half of the patients had no preceding symptoms. In-hospital mortality was high (59.8%), but similar to the internationally published data.
Patel, Ashfaq Ahmad; Arabi, Abdul Rahman; Alzaeem, Hakam; Al Suwaidi, Jassim; Singh, Rajvir; Al Binali, Hajar A
Full Text Available Introduction. Heparin administration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR may prevent activation of coagulation after successful resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. We hypothesize that such an approach is not associated with an increased rate of bleeding, but it has not been evaluated. We performed a pilot randomized clinical study assessing the safety of intra-arrest heparin administration in OHCA patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI and its impact on their prognosis. Materials and Methods. OHCA patients were randomized during CPR to 10 000 units of intra-arrest intravenous heparin (Group H or to treatment without heparin (Group C. The occurrence of major bleeding and the presence of a favourable neurological result 3 months after OHCA, were analyzed. Results. Out of 88 randomized patients, AMI was subsequently confirmed in 63 of them (71.6 %. There were 30 patients in group H and 33 in group C. No major bleeding event was observed in either group. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, Group H: 40.0%, Group C: 45.4%, p=0.662 and a good neurological result 3 months after OHCA (Group H: 6.7 %, Group C: 9.1 %, p=0.921 did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Intravenous administration of 10 000 units of heparin during CPR for OHCA in patients with supposed AMI was safe. We did not find any improvement in prognosis for our sample of limited size. Though the procedure proved safe, we recommend postponing the administration of heparin until ROSC, assessment of clinical state and recording of a twelve-lead ECG.
INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has a poor prognosis. The main aetiology is ischaemic heart disease. AIM: To make a systematic review addressing the question: "In patients with return of spontaneous circulation following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, does acute coronary angiography with coronary intervention improve survival compared to conventional treatment?" METHODS: Peer reviewed articles written in English with relevant prognostic data were included. Comparison studies on patients with and without acute coronary angiography were pooled in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-two non-randomised studies were included of which 22 were case-series without patients with conservative treatment. Seven studies with specific efforts to control confounding had statistical evidence to support the use of acute coronary angiography following resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The remaining 25 studies were considered neutral. Following acute coronary angiography, the survival to hospital discharge, 30 days or six months ranged from 23% to 86%. In patients without an obvious non-cardiac aetiology, the prevalence of significant coronary artery disease ranged from 59% to 71%. Electrocardiographic findings were unreliable for identifying angiographic findings of acute coronary syndrome. Ten comparison studies demonstrated a pooled unadjusted odds ratio for survival of 2.78 (1.89; 4.10) favouring acute coronary angiography. CONCLUSION: No randomised studies exist on acute coronary angiography following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. An increasing number of observational studies support feasibility and a possible survival benefit of an early invasive approach. In patients without an obvious non-cardiac aetiology, acute coronary angiography should be strongly considered irrespective of electrocardiographic findings due to a high prevalence of coronary artery disease.
Moesgaard, Jacob; Ravkilde, Jan
This study aimed to describe the characteristics of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) according to specific activity types at the time of event and to determine the association between activities and outcomes according to activity type at the time of event occurrence of OHCA. A nationwide OHCA cohort database, compiled from January 2008 to December 2010 and consisting of hospital chart reviews and ambulance run sheet data, was used. Activity group was categorized as one of the following t...
Na, Sang Hoon; Shin, Sang Do; Ro, Young Sun; Lee, Eui Jung; Song, Kyoung Jun; Park, Chang Bae; Kim, Joo Yeong
Objective To analyze whether urine output and urinalysis results are predictive of survival and neurologic outcomes in patients with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods Information was obtained from 1,340 patients with non-traumatic OHCA who had achieved a sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Factors that were associated with survival in the post-resuscitative period were evaluated. The association between urine output and fluid challenge in the early resuscitative period was analyzed and compared between the survivors and the non-survivors. The results of the initial urinalysis, including the presence of proteinuria and other findings, were used to evaluate the severity of vascular protein leakage and survival. The association between proteinuria and the neurologic outcomes of the survivors was also analyzed. The clinical features of capillary leakage were examined during the post-resuscitative period. Results Of the 1,340 patients, 312 survived. A greater urine output was associated with a higher chance of survival. The initial urine output increased in proportion to the amount of fluid that was administered during early resuscitation in the emergency department for the survivors but not for the non-survivors (p<0.05). In the initial urinalysis, proteinuria was strongly associated with survival, and severe proteinuria indicated significantly poorer neurologic outcomes (p<0.05 for both comparisons). Proteinuria was associated with a risk of developing signs of capillary leakage, including body mass index gain and pitting edema (both p<0.001). Conclusion The severity of proteinuria during the early post-resuscitative period was predictive of survival.
Teng, Tsung-Han; Lai, Shih-Chang; Yang, Mei-Chueh; Chiu, Chun-Wen; Chou, Chu-Chung; Chang, Chih-Yu; Yao, Yung-Chiao; Wu, Lan-Hsin; Wu, Han-Ping; Chen, Wen-Liang; Lin, Yan-Ren
The presence of a physician seems to be beneficial for pre-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the effectiveness of a physician's presence during CPR before hospital arrival has not been established. We conducted a prospective, non-randomized, observational study using national data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests between 2005 and 2010 in Japan. We performed a propensity analysis and examined the association between a physician's presence during an ambulance car ride and short- and long-term survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Specifically, a full non-parsimonious logistic regression model was fitted with the physician presence in the ambulance as the dependent variable; the independent variables included all study variables except for endpoint variables plus dummy variables for the 47 prefectures in Japan (i.e., 46 variables). In total, 619,928 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases that met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Among propensity-matched patients, a positive association was observed between a physician's presence during an ambulance car ride and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) before hospital arrival, 1-month survival, and 1-month survival with minimal neurological or physical impairment (ROSC: OR?=?1.84, 95% CI 1.63-2.07, p?=?0.00 in adjusted for propensity and all covariates); 1-month survival: OR?=?1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.61, p?=?0.02 in adjusted for propensity and all covariates); cerebral performance category (1 or 2): OR?=?1.54, 95% CI 1.03-2.29, p?=?0.04 in adjusted for propensity and all covariates); and overall performance category (1 or 2): OR?=?1.50, 95% CI 1.01-2.24, p?=?0.05 in adjusted for propensity and all covariates). A prospective observational study using national data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests shows that a physician's presence during an ambulance car ride was independently associated with increased short- and long-term survival. PMID:24416232
Hagihara, Akihito; Hasegawa, Manabu; Abe, Takeru; Nagata, Takashi; Nabeshima, Yoshihiro
Background: The known risk factors for coronary heart disease among people prior suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with validated myocardial infarction aetiology and their thoughts about what lifestyle means to them after surviving have rarely been described. Therefore the aim of the study was to describe risk factors and lifestyle among survivors. Methods: An explanatory mixed methods design was used. All people registered in the Northern Sweden MONICA myocardial registry between t...
Forslund, Ann-sofie; Lundblad, Dan; Jansson, Jan-ha?kan; Zingmark, Karin; So?derberg, Siv
Full Text Available Abstract The survival to discharge rate after unwitnessed, non-cardiac out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is dismal. We report the successful use of therapeutic hypothermia in a 26-year old woman with OHCA due to intentional poisoning with heroin, amphetamine and insulin. The cardiac arrest was not witnessed, no bystander CPR was initiated, the time interval from the call to ambulance arrival was 9 minutes and the initial cardiac rhythm was asystole. Eight minutes of advanced cardiac life support resulted in ROSC. Upon hospital admission, the patient's pupils were dilated. Her arterial lactate was 17 mmol/l, base excess -20, pH 6.9 and serum glucose 0.2 mmol/l. During the first 24 hours in the ICU, the patient developed maximally dilated pupils not reacting to light and became increasingly haemodynamically unstable, requiring both inotropic support and massive fluid resuscitation. After 1 week in the ICU, however, she made an uneventful recovery with a Cerebral Performance Category of 1 at hospital discharge and at a follow up examination at 6 months. Conclusion According to most prognostic factors, the patient had a statistical chance for survival of less than 1%, not taking into account her severe state of hypoglyaemia. We suggest that this case exemplifies the need for more studies on the use of TH in non-coronary causes of OHCA.
Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this multicentre prospective study was to describe the seven-year survival of patients, from the region of East Bohemia, after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA, occurring between 2002 and 2004. The main focus of this study was on the survival of patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI. Patients and Methods. A total 718 patients with OHCA were included in the study. Of these patients, 149 were admitted to hospital. The main cohort of our study consisted of 53 patients (41 men; median 59; average 58±13, who survived acute hospitalization. In these patients, STEMI was the main cause of OHCA in 15 cases (28%, whereas without STEMI was found in 38 cases (72%. Patients who survived hospitalization were periodically followed-up at six-monthly intervals. Results. In the first follow-up year, 42 patients survived (79% of 53 patients, in the third year 38 patients (72%, in the fifth year 33 patients (62% and in the seventh year 31 patients (59%. Ninety-four percent of patients were in good neurological condition after the seventh follow-up year. The whole period of seven years was survived by 12 (80% out of 15 patients with STEMI, and by 19 (50% out of 38 patients without STEMI. In patients who survived the seventh year after STEMI, direct percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 11 cases. Conclusions. Fifty-nine percent of patients discharged from hospital after OHCA survived until the seventh year. The highest rate of survival during this period was seen in patients with STEMI, i.e. in 80%.
Background: Animal experimental studies and previous randomized trials suggest an improvement in mortality and neurological function with temperature regulation to hypothermia after cardiac arrest. According to a systematic review, previous trials were small, had a risk of bias, evaluated select populations, and did not treat hyperthermia in the control groups. The optimal target temperature management (TTM) strategy is not known. To prevent outcome reporting bias, selective reporting and dat...
Nielsen, Niklas; Winkel, Per; Cronberg, Tobias; Erlinge, David; Friberg, Hans; Gasche, Yvan; Hassager, Christian; Horn, Janneke; Hovdenes, Jan; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Kuiper, Michael; Pellis, Tommaso; Stammet, Pascal; Wanscher, Michael; Wise, Matt P.
An 80 years old man suffered a cardiac arrest shortly after arrival to his local health department. Basic Life Support was started promptly and nine minutes later, on evaluation by an Advanced Life Support team, the victim was defibrillated with a 200J shock. When orotracheal intubation was attempted, masseter muscle contraction was noticed: on reevaluation, the victim had pulse and spontaneous breathing.Thirty minutes later, the patient had been transferred to an emergency department. As he ...
Miranda, M.; Sousa, Pj; Ferreira, J.; Andrade, Mj; Gonc?alves, Pa; Roma?o, C.
Full Text Available Abstract An 80 years old man suffered a cardiac arrest shortly after arrival to his local health department. Basic Life Support was started promptly and nine minutes later, on evaluation by an Advanced Life Support team, the victim was defibrillated with a 200J shock. When orotracheal intubation was attempted, masseter muscle contraction was noticed: on revaluation, the victim had pulse and spontaneous breathing. Thirty minutes later, the patient had been transferred to an emergency department. As he complained of chest pain, the ECG showed a ST segment depression in leads V4 to V6 and laboratorial tests showed cardiac troponine I slightly elevated. A coronary angiography was performed urgently: significant left main plus three vessel coronary artery disease was disclosed. Eighteen hours after the cardiac arrest, a quadruple coronary artery bypass grafting operation was undertaken. During surgery, a fresh thrombus was removed from the middle left anterior descendent artery. Post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged seven days after the procedure. Twenty four months later, he remains asymptomatic. In this case, the immediate call for the Advanced Life Support team, prompt basic life support and the successful defibrillation, altogether, contributed for the full recovery. Furthermore, the swiftness in the detection and treatment of the acute reversible cause (myocardial ischemia in this case was crucial for long-term prognosis.
Andrade Maria J
This study aimed to describe the characteristics of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) according to specific activity types at the time of event and to determine the association between activities and outcomes according to activity type at the time of event occurrence of OHCA. A nationwide OHCA cohort database, compiled from January 2008 to December 2010 and consisting of hospital chart reviews and ambulance run sheet data, was used. Activity group was categorized as one of the following types: paid work activity (PWA), sports/leisure/education (SLE), routine life (RL), moving activity (MA), medical care (MC), other specific activity (OSA), and unknown activity. The main outcome was survival to discharge. Multivariate logistic analysis for outcomes was used adjusted for potential risk factors (reference = RL group). Of the 72,256 OHCAs, 44,537 cases were finally analyzed. The activities were RL (63.7%), PWA (3.1%), SLE (2.7%), MA (2.0%), MC (4.3%), OSA (2.2%), and unknown (21.9%). Survival to discharge rate for total patients was 3.5%. For survival to discharge, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.42 (1.06-1.90) in the SLE group and 1.62 (1.22-2.15) in PWA group compared with RL group. In conclusion, the SLE and PWA groups show higher survival to discharge rates than the routine life activity group.
Na, Sang Hoon; Ro, Young Sun; Lee, Eui Jung; Song, Kyoung Jun; Park, Chang Bae; Kim, Joo Yeong
This study aimed to describe the characteristics of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) according to specific activity types at the time of event and to determine the association between activities and outcomes according to activity type at the time of event occurrence of OHCA. A nationwide OHCA cohort database, compiled from January 2008 to December 2010 and consisting of hospital chart reviews and ambulance run sheet data, was used. Activity group was categorized as one of the following types: paid work activity (PWA), sports/leisure/education (SLE), routine life (RL), moving activity (MA), medical care (MC), other specific activity (OSA), and unknown activity. The main outcome was survival to discharge. Multivariate logistic analysis for outcomes was used adjusted for potential risk factors (reference = RL group). Of the 72,256 OHCAs, 44,537 cases were finally analyzed. The activities were RL (63.7%), PWA (3.1%), SLE (2.7%), MA (2.0%), MC (4.3%), OSA (2.2%), and unknown (21.9%). Survival to discharge rate for total patients was 3.5%. For survival to discharge, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.42 (1.06-1.90) in the SLE group and 1.62 (1.22-2.15) in PWA group compared with RL group. In conclusion, the SLE and PWA groups show higher survival to discharge rates than the routine life activity group. PMID:23400043
Na, Sang Hoon; Shin, Sang Do; Ro, Young Sun; Lee, Eui Jung; Song, Kyoung Jun; Park, Chang Bae; Kim, Joo Yeong
Full Text Available Objectives. The clinical course and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCPA due to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is unclear. The objective of this study is to clarify them. Study design. Single- center, observational study. Setting. We usually perform a brain computed tomography (CT in OHCPA patients who present without a clear etiology (42% of all OHCPA, such as trauma, to determine the cause of OHCPA and to guide treatment. Patients. The study included OHCPA patients without a clear etiology, who were transferred to our center and who underwent a brain CT during resuscitation. Methods of measurement. Patients' records were reviewed; initial cardiac rhythm, existence of a witness and bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation efforts (CPR were compared with patients' outcomes. Results. Sixty-six patients were enrolled. 72.7% achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, 71.2% were admitted, 30.3% survived more than 7 days, and 9.1. survived-to-discharge. In 41 witnessed OHCPA, 87.8% obtained ROSC, 85.4% were admitted, and 14.6% survived-to-discharge. All survivors were witnessed. In 25 non-witnessed OHCPA, 48% obtained ROSC and were admitted, and no patients were discharged. Initial cardiac rhythm was ventricular fibrillation (VF, pulseless electrical activity (PEA and asystole in 3.0%, 39.4%, and 47.0%. In 2 VF patients 50.0% survived-to- discharge, and there was no survivor with PEA or asystole.Conclusion. This study shows a high rate of ROSC and admission in OHCPA patients with a SAH, and also reveals their very poor neurological outcome. We conclude that the detection of a SAH in OHCPA patients is important to determine the accurate frequency of SAH in this patient group and to guide appropriate treatment of all OHCPA patients.
Introduction Few clinical trials have provided evidence that epinephrine administration after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) improves long-term survival. Here we determined whether prehospital epinephrine administration would improve 1-month survival in OHCA patients. Methods We analyzed the data of 209,577 OHCA patients; the data were prospectively collected in a nationwide Utstein-style Japanese database between 2009 and 2010. Patients were divided into the initial shockable rhythm (n = 15,492) and initial non-shockable rhythm (n = 194,085) cohorts. The endpoints were prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 1-month survival, and 1-month favorable neurological outcomes (cerebral performance category scale, category 1 or 2) after OHCA. We defined epinephrine administration time as the time from the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by emergency medical services personnel to the first epinephrine administration. Results In the initial shockable rhythm cohort, the ratios of prehospital ROSC, 1-month survival, and 1-month favorable neurological outcomes in the non-epinephrine group were significantly higher than those in the epinephrine group (27.7% vs. 22.8%, 27.0% vs. 15.4%, and 18.6% vs. 7.0%, respectively; all P ROSC and 1-month survival in the epinephrine group were significantly higher than those in the non-epinephrine group (18.7% vs. 3.0% and 3.9% vs. 2.2%, respectively; all P ROSC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.83, 6.18, 4.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.01-9.73, 5.82-6.56, 3.98-4.69; for epinephrine administration times ?9 min, 10-19 min, and ?20 min, respectively), with improved 1-month survival when epinephrine administration time was ROSC and had association with improved 1-month survival when epinephrine administration time was <20 min.
Targeted temperature management (TTM) improves outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We hypothesized that there may be a significant relationship between the dose of hypothermia, the time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and survival to discharge. Retrospective pilot investigation on 99 consecutive OHCA patients with initial shockable rhythm, surviving to admission, and undergoing TTM between 2008 and 2011. Dose of hypothermia was defined as the sum of the induction interval (time to target temperature [from ROSC to 33°C]); the controlled hypothermia interval (from reaching 33°C until rewarming); and the rewarming interval (from 33°C to 37°C). Time to ROSC was measured from pulselessness or 911 call time to ROSC. The ratio between the two was termed the hypothermic to ischemic ratio. Purposeful variable selection for logistic regression modeling was used to assess the influence of the hypothermic/ischemic ratio on survival. Odds ratios (OR) were used to examine the effects of predictor variables on survival. Of 99 patients, eight were excluded for deviation from protocol, death during protocol, or missing data. From the univariate models, survivors were more likely to be younger, have a shorter time to ROSC, and have a larger hypothermic/ischemic ratio. Survivors also had a nonsignificant trend toward a longer time to target temperature. In multivariable modeling, the hypothermic/ischemic ratio was the most significant predictor for survival (OR 2.161 [95% confidence interval 1.371, 3.404]). In this pilot study, the hypothermic to ischemic ratio was significantly associated with survival to discharge for patients with an initial shockable rhythm. Further investigation of the relationship between the dose of hypothermia and time to ROSC for postresuscitation TTM is needed. PMID:24679188
Sawyer, Kelly N; Kurz, Michael C; Elswick, R K
Background This study evaluated the association between the results of immediate brain computed tomography (CT) scans and outcome in patients who were treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. The evaluation was based on the changes in the ratio of gray matter to white matter. Methods A total of 167 patients who were successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest from March 2009 to December 2011 were included in this study. We selected 51 patients who received a brain CT scan within 1 hour after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and who had been treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Circular regions of measurement (10 mm2) were placed over regions of interest (ROIs), and the average attenuations in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) were recorded in the basal ganglia, at the level of the centrum semiovale and in the high convexity area. Three GM-to-WM ratios (GWRs) were calculated: one for the basal ganglia, one for the cerebrum and the average of the two. The neurological outcomes were assessed using the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale at the time of hospital discharge, and a good neurological outcome was defined as a CPC score of 1 or 2. Results The average GWR was the strongest predictor of poor neurological outcome as determined using receiver operating characteristic curves (basal ganglia area under the curve (AUC)?=?0.716; cerebrum AUC?=?0.685; average AUC?=?0.747). An average GWR?ROSC were associated with poor neurological outcomes. Immediate brain CT scans could help predict outcome after cardiac arrest.
Complete recovery after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with prolonged (59 min) mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mild therapeutic hypothermia and complex percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
We report on a 68 years old survivor of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with favorable neurological outcome following prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR 59 min) until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) due to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The case demonstrates the beneficial effect of an optimal rescue chain including basic life support performed by trained bystanders, short response time of the emergency medical service, uninterrupted CPR during transportation using a mechanical chest compression system (LUCAS®), in combination with optimal intensive care management of cardiogenic shock after ROSC including multivessel emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and intravascular therapeutic hypothermia (Coolgard®-System). PMID:24238746
Zimmermann, Stefan; Rohde, Doris; Marwan, Mohamed; Ludwig, Josef; Achenbach, Stephan
The Study Protocol for the LINC (LUCAS in Cardiac Arrest Study: a study comparing conventional adult out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a concept with mechanical chest compressions and simultaneous defibrillation
Full Text Available Abstract Background The LUCAS device delivers mechanical chest compressions that have been shown in experimental studies to improve perfusion pressures to the brain and heart as well as augmenting cerebral blood flow and end tidal CO2, compared with results from standard manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Two randomised pilot studies in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients have not shown improved outcome when compared with manual CPR. There remains evidence from small case series that the device can be potentially beneficial compared with manual chest compressions in specific situations. This multicentre study is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mechanical chest compressions with the LUCAS device whilst allowing defibrillation during on-going CPR, and comparing the results with those of conventional resuscitation. Methods/design This article describes the design and protocol of the LINC-study which is a randomised controlled multicentre study of 2500 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. The study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00609778?term=LINC&rank=1. Results Primary endpoint is four-hour survival after successful restoration of spontaneous circulation. The safety aspect is being evaluated by post mortem examinations in 300 patients that may reflect injuries from CPR. Conclusion This large multicentre study will contribute to the evaluation of mechanical chest compression in CPR and specifically to the efficacy and safety of the LUCAS device when used in association with defibrillation during on-going CPR.
Unexpected out-of-hospital delivery accounts for 0.5% of the total number of delivery in France. The parturient is placed under constant multiparametric monitoring. Fetus heart rate is monitored thanks to fetal doppler. A high concentration mask containing a 50-to-50 percent mix of O(2) and NO performs analgesia. Assistance of mobile pediatric service can be required under certain circumstances such as premature birth, gemellary pregnancy, maternal illness or fetal heart rate impairment. Maternal efforts should start only when head reaches the pelvic floor, only if the rupture of the membranes is done and the dilation is completed. The expulsion should not exceed 30 min. Episiotomy should not be systematically performed. A systematic active management of third stage of labour is recommended. Routine care such as warming and soft drying can be performed when the following conditions are fulfilled: clear amniotic liquid, normal breathing, crying and a good tonus. Every 30 seconds assessment of heart rate, breathing quality and muscular tonus then guide the care. The redaction of birth certificate is a legal obligation and rests with the attending doctor. PMID:23773899
Bouet, P-E; Chabernaud, J-L; Duc, F; Khouri, T; Leboucher, B; Riethmuller, D; Descamps, P; Sentilhes, L
Invasive coronary treatment strategies for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest : a consensus statement from the European Association for Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI)/Stent for Life (SFL) groups
Due to significant improvement in the pre-hospital treatment of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), an increasing number of initially resuscitated patients are being admitted to hospitals. Because of the limited data available and lack of clear guideline recommendations, experts from the EAPCI and "Stent for Life" (SFL) groups reviewed existing literature and provided practical guidelines on selection of patients for immediate coronary angiography (CAG), PCI strategy, concomitant antiplatelet/anticoagulation treatment, haemodynamic support and use of therapeutic hypothermia. Conscious survivors of OHCA with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) should be treated according to recommendations for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and high-risk non-ST-segment elevation -ACS (NSTE-ACS) without OHCA and should undergo immediate (if STEMI) or rapid (less than two hours if NSTE-ACS) coronary invasive strategy. Comatose survivors of OHCA with ECG criteria for STEMI on the post-resuscitation ECG should be admitted directly to the catheterisation laboratory. For patients without STEMI ECG criteria, a short "emergency department or intensive care unit stop" is advised to exclude non-coronary causes. In the absence of an obvious non-coronary cause, CAG should be performed as soon as possible (less than two hours), in particular in haemodynamically unstable patients. Immediate PCI should be mainly directed towards the culprit lesion if identified. Interventional cardiologists should become an essential part of the "survival chain" for patients with OHCA. There is a need to centralise the care of patients with OHCA to experienced centres.
Noc, Marko; Fajadet, Jean
Invasive coronary treatment strategies for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a consensus statement from the European Association for Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI)/Stent for Life (SFL) groups.
Due to significant improvement in the pre-hospital treatment of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), an increasing number of initially resuscitated patients are being admitted to hospitals. Because of the limited data available and lack of clear guideline recommendations, experts from the EAPCI and "Stent for Life" (SFL) groups reviewed existing literature and provided practical guidelines on selection of patients for immediate coronary angiography (CAG), PCI strategy, concomitant antiplatelet/anticoagulation treatment, haemodynamic support and use of therapeutic hypothermia. Conscious survivors of OHCA with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) should be treated according to recommendations for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and high-risk non-ST-segment elevation -ACS (NSTE-ACS) without OHCA and should undergo immediate (if STEMI) or rapid (less than two hours if NSTE-ACS) coronary invasive strategy. Comatose survivors of OHCA with ECG criteria for STEMI on the post-resuscitation ECG should be admitted directly to the catheterisation laboratory. For patients without STEMI ECG criteria, a short "emergency department or intensive care unit stop" is advised to exclude non-coronary causes. In the absence of an obvious non-coronary cause, CAG should be performed as soon as possible (less than two hours), in particular in haemodynamically unstable patients. Immediate PCI should be mainly directed towards the culprit lesion if identified. Interventional cardiologists should become an essential part of the "survival chain" for patients with OHCA. There is a need to centralise the care of patients with OHCA to experienced centres. PMID:24832635
Noc, Marko; Fajadet, Jean; Lassen, Jens F; Kala, Petr; MacCarthy, Philip; Olivecrona, Goran K; Windecker, Stephan; Spaulding, Christian
Full Text Available Introduction. Drowning is a leading preventable cause of unintentional morbidity and mortality. The dominant pathophysiological mechanism of drowning includes the development of acute hypoxia. First aid. The rescue procedure of a drowning person includes careful pulling the victim out of the water, examination, maintenance of the airways passable and urgent transfer to hospital. Basic life support. The first and most important treatment option of a drowning victim is the provision of ventilation which increases the chances of survival. As soon as the unresponsive victim is removed from the water, the lay rescuer should immediately begin chest compressions and provide cycles of ventilations and compressions. Some recent investigations have revealed that exterior compression of the chest is a necessary measure even in a situation when bystanders cannot provide airway. It is recommended to train bystanders to provide basic life support and apply automated external defibrillator in a drowning person whenever indicated and as early as possible. Advanced life support. In drowning, the victim with cardiac arrest requires advanced life support, including an early intubation. Extended medical measures, which are primarily provided by medical professionals, include cervical spine immobilization in case a spinal injury is suspected, or, establishment of the ventilation with oxygen, emergency transport, application of reanimation and advanced vital support measures.
Análisis de la inclusión de la policía en la respuesta de emergencias al paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario / Analysis of the inclussion of police personnel on the out of hospital cardiac arrest emergency response
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: El presente estudio busca analizar una alternativa al pronóstico de paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario (PCE) como problema de salud pública al involucrar a los cuerpos policiacos en la respuesta de emergencias. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó retrospectivamente un registro de PCE in [...] iciado en junio de 2009. Se contrastó un modelo basado en un número limitado de ambulancias con primera respuesta por la policía. RESULTADOS: La mortalidad fue de 100%, tiempos de respuesta elevados y 10.8% recibió reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP) por testigos presenciales. En 63.7% de los eventos la policía llegaba antes que la ambulancia y en 1.5% el policía dio RCP. El costo por vida salvada fue 5.8-60 millones de pesos en un modelo sólo con ambulancias vs. 0.5-5.5 millones de pesos en un modelo con primera respuesta policiaca. CONCLUSIONES: La intervención de la policía en la ciudad de Querétaro facilitaría la disminución de la mortalidad por PCE a un menor costo. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OCHA) is a public health problem in which survival depends on community initial response among others. This study tries to analyze what's the proportional cost of enhancing such response by involving the police corps in it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed [...] retrospectively an OCHA registry started on June 2009. We contrasted a model with limited number of ambulances and police based first response. RESULTS: Mortality was 100%, response times high and 10.8% of the victims were receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by bystanders. In 63.7% of the events the police arrived before the ambulance, in 1.5% of these cases the police provided CPR. The cost for each saved life was of 5.8-60 million Mexican pesos per life with only ambulance model vs 0.5-5.5 million Mexican pesos on a police first response model with 12 ambulances. CONCLUSIONS: In Queretaro interventions can be performed taking advantage of the response capacity of the existing police focused on diminishing mortality from OCHA at a lesser cost than delegating this function only to ambulances.
Andrea, Aguilera-Campos; Enrique, Asensio-Lafuente; Juan Manuel, Fraga-Sastrías.
Análisis de la inclusión de la policía en la respuesta de emergencias al paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario / Analysis of the inclussion of police personnel on the out of hospital cardiac arrest emergency response
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: El presente estudio busca analizar una alternativa al pronóstico de paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario (PCE) como problema de salud pública al involucrar a los cuerpos policiacos en la respuesta de emergencias. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó retrospectivamente un registro de PCE in [...] iciado en junio de 2009. Se contrastó un modelo basado en un número limitado de ambulancias con primera respuesta por la policía. RESULTADOS: La mortalidad fue de 100%, tiempos de respuesta elevados y 10.8% recibió reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP) por testigos presenciales. En 63.7% de los eventos la policía llegaba antes que la ambulancia y en 1.5% el policía dio RCP. El costo por vida salvada fue 5.8-60 millones de pesos en un modelo sólo con ambulancias vs. 0.5-5.5 millones de pesos en un modelo con primera respuesta policiaca. CONCLUSIONES: La intervención de la policía en la ciudad de Querétaro facilitaría la disminución de la mortalidad por PCE a un menor costo. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OCHA) is a public health problem in which survival depends on community initial response among others. This study tries to analyze what's the proportional cost of enhancing such response by involving the police corps in it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed [...] retrospectively an OCHA registry started on June 2009. We contrasted a model with limited number of ambulances and police based first response. RESULTS: Mortality was 100%, response times high and 10.8% of the victims were receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by bystanders. In 63.7% of the events the police arrived before the ambulance, in 1.5% of these cases the police provided CPR. The cost for each saved life was of 5.8-60 million Mexican pesos per life with only ambulance model vs 0.5-5.5 million Mexican pesos on a police first response model with 12 ambulances. CONCLUSIONS: In Queretaro interventions can be performed taking advantage of the response capacity of the existing police focused on diminishing mortality from OCHA at a lesser cost than delegating this function only to ambulances.
Andrea, Aguilera-Campos; Enrique, Asensio-Lafuente; Juan Manuel, Fraga-Sastrías.
Análisis de la inclusión de la policía en la respuesta de emergencias al paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario Analysis of the inclussion of police personnel on the out of hospital cardiac arrest emergency response
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El presente estudio busca analizar una alternativa al pronóstico de paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario (PCE como problema de salud pública al involucrar a los cuerpos policiacos en la respuesta de emergencias. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó retrospectivamente un registro de PCE iniciado en junio de 2009. Se contrastó un modelo basado en un número limitado de ambulancias con primera respuesta por la policía. RESULTADOS: La mortalidad fue de 100%, tiempos de respuesta elevados y 10.8% recibió reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP por testigos presenciales. En 63.7% de los eventos la policía llegaba antes que la ambulancia y en 1.5% el policía dio RCP. El costo por vida salvada fue 5.8-60 millones de pesos en un modelo sólo con ambulancias vs. 0.5-5.5 millones de pesos en un modelo con primera respuesta policiaca. CONCLUSIONES: La intervención de la policía en la ciudad de Querétaro facilitaría la disminución de la mortalidad por PCE a un menor costo.OBJETIVE: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OCHA is a public health problem in which survival depends on community initial response among others. This study tries to analyze what's the proportional cost of enhancing such response by involving the police corps in it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively an OCHA registry started on June 2009. We contrasted a model with limited number of ambulances and police based first response. RESULTS: Mortality was 100%, response times high and 10.8% of the victims were receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR by bystanders. In 63.7% of the events the police arrived before the ambulance, in 1.5% of these cases the police provided CPR. The cost for each saved life was of 5.8-60 million Mexican pesos per life with only ambulance model vs 0.5-5.5 million Mexican pesos on a police first response model with 12 ambulances. CONCLUSIONS: In Queretaro interventions can be performed taking advantage of the response capacity of the existing police focused on diminishing mortality from OCHA at a lesser cost than delegating this function only to ambulances.
Full Text Available The refibrillation was a frequent event in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. The number of recurrences of ventricular fibrillation (VF is in inverse relationship with survival. In this article we discuss about causes and mechanism of refibrillation. The amiodarone and new technical solution (defibrillators that may allow continuous monitoring of the heart rhythm, while chest compressions continue and recommend defibrillation when refibrillation occurs are promising new strategy to improve outcome of OHCA and recurrent VF.
RUDOLPH W. KOSTER
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation and increased coronary perfusion pressures have been linked to improved survival from cardiac arrest. This study aimed to compare the rates of survival between conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (C-CPR and automated CPR (A-CPR using AutoPulse in adults following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. Methods This was a retrospective study using a matched casecontrol design across three regional study sites in Victoria, Australia. Each case was matched to at least two (maximum four controls using age, gender, response time, presenting cardiac rhythm and bystander CPR, and analysed using conditional fixed-effects logistic regression. Results During the period 1 October 2006 to 30 April 2010 there were 66 OHCA cases using A-CPR. These were matched to 220 cases of OHCA involving the administration of C-CPR only (controls. Survival to hospital was achieved in 26% (17/66 of cases receiving A-CPR compared with 20% (43/220 of controls receiving C-CPR and the propensity score adjusted odds ratio [AOR (95% CI] was 1.69 (0.79, 3.63. Results were similar using only bystander witnessed OHCA cases with presumed cardiac aetiology. Survival to hospital was achieved for 29% (14/48 of cases receiving A-CPR compared with 18% (21/116 of those receiving C-CPR [AOR?=?1.80 (0.78, 4.11]. Conclusions The use of A-CPR resulted in a higher rate of survival to hospital compared with C-CPR, yet a tendency for a lower rate of survival to hospital discharge, however these associations did not reach statistical significance. Further research is warranted which is prospective in nature, involves randomisation and larger number of cases to investigate potential sub-group benefits of A-CPR including survival to hospital discharge.
Jennings Paul A
Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, survival to discharge, six-month and one-year survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in four university cities in Serbia.Methods. A prospective, two-year, multicentre study was designed. Using the Utstein template, we recorded out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary (CPR and its outcomes, and analyzed the immediate survival (ROSC>20 min., short-term survival (to discharge, long-term survival (one year after discharge, or death following out-of-hospital CPR.Results. During the study period, 591 patients met the inclusion criteria for enrollment and out-of-hospital CPR. The etiology of arrest was cardiac in 33.8% of patients. Cardiac arrest was witnessed by the advanced life support (ALS team in 15.6% of cases. Asystole was the most frequent initial rhythm at time of arrest (46.4%. The highest survival rate (P<0,001 was observed in cases with initial VF and pulseless VT, while patients with asystole and pulseless electrical activity (PEA had the least chance of survival. Within the whole group of patients, ROSC was detected with a frequency of 69.7%. The frequency of patients who died in the field or during admission to hospital was 58.9%, while 28.6% of admitted patients died before discharge. Thirteen percent of patients survived until discharge, and the overall six-month and one-year survival rates were 11.3% and 10%, respectively. No statistical difference in survival rates among the cities was found.Conclusion. The Utstein template should be implemented in the form of an official protocol for out-of-hospital CPR follow-up in all emergency medical services in Serbia.
As PPS and other fixed-price initiatives replace cost-based reimbursement in the hospital industry, the burden of assuming the risk for business success or failure shifts from the payor to the hospital. As a consequence, theories of risk to the business firm which have found application in other industries now deserve attention by hospital management. Incorporating such risk concepts into hospital strategies and actions requires a view of financial management that goes beyond the generally accepted accounting principles of managing and assigning costs for maximum revenue and profitability. This article examines the financial theory of risk in business firms, illustrates the various components of risk as they apply to a hospital business, and discusses how the hospital management strategies of cost-reduction, marketing, diversification, and multiorganizational affiliation can alter the risk characteristics of a hospital business. PMID:10275567
Boles, K E; Glenn, J K
Full Text Available Cardiac arrest is a dramatic condition leading to sudden death if someone cannot perform two interventions, basic life support and early defibrillation, that have been proved to improve long-term survival. The Utstein style', recently introduced, represents a standard of practice both inside and outside hospital with recommended guidelines for the uniform reporting of clinical data from the patient suffering cardiac arrest. In Sweden the vast majority of patients suffering from cardiac arrest regardless whether inside or outside hospital are included in webbased national registers (one for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA and one for in-hospital-cardiac arrest (IHCA. In this article we will present our experiences from OHCA and IHCA separately.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA is a rare event in childhood. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of paediatric CRA and the immediate results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in Galicia, a community with a very scattered population. Methods All children (aged from newborn to 16 years old who suffered an out-of-hospital CRA in Galicia and were assisted by the Public Foundation Medical Emergencies of Galicia-061 staff, from June 2002 to February 2005, were included in the study. Data were prospectively recorded following the Utstein's style guidelines. Results Thirty-one cases were analyzed (3.4 CRA annual cases per 100.000 paediatric population. The arrest was respiratory in 16.1% and cardiac in 83.9% of cases. CRA occurred at home in 58.1% of instances. Time CRA to initiation of CPR was shorter than 10 minutes in 32.2% and longer than 20 minutes in 29.0% of cases. 22.6% of children received bystander CPR. The first recorded rhythm was asystole in 67.7% of cases. Bag-mask ventilation was used in 67.7% and in 83.8% oro-tracheal intubation was done. A peripheral venous access was achieved in 67.7% and intraosseous access was used in 16.1% of patients. 93.5% of children were treated with adrenaline. After initial CPR, sustained restoration of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 38.7% of cases. Six children (19.4% survived until hospital discharge. Four of 5 children with respiratory arrest survived, whereas only 2 of 26 children with cardiac arrest survived until hospital discharge. Conclusion Despite the handicap of a highly disseminated population, paediatric CRA characteristics and CPR results in Galicia are comparable to references from other communities. Programs to increase bystander CPR, equip laypeople with basic CPR skills and to update life support knowledge of health staff are needed to improve outcomes.
Full Text Available Aim We have studied epidemiology of in-hospital cardiac arrest, characteristics of organizing a reanimationand its,procedures as well as its documenting.Methods We analyzed all resuscitation procedure data where anesthesiology reanimation teams (RT providedcardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR during one-year period. We included resuscitation attemptsthat were initiated outside the Department of Anesthesiology, excluding incidents in operation rooms andIntensive Care Unit (ICU. Data on every cardiac arrest and CPR were entered in a special form.Results During one-year period 87 CPR were performed. Victims of cardiac arrest were principallyelderly patients (age 60 80, mostly male (60%. Most frequent victims were neurological patients(42%, surgical patients (21% and neurosurgical patients (10%. The leading cause of cardiac arrestwas primary heart disease, following neurological diseases and respiration disorders of severe etiology.In over 90% cases CPR was initiated by medical personnel in their respective departments, RT arrivedwithin 5 minutes in 73,56% cases. Initially survival was 32%, but full recovery was accomplished in 4patients out of 87 (4,6%.Conclusion Victims of cardiac arrest are patients whose primary disease contributes to occurrence ofcardiorespiratory complications. High mortality and low percentage of full recovery can be explainedby characteristics of patients (old age, nature and seriousness of primary disease which significantly affectthe outcome of CPR. In some cases a question is raised whether to initiate the CPR at all. We wouldlike to point out that continous monitoring of potentially critical patients may prevent cardiorespiratoryincidents whereas the quality and success of CPR may be improved by training of staff and better technicalequipment on the relevant locations in the in the hospital where such incidents usually occur.
This paper is a case study of the use of public use administrative data for the estimation of empirical relations when key dependent variables are not available in the data. It is shown that the out-of-hospital mortality rates can be identified using the patient discharge data without post-discharge death records. Using data on the lengths of hospitalizations and out-of-hospital spells, the mortality rates before and after discharge as well as discharge and re-hospitalization rates are estima...
Farsi, Mehdi; Ridder, Geert
Background Early identification and treatment of patients with severe sepsis improves outcome, yet the role of out-of-hospital intravenous (IV) fluid is unknown. Objective To determine if the delivery of out-of-hospital fluid in patients with severe sepsis is associated with reduced time to achievement of goal-oriented resuscitation in the emergency department (ED). Methods We performed a secondary data analysis of a retrospective cohort study in a metropolitan, tertiary care, university-based medical center supported by a two-tiered system of out-of-hospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers. We studied the association between delivery of out-of-hospital fluid by advanced life support (ALS) providers and the achievement of resuscitation endpoints (central venous pressure [CVP] ?8 mmHg, mean arterial pressure [MAP] ?65 mmHg, and central venous oxygen saturation [ScvO2] ?70%) within six hours after triage during early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) in the ED. Results Twenty five (48%) of 52 patients transported by ALS with severe sepsis received out-of-hospital fluid. Data for age, gender, source of sepsis, and presence of comorbidities were similar between patients who did and did not receive out-of-hospital fluid. Patients receiving out-of-hospital fluid had lower out-of-hospital mean (± standard deviation) systolic blood pressure (95 ± 40 mmHg vs. 117 ± 29 mmHg; p = 0.03) and higher median (interquartile range) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores in the ED (7  vs. 4 ; p = 0.01) than patients not receiving out-of-hospital fluid. Despite greater severity of illness, patients receiving out-of-hospital fluid approached but did not attain a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of achieving MAP ?65 mmHg within six hours after ED triage (70% vs. 44%, p = 0.09). On average, patients receiving out-of-hospital fluid received twice the fluid volume within one hour after ED triage (1.1 L [1.02.0 L] vs. 0.6 L [0.31.0 L]; p 0.01). No difference in achievement of goal CVP (72% vs. 60%; p = 0.6) or goal ScvO2 (54% vs. 36%; p = 0.25) was observed between groups. Conclusions Less than half of patients with severe sepsis transported by ALS received out-of-hospital fluid. Patients receiving out-of-hospital IV access and fluids approached but did not attain a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of achieving goal MAP during EGDT. These preliminary findings require additional investigation to evaluate the optimal role of out-of-hospital resuscitation in treating patients with severe sepsis.
Seymour, Christopher W.; Cooke, Colin R.; Mikkelsen, Mark E.; Hylton, Julie; Rea, Tom D.; Goss, Christopher H.; Gaieski, David F.; Band, Roger A.
In 2002, several hospitals in the Tenet system were accused of overbilling Medicare for cardiac surgery. This led to increased scrutiny of so-called outlier payments, which are used to compensate hospitals when actual costs far exceed those anticipated under prospective payment. Since then, the overall proportion of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures associated with outlier payments has fallen from 13 percent in 200002 to 8 percent in 200306. Still, there is variation across U.S. hospitals, with some hospitals experiencing much higher rates. These findings imply that there is potential for quality improvement to reduce costs while improving morbidity and mortality.
Baser, Onur; Fan, Zhahoui; Dimick, Justin B.; Staiger, Douglas O.; Birkmeyer, John D.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients successfully resuscitated from pre-hospital cardiac arrest with initial pulseless electrical activity (PEA, because the long-term outcome of these patients is unknown. Survival, neurological status one year after cardiac arrest and self-perceived quality of life after five years were assessed. Methods This retrospective study included adult patients resuscitated from PEA between August 2001 and March 2003 in three urban areas in southern Finland. A validated questionnaire was sent to patients while neurological status according to the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC -classification was assessed based on medical database notes recorded during follow-up evaluations. Results Out of 99 included patients in whom resuscitation was attempted, 41 (41% were successfully resuscitated and admitted to hospital. Ten (10% patients were discharged from hospital. Seven were alive after one year and six after five years following cardiac arrest. Five of the seven patients alive one year after resuscitation presented with the same functional level as prior to cardiac arrest. Conclusions Patients with initial PEA have been considered to have poor prognosis, but in our material, half of those who survived to hospital discharge were still alive after 5 years. Their self-assessed quality of life seems to be good with only mild to moderate impairments in activities of daily life.
In order to evaluate the safety, the quality and adequacy of specimens obtained and the cost benefits associated with performing liver biopsy out of hospital, on a short-stay basis, using radiological guidance, a prospective study was undertaken over a three-year period, from March 1998 to March 2001, in a private radiology practice. 251 patients (159 men) with stable liver disease participated in this study. Coagulation studies were performed within a two-week period before biopsy, which was carried out under the guidance of ultrasound (143 patients) or computed tomography (108 patients). A disposable, spring-loaded gun with an 18-gauge biopsy needle was used in each case. A repeat ultrasound or CT scan was performed after the procedure to monitor for complications such as haemorrhage. Two hundred and twenty nine patients (91 2%) were discharged 60 minutes after the biopsy. The only post-biopsy complication was pain, either at the biopsy site or in the right shoulder. Pain was severe in three patients and, for one of these patients, a subcapsular hepatic haematoma was found on ultrasound eight days after the biopsy. Sufficient material for histopathological examination was obtained from all patients. The cost of out-of-hospital biopsies was substantially less than the cost of hospital-based, day-stay procedures. It was concluded that short-stay, out-of-hospital, radiologically guided liver biopsy is safe for patients who have stable chronic liver disease and acceptable coagulation profiles
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Cross-transmission of microorganisms by the hands of health care workers is considered as a main transmission route of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial contamination of health-care workers hands while going out of hospital. Material and Methods: Wearing the sterile glove with liquid culture, we obtained 100 Samples from the staffs hands of three departments (clerical department, emergency ward and central laboratory of Emam Reza hospital. After that, the samples were cultured. Results: Of all personnel, 40% have the habit of washing their hands. Of these, 95 percent wash their hands with water and soap, and 5 percent with alcohol rubs. Of 100 cultured samples, 90 have microorganisms including non-pathogen gram-positive bacillus (29%, coagulase-positive staphylococcus (39%, coagulase-negative staphylococcus (47%, Enterococci (3%, micrococcus (25% and candida (3%. Contamination in those who had not washed their hands is 62.6% and in those who washed is 37.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion: Hands of health-care workers become progressively contaminated by the potential pathogens during daily activities. To reduce the rate of contamination, it is helpful if we ask staff to wash their hands while going out of hospital. Keywords: Microbial Flora; Hospitals Staff; Hand Washing
Naderinasab, M. (PhD
To determine how internists would respond to out-of-hospital emergency medical situations, we surveyed internal medicine residents and attending physicians at urban academic medical centers regarding their willingness to help in five such scenarios. For those scenarios in which they were reluctant to help, they were asked why. Knowledge of Good Samaritan statutes was also assessed. Respondents were most likely to give aid, including mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if necessary, in scenarios invo...
Gross, Cary P.; Reisman, Anna B.; Schwartz, Mark D.
We present an unusual case of 24 year old male who was hospitalized for dental procedure and developed cardiac arrest 2 days after the procedure. The patient presented with swelling of buccal cavity for which a biopsy was taken. Two days after the procedure, apparently normal patient suddenly presented at mid night with VT and VF, which were intractable requiring multiple DC shocks. During this period arterial blood gas analysis revealed severe acidosis. The circumstances led us to suspect po...
Shetty, Ranjan K.; Tumkur, Anil; Bhat, Krishnamurthy; Chacko, Biby
The effect of advances in cardiac arrest management over the last five decades on in-hospital cardiac arrest survival rates is not clear. Data on 212 arrests between January 2010 and May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed by means of an audit form based upon the Utstein template for in-hospital cardiac arrest, with a view to identifying significant associations between arrest characteristics and return of spontaneous circulation or survival to discharge. Significant associations were identified between return of spontaneous circulation and location (ward, 36 patients (38%) vs. ICU, 33 Patients (56%); P = 0.032), whether an arrest was witnessed or not (82 patients (52%) vs. 9 patients (30%); P = 0.029), whether the initial rhythm was shockable or non-shockable (28 patients (85%) vs. 38 patients (31%); P adrenaline was administered within 2 minutes of arrest onset or later (13 patients (54%) vs. 12 patients (28%); P = 0.04). PMID:24834581
Fennelly, N K; McPhillips, C; Gilligan, P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients are transferred from home to hospital during the final phase of life and the majority die in hospital. The aim of the study is to explore hospital referrals of palliative care patients for whom an out-of-hours general practitioner was called. Methods A retrospective descriptive chart study was conducted covering a one-year period (1/Nov/2005 to 1/Nov/2006 in all eight out-of-hours GP co-operatives in the Amsterdam region (Netherlands. All symptoms, sociodemographic and medical characteristics were recorded in 529 charts for palliative care patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the variables associated with hospital referrals at the end of life. Results In all, 13% of all palliative care patients for whom an out-of-hours general practitioner was called were referred to hospital. Palliative care patients with cancer (OR 5,1, cardiovascular problems (OR 8,3, digestive problems (OR 2,5 and endocrine, metabolic and nutritional (EMN problems (OR 2,5 had a significantly higher chance of being referred. Patients receiving professional nursing care (OR 0,2 and patients for whom their own general practitioner had transferred information to the out-of-hours cooperative (OR 0,4 had a significantly lower chance of hospital referral. The most frequent reasons for hospital referral, as noted by the out-of-hours general practitioner, were digestive (30%, EMN (19% and respiratory (17% problems. Conclusion Whilst acknowledging that an out-of-hours hospital referral can be the most desirable option in some situations, this study provides suggestions for avoiding undesirable hospital referrals by out-of-hours general practitioners at the end of life. These include anticipating digestive, EMN, respiratory and cardiovascular symptoms in palliative care patients.
De Korte-Verhoef Maria C
Full Text Available Introduction. In relation to pre-hospital treatment of patients with cardiac arrest (CA in the field where resuscitation is often started by nonprofessionals, resuscitation in hospital is most commonly performed by well-trained personnel. Objective. The aim was to define the factors associated with an improved outcome among patients suffering from the inhospital CA (IHCA. Methods. The prospective study included a total of 100 patients in the Emergency Center over two-year period. The patterns by the Utstein-Style guidelines recorded the following: age, sex, reason for hospital admission, comorbidity, cause and origin of CA, continuous monitoring, time of arrival of the medical emergency team and time of delivery of the first defibrillation shock (DC. Results. Most patients (61% had cardiac etiology. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC was achieved in 58% of patients. ROSC was more frequently achieved in younger patients (57.69±11.37, (p<0.05, non-surgical patients (76.1%, (p<0.01 and in patients who were in continuous monitoring (66.7% (p<0.05. The outcome of CPR was significantly better in patients who received advanced life support (ALS (76.6% (p<0.01. Time until the delivery of the first DC shock was significantly shorter in patients who achieved ROSC (1.67±1.13 min, (p<0.01. A total of 5% of IHCA patients survived to hospital discharge. Conclusion. In our study, the outcome of CPR was better in patients who were younger and with non-surgical diseases, which are prognostic factors that we cannot control. Factors associated with better outcome of IHCA patients were: continuous monitoring, shorter time until the delivery of the first DC and ALS. This means that better education of medical staff, better organization and up-to-dated technical equipment are needed.
A review of US poison center data for 2004 showed over 9000 ingestions of valproic acid. A guideline that determines the conditions for emergency department referral and prehospital care could potentially optimize patient outcome, avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the lead author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial out-of-hospital management of patients with a suspected ingestion of valproic acid by 1) describing the process by which an ingestion of valproic acid might be managed, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of valproic acid ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to the acute ingestion and acute-on-chronic ingestion of immediate-release and extended-release dosage forms of valproic acid, divalproex, and valproate sodium alone. Co-ingestion of additional substances could require different referral and management recommendations depending on the combined toxicities of the substances. This review focuses on the ingestion of more than a single therapeutic dose and the effects of an overdose. Although therapeutic doses of valproic acid can cause adverse effects in adults and children, some idiosyncratic and some dose-dependent, these cases are not considered. This guideline is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions might be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) All patients with suicidal intent, intentional abuse, or in whom a malicious intent is suspected (e.g., child abuse or neglect) should be referred to an emergency department (Grade D). 2) Patients who are symptomatic (more than somnolence or exhibiting coma or seizures) after a valproic acid ingestion should be referred to an emergency department (Grade C). 3) Asymptomatic patients with an unintentional acute ingestion of 50 mg/kg or more or asymptomatic patients who are taking the drug therapeutically and who take an additional single acute ingestion of 50 mg/kg or more of any valproic acid formulation should be referred to an emergency department for evaluation (Grade C). 4) Patients with unintentional ingestions of immediate-release valproic acid formulations, who are asymptomatic, and more than 6 hours has elapsed since the time of ingestion, can be observed at home (Grade C). 5) Patients with unintentional ingestions of delayed-release or extended-release formulations of valproic acid who are asymptomatic, and more than 12 hours has elapsed since the time of ingestion, can be observed at home (Grade C). 6) Pregnant women who ingest below the dose for emergency department referral and do not have other referral conditions should be directed to their primary care obstetrical provider for evaluation of potential maternal and fetal risk. Routine referral to an emergency department for immediate care is not required (Grade D). 7) Do not induce emesis (Grade C). 8) Activated charcoal can be administered to asymptomatic patients who have ingested valproic acid within the preceding hour (Grade C). Prehospital activated charcoal administration, if available, should only be c
Manoguerra, Anthony S; Erdman, Andrew R; Woolf, Alan D; Chyka, Peter A; Caravati, E Martin; Scharman, Elizabeth J; Booze, Lisa L; Christianson, Gwenn; Nelson, Lewis S; Cobaugh, Daniel J; Troutman, William G
Cardiovascular diseases are getting epidemic due to social reconstruction, technology advancement and over population in urban areas, inappropriate food habits and immobility. This study has tried to define the indexes of healthy nutrition in cardiac patients hospitalized in cardiac ward of Alzahra hospital and to compare it with Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Healthy Eating Index has been also designed to evaluate diet quality in different societies. This is a descriptive analytical study...
Bahreini, N.; Entezari, M.; Hassansadeh, A.; Ganjalideshti, M.; Jalali, M.
Cardiac arrest remains a leading cause of death in the world. Although advances in emergency cardiac care has been achieved, the survival rate of those non hospitalized hospital cardiac arrest remains low. Update in guidelines for CPR and emergency cardiovascular, their approach to out of hospital cardiac arrest is far from optimal. This provides an opportunity to advocate cardiocerebral resuscitation as an alternative to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation for non hospitalized car...
Erwin Mulia; Siswanto, Bambang B.
Full Text Available En nuestro país no hay un registro estandarizado de los eventos cardíacos que requieren reanimación cerebro-cardio-pulmonar (RCCP siguiendo los lineamientos "Utstein". El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la calidad de los registros extrahospitalarios de paro cardíaco en el adulto, en Bogotá-Colombia. Entre enero y marzo de 2005 se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de los casos que correspondieron a paro cardíaco en el adulto atendidos por el "Centro Regulador de Urgencias del Distrito (CRU". El estudio reveló un registro deficiente de los eventos que requirieron RCCP realizados a nivel prehospitalario, e identificó al trauma como causa de paro cardíaco en 22% de los casos, una cifra particularmente elevada si se compara con los reportes mundiales, que oscilan entre 5% y 8%. Recomienda la estandarización del registro de paro cardíaco en el adulto, para lo cual se sugiere utilizar el formato de registro que sigue los lineamientos "Utstein".There is not a standardized registry form of cardiac events requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in our country such as the Utstein style. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of the registries of out-ofhospital cardiac arrests in Bogotá-Colombia. A retrospective survey of registries of cardiac events assisted by a regulatory center "Centro Regulador de Urgencias del Distrito (CRU" was conducted, between January and March, 2005. The study reveals a poor registry of outof-hospital cardiac arrest in Bogotá-Colombia, and identifies trauma as the cause of cardiac arrest in 22% of cases, a particularly high figure compared with 5-8% registered worldwide. Recommend the standardization of the registry form of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and suggest to use the "uniform reporting of data following cardiac arrest - the Utstein style". The registry forms are shown in appendix 1-2. Suggestions are welcome.
Ricardo Navarro Vargas
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En nuestro país no hay un registro estandarizado de los eventos cardíacos que requieren reanimación cerebro-cardio-pulmonar (RCCP) siguiendo los lineamientos "Utstein". El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la calidad de los registros extrahospitalarios de paro cardíaco en el adulto, en Bogotá [...] -Colombia. Entre enero y marzo de 2005 se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de los casos que correspondieron a paro cardíaco en el adulto atendidos por el "Centro Regulador de Urgencias del Distrito (CRU)". El estudio reveló un registro deficiente de los eventos que requirieron RCCP realizados a nivel prehospitalario, e identificó al trauma como causa de paro cardíaco en 22% de los casos, una cifra particularmente elevada si se compara con los reportes mundiales, que oscilan entre 5% y 8%. Recomienda la estandarización del registro de paro cardíaco en el adulto, para lo cual se sugiere utilizar el formato de registro que sigue los lineamientos "Utstein". Abstract in english There is not a standardized registry form of cardiac events requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in our country such as the Utstein style. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of the registries of out-ofhospital cardiac arrests in Bogotá-Colombia. A retrospective survey of [...] registries of cardiac events assisted by a regulatory center "Centro Regulador de Urgencias del Distrito (CRU)" was conducted, between January and March, 2005. The study reveals a poor registry of outof-hospital cardiac arrest in Bogotá-Colombia, and identifies trauma as the cause of cardiac arrest in 22% of cases, a particularly high figure compared with 5-8% registered worldwide. Recommend the standardization of the registry form of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and suggest to use the "uniform reporting of data following cardiac arrest - the Utstein style". The registry forms are shown in appendix 1-2. Suggestions are welcome.
Navarro Vargas, Ricardo.
The national priority for reducing mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease, the resulting expansion in the number of consultant cardiologists, and the reforms of the National Health Service have produced significant changes in delivery of care for cardiac patients and in the relations between district general hospitals (DGH) and the old regional cardiac centres. 1.2 The British Cardiac Society, the Medical Royal Colleges of Physicians of London and Edinburgh, and the Royal C...
Approximately 400,000 Europeans are yearly resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).(1,2) Despite evolving evidence based guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), survival rates after OHCA has not improved much in several places around the world. However, a potential for improved survival is absolutely present, based on the huge spread in worldwide survival; some cities with survival over 20-30% and some cities with just a few percent.(1,2) These survival differences can partly be explained by different definitions of OHCA,(2) but mainly due to the overall quality of the local Chain of Survival (COS)(3); early arrest recognition and call for help, early CPR, early defibrillation and early post resuscitation care. By identifying and thereafter improving weak links in the local COS, survival can indeed increase. This review will focus on the quality of the last link in the COS, the hospital treatment after return of spontaneuous circulation (ROSC), and how good quality post resuscitation care can improve not only survival, but survival with neurologically intact outcome. PMID:24054515
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La conducta suicida ha existido desde que la humanidad existe, sin embargo, la concepción positiva o negativa del mismo ha cambiado a través de las diferentes culturas. En la actualidad, supone un grave problema de salud pública, y se estudia desde diferentes perspectivas y áreas de co [...] nocimiento, tratando de dar una visión global para poder entender este fenómeno tan interesante, apasionante y, en ciertos momentos desconcertante. Objetivo: Por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio es analizar el perfil de las personas que cometen un acto suicida en la ciudad de Madrid y que son atendidos en el área de la emergencia extrahospitalaria. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo, encuadrado en SAMUR-Protección Civil durante el año 2008, analizando todos los casos atendidos de ideación, tentativa y suicidio consumado donde han intervenido un Soporte Vital Avanzado y la Unidad de Asistencia Psicológica. Se ha analizado una muestra de 96 pacientes suicidas, donde el 48,4% fueron tentativas de suicidio, seguidos de un 44,2% de suicidios consumados y un 7,4% de ideación autolítica, atendidos principalmente en los meses de marzo y mayo, turno de mañana - tarde, y en el distrito de Puente de Vallecas, intervenciones demandadas desde Madrid 112 en su mayor porcentaje. Resultados: Se establece un perfil de paciente suicida como varón, de 25-35 años, español, soltero, con patología psiquiátrica en tratamiento, sin tentativas previas, que había verbalizado sus intenciones autolíticas, teniendo como factor desencadenante la propia enfermedad física o psíquica, que elige como método autolítico la defenestración sin presencia de otras personas, al cuál se le traslada al Hospital y presenta como diagnóstico principal TCE, trauma o politraumatismo. Conclusiones: El conocimientog del perfil del paciente suicida atendidos en diversas áreas permite conocer en mayor medida, los factores de riesgo de la conducta suicida, así como puede favorecer actuaciones preventivas futuras. Abstract in english Background: Suicidal behavior has existed since mankind exists, however, positive or negative view of it has changed through different cultures. At present, poses a significant public health problem, and studied from different perspectives and areas of expertise, trying to give an overview to unders [...] tand this phenomenon so interesting, exciting and at times bewildering. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the profile of people who commit a suicide in the city of Madrid and are treated in the outpatient emergency area. Methods: Observational, descriptive and retrospective study, framed in SAMUR-Civil Protection in 2008, analyzing all cases seen ideation, suicide attempt, which have involved an Advanced Life Support and Counselling Unit. We analyzed a sample of 96 suicidal patients, where 48.4% were attempted suicide, followed by 44.2% of suicides and suicidal ideation 7.4%, seen mainly in the months of March and May, morning session-afternoon, and in the district of Puente de Vallecas, intervention from Madrid 112 defendants in the highest percentage. Results: Establishing a patient profile suicide as male, 25-35 years, Spanish, single, with psychiatric disorders in treatment, but previous attempts, he had verbalized his intentions autolytic, taking as a trigger for the physical or mental illness itself, which chooses defenestration as autolytic method without the presence of others, to which he was transferred to the Hospital and has a diagnosis of TBI, trauma or polytrauma. Conclusions: Knowledge of the profile of the suicidal patient treated in different areas allows better known, the risk factors of suicidal behavior and may facilitate future preventive actions.
T., Pacheco Tabuenca; J.I., Robles Sánchez.
During last ten years the Hospital Information System (HIS) was developed at Institut e of Clinical Physiology of National Research Council (IFC-CNR), recently reorganized on clinical s ide into the OG. Monasterio Foundationo (FGM) by joint efforts of CNR, Tuscany Region and Universi ties. G. Pasquinucci Heart Hospital (GPH) in Massa, currently one of the two FGMoes sections, i s specialised in Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery (adult and pediatric)
During the last ten years the Hospital Information System (HIS) was developed at the Institute of Clinical Physiology of National Research Council (IFC-CNR), recently reorganized on clinical side into the "Gabriele Monasterio Foundation" (FGM) by joint efforts of CNR, Tuscany Region and Universities. At G.Pasquinucci Heart Hospital (GPH), currently FGM's section in Massa, the HIS was adapted and extended to Cardiac Surgery and Pediatric Cardiology. Data archiving and middleware integr...
To identify and measure the frequency of medication errors, to understand the causes for errors and best strategies to decrease medication errors rate in a cardiac hospital New Delhi. The Retrospective study of 137 case files, was undertaken to find out the medication errors in new drugs to be included in hospital formulary and to study policy compliances,for the period of a month, February 2010.We studied 137 patient files and Medication error related were reported most often at the stages ...
Background The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of congenital cardiac disease among children attending UNTH, Enugu, Nigeria. The nature of these abnormalities and the outcome were also considered. The exact etiology is unknown but genetic and environmental factors tend to be implicated. The difference in the pattern obtained worldwide and few studies in Nigeria could be due to genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, or ethnic origin. Methods A retrospective analysis of discharged cases in which a review of the cases of all children attending children outpatient clinics including cardiology clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu over a five year period (January 2007-June 2012) was undertaken. All the children presenting with cardiac anomalies were included in the study and the cases were investigated using ECG, X-ray and echocardiography studies. Results A total of 31,795 children attended the children outpatient clinics of the hospital over the study period. Of these, seventy one (71) had cardiac diseases. The overall prevalence of cardiac disease is 0.22%. The commonest symptoms were breathlessness, failure to thrive and cyanosis. Almost all types of congenital detects were represented, the commonest being isolated ventricular septal detect (VSD), followed by tetralogy of Fallot. One of these cardiac anomalies presented with Downss syndrome and another with VACTERAL association. Conclusions The results of this study show that 0.22% per cent of children who attended UNTH in Enugu State had congenital cardiac abnormalities and the commonest forms seen were those with VSD.
Full Text Available Introduction. In the mid-twentieth century, the health care of women and children was inadequate in the post-war Yugoslavia, including the city of Novi Sad, due to the severe post-war reality: poverty in the devastated country, shortage of all commodities and services and especially of medical supplies, equipment and educated staff. Out-of-Hospital Maternity Unit. One of the serious problems was parturition at home and morbidity and mortality of the newborns and women. Soon after the World War II the action programme of improving the womens health was realized on the state level by establishing out-of-hospital maternity units but under the expert supervision. The Maternity unit at 30 Ljudevita Gaja Street in Novi Sad played a great role in providing skilled birth attendance at mainly normal deliveries. With a minimal number of medical staff and modest medical equipment, about 2000 healthy babies were born in this house. Motherhood Home. After 5 years of functioning in that way, this unit was transformed into the Motherhood Home and became a social and medical institution for pregnant women and new mothers. Regardless of the redefined organization concept the curative and preventive health care as well as women and children social protection programmes were provided successfully for the next 12 years. Although the Motherhood Home was moved into the Women Health Centre of Novi Sad and later into the former Maternity Hospital in Sremski Karlovci, its great importance for women and childrens health care remained unchanged. In 1979 the overall social situation and mostly economic issues led to its closing. Epilogue. The house in Gajeva Street is now used as the municipality office. However, this house with its story recommends itself to become a house for a special social function, such as a museum of medical history of Novi Sad. A small investment could make it possible to collect, preserve and display the valuable records of our past, which is something we do owe to the generations to come.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is a common condition that is associated with cardiac as well as extra-cardiac manifestations. Its prevalence and manifestations from north India has not been reported. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and ability of clinical criteria to predict 22q11.2 microdeletion. Methods A total of 146 cases of cardiac malformation requiring tertiary care at a teaching hospital were prospectively screened for 22q11.2 microdeletion using fluorescence in situ hybridization test. Detailed clinical information was obtained as per guidelines of Tobias, et al (1999. Results Nine out of 146 patients (6.16% was found to have 22q11.2 microdeletion. All the positive patients showed the presence of extra-cardiac features of 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome. None of the cases with isolated cardiac defect were positive for microdeletion. Conclusions It seems that 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is over-suspected in children with isolated congenital heart defects. Screening for 22q11.2 microdeletion should be considered in those cardiac malformation cases which have extra-cardiac manifestations in the form of facial dysmorphism and hypocalcaemia.
OBJECTIVE--To describe the proportion of patients who were discharged from hospital after witnessed cardiac arrest outside hospital in relation to whether a bystander initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PATIENTS--All patients with witnessed cardiac arrest outside hospital before arrival of the ambulance and in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation was attempted by the emergency medical service in Gothenburg during 1980-92. RESULTS--Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated by a bystander ...
Herlitz, J.; Ekstro?m, L.; Wennerblom, B.; Axelsson, A.; Ba?ng, A.; Holmberg, S.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to the introduction of the 2006 NHS dental contract in England and Wales, general dental practitioners (GDPs were responsible for the provision of out-of-hours (OOH emergency dental services (EDS; however there was great national variation in service provision. Under the contractual arrangements introduced 1st April 2006, local commissioning agencies became formally responsible for the provision of out-of-hours emergency dental services. This study aimed to examine patients' use of an out-of-hours emergency dental service and to determine whether the introduction of the 2006 national NHS dental contract had resulted in a change in service use, with a view to informing future planning and commissioning of care. Methods A questionnaire was administered to people attending the out-of-hours emergency dental service at two inner city London hospitals over two time periods; four weeks before and six months after the introduction of the dental contract in April 2006. The questionnaire explored: reasons for attending; dental registration status and attendance; method of access; knowledge and use of NHS Direct; satisfaction with the service; future preferences for access and use of out-of-hours dental services. Data were compared to determine any impact of the new contract on how and why people accessed the emergency dental service. Results The response rate was 73% of attendees with 981 respondents for the first time period and 546 for the second. There were no significant differences between the two time periods in the gender, age, ethnic distribution or main language of service users accessing the service. Overall, the main dental problem was toothache (72% and the main reason for choosing this service was due to the inability to access another emergency dental service (42%. Significantly fewer service users attended the out-of-hours emergency dental service during the second period because they could not get an appointment with their own dentist (p = 0.002 from 28% to 20% and significantly more service users in the second period felt the emergency dental service was easier to get to than their own dentist (P = 0.003 from 8% to 14%. Service users found out about the service from multiple sources, of which family and friends were the most common source (30%. In the second period fewer service users were obtaining information about the service from dental receptionists (P = 0.002 from 14% to 9% and increased use of NHS Direct for a dental problem was reported (P = 0.002 from 16% to 22% along with more service users being referred to the service by NHS Direct (P = 0.02 from 19% to 24%. The most common preference for future emergency dental care was face-to-face with a dentist (79%. Conclusion This study has provided an insight into how and why people use an out-of-hours emergency dental service and has helped to guide future commissioning of these services. Overall, the service was being used in much the same way both before and after the 2006 dental contract. Significantly more use was being made of NHS Direct after April 2006; however, informal information networks such as friends and family remain an important source of information about accessing emergency dental services.
Full Text Available Cardiac arrest remains a leading cause of death in the world. Although advances in emergency cardiac care has been achieved, the survival rate of those non hospitalized hospital cardiac arrest remains low. Update in guidelines for CPR and emergency cardiovascular, their approach to out of hospital cardiac arrest is far from optimal. This provides an opportunity to advocate cardiocerebral resuscitation as an alternative to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation for non hospitalized cardiac arrest. Because cardiocerebral resuscitation results in improved survival and cerebral function in patients with witnessed cardiac arrest and a shockable rhythm whom have greatest chance of survival, it should replace CPR especially for non hospitalized cardiac arrest.(Med J Indones 2011; 20:306-9Keywords: cardiocerebral resuscitation, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are getting epidemic due to social reconstruction, technology advancement and over population in urban areas, inappropriate food habits and immobility. This study has tried to define the indexes of healthy nutrition in cardiac patients hospitalized in cardiac ward of Alzahra hospital and to compare it with Healthy Eating Index (HEI. Healthy Eating Index has been also designed to evaluate diet quality in different societies. This is a descriptive analytical study conducted cross-sectionally in cardiac patients hospitalized in cardiac ward of Alzahra hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Nutritional status was investigated by completing the last three days dietary Recalls. Nutritional index was calculated based on food pyramid guidelines, fat calorie percentage from total calorie, intake of saturated fats percentage and cholesterol, calcium, Iron and food variation. The range of this index was from 0-10 so the total score was 100. Calculation of this index was made with respect to the data of nutrition intakes compared to healthy food index. The score of food variation was defined by routine food intake in the society. The score of nutrition index was categorized into three groups of lower than 50 (weak, 51-80 (needs a change and improvement and over 81 (good. Mean comparison test was used to compare healthy food index with nutrients intake and the number of servings of food pyramid guidelines. Mean age of cardiac patients was 65.5±7.9 and the nutrition index score were 36.3 in males and 35.7 in females. The intake servings from food pyramid in patients with good index score was significantly higher compared to other groups (p<0.001. Bread and cereal intake were as 8.6±1.8 serving, Vegetables 5±1.8, fruits 1.9±1 diary and milk product 1.4±0.5 and meat 1.6±1.1. There was an association between lipid intake and saturated fat percentage (p<0.001. Mean intake of fruit, milk and meat was less than HEI and for cholesterol, vegetables and salt, it was higher than HEI (p<0.5. Mean intake of cereal and saturated fats, were similar to HEI (p>0.5. Pearson correlation test showed that there was no significant association between age and nutrition variation, calcium, vegetables and bread (p>0.5. Level of education had a significant direct association with food variation, Iron, meat and fruit intake (p<0.5 but not with other items (p<0.5. 73.2% of diet should be changed and improved while in 3.3% it was good. 23.5% followed weak food pattern. Healthy food index is an appropriate tool to evaluate nutrition quality of cardiac patients. The diet in most of the cardiac patients needs improvement and changes in appropriate food education is essential.
The survival outcome following pediatric cardiac arrest still remains poor. Survival to hospital discharge ranges anywhere from 0 to 38% when considering both out-of-hospital and in-hospital arrests, with up to 50% of the survivors having neurologic injury. The use of mild induced hypothermia has not been definitively proven to improve outcomes following pediatric cardiac arrest. This may be due to the lack of consensus regarding target temperature, best method of cooling, optim...
Schlunt Michelle; Wang Lynn
We sought to assess the ability of The Myocardial Performance Index (MPI), measured at entry, to predict in-hospital cardiac adverse events in a series of patients with first Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). A complete 2-dimential and Doppler echocardiographic examination was performed within 24 h of arrival at the coronary care department in 78 patients (61 men and 17 women; mean age 58±2 years) with first AMI. Patients were divided later into 2 groups according to their in-hospital cours...
Abstract Background Transfusion practices in hospitalised patients are being re-evaluated, in part due to studies indicating adverse effects in patients receiving large quantities of stored blood. Concomitant with this re-examination have been reports showing variability in the use of specific blood components. This investigation was designed to assess hospital variation in blood use and outcomes in cardiac surgery patients. Methods We evaluated outcomes in 24,7...
Am, Rogers Mary; Blumberg Neil; Saint Sanjay; Langa Kenneth M; Nallamothu Brahmajee K
Full Text Available Background. Our aim was to investigate the pattern of self reported symptoms and utilisation of health care services in Norway. Design and methods. With data from the cross-sectional Tromsø Study (2007-8, we estimated population proportions reporting symptoms and use of seven different health services. By logistic regression we estimated differences according to age and gender. Results. 12,982 persons aged 30-87 years participated, 65.7% of those invited. More than 900/1000 reported symptoms or health problems in a year as well as in a month, and 214/1000 and 816/1000 visited a general practitioner once or more in a month and a year, respectively. The corresponding figures were 91/1000 and 421/1000 for specialist outpatient visits, and 14/1000 and 116/1000 for hospitalisations. Physiotherapists were visited by 210/1000, chiropractors by 76/1000, complementary and alternative medical providers by 127/1000, and dentists by 692/1000 in a year. Women used most health care services more than men, but genders used hospitalisations and chiropractors equally. Utilisation of all services increased with age, except chiropractors, dentists and complementary and alternative medical providers. Conclusions. Almost the entire population reported health related problems during the previous year, and most residents visited a general practitioner. Yet there were high rates of inpatient and outpatient specialist utilisation. We suggest that wide use of general practitioners may not necessarily keep patients out of specialist care and hospitals.
Olav Helge Førde
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intraosseous (IO access represents a reliable alternative to intravenous vascular access and is explicitly recommended in the current guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council when intravenous access is difficult or impossible. We therefore aimed to study the efficacy of the intraosseous needle driver EZ-IO® in the prehospital setting. Methods During a 24-month period, all cases of prehospital IO access using the EZ-IO® needle driver within three operational areas of emergency medical services were prospectively recorded by a standardized questionnaire that needed to be filled out by the rescuer immediately after the mission and sent to the primary investigator. We determined the rate of successful insertion of the IO needle, the time required, immediate procedure-related complications, the level of previous experience with IO access, and operator's subjective satisfaction with the device. Results 77 IO needle insertions were performed in 69 adults and five infants and children by emergency physicians (n = 72 applications and paramedics (n = 5 applications. Needle placement was successful at the first attempt in all but 2 adults (one patient with unrecognized total knee arthroplasty, one case of needle obstruction after placement. The majority of users (92% were relative novices with less than five previous IO needle placements. Of 22 responsive patients, 18 reported pain upon fluid administration via the needle. The rescuers' subjective rating regarding handling of the device and ease of needle insertion, as described by means of an analogue scale (0 = entirely unsatisfied, 10 = most satisfied, provided a median score of 10 (range 1-10. Conclusions The EZ-IO® needle driver was an efficient alternative to establish immediate out-of-hospital vascular access. However, significant pain upon intramedullary infusion was observed in the majority of responsive patients.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Business Activity Monitoring (BAM) allows organizations to capture enterprise events from their source systems and utilize these to detect non-compliant business situations. Similar concepts may be leveraged in the healthcare domain to improve the quality of patient care and the efficiency of clinic [...] al processes. This paper introduces a generic set of constructs for formally specifying threshold values relevant for cycle time and utilization calculations. It also describes a mechanism to capture information, including thresholds, about important business parameters for Six Sigma measurement. This full set of constructs are the basis for automated measurement and monitoring and are incorporated into the process model during the definition or capture phase thereby linking the definition and monitoring phases through a common underlying process model. Bespoke software is also described which uses the constructs contributed by this research to manage and monitor process models and enterprise events. A process performance module provides automated measurement and monitoring capabilities. At an aggregate level, this is achieved through the provision of process cycle time data for selected time periods on demand and the examination of business processes at frequent intervals with alerts generated for exceptional scenarios. At a more granular level, this solution uses a rules-based approach to evaluate individual events and generate alerts for out-of-bounds business parameters. This paper demonstrates the benefits of these capabilities for health informatics through application to a Laboratory Testing process observed at a local hospital. The paper also suggests recommendations for the extension of current modelling languages with respect to the constructs detailed herein.
Costello, Claire; Molloy, Owen.
The author investigated the meaning of the daily work with the death on the perspective of the professionals that integrate a team of heart and lung revival from a university hospital. To belong to this team implies somehow, to live together with the death with an explicit objective of reverting it. The literature evidences the concern of several authors with these professionals, considering their tendency of weariness. The study was developed according to the methodology of phenomenological investigation and was carried out through recorded interviews with all members of the referred team. The analyzed data allowed authors to evidence that the professionals perceive the work on a functionalist perspective, where the time is revealed as a decisive factor against death; it is a work permeated by the success/failure and difficulties; it generates a posture of omnipotence/impotence and requires a confrontation. They also evidenced waste, feelings of impotence and of failure when the reanimation is not possible. They still reinforce the concern about daily exhausting work and the advise for schools and institutions of health to develop channels for the evaluation of weariness and for the new valuation of the health professionals role. PMID:10876556
Saloum, N H; Boemer, M R
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are defined as two or more drugs interacting in such a manner that the effectiveness or toxicity of one or more drugs is altered. DDI in patients receiving multidrug therapy is a major concern. The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence and risk factors of DDIs in patients admitted in cardiology unit of a teaching hospital. A prospective, observational study was carried out for a period of 3 months (April-July 2009). During the study period, a total of 600 prescriptions were analyzed and it was found that 88 patients had at least one DDI. The percentage of DDIs was higher in females compared to males (56.82% vs. 43.18%). DDIs were observed more in the age group of 60 years and above (57.96). Patients with more than 10 prescribed drugs developed DDIs more frequently [58 (65.91%)]. Heparin [55 (62.25%)] and aspirin [42 (47.72%)] were the most common drugs responsible for DDIs. Bleeding was the commonest clinical consequence [76 (86.63%)] found in this study population. On assessment of severity of DDIs, majority of the cases were classified as moderate in severity (61.36%). Aging, female gender and increase in concurrent medications were found to be associated with increased DDIs. Patients having these risk factors can be actively monitored during their stay in the cardiology department to identify DDIs. PMID:22224041
Mateti, Uv; Rajakannan, T; Nekkanti, H; Rajesh, V; Mallaysamy, S; Ramachandran, P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines recommend that all health care professionals should be able to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, including the use of an automated external defibrillator. Theoretical knowledge of CPR is then necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate how much theoretical knowledge in CPR would increase among all categories of health care professionals lacking training in CPR, in an intervention hospital, after a systematic standardised training. Their results were compared with the staff at a control hospital with an ongoing annual CPR training programme. Methods Health care professionals at two hospitals, with a total of 3144 employees, answered a multiple-choice questionnaire before and after training in CPR. Bootstrapped chi-square tests and Fisher's exact test were used for the statistical analyses. Results In the intervention hospital, physicians had the highest knowledge pre-test, but other health care professionals including nurses and assistant nurses reached a relatively high level post-test. Improvement was inversely related to the level of previous knowledge and was thus most marked among other health care professionals and least marked among physicians. The staff at the control hospital had a significantly higher level of knowledge pre-test than the intervention hospital, whereas the opposite was found post-test. Conclusions Overall theoretical knowledge increased after systematic standardised training in CPR. The increase was more pronounced for those without previous training and for those staff categories with the least medical education.
Objective: To assess frequency of cardiac defects among children from birth to 12 years of age on each Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted at echocardiography centre in coronary care unit at Bahawal Victoria Hby Paediatric Transthoracic echo probe; 2-D colour Doppler, Acuson CV-70 and Niemo-30 echocardiography machines. Mothers of children with cardiac defects were interviewed at the echocardiography centre. Variables included were A- Muscular plus Vascular defects; B- Valvular defects; C-Pericardial effusion; D- Dextrocardia and E- Congestive cardiac failure. History of children for sore throat followed by joint pains; history of mothers for drug intake (antihypertensive, antipyretic, anti-emetic, hypoglycaemic) as well as chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, anaemia) during pregnancy were surveyed. Parity of mothers, their cousin marriages, and family socio-economic status was also inquired. The results were tabulated, analyzed and finally subjected to suitable test of significant (SR of proportion) to find out statistical significant if any. Results: It was found that out of 150 patients, 76 (50.66%) were suffering from Cardiac muscular and Vascular defects, 61 (40.66%) Valvular defects, 7 (4.66%) Pericardial effusion, 2 (1.33%) Dextrocardia and 4 (2.66%) from Congestive Cardiac Failure. According to age, 54 (36%) were from birth to 3 years of age and 51 (34%) from 10 to 12 years. There was history of Rheumatic fever among 45 (30%) children. There were 106 (70.6%) children from lower socio-economic class and 79 (52.6%) parents had history of cousin marriages. Conclusion: Frequency of cardiac defects was more in children of male sex, lower socio-economic group, from birth to three years age and children from primipara mothers in our specified locality. Rheumatic fever, cousin's marriage, and prescribed drugs intake during pregnancy (for metabolic and hormonal disorders) were other contributors to cardiac defects. (author)
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is most often provided in a hospital setting. Home-based models of care have been developed to overcome geographic, among other, barriers in patients at a lower risk. This study assessed whether clinical and geographic factors were related to the use of either a hospital-based or a home-based program. Secondary analysis
Brual, Janette; Gravely, Shannon; Suskin, Neville; Stewart, Donna E.; Grace, Sherry L.
Full text: Permanent cardiac pacemaker implantation is a simple Interventional Cardiology (IC) procedure during which fluoroscopy is employed for aiding in the manipulations required for the successful placement of the pacemaker. However, it is also known that these procedures involve high radiation doses due to long fluoroscopy times. During the SENTINEL European project, radiation doses were measured in three major hospitals in Greece in order to: (1) investigate the levels of dose imparted to the patient, (2) explore the various factors that could have an impact on patient dose, and finally (3) compare the results of this study to corresponding values found in the recent literature. One hundred and eighty four (184) patients participated in the study, 24 of which were treated in Hospital A, 52 in Hospital B and 108 in Hospital C. The radiation dose imparted to the patient was measured in terms of dose area product (DAP) measured in Gycm2 by using DAP meters, all calibrated according to the National Protocol of the National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB) of the United Kingdom. Other patient data collected were the following: age (A), weight (W), height (H), body mass index (BMI), which is the ratio of patient weight in kilogram (kg) to square height in meters (m) (BMI = W/H2), the kilovoltage (kVp) and the fluoroscopy time (T). It was found that results did not exhibit a normal distribution in any of the hospitals and, therefore, DAP and T were calculated in terms of median values. According to our results, median values of DAP and T were: 6.7 Gycm2 and 2.6 min (Hospital A), 9.0 Gycm2 and 3.0 min (Hospital B), 7.7 Gycm2 and 6.5 min (Hospital C). It appears that Hospital A gave the lowest dose to the patient with the lowest fluoroscopy time. However, at comparable fluoroscopy time with Hospital A and even less than half the fluoroscopy time of Hospital C, Hospital B presented the highest DAP. The results show that probably its X ray equipment is calibrated in higher dose rate than the other two hospitals. The correlation between every patient clinical and technical factor collected (W, H, BMI, kVp and T) and DAP were investigated separately. No correlation was found between DAP and patient weight, height or BMI. No correlation was also found between DAP and kilovoltage. Finally, significant correlation was found in all three hospitals between DAP and T (r=0.72 Hospital A, r=0.87 Hospital B, r=0.87 Hospital C). Comparison of results with recent literature such as those reported by the National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB) (27 Gycm2 and 10.7 min) showed that radiation doses are lower for all three Greek hospitals. The results of the study showed that comparable radiation doses are given in the three hospitals participating in the study. These doses are lower than internationally established reference levels. It was found that patient dimensions do not affect patient radiation dose. The limitation of the study was that the X ray equipment dose rate was not investigated in detail to explain small differences between hospitals and this should be done in the near future. (author)
Full Text Available Current cell biology textbooks mention only two kinds of cell-to-cell adhering junctions coated with the cytoplasmic plaques: the desmosomes (maculae adhaerentes, anchoring intermediate-sized filaments (IFs, and the actin microfilament-anchoring adherens junctions (AJs, including both punctate (puncta adhaerentia and elongate (fasciae adhaerentes structures. In addition, however, a series of other junction types has been identified and characterized which contain desmosomal molecules but do not fit the definition of desmosomes. Of these special cell-cell junctions containing desmosomal glycoproteins or proteins we review the composite junctions (areae compositae connecting the cardiomyocytes of mature mammalian hearts and their importance in relation to human arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies. We also emphasize the various plakophilin-2-positive plaques in AJs (coniunctiones adhaerentes connecting proliferatively active mesenchymally-derived cells, including interstitial cells of the heart and several soft tissue tumor cell types. Moreover, desmoplakin has also been recognized as a constituent of the plaques of the complexus adhaerentes connecting certain lymphatic endothelial cells. Finally, we emphasize the occurrence of the desmosomal transmembrane glycoprotein, desmoglein Dsg2, out of the context of any junction as dispersed cell surface molecules in certain types of melanoma cells and melanocytes. This broadening of our knowledge on the diversity of AJ structures indicates that it may still be too premature to close the textbook chapters on cell-cell junctions.
We present an innovative multilayer out-of-plane electrostatic energy harvesting device conceived in view of scavenging energy from regular blood pressure in the heart. This concept involves the use of a deformable packaging for the implant in order to transmit the blood pressure to the electrostatic transducer. As shown in previous work, this is possible by using thin metal micro-bellows structure, providing long term hermeticity and high flexibility. The design of the electrostatic device has overcome several challenges such as the very low frequency of the mechanical excitation (1 to 2 Hz) and the small available room in the medical implant. Analytical and numerical models have been used to maximize the capacitance variation, and hence to optimize the energy conversion. We have theoretically shown that a 25-layer transducer with 6-mm diameter and 1-mm thickness could harvest at least 20 mJ per heart beat in the left ventricle under a maximum voltage of 75 V. These results show that the proposed concept is promising and could power the next generation of leadless pacemakers.
Deterre, M.; Risquez, S.; Bouthaud, B.; Dal Molin, R.; Woytasik, M.; Lefeuvre, E.
Background Quality improvement (QI) has been shown to be effective in improving hospital care in high-income countries, but evidence of its use in low- and middle-income countries has been limited to date. The impact of a QI intervention to reduce patient waiting time and overcrowding for cardiac catheterizationthe subset of procedures associated with the most severe bottlenecks in patient flow at the National Heart Institute in Cairowas investigated. Methods A pre-post intervention study was conducted to examine the impact of a new scheduling system on patient waiting time and overcrowdedness for cardiac catheterization. The sample consisted of 628 consecutive patients in the pre-intervention period (JulyAugust 2009) and 1,607 in the postintervention period (SeptemberNovember 2010). Results The intervention was associated with significant reductions in waiting time and patient crowdedness. On average, total patient waiting time from arrival to beginning the catheterization procedure decreased from 208 minutes to 180 minutes (13% decrease, p < .001). Time between arrival at registration and admission to inpatient ward unit decreased from 33 minutes to 24 minutes (27% decrease, p < .001). Patient waiting time immediately prior to the catheterization laboratory procedure decreased from 79 minutes to 58 minutes (27% decrease, p < .001). The percentage of patients arriving between 7:00 A.M. and 9:00 A.M. decreased from 88% to 44% (50% decrease, p < .001), reducing patient crowding. Conclusion With little financial investment, the patient scheduling system significantly reduced waiting time and crowdedness in a resource-limited setting. The capacity-building effort enabled the hospital to sustain the scheduling system and data collection after the Egyptian revolution and departure of the mentoring team in January 2011.
Wong, Rex; Hathi, Sejal; Linnander, Erika L.; Banna, Adel El; Maraghi, Mohamed El; Din, Randah Zain El; Ahmed, Ashraf; Hafez, Abdel Rahman; Allam, Adel A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.
Clinical questionDoes epinephrine (adrenaline) used in the context of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest improve outcomes?Article chosenJacobs IG, Finn JC, Jelinek GA, et al. Effect of adrenaline on survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Resuscitation 2011;82:1138-43.ObjectiveTo determine the effect of epinephrine in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest on patient survival to hospital discharge, prehospital return of spontaneous circulation, and neurologic outcomes. PMID:24626120
Botnaru, Tudor; Dankoff, Jerrald
Background. Heart failure (HF) is a prevalent chronic condition where patients experience numerous uncomfortable symptoms, low functional status, and high mortality rates. Objective. To determine whether function and/or symptoms predict cardiac event-free survival in hospitalized HF patients within 90 days of hospital discharge. Methods. Inpatients (N = 32) had HF symptoms assessed with 4 yes/no questions. Function was determined with NYHA Classification, Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), and directly with the short physical performance battery (SPPB). Survival was analyzed with time to the first postdischarge cardiac event with events defined as cardiac rehospitalization, heart transplantation, or death. Results. Mean age was 58.2 ± 13.6 years. Patient reported ADL function was nearly independent (5.6 ± 1.1) while direct measure (SPPB) showed moderate functional limitation (6.4 ± 3.1). Within 90 days, 40.6% patients had a cardiac event. At discharge, each increase in NYHA Classification was associated with a 3.4-fold higher risk of cardiac events (95% CI 1.48.5). Patients reporting symptoms of dyspnea, fatigue, and orthopnea before discharge had a 4.0-fold, 9.7-fold, and 12.8-fold, respectively, greater risk of cardiac events (95% CI 1.213.2; 1.275.1; 1.799.7). Conclusions. Simple assessments of function and symptoms easily performed at discharge may predict short-term cardiac outcomes in hospitalized HF patients.
Cataldo, Janine; Mackin, Lynda
This paper sets out an empirical model of learning with forgetting and uses it to estimate how much hospital quality improves with experience. The size of the learning effect and the depreciation rate are estimated for two cardiac procedures in Maryland and Arizona. Models are estimated using patient survival as the outcome of interest. The results show that learning does not appear to be a factor in hospital quality for either procedure or for surgery generally. From a policy standpoint, based on these results, regulations in Maryland that seek to concentrate these two procedures among a small number of providers could not be justified on the grounds that higher volume would increase the quality of care. PMID:18702083
In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) is common and is associated with poor prognosis. Data on the effect of smoking on outcomes after IHCA are limited. We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases from 2003 to 2011 for all patients aged ?18 years who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for IHCA to examine the differences in survival to hospital discharge and neurologic status between smokers and nonsmokers. Of the 838,464 patients with CPR for IHCA, 116,569 patients (13.9%) were smokers. Smokers were more likely to be younger, Caucasian, and male. They had a greater prevalence of dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, obesity, and peripheral vascular disease. Atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus with complications were less prevalent in smokers. Smokers were more likely to have a primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (14.8% vs 9.1%, p <0.001) and ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation as the initial cardiac arrest rhythm (24.3% vs 20.5%, p <0.001). Smokers had a higher rate of survival to hospital discharge compared with nonsmokers (28.2% vs 24.1%, adjusted odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.08, p <0.001). Smokers were less likely to have a poor neurologic status after IHCA compared with nonsmokers (3.5% vs 3.9%, adjusted odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.95, p <0.001). In conclusion, among patients aged ?18 years who underwent CPR for IHCA, we observed a higher rate of survival in smokers than nonsmokers-consistent with the "smoker's paradox." Smokers were also less likely to have a poor neurologic status after IHCA. PMID:24878124
Gupta, Tanush; Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Aronow, Wilbert S; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Mujib, Marjan; Jain, Diwakar; Sule, Sachin; Ahmed, Ali; Iwai, Sei; Eugenio, Paul; Lessner, Seth; Frishman, William H; Panza, Julio A; Fonarow, Gregg C
Full Text Available To identify and measure the frequency of medication errors, to understand the causes for errors and best strategies to decrease medication errors rate in a cardiac hospital New Delhi. The Retrospective study of 137 case files, was undertaken to find out the medication errors in new drugs to be included in hospital formulary and to study policy compliances,for the period of a month, February 2010.We studied 137 patient files and Medication error related were reported most often at the stages of prescription- 32 cases(23.35%, 12 administration errors(8.75%, 9 documentation errors(6.56%, 7 transcription errors (5.1%. This study has demonstrated a whole range of different types of errors in different phases of medication use and documentation process. We have seen that handwritten prescriptions are associated with large number of errors. A combined effort is required by the physicians, managerial staff, nursing staff and educational interventions to improve patient safety in hospital.KEY WORDS:
Abstract Objectives In the early minutes of cardiac arrest, timing of defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation during the basic life support phase (BLS CPR) is debated. Aims of this study were to provide in-hospital incidence and outcome data, and to investigate the relation between outcome and time from collapse to defibrillation, time to BLS CPR, and CPR quality. Methods Resuscitation attempts during a 3-year period at St. Olav's University Hospital (9...
Skogvoll Eirik; Nordseth Trond
The delegation of low-risk breast cancer patients' follow-up to non-hospital practitionners (NHP), including gynaecologists and general practitioners, has been assessed prospectively within a care network in the Paris region. Patients with early stage breast cancer were eligible. The follow-up protocol was built according to international guidelines. By 2012, 289 NHPs were following 2266 patients treated in 11 centres. Median follow-up time was 7.4 years. The mean intervals between two consecutive consultations were 9.5 [9.2-9.8] months for women supposed to be monitored every 6 months and 12.5 [12.2-12.8] for those requiring annual monitoring. The relapse rate was 3.2% [2.1-4.3] at 5 years and 7.8% [5.9-9.7] at 10 years. Seventy one percent of relapses were diagnosed on a scheduled assessment. Only 6% were lost-to-follow-up. Delegating follow-up after low risk breast cancer to NHPs in a care network is feasible, well accepted and provides an alternative to follow-up in specialized centres. PMID:24656635
Houzard, Sophie; Dubot, Coraline; Fridmann, Sylvie; Dagousset, Isabelle; Rousset-Jablonski, Christine; Callet, Nasrine; Nos, Claude; Villet, Richard; Thoury, Anne; Delaloge, Suzette; Breuil Crockett, Flora; Fourquet, Alain
To enhance ambulation and facilitate hospital discharge of total artificial heart (TAH)-supported patients, we adapted a mobile ventricular assistance device (VAD) driver (Excor) for TAH use and report on the performance of Excor-driven TAH patients discharged home. Ten patients stabilized on a TAH, driven by the CSS ("Circulatory Support System"), were progressively switched over to the Excor in hospital over 14 days as a pilot, with daily hemodynamics and laboratory parameters measured. Twenty-two stable TAH patients were subsequently placed on the Excor, trained, and discharged home. Clinical and hemodynamic parameters were followed. All pilot study patients were clinically stable on the Excor, with no decrease in TAH output noted (6.3 + 0.3 L/min [day 1] vs. 5.8 + 0.2 L/min [day 14], p = 0.174), with a trend suggesting improvement of both hepatic and renal function. Twenty-two TAH patients were subsequently successfully discharged home on the portable driver and were supported out of hospital for up to 598 days (range, 2-598; mean = 179 ± 140 days), remaining ambulatory, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I or II, and free of readmission for 88.5% of the time of support. TAH patients may be effectively and safely supported by a mobile drive system. As such, the utility of the TAH may be extended to support patients beyond the hospital, at home, with overall ambulatory freedom. PMID:24577369
El Banayosy, Aly; Kizner, Lukacz; Arusoglu, Latif; Morshuis, Michael; Brehm, Christof; Koerfer, Reiner; Schuermann, Christoph; Smith, Richard G; Copeland, Jack G; Slepian, Marvin J
To enhance ambulation and facilitate hospital discharge of total artificial heart (TAH)supported patients, we adapted a mobile ventricular assistance device (VAD) driver (Excor) for TAH use and report on the performance of Excor-driven TAH patients discharged home. Ten patients stabilized on a TAH, driven by the CSS (Circulatory Support System), were progressively switched over to the Excor in hospital over 14 days as a pilot, with daily hemodynamics and laboratory parameters measured. Twenty-two stable TAH patients were subsequently placed on the Excor, trained, and discharged home. Clinical and hemodynamic parameters were followed. All pilot study patients were clinically stable on the Excor, with no decrease in TAH output noted (6.3 + 0.3 L/min [day 1] vs. 5.8 + 0.2 L/min [day 14], p = 0.174), with a trend suggesting improvement of both hepatic and renal function. Twenty-two TAH patients were subsequently successfully discharged home on the portable driver and were supported out of hospital for up to 598 days (range, 2598; mean = 179 ± 140 days), remaining ambulatory, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I or II, and free of readmission for 88.5% of the time of support. TAH patients may be effectively and safely supported by a mobile drive system. As such, the utility of the TAH may be extended to support patients beyond the hospital, at home, with overall ambulatory freedom.
To examine the role of anesthetists in the management of cardiac arrest occurring in association with cardiac anesthesia. In this retrospective study we studied the potential performances for each of the relevant incidents among 712 patients undergoing cardiac operations at Golestan and Naft Hospitals Ahwaz between November 2006 and July 2008. Out of total 712 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, cardiac arrest occurred in 28 cases (3.9%) due to different postoperative complications. This included massive bleeding (50% of cardiac arrest cases, 1.9% of patients); pulseless supra ventricular tachycardia (28.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 1.1% of patients); Heart Failure (7% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.2% of patients); Aorta Arc Rapture (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients); Tamponade due to pericardial effusion (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of total patients); Right Atrium Rupture (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients) were detected after cardiac surgery. Out of 28 cases 7 deaths occurred (25% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients). The most prevalent reason for cardiac arrest during post operative phase was massive bleeding (50%) followed by pulseless supra ventricular tachycardia (28.5%). Six patients had some morbidity and the remaining 15 patients recovered. There are often multiple contributing factors to a cardiac arrest under cardiac anesthesia, as much a complete systematic assessment of the patient, equipment, and drugs should be completed. We also found that the diagnosis and management of cardiac arrest in association with cardiac anesthesia differs considerably from that encountered elsewhere. (author)
The most common cardiac injuries in the United States are blunt trauma from motor vehicle accidents or low-velocity trauma from stabbings. During military conflict, high-velocity injuries, including gunshot wounds (GSW) and fragment injury from improvised explosive devices (IED), are relatively more common. This is a retrospective review of cases with high-velocity penetrating injury and suspected myocardial involvement during a 6-month period in Baghdad, Iraq, at a United States Army hospital during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Eleven cases survived to admission (GSW in 5, IED in 6). The mean age of the all-male cohort was 27 years (range, 3-54 years). Eight of the 11 patients (73%) were victims of polytrauma. The entrance involved the right ventricle (n=3), right atrium (n=2), left ventricle (n=1), or mediastinum and pericardial reflections (n=5). Echocardiography was performed in all 11 patients. In 7 patients, no foreign body was identifiable, and in 2 patients the foreign body was identified within the pericardial fat pad. Three patients were identified as having a suspected ventricular septal defect, ranging in size from 2 to 8 mm. The most common electrocardiographic abnormality was atrioventricular block and right bundle branch block. In 4 patients, the management of the chest injury was nonsurgical, and in 1 patient the treatment was a chest tube only. Four of the patients underwent median sternotomy, 1 underwent emergent lateral thoracotomy, and 1 underwent an infradiaphragmatic approach. This case series is too small to draw definitive conclusions; however, a multidisciplinary approach to high-velocity injuries with potential for cardiac involvement augments preoperative assessment for myocardial injury and may allow selective nonoperative management. (author)
The aim of this study was to determine the number of D-type personality patients in the group with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) and the influence of comprehensive in-hospital cardiac rehabilitation (iCR) on their psychological status (PS). The study included 316 consecutive patients aged 18 to 65 with MI in the last six months admitted into the programme of iCR. Surgical revascularized patients, clinically unstable patients and patients with sever chronic diseases and disorders were excluded. At the beginning and in the end of iCR diagnostic exam, hematological/biochemical blood analysis, ergometric testing was conducted. At the beginning and four weeks after the finish of the iCR estimation of PS was conducted. Distress scale 14 (DS14) questioner was used for that purpose. In the period of three weeks, patients were included in the programme of comprehensive iCR. Out of 316 patients in the study group 83.2% were male, while 16.8% were female. Average age of the patient was 51.3 +/- 7.2. When being admitted to iCR 42.7% patients had characteristics of D-type personality. Those patients had substantially lower level of body mass and body mass index. In the same time there were no differences among groups in risk factors, values of clinical, laboratory and diagnostic parameters. During iCR study group had more complications in comparison to the control group. At the end of iCR substantial rise of functional capacity of patients, improvement of lipid profile and lowering of glycaemia was recorded. Also at the end of iCR antiarrhythmics and psychopharmaceutical medicaments were more often prescribed to the patients in the study group. Four weeks after the iCR share of D-type personality patients was 41% and 71% of study group patients kept their D-type structure. PMID:22053559
Istvanovi?, Neven; Smalcelj, Anton; Filakovi?, Pavao; Cerovec, Dusko; Plecko, Damir
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of data on the out-of-hospital burden of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI in developed countries. Administrative datasets from emergency departments (ED may assist in addressing this. Methods We undertook a retrospective population-based study of ED presentations for respiratory-related reasons linked to birth data from 245,249 singleton live births in Western Australia. ED presentation rates Results ED data from metropolitan WA, representing 178,810 births were available for analysis. From 35,136 presentations, 18,582 (52.9% had an International Classification of Diseases (ICD code for ALRI and 434 had a symptom code directly relating to an ALRI ICD code. A further 9600 presentations had a non-specific diagnosis. From the combined 19,016 ALRI presentations, the highest rates were in non-Aboriginal children aged 611 months (81.1/1000 child-years and Aboriginal children aged 15 months (314.8/1000. Croup and bronchiolitis accounted for the majority of ALRI ED presentations. Of Aboriginal births, 14.2% presented at least once to ED before age 5 years compared to 6.5% of non-Aboriginal births. Male sex and maternal age Conclusions ED data can give an insight into the out-of-hospital burden of ALRI. Presentation rates to ED for ALRI were high, but are minimum estimates due to current limitations of the ED datasets. Recommendations for improvement of these data are provided. Despite these limitations, ALRI, in particular bronchiolitis and croup are important causes of presentation to paediatric EDs.
Moore Hannah C
While multi-detector cardiac computed tomography angiography (MDCCTA) prior to reoperative cardiac surgery (RCS) has been associated with improved clinical outcomes, its impact on hospital charges and length of stay remains unclear. We studied 364 patients undergoing RCS at Washington Hospital Center between 2004 and 2008, including 137 clinically referred for MDCCTA. Baseline demographics, procedural data, and perioperative outcomes were recorded at the time of the procedure. The primary clinical endpoint was the composite of perioperative death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and hemorrhage-related reoperation. Secondary clinical endpoints included surgical procedural variables and the perioperative volume of bleeding and transfusion. Length of stay was determined using the hospital's electronic medical record. Cost data were extracted from the hospital's billing summary. Analysis was performed on individual categories of care, as well as on total hospital charges. Data were compared between subjects with and without MDCCTA, after adjustment for the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. MDCCTA was associated with shorter procedural times, shorter intensive care unit stays, fewer blood transfusions, and less frequent perioperative MI. There was additionally a trend towards a lower incidence of the primary endpoint (17.5 vs. 24.2 %, p = 0.13) primarily due to a lower incidence of perioperative MI (0 vs. 5.7 %, p = 0.002). MDCCTA was also associated with lower median recovery room [$1,325 (1,250-3,302) vs. $3,217 (1,325-5,353) p < 0.001] and nursing charges [$6,335 (3,623-10,478) vs. $6,916 (3,915-14,499) p = 0.03], although operating room charges were higher [$24,100 (22,300-29,700) vs. $23,500 (19,900-27,700) p < 0.05]. Median total charges [$127,000 (95,000-188,000) vs. $123,000 (86,800-226,000) p = 0.77] and length of stay [9 days (6-19) vs. 11 days (7-19), p = 0.21] were similar. Means analysis demonstrated a strong trend towards lower mean total hospital charges [$163,000 (108,426) vs. $192,000 (181,706), p = 0.06] in the MDCCTA group. In conclusion, preoperative MDCCTA is associated with a number of improved perioperative outcomes and does not significantly effect the length of stay or total hospital charges during the index hospitalization. PMID:23065095
Goldstein, Matthew A; Roy, Sion K; Hebsur, Shinivas; Maluenda, Gabriel; Weissman, Gaby; Weigold, Guy; Landsman, Marc J; Hill, Peter C; Pita, Francisco; Corso, Paul J; Boyce, Steven W; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron; Taylor, Allen J
To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP) among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit, and to evaluate the impact of misdiagnosing HF.
Mard, Shan; Nielsen, Finn Erland
Time to first defibrillation is widely accepted to correlate closely with survival and recovery of neurological function after cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia. Focused training of a cadre of nurses to defibrillate on their own initiative may significantly decrease time to first defibrillation in cases of in-hospital cardiac arrest outside of critical care units. Such a program may be the best single strategy to improve in-hospital survival, simply and...
Abstract Time to first defibrillation is widely accepted to correlate closely with survival and recovery of neurological function after cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia. Focused training of a cadre of nurses to defibrillate on their own initiative may significantly decrease time to first defibrillation in cases of in-hospital cardiac arrest outside of critical care units. Such a program may be the best single strategy to improve in-hospital s...
One-Year Outcomes of Out-of-Hospital Administration of Intravenous Glucose, Insulin, and Potassium (GIK) in Patients With Suspected Acute Coronary Syndromes (from the IMMEDIATE [Immediate Myocardial Metabolic Enhancement During Initial Assessment and Treatment in Emergency Care] Trial).
The Immediate Myocardial Metabolic Enhancement During Initial Assessment and Treatment in Emergency care Trial of very early intravenous glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in out-of-hospital emergency medical service (EMS) settings showed 80% reduction in infarct size at 30 days, suggesting potential longer-term benefits. Here we report 1-year outcomes. Prespecified 1-year end points of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, effectiveness trial included all-cause mortality and composites including cardiac arrest, mortality, or hospitalization for heart failure (HF). Of 871 participants randomized to GIK versus placebo, death occurred within 1 year in 11.6% versus 13.5%, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57 to 1.23, p = 0.36). The composite of cardiac arrest or 1-year mortality was 12.8% versus 17.0% (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.02, p = 0.06). The composite of hospitalization for HF or mortality within 1 year was 17.2% versus 17.2% (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.37, p = 0.92). The composite of mortality, cardiac arrest, or HF hospitalization within 1 year was 18.1% versus 20.4% (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.16, p = 0.30). In patients presenting with suspected ST elevation myocardial infarction, HRs for 1-year mortality and the 3 composites were, respectively, 0.65 (95% CI 0.33 to 1.27, p = 0.21), 0.52 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.92, p = 0.03), 0.63 (95% CI 0.35 to 1.16, p = 0.14), and 0.51 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.87, p = 0.01). In patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, serious end points generally were lower with GIK than placebo, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, in those with ST elevation myocardial infarction, the composites of cardiac arrest or 1-year mortality, and of cardiac arrest, mortality, or HF hospitalization within 1 year, were significantly reduced. PMID:24792735
Selker, Harry P; Udelson, James E; Massaro, Joseph M; Ruthazer, Robin; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Griffith, John L; Sheehan, Patricia R; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Rosenberg, Yves; Tian, Xin; Vickery, Ellen M; Atkins, James M; Aufderheide, Tom P; Sayah, Assaad J; Pirrallo, Ronald G; Levy, Michael K; Richards, Michael E; Braude, Darren A; Doyle, Delanor D; Frascone, Ralph J; Kosiak, Donald J; Leaming, James M; Van Gelder, Carin M; Walter, Gert-Paul; Wayne, Marvin A; Woolard, Robert H; Beshansky, Joni R
Full Text Available Out of the 5933 samples collected a total of 51 isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected consecutively between 26-December-2010 to 28-February-2011 from different patients. The total of 51 positive isolates consists both of pediatric as well as adult patients. The study was therefore carried out using bothmanual (Kirby-Bauer method as well as automated (Vitek2 system method to determine the Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from in-patients and out-patients attending the microbiology section of the hospitals. The isolation rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be 8.5% out of the total positive samples which were analyzed. In my study, notable sensitivity (100% to P.aeruginosa was observed against Aztreonam while it was found to be different in case of a study carried out in India earlier which observed Carbepenems with 19.40% resistance. In the study colistin showed the highest (100% sensitivity followed by Amikacin against P. aeruginosa , which is in corroboration with an earlier report published from India. Amikacin seems to be a promising therapy for Pseudomonal infection. Hence, its use should be restricted to severe nosocomial infections, in order to avoid rapid emergence of resistant strains. The sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa towards Imipenem is found to be 35.294% and towards Meropenem is 41.176%, which is different in case of the earlier study from India. An effective national and state level antibiotic policy and draft guidelines should be introduced to preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics and for better patient management.
Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a transcription factor involved in differentiation and proliferation in multiple tissues. We demonstrated previously that tamoxifen-induced deletion of the Klf4 gene in mice accelerated neointimal formation but delayed down-regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation markers in carotid arteries following injury. To further determine the role of Klf4 in the cardiovascular system, we herein derived mice deficient for the Klf4 gene in smooth and cardiac muscle using the SM22? promoter (SM22?-CreKI+/Klf4loxP/loxP mice). SM22?-CreKI+/Klf4loxP/loxP mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratio, but they gradually died after birth. Although ?40% of SM22?-CreKI+/Klf4loxP/loxP mice survived beyond postnatal day 28, they exhibited marked growth retardation. In wild-type mice, Klf4 was expressed in the heart from late embryonic development through adulthood, whereas it was not expressed in smooth muscle. No changes were observed in morphology or expression of smooth muscle cell differentiation markers in vessels of SM22?-CreKI+/Klf4loxP/loxP mice. Of interest, cardiac output was significantly decreased in SM22?-CreKI+/Klf4loxP/loxP mice, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Moreover, a lack of Klf4 in the heart resulted in the reduction in expression of multiple cardiac genes, including Gata4. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays on the heart revealed that Klf4 bound to the promoter region of the Gata4 gene. Results provide novel evidence that Klf4 plays a key role in late fetal and/or postnatal cardiac development.
Yoshida, Tadashi; Gan, Qiong; Franke, Aaron S.; Ho, Ruoya; Zhang, Jifeng; Chen, Y. Eugene; Hayashi, Matsuhiko; Majesky, Mark W.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Owens, Gary K.
Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a transcription factor involved in differentiation and proliferation in multiple tissues. We demonstrated previously that tamoxifen-induced deletion of the Klf4 gene in mice accelerated neointimal formation but delayed down-regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation markers in carotid arteries following injury. To further determine the role of Klf4 in the cardiovascular system, we herein derived mice deficient for the Klf4 gene in smooth and cardiac musc...
Yoshida, Tadashi; Gan, Qiong; Franke, Aaron S.; Ho, Ruoya; Zhang, Jifeng; Chen, Y. Eugene; Hayashi, Matsuhiko; Majesky, Mark W.; Somlyo, Avril V.; Owens, Gary K.
Full Text Available Cardiac tumors are a rare entity, comprised of tumors with diverse histology and natural history. We report the clinical characteristics, echocardiograhic findings, therapy and outcome of 59 patients with primary and metastatic cardiac tumors. Our institutional echocardiogram data base from 1993 through 2005 was reviewed to identify patients diagnosed with intra-cardiac tumor. A total of 59 patients with cardiac tumors were identified and included in the study. The patients characteristics, presenting symptoms, diagnostic tests, location, histology of the tumor, treatment and one year survival rate of this population was collected from the medical records. Of the 59 cardiac tumor cases, 16 (27% were primary cardiac tumors and 43 (73% were secondary cardiac tumors. The most common primary tumor was sarcoma affecting 13 (81% of the 16 cases. Of these, 5 patients were angiosarcoma, 5 unclassified sarcoma, one myxoid sarcoma and 2 maignant fibrous histiocytoma. The mean age at presentation was 41.1 years, and the most common location was right atrium affecting 6 cases (37.5%. The most common symptom of dyspnea was present in 10 (62.5% cases. Eleven (25.6% of the 43 secondary cardiac tumors were metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. The mean age at presentation was 55.4 years. Right atrium was the most frequent location affecting 18 (42% of the 43 patients. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea in 15 (35% cases. For both primary and secondary tumors, dyspnea was the most common symptom and right atrium was most frequently involved. Sarcoma was the most common primary cardiac tumor while metastasis from renal cell carcinoma was the most common secondary tumor.
Full Text Available Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term "post-cardiac arrest syndrome" has been proposed, along with treatment goals for each of its four phases: immediate post-arrest, early post-arrest, intermediate and recovery phase. Hypothermia is recommended to be considered as a therapy for post-CA syndrome in comatose patients after CA, and large multicenter prospective studies are underway. We reviewed landmark articles related to pediatric CA published during the last decade. We present the current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CA relevant to pre-hospital and acute care health practitioners.
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is known to be an important risk factor for cardiac operations performed with cardiopulmonary bypass. We investigated the influence of preoperative status on perioperative mortality and morbidity. We retrospectively analyzed data from 26 patients with ESRD, who were on maintenance dialysis and underwent a cardiac surgical procedure bet-ween 2000 and 2007. Of them, 61.5% of the patients had isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and 38.5% h...
Gharsallah Hedi; Trabelsi Walid; Hajjej Zied; Nasri Mourad; Lebbi Anis; Jebali Mohamed; Ferjani Mustapha
Full Text Available The survival outcome following pediatric cardiac arrest still remains poor. Survival to hospital discharge ranges anywhere from 0 to 38% when considering both out-of-hospital and in-hospital arrests, with up to 50% of the survivors having neurologic injury. The use of mild induced hypothermia has not been definitively proven to improve outcomes following pediatric cardiac arrest. This may be due to the lack of consensus regarding target temperature, best method of cooling, optimal duration of cooling and identifying the patient population who will receive the greatest benefit. We review the current applications of induced hypothermia in pediatric patients following cardiac arrest after searching the current literature through Pubmed and Ovid journal databases. We put forth compiled recommendations/guidelines for initiating hypothermia therapy, its maintenance, associated monitoring and suggested adjunctive therapies to produce favorable neurologic and survival outcomes.
Full Text Available Heart failure is a result of many cardiac diseases and the reason for about 20 percent of hospital admissions of elderly patients aged over 65.The objective of the study was establish influence of diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and smoking to hospitalization of patients with heart failure. We performed a retrospective observational study of patients with CHF admitted to Cardiology Department of the Cantonal Hospital Zenica between April 2005 and April 2001. Age, sex and risk factors for diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and smoking were evaluated. A total of 754 patients were treated , 78 (9% of them having been with CHF: 35(44,87% men and 43 (55,12% women, without significant sex differences. Diabetes was presented at 32 (41% patients with CHF, 7(9% men and 25 (32 % women (p>0,05. 32(41% of patients with CHF suffered from diabetes mellitus,7 (9% men and 25 (32% women, 48(61% were smokers, and 42 (54% patients had high blood pressure. Diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and smoking were significant factors for hospitalization of patients with CHF in this study whereas diabetes mellitus was a significant risk factor for female patinets. These data correspond to the data from the world references and once again they outline significance of treating risk factors for arteriosclerosis and hear failure.
Participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is poor although CR reduces morbidity and mortality. One way in which attendance may potentially be improved is by involving municipal health-care centres (MHCC) and the patient's general practitioner (GP) to a larger degree in a model of shared care cardiac rehabilitation (SC-CR). Our study tests the feasibility of SC-CR and compares the attendance and effects of SC-CR with the individually tailored hospital-based CR (H-CR) programme.
Bertelsen, Jannik Buus; Refsgaard, Jens
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar os principais fatores que influenciaram o participante do nosso programa de reabilitação cardiovascular a faltar em suas terapias e correlacioná-los a idade, risco cardiovascular e motivação de nossa população. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo transversal com 42 pac [...] ientes (69,15±13,93 anos) participantes do programa de reabilitação cardíaca de um hospital geral particular de São Paulo, por meio da análise de duas escalas: a Escala de Barreiras para Reabilitação Cardíaca e a Escala de Disposição. Utilizou-se a correlação de Spearman para relacioná-las com absenteísmo, risco cardiovascular, idade e tempo de reabilitação cardíaca. RESULTADOS: A pontuação total da escala de barreiras foi 31±6 e o escore médio foi de 1,47±0,31. As principais barreiras foram relacionadas às subescalas "viagem/conflito de trabalho" e "problemas pessoais/familiares". A porcentagem de absenteísmo foi 8,4% do número de sessões possíveis de serem realizadas no mês. As faltas e os cancelamentos apresentaram correlação positiva com o risco cardiovascular (p=0,01; r=0,4) e correlações negativas com Escala de Disposição inicial (p=0,03; r=-0,35) e idade (p=0,02; r=-0,35). CONCLUSÃO: "Viagem/conflito de trabalho", "problemas pessoais/familiares" e baixa disposição inicial foram os principais fatores de absenteísmo em um programa de reabilitação cardíaca de um hospital geral particular de São Paulo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Identify the primary factors that influenced the participant in our cardiovascular rehabilitation program towards missing their therapy sessions, and to correlate those factors with age, cardiovascular risk, and motivation of our population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study wit [...] h 42 patients (69.15±13.93 years) participating in the cardiac rehabilitation program at a general hospital in São Paulo, through the analysis of two scales applied during the initial evaluation: Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale and scale of the original provision. We used Spearman correlation to relate them to absenteeism, cardiovascular risk age and duration of cardiac rehabilitation. RESULTS: The total score of barriers was 31±6 and the mean score of 1.47±0.31. The main barriers subscales were related to "travel/labor dispute" and "personal problems/family." The percentage of absenteeism was 8.4% in the number of sessions that could be made in the month. The faults and cancellations were positively correlated with cardiovascular risk (p=0.01; r=0.4) and negatively with scale provision of baseline (p=0.03; r=-0.35) and age (p=0.02; r=-0.35). CONCLUSION: "Travel/labor dispute", "personal/ family problems", and low initial provision are the main factors absenteism in a cardiac rehabilitation program in a general hospital in São Paulo.
Vanessa, Mair; Ana Paula, Breda; Marcos Eduardo Boquembuzo, Nunes; Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot de, Matos.
Full Text Available Abstract Time to first defibrillation is widely accepted to correlate closely with survival and recovery of neurological function after cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia. Focused training of a cadre of nurses to defibrillate on their own initiative may significantly decrease time to first defibrillation in cases of in-hospital cardiac arrest outside of critical care units. Such a program may be the best single strategy to improve in-hospital survival, simply and at reasonable cost.
Stewart John A
Home-based versus hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction or revascularisation: design and rationale of the Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation Study (BRUM): a randomised controlled trial
Background: Cardiac rehabilitation following myocardial infarction reduces subsequent mortality, but uptake and adherence to rehabilitation programmes remains poor, particularly among women, the elderly and ethnic minority groups. Evidence of the effectiveness of home-based cardiac rehabilitation remains limited. This trial evaluates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of homebased compared to hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation.
Jolly, K.; Lip, G. Y. H.; Sandercock, J.; Raferty, J. P.; Mant, J. W. F.
Home-based versus hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction or revascularisation: design and rationale of the Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation Study (BRUM): a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN72884263
Abstract Background Cardiac rehabilitation following myocardial infarction reduces subsequent mortality, but uptake and adherence to rehabilitation programmes remains poor, particularly among women, the elderly and ethnic minority groups. Evidence of the effectiveness of home-based cardiac rehabilitation remains limited. This trial evaluates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of home-based compared to hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation. Methods/design A...
Jolly Kate; Yh, Lip Gregory; Sandercock Josie; Greenfield Sheila M; Raftery James P; Mant Jonathan; Taylor Rod; Lane Deirdre; Lee Kaeng; Aj, Stevens
Uso do desfibrilador automático externo no ambiente pré-hospitalar peruano: melhorando a resposta a emergências na América Latina / Use of automated external defibrillator in Peruvian out-of-hospital environment: improving emergency response in Latin America / Uso de desfibrilador automático externo en ambiente prehospitalario peruano: mejorando la respuesta a emergencias en Latinoamérica
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este relato de caso reporta o atendimento pré-hospitalar de um paciente com fatores de risco atendido pelo serviço pré-hospitalar ao ser acometido por uma parada cardíaca e apresentar fibrilação ventricular. O paciente foi atendido seguindo os padrões de suporte básico de vida e suporte cardiovascul [...] ar avançado. Um desfibrilador automático externo (DAE) foi aplicado com resultados favoráveis e o paciente se recuperou do quadro de perigo de vida com sucesso. Este é o primeiro relato documentado com resultados favoráveis no Peru, na área de atendimento pré-hospitalar e enfatiza a necessidade de serem adotadas políticas de acesso público à desfibrilação precoce. Abstract in spanish El presente reporte de caso, relata la atencion prehospitalaria de un paciente con factores de riesgo atendido en el area prehospitalaria al sufrir arresto cardiaco y presentar fibrilacion ventricular. El paciente fue atendido bajo estandares de Soporte Basico Vital y Soporte Cardiovascular Avanzado [...] Vital, se aplico un Desfibrilador Automatizado Externo (DEA) con resultado favorable y exito al recuperar al paciente de su condicion de compromiso de vida. Este es el primer reporte documentado con resultado favorable en el pais, en el area prehospitalaria y refuerza la conveniencia de adoptar politicas de Acceso Publico a la Desfibrilacion Temprana. Abstract in english This case report relates out-of-hospital care to a patient with risk factors treated in the out-of-hospital services after cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation. The patient was treated according to the standards of basic life support and advanced cardiovascular life support; by applying an au [...] tomated external defibrillator (AED) with favorable outcome and successful recovery of the patient from his risk of life condition. This is the first documented report with a favorable outcome in Peru, in out-of-hospital services and stresses the desirability of adopting policies for public access to early defibrillation.
Lister, Pablo; Mola, Christian Loret de; Arroyo, Elena; Solórzano, José; Escalante-Kanashiro, Raffo; Matos-Iberico, Giuliana.
Full Text Available Han-Yang Chen,1 Jane S Saczynski,13 David D McManus,1,4 Darleen Lessard,1 Jorge Yarzebski,1 Kate L Lapane,1 Joel M Gore,4 Robert J Goldberg1,3 1Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, 3Meyers Primary Care Institute, 4Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Objectives: The objectives of our large observational study were to describe the prevalence of cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities in a community-based population of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI at all medical centers in central Massachusetts, and to examine whether multiple comorbidities were associated with in-hospital death rates and hospital length of stay. Methods: The study sample consisted of 2,972 patients hospitalized with AMI at all eleven greater Worcester medical centers in central Massachusetts during the three study years of 2003, 2005, and 2007. Results: The average age of this hospitalized population was 71 years, 55% were men, 93% were Caucasian, and approximately one third had developed an ST segment elevation AMI during the years under study. Hypertension (75% was the most common cardiac condition identified in patients hospitalized with AMI whereas renal disease (22% was the most common noncardiac comorbidity diagnosed in this study population. Approximately one in every four hospitalized patients had any four or more of the seven cardiac conditions examined, while one in 13 had any three or more of the five noncardiac conditions studied. Patients with four or more cardiac comorbidities were more than twice as likely to have died during hospitalization and have a prolonged hospital length of stay, compared to those without any cardiac comorbidities. Patients with three or more noncardiac comorbidities had markedly increased odds of dying during hospitalization and having a prolonged hospital stay compared to those with no noncardiac comorbidities previously diagnosed. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the need for additional contemporary data to improve the short-term outcomes of patients hospitalized with AMI and multiple concurrent medical illnesses. Keywords: population-based study, chronic conditions, acute coronary syndrome
Objective: We investigated the association between unipolar depression and incident hospital admissions due to ischemic heart disease, invasive cardiac procedures and mortality independent of other medical illnesses.Methods: A population-based cohort of 4.6 million persons aged 15 years or older and born in Denmark was followed up from 1995-2009. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) and mortality rate ratio (MRR) were estimated by survival analysis, stratified by or adjusted for gender, age, severe chronic somatic comorbidity and calendar time.Results: Adjusted risks of cardiac hospital admissions and death were significantly increased by up to 15% and 68%, respectively, in persons with hospital admissions due to depression, and were most increased in 15-59 year old women (IRR: 1.64; MRR: 2.57) and men with depression (IRR: 1.39; MRR: 2.21), and during the first 180 days after being diagnosed with depression (women: IRR: 1.38; MRR: 2.35; men: IRR: 1.42; MRR: 2.67). One-year mortality after new ischemic heart disease was elevated by 34% in women and men. By contrast, overall rates of invasive cardiac procedures following cardiac hospitalizations were significantly decreased by 34% in persons with depression but were twofold increased in men recently diagnosed with depression.Conclusion: Clinical depression leading to hospitalization was a risk factor for new cardiac complications independent of somatic comorbidity in the magnitude of other cardiac risk factors, particularly in individuals between 15-59 years of age and during the first weeks following psychiatric admission. Our findings support recent cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines on assessing depression among other psychosocial factors in patients at increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
Gasse, Christiane; Laursen, Thomas M
The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken scale analysis and factor analysis and (b) the scale properties of the HADS. Mokken scale analysis and factor analysis suggested that three dimensions adequately capture the structure of the HADS. Of the three corresponding scales, two scales of five items each were found to be structurally sound and reliable. These scales covered the two key attributes of anxiety and (anhedonic) depression. The findings suggest that the HADS may be reduced to a 10-item questionnaire comprising two 5-item scales measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms.
Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas
Abstract Background Medication non adherence is a global epidemic perplexing phenomenon that is eminent, but not insurmountable. Our first objective was to explore whether providing pharmacist's counseling to cardiac patients prior to discharge can increase patient's medication adherence, and our second objective was to assess whether better medication adherence leads to reduction of hospital readmissions. Methods Observational study was conducted among diagnose...
Cardiac tamponade (TMP) is a life-threatening complication of acute type A aortic dissection (AAD). The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of TMP in the setting of AAD on the basis of the findings in the large cohort of the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD). Six hundred seventy-four patients (mean age 61.8 +/- 14.2 years) with AAD in IRAD were studied. TMP was suspected on clinical grounds and confirmed by diagnostic imaging. Univariate testing was followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine the association of TMP. TMP was detected in 126 patients with AAD (18.7%). Age did not differ between patients with and without TMP. Those with TMP less often had previous cardiac surgery (7.0% vs 17.1%, p = 0.007). Syncope (37.8% vs 13.7%, p <0.0001) and altered mental status (31.2% vs 10.6%, p <0.0001) were more common in patients with AAD with TMP than without TMP. Patients with TMP were more likely to have widened mediastina on chest x-ray (72.6% vs 60.3%, p = 0.02) and to have periaortic hematomas (44.7% vs 21.2%, p <0.0001). In-hospital outcomes were significantly worse in patients with TMP. The mortality of patients with TMP remained significantly higher, even after adjustment for baseline clinical characteristics (p <0.001). On logistic regression, altered mental status, hypotension, and early mortality were identified as independent correlates of TMP. In conclusion, TMP is not uncommon in patients with AAD. Syncope, altered mental status, and a widened mediastinum on chest x-ray on presentation suggest TMP, the presence of which warrants urgent operative therapy to improve outcome. PMID:19327436
Gilon, Dan; Mehta, Rajendra H; Oh, Jae K; Januzzi, James L; Bossone, Eduardo; Cooper, Jeanna V; Smith, Dean E; Fang, Jianming; Nienaber, Christoph A; Eagle, Kim A; Isselbacher, Eric M
More than 150 hospitals have signed on to the Partnership for a Healthier America's push to ditch the deep-fat fryer in their cafeterias and bulk up on fruit and veggies. "Our focus is to ensure that if people want to make a healthy choice, they can," says Larry Soler, left, president and CEO of the partnership, which is working to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:23163198
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives In the early minutes of cardiac arrest, timing of defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation during the basic life support phase (BLS CPR is debated. Aims of this study were to provide in-hospital incidence and outcome data, and to investigate the relation between outcome and time from collapse to defibrillation, time to BLS CPR, and CPR quality. Methods Resuscitation attempts during a 3-year period at St. Olav's University Hospital (960 beds were prospectively registered. The times between collapse and initiation of BLS CPR, and defibrillation were determined. CPR quality was assessed by the resuscitation team. The relation between these variables and outcome (short term survival and discharge was explored using non-parametric correlation and logistic regression. Results CPR was started in a total of 223 arrests, an incidence of 77 episodes per 1000 beds per year. Return of spontaneous circulation occurred in 40%, and 29 patients (13% survived to discharge. Median time from collapse to BLS CPR was 1 minute; CPR was judged to be of good quality in half of the episodes. CPR during the first 3 minutes in ventricular fibrillation (VF/VT was negatively associated with survival, but later proved beneficial. For patients with non-shockable rhythms, we found no association between outcome and time to BLS or CPR quality. Conclusion Our findings indicate that defibrillation should have priority during the first 3 minutes of VF/VT. Later, patients benefit from CPR in conjunction with defibrillation. Patients presenting with non-shockable rhythms have a grave prognosis, and the outcome was not associated with time to BLS or CPR quality.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de complicações pulmonares em crianças submetidas à cirurgia cardíaca, assim como características demográficas e clínicas da população estudada. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 37 crianças, de ambos os sexos, submetidas à cirurgia cardíaca no Hospital Universi [...] tário Presidente Dutra, São Luís (MA), durante o ano de 2007. Não foram incluídos pacientes que apresentaram doença pulmonar pré-cirúrgica, portadores de distúrbios neurológicos, óbito intra-operatório, além de falta de dados no prontuário. Os dados foram obtidos pela coleta nas evoluções médicas e de enfermagem dos respectivos prontuários. RESULTADOS: Quanto às características populacionais, houve predomínio de crianças do sexo feminino, provenientes do interior do estado e na faixa etária escolar. Patologias consideradas de baixo risco foram a maioria, destacando-se a persistência do canal arterial, comunicação interventricular e comunicação interatrial. Observou-se que a maior parcela das crianças fez uso de circulação extracorpórea por mais de 30 minutos, sendo a mediana igual a 80 minutos, sofreu esternotomia mediana, utilizou apenas dreno mediastinal e fez uso de ventilação mecânica pós-operatória, sendo a mediana aproximadamente de 6,6 horas. Somente três (8,1%) pacientes apresentaram complicações pulmonares, sendo que destes, dois foram a óbito. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria das crianças da amostra era do sexo feminino, na faixa etária escolar e proveniente do interior do estado. Os baixos tempos de circulação extracorpórea e ventilação mecânica, além de cardiopatias congênitas consideradas de baixo risco, podem ter sido fatores contribuintes para o pequeno índice de complicações pulmonares no pós-operatório. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of pulmonary complications in children undergone cardiac surgery, as well as demographic and clinical characteristics of this population. METHODS: The sample comprised 37 children of both genders, underwent cardiac surgery at the Hospital Universitário President [...] e Dutra, São Luis (MA) during the year of 2007. There were not included patients who had lung disease in pre-operative period, patients with neurological disorders, intra-operative death besides lack of data in medical records. The data were obtained from general medical and nursing staff of their medical records. RESULTS: The population of the study was predominantly composed by female children, from the countryside and at school age. Pathologies considered low risk were the majority, especially the patent ductus arteriosus, interventricular communication and interatrial communication. It was observed that the largest share of children made use of cardiopulmonary bypass for more than 30 minutes, with a median of 80 minutes, suffered a median sternotomy, using only the mediastinal drain and made use of mechanical ventilation after surgery, with the median about 6.6 hours. Only three (8.1%) patients developed pulmonary complications, and of these, two died. CONCLUSION: Most of the sample was female, school aged and from the countryside. The low time of cardiopulmonary bypass and mechanical ventilation, and congenital heart disease with low risk, may have been factors that contributed to the low rate of pulmonary complications postoperative.
Daniel Lago, Borges; Lícia Raquel Teles, Sousa; Raquel Teixeira, Silva; Holga Cristina da Rocha, Gomes; Fernando Mauro Muniz, Ferreira; Willy Leite, Lima; Lívia Christina do Prado Lui, Borges.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avaliou o impacto psicológico de um grupo educativo de cirurgia cardíaca em pacientes de um hospital universitário. Participaram 73 sujeitos, dos quais 62% eram homens. A média de idade foi 52 anos, desvio-padrão foi 16. Os pacientes foram submetidos a uma sessão multidisciplinar com exp [...] osição dialogada sobre cardiopatias, procedimento cirúrgico e sintomas psicológicos. Os resultados mostraram que, para poucos pacientes (36%), o grupo ajudou a esclarecer dúvidas sobre o tratamento, demonstrando a necessidade de ajustes nas estratégias didáticas para melhor compreensão dos conteúdos. A análise das emoções percebidas após participação no programa revelou que 70% responderam estar esperançosos. A contraposição entre "esperança" e "tranquilidade" foi uma resposta emocional esperada frente à vivência da cirurgia, avaliada como uma condição de ameaça ambiental. Conclui-se que o grupo educativo foi benéfico para o ajustamento psicossocial do paciente à cirurgia. Entretanto, maior eficácia será alcançada mediante aperfeiçoamento do método de atuação e inclusão de um programa interdisciplinar estruturado para controle do stress. Abstract in english This study assessed the psychological impact of an educational group for cardiac surgery patients in a university hospital. Seventy-three subjects took part in the study - 62% were men with an average age of 52 (standard deviation = 16), subjected to a multidisciplinary session including discussion [...] about heart disease, surgical procedures and psychological symptoms. The results showed that for a few patients (36%), the group helped to clarify questions about the treatment, demonstrating the need for adjustments in teaching strategies for a better understanding of the content. The analysis of emotions perceived after participation in the program showed that 70% were said to be hopeful. The contrast between "hope" and "tranquility" was an expected emotional response given the experience of surgery, evaluated as an environmental threat condition. It was concluded that the educational group was beneficial to the patients' psychosocial adjustment to surgery. However, greater effectiveness will be achieved by improving the performance method and the inclusion of an interdisciplinary program designed to control stress.
Jeanny Joana Rodrigues Alves de, Santana; Luan Flávia Barufi, Fernandes; Carla Rodrigues, Zanin; Christiane Maia, Waeteman; Marcelo, Soares.
... heart rate, blood pressure and EKG monitored. A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... your chances of future heart problems. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests Treatments + Tests ANSWERS ...
Abasto, surtimiento y gasto de bolsillo en medicamentos en hospitales públicos de México en 2009 / Supply prescription filling and out-of-pocket expenditures on medicines in public hospitals in Mexico in 2009
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO. Analizar la disponibilidad de medicamentos en las farmacias hospitalarias, el surtimiento de prescripciones a pacientes egresados y el gasto de bolsillo en medicamentos de pacientes hospitalizados. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Análisis descriptivo de la Encuesta Nacional de Satisfacción y Trato Ade [...] cuado (ENSATA) de 2009 con una muestra representativa de hospitales públicos sobre disponibilidad de una lista de 83 medicamentos en el momento de la visita a la farmacia, la proporción del surtimiento de recetas a pacientes en el momento de su alta y su gasto de bolsillo durante su estancia hospitalaria. RESULTADOS. En total se entrevistó a 26 271 pacientes egresados de los 160 hospitales públicos visitados. La disponibilidad de medicamentos en el ámbito nacional fue de 82%. Los hospitales de los Servicios Estatales de Salud (SESA) mostraron una disponibilidad de 77% (variación de 30 a 96%). El surtimiento completo de recetas fue de 97% en las instituciones de seguridad social, cifra que contrasta con 56.2% de los hospitales de los SESA, que además presentaron una gran varianza entre estados (13 a 94%) La mediana del gasto de pacientes hospitalizados fue de 150 pesos moneda nacional (1% gastó más de 10 000 pesos. CONCLUSIONES. La falta de los medicamentos en los hospitales tiene un impacto económico en el gasto de los hogares, particularmente en aquellos que cuentan con pocos recursos, y puede aumentar la morbilidad o mortalidad de los pacientes hospitalizados en las instituciones públicas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. To analyze the availability of drugs in public hospitals, the prescription-filling patterns for in-patients when they are discharged and their out-of-pocket expenditure during their hospitalization. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Using the National Satisfaction and Responsiveness Survey (ENSATA) 2 [...] 009, which includes a representative sample of public hospitals in Mexico in 2009, the availability of 83 essential medicines in the hospital pharmacies at the day of visit, the proportion of prescriptions completely filled for patients when they are discharged and their out-of-pocket expenditure during their hospitalization were analyzed. RESULTS. A total of 26 271 patients in 160 public hospitals were interviewed. The mean availability of drugs was 82% for all hospitals, with the lowest availability for the Ministry of Health (SESA) hospitals (77%, with a range of 30 to 96%). Patients discharged at social security hospitals received in 97% of cases a complete prescription filling, while in SESA hospitals the average was only 56.2%, with a large variance among states (13 to 94%). The median inpatient spending was 150 pesos in national currency (1% spent over 10 000 pesos). CONCLUSIONS. The lack of medicines in public hospitals may increase in-patient morbidity and mortality and has an economic impact on household spending, particularly in those with scarce resources.
Sergio, Sesma-Vázquez; Octavio, Gómez-Dantés; Veronika J, Wirtz; Manuel, Castro-Tinoco.
Abasto, surtimiento y gasto de bolsillo en medicamentos en hospitales públicos de México en 2009 / Supply prescription filling and out-of-pocket expenditures on medicines in public hospitals in Mexico in 2009
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO. Analizar la disponibilidad de medicamentos en las farmacias hospitalarias, el surtimiento de prescripciones a pacientes egresados y el gasto de bolsillo en medicamentos de pacientes hospitalizados. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Análisis descriptivo de la Encuesta Nacional de Satisfacción y Trato Ade [...] cuado (ENSATA) de 2009 con una muestra representativa de hospitales públicos sobre disponibilidad de una lista de 83 medicamentos en el momento de la visita a la farmacia, la proporción del surtimiento de recetas a pacientes en el momento de su alta y su gasto de bolsillo durante su estancia hospitalaria. RESULTADOS. En total se entrevistó a 26 271 pacientes egresados de los 160 hospitales públicos visitados. La disponibilidad de medicamentos en el ámbito nacional fue de 82%. Los hospitales de los Servicios Estatales de Salud (SESA) mostraron una disponibilidad de 77% (variación de 30 a 96%). El surtimiento completo de recetas fue de 97% en las instituciones de seguridad social, cifra que contrasta con 56.2% de los hospitales de los SESA, que además presentaron una gran varianza entre estados (13 a 94%) La mediana del gasto de pacientes hospitalizados fue de 150 pesos moneda nacional (1% gastó más de 10 000 pesos. CONCLUSIONES. La falta de los medicamentos en los hospitales tiene un impacto económico en el gasto de los hogares, particularmente en aquellos que cuentan con pocos recursos, y puede aumentar la morbilidad o mortalidad de los pacientes hospitalizados en las instituciones públicas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE. To analyze the availability of drugs in public hospitals, the prescription-filling patterns for in-patients when they are discharged and their out-of-pocket expenditure during their hospitalization. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Using the National Satisfaction and Responsiveness Survey (ENSATA) 2 [...] 009, which includes a representative sample of public hospitals in Mexico in 2009, the availability of 83 essential medicines in the hospital pharmacies at the day of visit, the proportion of prescriptions completely filled for patients when they are discharged and their out-of-pocket expenditure during their hospitalization were analyzed. RESULTS. A total of 26 271 patients in 160 public hospitals were interviewed. The mean availability of drugs was 82% for all hospitals, with the lowest availability for the Ministry of Health (SESA) hospitals (77%, with a range of 30 to 96%). Patients discharged at social security hospitals received in 97% of cases a complete prescription filling, while in SESA hospitals the average was only 56.2%, with a large variance among states (13 to 94%). The median inpatient spending was 150 pesos in national currency (1% spent over 10 000 pesos). CONCLUSIONS. The lack of medicines in public hospitals may increase in-patient morbidity and mortality and has an economic impact on household spending, particularly in those with scarce resources.
Sergio, Sesma-Vázquez; Octavio, Gómez-Dantés; Veronika J, Wirtz; Manuel, Castro-Tinoco.
Objective: To evaluate the role of echocardiography in diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy as a cause of cardiac failure in children. Design: This was descriptive study. Children presenting with cardiac failure from indoor patients were selected and echocardiography along with chest X- ray, ECG, cardiac enzymes and ASO titre was performed in all patients. Subject: Fifty hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure were selected consecutively from hospitalized patients. Main Outcome: Role of echocardiography in the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy in children presenting with cardiac failure. Results: Out of fifty patients admitted with cardiac failure 27 (54%) cases were found to be dilated cardiomyopathy while congenital heart disease, myocarditis and rheumatic heart disease were found in 12 (24%), 8 (16%) and 3 (6%) cases respectively. Conclusion: Dilated cardiomyopathy is an important cause of cardiac failure in children and echocardiography is an important tool to diagnose and differentiate dilated cardiomyopathy from other causes of cardiac failure. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication non adherence is a global epidemic perplexing phenomenon that is eminent, but not insurmountable. Our first objective was to explore whether providing pharmacist's counseling to cardiac patients prior to discharge can increase patient's medication adherence, and our second objective was to assess whether better medication adherence leads to reduction of hospital readmissions. Methods Observational study was conducted among diagnosed cardiac patients using an intervention strategy at discharge from two hospitals in Israel; The Nazareth and the Haemek hospital. 74 patients were recruited between January 2010 and January 2011. Two separate groups were selected; intervention group: 33 patients who prior to discharge received nurse, pharmacist interventions, and control group: 41 patients who had received the nurse and hospital discharge counseling only. Results Regression analysis for examining the first objective reflected significant effect when having a pharmacist interventions, which explains the increasing 11.6% of the variance in medication adherence, [F change (1,73 = 9.43, p (1,73 = 9.43, n.s]. Conclusions While physicians and nurses can have an impact on improving adherence, pharmacists have demonstrated the ability to inform, problem-solve and provide performance support directly to patients.
Full Text Available El trauma penetrante cardíaco representa una de las mayores causas de muerte por motivo de violencia urbana y se clasifica en penetrante o contuso. La causa más común de trauma cardíaco penetrante es la herida por arma blanca o de fuego. La principal causa de trauma penetrante cardíaco en nuestra serie fue la lesión por arma blanca, siendo el ventrículo derecho la principal cámara cardíaca afectada. Los resultados quirúrgicos son comparables con otras series, con una mortalidad del 16,6% y una morbilidad de 22%. La mortalidad quirúrgica está relacionada con el retraso de la cirugía, o la lesión por arma de fuego, o la presencia de lesiones complejas. Aún sigue siendo fundamental el diagnóstico clínico y el manejo precoz.Background: The most common cause of cardiac penetrating trauma is wounds caused by knives or firearms. Aim: To review the operated cases of penetrating cardiac trauma in a public hospital emergency room. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of patients operated for penetrating cardiac trauma between 1986 and 2009. Results: We retrieved the records of 36 patients (33 males with a median age of 30 years. Ninety four percent of lesions were cause by knife wounds. In 24 patients, the right ventncle was injured. Immediate surgical mortality was 17% and 22% of patients had complications. Conclusions: Surgical mortality in penetrating cardiac trauma is related to the delay of surgical correction, injury by firearms or the presence of complex lesions.
GONZALO GÓMEZ C
Home-based versus hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction or revascularisation: design and rationale of the Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation Study (BRUM: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN72884263
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac rehabilitation following myocardial infarction reduces subsequent mortality, but uptake and adherence to rehabilitation programmes remains poor, particularly among women, the elderly and ethnic minority groups. Evidence of the effectiveness of home-based cardiac rehabilitation remains limited. This trial evaluates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of home-based compared to hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation. Methods/design A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of home-based compared with hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation in four hospitals serving a multi-ethnic inner city population in the United Kingdom was designed. The home programme is nurse-facilitated, manual-based using the Heart Manual. The hospital programmes offer comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation in an out-patient setting. Patients We will randomise 650 adult, English or Punjabi-speaking patients of low-medium risk following myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty or coronary artery bypass graft who have been referred for cardiac rehabilitation. Main outcome measures Serum cholesterol, smoking cessation, blood pressure, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score, distance walked on Shuttle walk-test measured at 6, 12 and 24 months. Adherence to the programmes will be estimated using patient self-reports of activity. In-depth interviews with non-attendees and non-adherers will ascertain patient views and the acceptability of the programmes and provide insights about non-attendance and aims to generate a theory of attendance at cardiac rehabilitation. The economic analysis will measure National Health Service costs using resource inputs. Patient costs will be established from the qualitative research, in particular how they affect adherence. Discussion More data are needed on the role of home-based versus hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation for patients following myocardial infarction and revascularisation, which would be provided by the Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation Study (BRUM study and has implications for the clinical management of these patients. A novel feature of this study is the inclusion of non-English Punjabi speakers.
Survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest frequently suffer devastating effects from anoxic brain injury. Therapeutic hypothermia is the first therapy to show benefit in improving survival as well as limiting neurologic injury. We review the data supporting the use of therapeutic hypothermia in this patient population, the pathophysiologic basis of its neuroprotectant effects, the methods of hypothermic induction, and the clinical application.
Alkadri, Mohi E.; Mcmullan, Paul
Full Text Available Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA is a common public health problem, with large and important regional variations in outcomes. Survival rates vary widely among patients treated with OOHCA by emergency medical services (EMS, or among patients transported to the hospital after return of spontaneous circulation. Most regions lack a well-coordinated approach to post-cardiac arrest care. Effective hospital-based interventions for OOHCA exist but are used infrequently. Increased volume of patients or procedures of individual providers and hospitals is associated with better outcomes for several other clinical disorders. Regional systems of cardiac resuscitation include a process for identification of patients with OOHCA, standard field and hospital care protocols for patients with OOHCA, monitoring of care processes and outcome, and periodic review and feedback of these quality improvement data to identify problems and implement solutions. Similar systems have improved provider experience and patient outcomes for those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and life-threatening traumatic injury. Many more people could survive OOHCA if regional systems of cardiac resuscitation were implemented and maintained. The time has come to do so wherever feasible.
Weekend versus weekday hospital admission and outcomes during hospitalization for patients due to worsening heart failure: a report from Japanese Cardiac Registry of Heart Failure in Cardiology (JCARE-CARD).
The day of the week of admission may influence the length of stay and in-hospital death. However, the association between the admission day of the week and in-hospital outcomes has been inconsistent in heart failure (HF) patients among studies reported from Western countries. We thus analyzed this association in HF patients encountered in routine clinical practice in Japan. We studied the characteristics and in-hospital treatment in 1620 patients hospitalized with worsening HF by using the database of the Japanese Cardiac Registry of Heart Failure in Cardiology (JCARE-CARD). Patients were divided into two groups according to weekday (n = 1355; 83.6 %) or weekend admission (n = 265; 16.4 %). The mean age was 70.7 years and 59.4 % were male. Etiology was ischemic in 34.0 %, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 42.5 %. Patients admitted on the weekend were significantly older and had more comorbidities, and more severe symptoms and signs of HF on admission. Length of stay was comparable between weekend and weekday admission (35.2 ± 47.0 days vs 33.6 ± 32.0 days, P = 0.591). Crude in-hospital mortality did not differ between patients admitted on the weekend and weekdays (7.5 % vs 5.2 %, P = 0.136). Even after adjustment for covariates in multivariable modeling with patients admitted on weekday as the reference, in-hospital death was comparable between patients admitted on the weekend and weekdays (adjusted odds ratio 1.125, 95 % confidence interval 0.631-2.004, P = 0.691). Among patients hospitalized for worsening HF, admission day of the week did not affect in-hospital death and length of stay. PMID:23653107
Hamaguchi, Sanae; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Tsuchihashi-Makaya, Miyuki; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El trauma penetrante cardíaco representa una de las mayores causas de muerte por motivo de violencia urbana y se clasifica en penetrante o contuso. La causa más común de trauma cardíaco penetrante es la herida por arma blanca o de fuego. La principal causa de trauma penetrante cardíaco en nuestra se [...] rie fue la lesión por arma blanca, siendo el ventrículo derecho la principal cámara cardíaca afectada. Los resultados quirúrgicos son comparables con otras series, con una mortalidad del 16,6% y una morbilidad de 22%. La mortalidad quirúrgica está relacionada con el retraso de la cirugía, o la lesión por arma de fuego, o la presencia de lesiones complejas. Aún sigue siendo fundamental el diagnóstico clínico y el manejo precoz. Abstract in english Background: The most common cause of cardiac penetrating trauma is wounds caused by knives or firearms. Aim: To review the operated cases of penetrating cardiac trauma in a public hospital emergency room. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of patients operated for penetrating cardiac tr [...] auma between 1986 and 2009. Results: We retrieved the records of 36 patients (33 males) with a median age of 30 years. Ninety four percent of lesions were cause by knife wounds. In 24 patients, the right ventncle was injured. Immediate surgical mortality was 17% and 22% of patients had complications. Conclusions: Surgical mortality in penetrating cardiac trauma is related to the delay of surgical correction, injury by firearms or the presence of complex lesions.
GONZALO, GÓMEZ C; JOSÉ, HOLA B.
Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCHT is common, with an occurrence of up to 10% of the adult population and defined biochemically only by elevated TSH and normal T4. SCHT affects negatively on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease, affects negatively on cardiac performance and have a close correlation with renal function. The aim of this study is to compare presentation characteristics and outcomes between euthyroid pts and pts with SCHT who underwent cardiac surgery. Methods: 474 pts from June 2003 through September 2004 had TSH and T4 measured. 365 pts were euthyroid (Group 1, 41 pts had SCHT (Group 2. Groups were compared by demographics and EuroSCORE (ES risk profiles. Operative and hospital outcomes were compared as was follow-up mortality up to 96 months. Results: There were more females in Group 2, p = 0.04, more pts with CHF and number of NYHA III-IV pts (p < 0.05. More pts in Group 2 had elevated s-crea (p < 0.0001 and atrial fibrillation (p = 0.007. Comparing the Groups by EuroSCORE (ES showed higher risk scores in Group 2 pts (Additive ES 6.8 vs 8.5 and Logistic ES 12.3% vs 18.1%, p = 0.01 and 0.03. Hospital mortality was higher in Group 2 (12.2% vs 4.1%, p = 0.04 and the number of pts needing extended care was higher in Group 2 (p = 0.01. Follow up mortality was doubled in Group 2 pts up to 96 months compared to Group 1 (p < 0.0001. Conclusions: Presentation characteristics and risk scores are different and worse in SCHT pts compared with euthyroid pts. Hospital and follow-up mortality are increased in SCHT pts.
INTRODUCTION: There are substantial differences in long-term survival of patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and the level of care during hospitalization may be a contributing factor. The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in long-term prognosis between hospitals could be detected in patients surviving cardiac arrest in Copenhagen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The mobile emergency care unit attempted resuscitation in 1,098 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the period 2002 to 2006, among whom return of spontaneous circulation occurred in 336 (30%) of the patients admitted to hospital. Survival was determined using the Central Population Registry through Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: Patients admitted to a tertiary facility were younger, more frequently male, they had more commonly ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/pVT) as their initial rhythm, and they had more frequently received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Survival at 4.6 years was 41% in patients admitted to the tertiary hospital and 10% in patients admitted to other hospitals, p < 0.0001. After adjustment for other known risk factors, patients admitted to other hospitals had a hazard ratio of 1.8 for death (95% confidence interval: 1,4-2,5) compared with patients admitted to a tertiary facility. CONCLUSION: The survival rate after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was significantly higher in patients admitted to a tertiary facility than among patients admitted to less specialized hospitals. Further studies are needed to identify causal factors. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-22
Kjaergaard, Jesper; Bro-Jeppesen, John
In ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) the pre-hospital phase is the most critical, as the administration of the most appropriate treatment in a timely manner is instrumental for mortality reduction. STEMI systems of care based on networks of medical institutions connected by an efficient emergency medical service are pivotal. The first steps are devoted to minimize the patient's delay in seeking care, rapidly dispatch a properly staffed and equipped ambulance to make the diagnosis on scene, deliver initial drug therapy and transport the patient to the most appropriate (not necessarily the closest) cardiac facility. Primary PCI is the treatment of choice, but thrombolysis followed by coronary angiography and possibly PCI is a valid alternative, according to patient's baseline risk, time from symptoms onset and primary PCI-related delay. Paramedics and nurses have an important role in pre-hospital STEMI care and their empowerment is essential to increase the effectiveness of the system. Strong cooperation between cardiologists and emergency medicine doctors is mandatory for optimal pre-hospital STEMI care. Scientific societies have an important role in guideline implementation as well as in developing quality indicators and performance measures; health care professionals must overcome existing barriers to optimal care together with political and administrative decision makers.
Tubaro, M; Danchin, N
Today, prehospital emergency medical teams (EMTs) are confronted with emergent situations of cardiac arrest in palliative care patients. However, little is known about the out-of-hospital approach in this situation and the long-term survival rate of this specific patient type. The aim of the present investigation was to provide information about the strategic and therapeutic approach employed by EMTs in outpatient palliative care patients in cardiac arrest.During a period of 2 years, we retr...
Wiese, Christoph H. R.; Bartels, Utz; Zausig, York; Pfirstinger, Jochen; Graf, Bernhard M.; Hanekop, Gerd G.
: CMACE 2008 has shown that the overall rate of mortality from cardiac disease has tripled over the last two decades being, the largest cause of indirect maternal death; mainly due to acquired heart disease. With the current increase in older mothers, obesity, immigration and survival of babies operated on for congenital heart disease, the need to identify women at risk of heart disease and to plan their careful management is crucial. Early identification of risk factors include hypertension, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, smoking, obesity and hyperlipidaemia and a multidisciplinary management improves maternal and foetal outcomes. General principles include a MDT approach with obstetrician, physician and regular monitoring. A 5-year retrospective survey of 31 women with cardiac disease was carried out in a Joint clinic. (3200 deliveries annually). Data included demographics, type of heart disease, medical, drug history, pregnancy management, delivery place, outcomes. 19 primigravida,14 multipara; all except one were all Caucasian. The most frequent reasons for referral were congenital heart disease or surgery for it, (n = 13) valve disease (n = 9) and arrhythmias (n = 8). Also, chemotherapy induced cardiomyopathy, pericarditis and neurocardiogenic syncope. All women were booked into the clinic by 12 weeks. 24 (73%) had ECG, 25 (76%) echocardiography. 10 women had foetal echocardiogram in pregnancy (all normal). 79% women had cardiology referral, 34% anaesthetic referral. 29 (93%) pregnancies were delivered locally while 4 delivered in a tertiary unit. 19 women delivered vaginally, 7 had emergency CS while 4 planned CS. 1 had a PPH and 1 admission to NNU. Maternal cardiac disease management in a joint clinic shows good outcomes. PMID:25021003
Old, A; Arya, R; Macleod, K; Verma, A; Chattington, P
Full Text Available Shan Mard, Finn Erland NielsenDepartment of Cardiology, Herlev University Hospital, DenmarkObjective: To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV of a diagnosis of heart failure (HF in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit, and to evaluate the impact of misdiagnosing HF.Design: The NRP was used to identify patients with heart failure from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2007. Heart failure was defined in accordance with European Society of Cardiology (ESC guidelines. The recorded diagnoses from the NRP were compared with clinical data from the medical records.Results: We identified 758 patients with a diagnosis of heart failure in the NRP. The PPV of a heart failure discharge diagnosis was 84.0% (95% confidence interval: 81.286.6. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of HF in the NRP without fulfilling the ESC criteria for HF had a better survival rate, a lower rate of rehospitalization, none were followed in the outpatient clinic, and they had a lower consumption of anticongestive medicine after discharge.Conclusion: We found a relatively high PPV of the HF diagnosis in the NRP, and the NRP can therefore be a valuable tool for identification of patients with HF. However, using the NRP alone will not give a true picture of the cost and total burden of the disease.Keywords: heart failure, diagnosis, positive predictive value, National Registry of Patients
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo longitudinal y descriptivo sobre las ventajas de la aplicación de la fase 1 de la RC en el 100% de los pacientes con IMA de bajo riesgo atendidos en el periodo 2003-2004 en el Hospital General Docente ""Comandante Pinares"" en la provincia Pinar del Río. La investigación se basó en la toma de datos obtenidos en los expedientes clínicos de estos pacientes, que están archivados; donde las variables que se exploraron en las encuestas aplicadas incluyen anamnesis, examen físico, electrocardiograma, telecardiografía, aparición de complicaciones mayores y finalmente la clasificación funcional dada al alta hospitalaria. Todos los resultados demostraron las ventajas de la rehabilitación como parte esencial de la atención y terapéutica a la que deben tener acceso los pacientes con afecciones cardíacas de cualquier edad, para mejorar su calidad de vida.A retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was done on the advantages of applying the stage I of the RC in 100% of low-risk AMI patients assisted at Comandante Pinares General Teaching Hospital (HGCP during 2003-2004 in Pinar del Río province. The research was based on data collected from the clinical records of these patients, which are filed. The variables explored during the surveys include: anamnesis, physical examination, electrocardiogram, telecardiography, ocurrence of major complications and finally the functional classification done at hospital discharge. All results showed the rehabilitation advantages as essential part of the assistance and therapy which patients of any age and with cardiac disorders should have access to in order to improve their quality of life.
Liván Cruz Benítez
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo longitudinal y descriptivo sobre las ventajas de la aplicación de la fase 1 de la RC en el 100% de los pacientes con IMA de bajo riesgo atendidos en el periodo 2003-2004 en el Hospital General Docente ""Comandante Pinares"" en la provincia Pinar del Río. La invest [...] igación se basó en la toma de datos obtenidos en los expedientes clínicos de estos pacientes, que están archivados; donde las variables que se exploraron en las encuestas aplicadas incluyen anamnesis, examen físico, electrocardiograma, telecardiografía, aparición de complicaciones mayores y finalmente la clasificación funcional dada al alta hospitalaria. Todos los resultados demostraron las ventajas de la rehabilitación como parte esencial de la atención y terapéutica a la que deben tener acceso los pacientes con afecciones cardíacas de cualquier edad, para mejorar su calidad de vida. Abstract in english A retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was done on the advantages of applying the stage I of the RC in 100% of low-risk AMI patients assisted at Comandante Pinares General Teaching Hospital (HGCP) during 2003-2004 in Pinar del Río province. The research was based on data collected from [...] the clinical records of these patients, which are filed. The variables explored during the surveys include: anamnesis, physical examination, electrocardiogram, telecardiography, ocurrence of major complications and finally the functional classification done at hospital discharge. All results showed the rehabilitation advantages as essential part of the assistance and therapy which patients of any age and with cardiac disorders should have access to in order to improve their quality of life.
Liván, Cruz Benítez.
Higher levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membranes are associated with lower risk of sudden cardiac arrest. Whether membrane levels of ?-linolenic acid, a medium-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, show a similar association is unclear. We investigated the association of red blood cell membrane alpha-linolenic acid with sudden cardiac arrest risk in a population-based case-control study. Cases, aged 2574 years, were out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arr...
Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; King, Irena B.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rea, Thomas D.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.; Rice, Ken; Lumley, Thomas; Knopp, Robert H.; Cobb, Leonard A.; Copass, Michael K.; Siscovick, David S.
Abstract Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in unconscious survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is now a well-documented part of post-resuscitation care. Implementation of TH into daily clinical practice has been far more successful in the Scandinavian countries than in the rest of the world. Still, many questions remain. One of them is whether prehospital cooling will result in better outcomes.
Full Text Available This is a review of the panel Metalepsis out of Bounds presented at the 2013 ENN conference. The three convenors proposed complementary remarks to the extent that they either questioned the conceptualization, examined the functioning of metalepsis or applied theoretical models to textual material. Beside an in depth reflection upon the concept, broader questions concerning narrative and popular assumptions of narratology arose.
This paper investigates the problem of selection and estimation in a high dimensional regression-type model. We propose a procedure with no optimization called LOL, for Learning Out of Leaders. LOL is an auto-driven algorithm with two thresholding steps. A first adaptive thresholding helps to select leaders among the initial regressors in such a way to reduce the dimensionality. Then a second thresholding follows the estimations and predictions performed by linear regression on the leaders. T...
Kerkyacharian, Gerard; Mougeot, Mathilde; Picard, Dominique; Tribouley, Karine
Características cardíacas e metabólicas de corredores de longa distância do ambulatório de cardiologia do esporte e exercício, de um hospital terciário / Cardiac and metabolic characteristics in long distance runners of sport and exercise cardiology outpatient facility of a tertiary hospital
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Caracterizar parâmetros cardíacos, eletrocardiográficos e funcionais, e respostas cardiopulmonares ao exercício em corredores de longa distância brasileiros, acompanhados no Ambulatório de Cardiologia do Esporte e Exercício de um hospital terciário. MÉTODOS: De uma população inicial de 443 [...] atletas, de ambos os sexos, de diferentes modalidades esportivas, foram avaliados 162 (37%) corredores de longa distância, do sexo masculino, com idade variando entre quatorze e 67 anos. Registros eletrocardiográficos (doze derivações) e ecocardiográficos (modos mono e bidimensional) foram realizados em repouso. Respostas cardiopulmonares foram avaliadas durante teste em esteira rolante, com protocolo em rampa. RESULTADOS: Alterações metabólicas e doenças cardiovasculares foram diagnosticadas em 17% e 9% dos corredores, respectivamente. Bradicardia sinusal e hipertrofia ventricular esquerda foram verificadas em 62% e 33% dos corredores, respectivamente. Alterações estruturais, como cavidade ventricular > 55mm, espessura relativa de parede > 0,44 e índice de massa ventricular > 134g/m2 foram encontradas em 15%, 11% e 7% dos corredores, respectivamente. Fração de ejeção Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To characterize electrocardiographic and functional cardiac parameters and cardiopulmonary responses to exercise in long-distance Brazilian runners monitored at the Sport and Exercise Cardiology Outpatient Facility of a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Of an initial population of 443 male [...] and female athletes of different sport modalities, we assessed 162 (37%) long-distance male runners, aged from 14 to 67. Electrocardiographic (12 leads) and echocardiographic (M-mode and two-dimensional) parameters were recorded at rest. Cardiopulmonary responses were evaluated on a treadmill with a ramp protocol. RESULTS: Metabolic alterations and cardiovascular diseases were diagnosed in 17% and 9% of the runners, respectively. Sinus bradycardia and left ventricular hypertrophy were observed in 62% and 33% of the runners, respectively. Structural alterations such as ventricular cavity > 55mm, relative wall thickness > 0.44, and ventricular mass index > 134g/m2 were found in 15%, 11% and 7% of the runners, respectively. Ejection fraction
Luciene Ferreira, Azevedo; Patrícia Chakur, Brum; Dudley, Rosemblatt; Patrícia de Sá, Perlingeiro; Antônio Carlos Pereira, Barretto; Carlos Eduardo, Negrão; Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot de, Matos.
Full Text Available ... 14 ANNOUNCER: Over the next hour, live from Children's Hospital Boston's cardiac OR, see cardiac surgeons repair a complex congenital cardiac defect. Each year the pediatric cardiac surgery program provides surgical care to approximately 1,100 patients, including more than ...
Resultados de la revascularización coronaria en el cardiocentro del Hospital «Hermanos Ameijeiras», en un período de 20 años / Results of coronary revascularization in the Cardiac Center of the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Clinical Surgical Hospital over 20 years
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. En el cardiocentro del Hospital «Hermanos Ameijeiras», la cirugía cardiovascular se practica hace más de 20 años, a lo largo de los cuales se fueron introduciendo y desarrollando diversas técnicas de revascularización miocárdica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir los resu [...] ltados de la cirugía de revascularización coronaria en ese período. MÉTODOS. Se realizó una investigación descriptiva, longitudinal, retrospectiva, con cortes transversales quinquenales, comparando cada quinquenio con el siguiente. Del total de 763 pacientes sometidos a revascularización coronaria en el período comprendido entre enero de 1985 y diciembre del 2004, se excluyeron 17 por presentar historias clínicas extraviadas o con datos incompletos y 15 pacientes operados sin circulación extracorpórea, por lo que el universo de estudio quedó conformado por 731 pacientes, operados todos con circulación extracorpórea. RESULTADOS. Predominaron los pacientes con edades entre 51 y 60 años de edad y del sexo masculino; con el tabaquismo y la hipertensión arterial como factores de riesgo más frecuentes. Los estados clínicos predominantes fueron la angina estable crónica y la angina inestable. Predominó la revascularización con tres puentes con tendencia al ascenso, así como el uso de la vena safena, pero con una evolución ascendente en el empleo de la arteria mamaria interna y disminución en la implantación de la vena safena como único conducto. El tiempo de circulación extracorpórea y de paro anóxico mostró una tendencia a la disminución. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron las sepsis urinaria y respiratoria. Disminuyeron las muertes por causas cardíacas, entre las cuales el fallo multiorgánico y el bajo gasto cardíaco fueron las principales. Disminuyó el bajo gasto transoperatorio pero hubo tendencia al aumento en el posoperatorio y del fallo multiorgánico. CONCLUSIONES. El uso de revascularización coronaria tuvo una tendencia ascendente en estos 20 años, sobre todo en pacientes de la tercera edad y del sexo masculino, en los que el tabaquismo y la hipertensión arterial fueron los factores de riesgo mayormente asociados. Predominó la revascularización con tres puentes y el uso de la safena, pero con tendencia al uso ascendente de la arteria mamaria interna. La mortalidad tuvo un comportamiento decreciente. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION. In Cardiac Center of the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Clinical Surgical Hospital cardiovascular surgery is done from more twenty years ago introducing and developing different techniques of myocardial revascularization. The objective of present research was to describe the results of coronary [...] revascularization over that period. METHODS. A retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive research with five-year cross-sectional cuts was conducted comparing each five-year period with the following one. From the total of 763 patients underwent coronary revascularization from January,1985 to December, 2004, 17 patients were excluded due to missing medical records or with incomplete data and 15 patients operated on without extracorporeal circulation, thus, the universe included 731 patients operated on with this technique. RESULTS. There was predominance the patients aged between 51 and 60years and male sex where smoking and high blood pressure were the more frequent risk factors. The predominant clinical stages were the chronic stable angina and the unstable angina as well as revascularization with three bridges and a trend to rise, as well as the saphenous vein use but with an ascending evolution as the only duct. The time of extracorporeal circulation and anoxic arrest showed a trend to decrease. The more frequent complications were the urinary and respiratory sepsis. There was a decrease of deaths from cardiac causes among which the multiorgan failure and the low cardiac output were the major ones. The low transoperative output decreased but there was a trend to increase
Nafeh Abi-Rezk, Manuel; Hernández Núñez, Raiza; Carballo Hidalgo, Natanael; Villar Inclan, Alejandro; Guevara González, Luis; Chaos González, Nicolás; Chil Díaz, Rigoberto; Rodríguez Rey, Katina.
Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar las características cronobiológicas y las variaciones temporales del paro cardiaco extrahospitalario (PCEH. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Pacientes: Todos los casos de PCEH de origen cardíaco registrados en la base de datos del servicio de emergencias médicas (SEM de la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León (España durante 18 meses. Variables de interés principales: Edad, sexo, recuperación de la circulación espontánea, primer ritmo monitorizado (desfibrilable /no desfibrilable, lugar de alerta [(hogar, lugar público, centro atención primaria (AP], testigo (familiar, transeúnte, fuerzas de seguridad, personal AP, hora de alerta (0-8; 8-16; 16-24, hora de activación del equipo de emergencias, hora de atención y día de la semana. Análisis univariante mediante Chi², varianza y tests no paramétricos. Análisis cronobiológico mediante transformada rápida de Fourier y test Cosinor. Resultados: Se estudiaron 1.286 casos registrados entre enero 2007 y junio 2008. Se observaron diferencias estadísticas significativas en menor edad (pObjectives: To analyze the chronobiological and time variations of out- hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. Design: A retrospective descriptive study was made. Patients: All cases of OHCA of cardiac origin registered over 18 months in the database of the emergency medical service (EMS of the Autonomous Community of Castilla y León (Spain were evaluated. Variables analyzed: Age, sex, recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, first monitored rhythm (amenable / not amenable to defibrillation, alert site [(home, public place, primary care (PC center], alerting person (family, witness, law enforcement member, PC center staff, alert time (0-8; 8-16; 16-24, emergency team activation time, care time and day of the week. Univariate analysis (chi-squared, variance, and nonparametric tests comparing the variables in three periods of 8hours. Chronobiological analysis by fast Fourier transform and Cosinor testing. Results: We studied 1286 cases reported between January 2007 and June 2008. Statistically significant differences were observed in terms of younger age, higher incidence in the victim's home, and greater frequency of family-cohabiting persons as witnesses in the period between 0 and 8hours. Chronobiological analysis found daily rhythm (circadian with acrophase at 11.16h (p<0.001 and weekly rhythm (circaseptan with acrophase on Wednesday (p<0.05. The median alert time-care time interval and emergency team activation time-care time were 11.7min and 8.0min, respectively, without differences between periods. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the presence of a daily rhythm of emergence of OHCA with a morning peak and a weekly rhythm with a peak on Wednesdays. These results can guide the planning of resources and improvements in response in certain time periods.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Analizar las características cronobiológicas y las variaciones temporales del paro cardiaco extrahospitalario (PCEH). Diseño: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Pacientes: Todos los casos de PCEH de origen cardíaco registrados en la base de datos del servicio de emergencias médicas (SEM) [...] de la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León (España) durante 18 meses. Variables de interés principales: Edad, sexo, recuperación de la circulación espontánea, primer ritmo monitorizado (desfibrilable /no desfibrilable), lugar de alerta [(hogar, lugar público, centro atención primaria (AP)], testigo (familiar, transeúnte, fuerzas de seguridad, personal AP), hora de alerta (0-8; 8-16; 16-24), hora de activación del equipo de emergencias, hora de atención y día de la semana. Análisis univariante mediante Chi², varianza y tests no paramétricos. Análisis cronobiológico mediante transformada rápida de Fourier y test Cosinor. Resultados: Se estudiaron 1.286 casos registrados entre enero 2007 y junio 2008. Se observaron diferencias estadísticas significativas en menor edad (p Abstract in english Objectives: To analyze the chronobiological and time variations of out- hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Design: A retrospective descriptive study was made. Patients: All cases of OHCA of cardiac origin registered over 18 months in the database of the emergency medical service (EMS) of the Autonomous [...] Community of Castilla y León (Spain) were evaluated. Variables analyzed: Age, sex, recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), first monitored rhythm (amenable / not amenable to defibrillation), alert site [(home, public place, primary care (PC) center], alerting person (family, witness, law enforcement member, PC center staff), alert time (0-8; 8-16; 16-24), emergency team activation time, care time and day of the week. Univariate analysis (chi-squared), variance, and nonparametric tests comparing the variables in three periods of 8hours. Chronobiological analysis by fast Fourier transform and Cosinor testing. Results: We studied 1286 cases reported between January 2007 and June 2008. Statistically significant differences were observed in terms of younger age, higher incidence in the victim's home, and greater frequency of family-cohabiting persons as witnesses in the period between 0 and 8hours. Chronobiological analysis found daily rhythm (circadian) with acrophase at 11.16h (p
López-Messa, J.B.; Alonso-Fernández, J.I.; Andrés-de Llano, J.M.; Garmendia-Leiza, J.R.; Ardura-Fernández, J.; Castro-Rodríguez, F. de; Gil-González, J.M..
Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just be based on a modus vivendi designed to secure peaceful co-existence, but should be based on moral reasons. Forst therefore advances what he calls the â??respect conceptionâ?? of toleration as an in itself morally desirable type of relationship, which is furthermore the only conception of toleration that avoids various so-called â??paradoxes of tolerationâ??. The paper first examines whether Forstâ??s respect conception can be applied descriptively to distinguish between actual patterns of behaviour and classify different acts of toleration. Then the focus is shifted to toleration out of respect as a normative prescription, which Forst presents as a requirement of justice. At both levels, it is argued that Forstâ??s respect conception is problematic since it presupposes that answers to very substantial normative questions, which are precisely what people tend to disagree on under conditions of pluralism, are already at hand. The respect conception therefore seems to be at best a theoretical idea belonging in ideal-theory, not a useful practical solution to actual conflicts under conditions of pluralism.
Full Text Available Introduction: Heparin is only fast acting anticoagulant drug available in the injectable form. Skin discoloration is an adverse and unpleasant outcome of subcutaneous heparin injection that is observed frequently and causes the patient both physical and psychological discomfort thus limiting the further sites for injection. It is therefore important that nurses use an injection technique that minimizes the incidence of adverse outcomes. This research is a quasi-experimental study carried out to determine the relation between duration of injection of subcutaneous heparin and extent of local skin discoloration at the Fatima and Shahid Beheshti cardiac hospitals, Shiraz, 2002 . Methods: 167 patients were selected and sampling was done by selecting consecutive samples. Data collection was done by using a researcher-made check-list consisting of section of demographic characteristics and a section to record the extent of discoloration at 48 and 60 hours after injection. Data analysis was done by distributional index and parametric (paired-t test and Bi-parametric (Mann witney-U and kruskal wallis. Results: Extent of local skin discoloration was less in 30-second injection technique, so that the mean size at 48 and 60 hours after 10-second injection techniques (82.85 214.3,77.96 206 ,respectively was more than the mean size at 48 and 60 hours after 30-second injection technique (40.53 148.11,44.41 175.51 respectively.There was a significant relationship between sex and size of discoloration (p<0.001,so that mean size in females in the 10-second and 30-second injection techniques at 48 and 60 hours after injection was more than that in males. Conclusion: On the basis of results of this research, administering subcutaneous heparin injection over longer duration, especially in females reduces injection site discoloration.
S Mohammad Alizadeh
N-terminal pro ?-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a valuable marker for monitoring the response to treatment in patients with heart failure. Based on the clinically observed improvement of heart failure symptoms early after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), we sought to investigate whether CRT induce any significant reduction in the plasma level of NT-proBNP in three days after implantation and whether it is correlated with patients' response at six months. In this prospective study, 21 consecutive patients with severe heart failure (New York Heart Association class 3.19±0.40) who underwent CRT were enrolled. Being alive, no hospitalization due to decompensated heart failure, and improvement of at least one NYHA functional class at six months were classified as clinical responsiveness. The plasma level of NT-proBNP was measured before, three days, and six months after CRT. Clinical evaluation, echocardiographic study, and six-minute walking test were performed before and six months after the procedure. At six months' follow-up, 16 (76.2%) patients were responders. The plasma level of NT-proBNP at three days after CRT increased almost equally in both responder and non-responder groups of patients (?NT-proBNP was 40.94±135.74 vs. 54.80±88.98); however, at six months' follow-up, the NT-proBNP changes statistically differed across the two groups of patients (P=0.005). According to our findings, NT-proBNP percent deviation from baseline to three days after CRT appears to be not correlated with the patients' clinical response after six months, which was incongruent to the patients' clinical improvement after CRT. PMID:24658981
Davoodi, Gholamreza; Bagheri, Ahmadreza; Yamini-Sharif, Ahmad; Boroumand, Mohammadali; Saroukhani, Sepideh; Sahebjam, Mohammad
Características cardíacas e metabólicas de corredores de longa distância do ambulatório de cardiologia do esporte e exercício, de um hospital terciário Cardiac and metabolic characteristics in long distance runners of sport and exercise cardiology outpatient facility of a tertiary hospital
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar parâmetros cardíacos, eletrocardiográficos e funcionais, e respostas cardiopulmonares ao exercício em corredores de longa distância brasileiros, acompanhados no Ambulatório de Cardiologia do Esporte e Exercício de um hospital terciário. MÉTODOS: De uma população inicial de 443 atletas, de ambos os sexos, de diferentes modalidades esportivas, foram avaliados 162 (37% corredores de longa distância, do sexo masculino, com idade variando entre quatorze e 67 anos. Registros eletrocardiográficos (doze derivações e ecocardiográficos (modos mono e bidimensional foram realizados em repouso. Respostas cardiopulmonares foram avaliadas durante teste em esteira rolante, com protocolo em rampa. RESULTADOS: Alterações metabólicas e doenças cardiovasculares foram diagnosticadas em 17% e 9% dos corredores, respectivamente. Bradicardia sinusal e hipertrofia ventricular esquerda foram verificadas em 62% e 33% dos corredores, respectivamente. Alterações estruturais, como cavidade ventricular > 55mm, espessura relativa de parede > 0,44 e índice de massa ventricular > 134g/m2 foram encontradas em 15%, 11% e 7% dos corredores, respectivamente. Fração de ejeção OBJECTIVE: To characterize electrocardiographic and functional cardiac parameters and cardiopulmonary responses to exercise in long-distance Brazilian runners monitored at the Sport and Exercise Cardiology Outpatient Facility of a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Of an initial population of 443 male and female athletes of different sport modalities, we assessed 162 (37% long-distance male runners, aged from 14 to 67. Electrocardiographic (12 leads and echocardiographic (M-mode and two-dimensional parameters were recorded at rest. Cardiopulmonary responses were evaluated on a treadmill with a ramp protocol. RESULTS: Metabolic alterations and cardiovascular diseases were diagnosed in 17% and 9% of the runners, respectively. Sinus bradycardia and left ventricular hypertrophy were observed in 62% and 33% of the runners, respectively. Structural alterations such as ventricular cavity > 55mm, relative wall thickness > 0.44, and ventricular mass index > 134g/m2 were found in 15%, 11% and 7% of the runners, respectively. Ejection fraction < 55% was observed in 4% of the runners. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak decreased as of the age of 41, although the anaerobic threshold relative to the VO2peak remained unchanged with age. CONCLUSION: Resting bradycardia and left ventricular hypertrophy are the most frequent cardiovascular adaptations in Brazilian long distance runners monitored by the Sport and Exercise Cardiology Outpatient Facility. Although VO2peak decreases after the age of 41, the relative oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold of these runners remained unchanged.
Luciene Ferreira Azevedo
The number of cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is estimated to be 300,000/year in the United States. Two landmark studies published in 2002 demonstrated that therapeutic hypothermia decreased mortality and improved neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Our institutional pathway for the management of survivors of cardiac arrest stresses teamwork involving multiple disciplines, including cardiology, critical care, nursing, neurology, infectious diseases, physical therapy, social work, and pastoral care. Involvement of the patients' families is critical in the understanding of the process and in the decision making and goals of care when neurological prognosis is poor. In a unique approach, we have included the survivors in the process. Our approach to quality improvement includes a yearly conference incorporating the voices of survivors and families. This conference serves as a means to review our experience, educate clinicians, involve all healthcare providers in the outcome, and provide a model of communication and professionalism to trainees. During review of our experience, we noted the small number of women undergoing therapeutic hypothermia, accounting for only 21% of all patients undergoing this therapy after cardiac arrest. This led to a conference that focused on cardiac disease and cardiac arrest in women. PMID:23411605
Herzog, Eyal; Tamis, Jacqueline; Aziz, Emad F; Shapiro, Janet M
Ten years' experience of cardiac Munchausen's syndrome in the Cardiac Care Unit of an Inner London teaching hospital is reported. Thirty-six admissions in this category were identified and analysed, and 4 typical cases are described. The common presenting complaints, recurring features and the relationship with other forms of Munchausen's syndrome are discussed, as are possible strategies available to deal with this clinical entity.
Dickinson, E. J.; Evans, T. R.
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to explore the obstacles to collaborations between nurses in hospital and municipal care in the discharge of hospital patients who need continuing care.Methods: First, we conducted in-depth interviews of nurses in hospitals and nurses in municipal care. Second, we developed questionnaires and distributed them to a representative sample of Norwegian municipalities to study the representativeness of the most important findings from the interviews.Results: Municipal care nurses reported that the information they receive from hospital departments usually is insufficient for a complete understanding of a patient's needs. Formal discharge reports from hospital serve as a post factum formalization and authorization of information collected by municipal nurses in an ad hoc fashion and via oral communication. Typically, formal information routines are out of phase with the information needed by municipal care professionals.Conclusions: Hospital information provided at discharge is neither sufficient nor timely with respect to the information needs of nurses in municipal care. Organizational efforts and the use of information technology might ease some obstacles, but several problems will remain because of differences in professional orientation and the contexts of care delivery.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is closely linked to the quality of CPR, but in real life, resuscitation during prehospital care and ambulance transport is often suboptimal. Mechanical chest compression devices deliver consistent chest compressions, are not prone to fatigue and could potentially overcome some of the limitations of manual chest compression. However, there is no high-quality evidence that they improve clinical outcomes, or that they are cost effective. The Prehospital Randomised Assessment of a Mechanical Compression Device In Cardiac Arrest (PARAMEDIC trial is a pragmatic cluster randomised study of the LUCAS-2 device in adult patients with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods/design The primary objective of this trial is to evaluate the effect of chest compression using LUCAS-2 on mortality at 30 days post out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, compared with manual chest compression. Secondary objectives of the study are to evaluate the effects of LUCAS-2 on survival to 12 months, cognitive and quality of life outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Methods: Ambulance service vehicles will be randomised to either manual compression (control or LUCAS arms. Adult patients in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, attended by a trial vehicle will be eligible for inclusion. Patients with traumatic cardiac arrest or who are pregnant will be excluded. The trial will recruit approximately 4000 patients from England, Wales and Scotland. A waiver of initial consent has been approved by the Research Ethics Committees. Consent will be sought from survivors for participation in the follow-up phase. Conclusion The trial will assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of the LUCAS-2 mechanical chest compression device. Trial Registration: The trial is registered on the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Registry (ISRCTN08233942.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic heart failure (CHF is a major public health problem characterised by progressive deterioration with disabling symptoms and frequent hospital admissions. To influence hospitalisation rates it is crucial to identify precipitating factors. To characterise patients with CHF who seek an emergency department (ED because of worsening symptoms and signs and to explore the reasons why they are admitted to hospital. Method Patients (n = 2,648 seeking care for dyspnoea were identified at the ED, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra. Out of 2,648 patients, 1,127 had a previous diagnosis of CHF, and of these, 786 were included in the present study with at least one sign and one symptom of worsening CHF. Results Although several of the patients wanted to go home after acute treatment in the ED, only 2% could be sent home. These patients were enrolled in an interventional study, which evaluated the acute care at home compared to the conventional, in hospital care. The remaining patients were admitted to hospital because of serious condition, including pneumonia/respiratory disease, myocardial infarction, pulmonary oedema, anaemia, the need to monitor cardiac rhythm, pathological blood chemistry and difficulties to communicate. Conclusion The vast majority of patients with worsening CHF seeking the ED required hospital care, predominantly because of co-morbidities. Patients with CHF with symptomatic deterioration may be admitted to hospital without additional emergency room investigations.
... to the hospital immediately. Learn more about stroke CARDIAC ARREST WARNING SIGNS SUDDEN LOSS OF RESPONSIVENESS No response ... for at least five seconds. Learn more about cardiac arrest If these signs are present CALL 9-1- ...
Full Text Available Principal purpose of the study is characteristics of out of lesson and out of school physical activities of children in selectedprimary schools in the Podkarpackie province. Inspiration for undertakings originate research was the opportunity to familiarizeoneself with the types of physical activity of students in their free time and the influence of formal and legal factors on theorganizational level of additional physical activities. The research was conducted in 60 primary schools in the Podkarpackieprovince. The basic condition in selecting the schools for the research owned a proper sport facility by the school. Research wasconducted in April and May, 2005. Empirical material was gathered by means of a diagnostic survey. Questionnaire of thesurvey included a set of closed questions. Students of physical education and headmasters of the schools were the respondents.The research indicates low level of physical activity of people of various ages. It should be assumed that this state of affairscorresponds to the state of physical education at schools. Therefore, in the search for optimal solutions, out of lesson and outof school activities should be included in the process of preparation of the young generation to physical activity in their adultlives. In conclusion, additional physical activity of children relies, to a large extent, on community service performed byteachers. Most of the times, out of lesson and out of school activities are occasional and incidental in nature and rarelyconstitute a part of an organized sequence of systematic events scheduled for specified points in time.
The neurological damage after cardiac arrest (CA) constitutes a big challenge of hospital discharge since years. The therapeutic hypothermia therapy (34°C-32°C) has shown its benefit to reduce cerebral oxygen demand and improve neurological outcomes after the cardiac arrest. Despite the fact that induced hypothermia after CA has been shown to increase the hospital survival rate, it can have many adverse effects, among which the cardiac arrhythmia generation represents an important part (up ...
Xu, Binbin; Jacquir, Sabir; Binczak, Ste?phane; Pont, Oriol; Yahia, Hussein
Background:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a physical activity telemonitoring program on daily physical activity level, oxygen uptake capacity (VO2peak), and cardiovascular risk profile in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who completed phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Methods:Eighty CAD patients who completed phase II CR were randomly assigned to an additional telemonitoring intervention or standard CR. The patients in the intervention group (n??40) wore ...
Frederix, Ines; Driessche, Niels; Hansen, Dominique; Berger, Jan; Bonne, Kim; Alders, Toon; Dendale, Paul
Background : Patients with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia constitute a special high risk group for future hypertension. They require a long term follow up to be able to detect and treat emerging hypertension early enough to prevent complications. Unfortunately, this is not so. This study was undertaken to find out the incidence of history of pre-eclamptic toxaemia (PET) in our female hypertensive patients attending cardiac clinic and to also determine the incidence of complicatio...
Oyati Albert; Danbauchi Solomon; Isa Mohammed; Alhassan Mohammed; Sani Bala; Anyiam Chinasaokwu; Bosan Istifanus; David Samuel
Full Text Available Background and aim: One of the most important part of management and modification of CAD risk factor is to control the level of plasma lipid profile. Application of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation in patient with CAD could decrease the level of CHL, TG, LDL and increasing of HDL .There are a lot of studies that discuss the effect of rehabilitation on different people with different races and life style . Material and Methods: Thirty six patients with the age (40-75 who were referred by cardiologist participated in this study. Fast walking on treadmill, biking on stationary bicycle and cycling with upper body ergometer were chosen as aerobic exercises. For assessing the short term and long term effects of this protocol, blood sampling were taken at three stages; before exercise initiation, after 12 and 24 sessions of exercise. Results: Following the cardiac rehabilitation protocol, the level of CHL, LDL and the ratio of LDL/HDL and CHL/HDL decreased significantly. Conclusion: Cardiac rehabilitation could be used as means to improve lipid profile level in blood serum, prevention of cardiovascular disease and reducing mortality and morbidity rates.
Introduction Despite advancements in management of cardiac arrest, mortality remains high and few severity of illness scoring systems have been calibrated in this population. The goal of the current investigation was to assess the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score in post-cardiac arrest. Measurements This is a prospective observational study of adult post-cardiac arrest patients at a tertiary-care center. The primary outcome variable was in-hospital mortality and secondary outcome variable was neurologic outcome. APACHE II scores were used to predict outcomes using logistic modeling. Main Results A total of 228 subjects were included in the analysis. The median age of the cohort was 70 (IQR: 64 71) and 32% (72/228) of the patients were female. The median downtime was 15 minutes (IQR: 7 27) and initial lactate 5.9 mmol/L (IQR: 3.5 8.4). 71 (57%) of deaths occurred prior to the 72-hour follow-up and overall in-hospital mortality was 55% (125/228). Discrimination of APACHE II score in all cardiac arrest patients increased in stepwise fashion from 0-hr to 72-hr follow-up (AUC: 0-hr: 0.62; 24-hr: 0.75; 48-hr: 0.82; 72-hr: 0.86). Conclusions APACHE II score is a poor predictor of outcome at time zero for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) post-arrest patients consistent with the original development of the score in the critically ill. For in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) at time zero and for both IHCA and OHCA at 24 hours and beyond, the APACHE II score was a modest indicator of illness severity and predictor of mortality/neurologic morbidity.
Donnino, Michael W.; Salciccioli, Justin D.; Dejam, Andre; Giberson, Tyler; Giberson, Brandon; Cristia, Cristal; Gautam, Shiva; Cocchi, Michael N.
A randomized clinical trial of hospital-based, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk of ischemic heart disease (the DANREHAB trial)--design, intervention, and population.
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines broadly recommend comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR), although evidence for this is still limited. It is not known whether evidence from before 1995 is still valid. STUDY DESIGN: The DANish Cardiac ReHABilitation (DANREHAB) trial was designed as a centrally randomized clinical trial to clarify whether hospital-based comprehensive CR is superior to usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk for ischemic heart disease. A combined primary outcome measure included total mortality, myocardial infarction, or readmissions due to heart disease based on linkage to public registries. The CR was an individually tailored, multidisciplinary program (6 weeks of intensive CR and 12 months of follow-up) including patient education, exercise training, dietary counseling, smoking cessation, psychosocial support, risk factor management, and clinical assessment. STUDY POPULATION: Of 5060 discharged patients, 1614 (32%) were eligible for the trial and 770 patients were randomized (47% of those eligible). Participants were younger (P < .001) and had less comorbidity than nonparticipants (P < .03). CONCLUSION: Our trial shows that a large-scale, centrally randomized clinical trial on comprehensive CR can be conducted among a broadly defined patient group, but reaching the stipulated number of 1800 patients was difficult. Although the study included relatively many women and older people, elderly patients and patients with high comorbidity were underrepresented, which may influence the external validity. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Nov
Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Soja, Anne Merete Boas
A randomized clinical trial of hospital-based, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk of ischemic heart disease (the DANREHAB trial) - design, intervention, and population
Background Current guidelines broadly recommend comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR), although evidence for this is still limited. It is not known whether evidence from before 1995 is still valid. Study Design The DANish Cardiac REHABilitation (DANREHAB) trial was designed as a centrally randomized clinical trial to clarify whether hospital-based comprehensive CR is superior to usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk for ischemic heart disease. A combined primary outcome measure included total mortality, myocardial infarction, or readmissions due to heart disease based on linkage to public registries. The CR was an individually tailored, multidisciplinary program (6 weeks of intensive CR and 12 months of follow-up) including patient education, exercise training, dietary counseling, smoking cessation, psychosocial support, risk factor management, and clinical assessment. Study Population Of 5060 discharged patients, 1614 (32%) were eligible for the trialand 770 patients were randomized (47% of those eligible). Participants were younger (P < .001) and had less comorbidity than nonparticipants (P < .03). Conclusion Our trial shows that a large-scale, centrally randomized clinical trial on comprehensive CR can be conducted among a broadly defined patient group, but reaching the stipulated number of 1800 patients was difficult. Although the study included relatively many women and older people, elderly patients and patients with high comorbidity were underrepresented, which may influence the external validity
Zwisler, A.D.O.; Schou, O.
Full Text Available We present the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with a witnessed cardiac arrest. She was otherwise healthy with no cardiac risk factors and had undergone an uneventful repeated cesarean section 3 days priorly. The patient underwent defibrillation, out of ventricular fibrillation to a perfusing sinus rhythm, and was taken to the catheterization laboratory where coronary angiography findings showed spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending artery. The patient received a total of 6 stents during her hospital stay and was eventually discharged in good condition. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare entity with a predilection for pregnant or postpartum women. Early diagnosis and treatment are key for survival, and when identified early, mortality is good. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:567570.
The invention applies to improvements in cardiac pacemaker circuits and in the oscillators used therein, and in particular to improvements in cardiac pacemaker circuits with which stimulating pulses may also be generated in the absence of natural cardiac pulses. (orig./AK)
When witnessing another's action, people recruit the same motor resources that enable them to efficiently perform that action, thus gazing at its target well before the agent's hand. But just to what extent does this recruitment help people in grabbing another's action target? If the latter seems to be out of the agent's reach, will this impact on people's gaze behaviour? We recorded proactive eye movements while participants witnessed someone else trying to reach for and grasp objects located either within or outside his reach. Proactivity of gaze was impaired when the targets were just out of the agent's reach. This effect is likely to be due to an interpersonal bodily space representation that allows one to map another's reaching space, thus prompting proactive eye movements towards the target just in case the agent is in the position to act upon it. PMID:22524520
Costantini, Marcello; Ambrosini, Ettore; Sinigaglia, Corrado
Insuficiencia cardíaca en hospitales chilenos: resultados del Registro Nacional de Insuficiencia Cardíaca, Grupo ICARO / Cardiac failure in Chilean hospitals: results of the National Registry of Heart Failure, ICARO
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in english Background: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem. In Chile hospitalized patients due to HF have not been characterized. Aim: To evaluate clinical profile and outcome of patients hospitalized for heart failure in Chilean hospitals. Patients and Methods: Prospective registry of 14 cente [...] rs. Patients hospitalized for HF in functional class III and IV were included. Epidemiological and clinical data, functional class, type of presentation, decompensation cause, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, treatment and evolution were registered. Results: Three hundred seventy two patients aged 69±13 years old, 59% men, were assessed. The main etiologies of HF were ischemic in 31.6%, hypertensive in 35.2%, valvular in 14.9% and idiopathic in 7.4%. There was a history of hypertension 69%, diabetes in 35%, myocardial infarction in 22%, atrial fibrillation (AF) in 28%. The presentation form of HF was chronic decompensated in 86%, acute in 12%, refractory in 2%. The causes of decompensation were non compliance with diet or medical prescriptions in 28%, infections in 22% and AF 17%. ECG showed AF in 36% and left bundle branch block in 16%. Echocardiography was performed in 52% of the patients, 69% had left ventricular ejection fraction
Castro G, Pablo; Vukasovic R, José Luis; Garcés S, Eduardo; Sepúlveda M, Luis; Ferrada K, Marcela; Alvarado O, Sergio.
Preoperative autologous blood donation is commonly used to reduce exposure to homologous blood transfusions among patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of autologous transfusion on patients' hematocryte value, intra and postoperative blood loss, hospitalization time, the development of infective complications and other factors. Materials and Methods: Between June 2001 to April 2002, 208 patients were underwent cardiac surgery in ca...
Radmehr H; Mirkhani S H; Sanatkar Far M; Soltatii-Nia H; Etnami S A; Ghorbandaei-Vour I; Abolghasemi; et al.
Patients recovering from cardiac events are increasingly using postacute care, such as home health care and skilled nursing facility services. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the initial efficacy, feasibility, and safety of a specially designed postacute care transitional rehabilitation intervention for cardiac patients. Cardiac Transitional Rehabilitation Using Self- Management Techniques (Cardiac TRUST) is a family-focused intervention that includes progressive low-intensity walking and education in self-management skills to facilitate recovery following a cardiac event. Using a randomized two-group design, exercise self-efficacy, steps walked, and participation in an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program were compared in a sample of 38 older adults; 17 who received the Cardiac TRUST program and 21 who received usual care only. At discharge from postacute care, the intervention group had a trend for higher levels of self-efficacy for exercise outcomes (X=39.1, SD=7.4) than the usual care group (X=34.5; SD=7.0) (t-test 1.9, p=.06). During the 6 weeks following discharge, compared with the usual care group, the intervention group had more attendance in out-patient cardiac rehabilitation (33% compared to 11.8%, F=7.1, p=.03) and a trend toward more steps walked during the first week (X=1,307, SD=652 compared to X=782, SD=544, t-test 1.8, p=.07). The feasibility of the intervention was better for the home health participants than for those in the skilled nursing facility and there were no safety concerns. The provision of cardiac-focused rehabilitation during postacute care has the potential to bridge the gap in transitional services from hospitalization to outpatient cardiac rehabilitation for these patients at high risk for future cardiac events. Further evidence of the efficacy of Cardiac TRUST is warranted.
Zullo, Melissa; Boxer, Rebecca; Moore, Shirley M.
Abstract Background To determine the causes of cardiac tamponade (CT), focussing especially on haemopericardium (HP), as a terminal mode of death, within a 430,000 rural English population. Methods Our hospital mortuary register and, all postmortem reports between 1995 and 2004 inclusive, were interrogated for patients dying of CT or HP. The causes of CT/HP and selected morphological characteristics were then determined. Results 14,368 postmortems ...
Swaminathan Aravind; Kandaswamy Karikalan; Powari Manish; Mathew Joseph
The overall aim of this thesis has been to investigate the prognostic value of exercise capacity and whether a multifactorial rehabilitation program could affect traditional cardiac risk factors as well as self-rated health, quality of life, depression, anxiety, hospital utilization and sickness absenteeism in women younger than 66 years with coronary artery disease (CAD). Study I Evaluation of the role of exercise capacity and how physical capacity, leisure time and phys...
Background: Cardiac arrest attributable to anaesthesia occurs at the rate of between 0.5 and 1 case per 10 000 cases, tends to have a different profile to that of cardiac arrest occurring elsewhere, and has an in-hospital mortality of 20%. However, as individual practitioners encounter cardiac arrest rarely, the rapidity with which the diagnosis is made and the consistency of appropriate management varies considerably.
Runciman, W.; Morris, R.; Watterson, L.; Williamson, J.; Paix, A.
St James's Hospital is a tertiary referral center for percutaneous intervention and cardiothoracic surgery for a number of referring hospitals. This article reports on the development and implementation of a synchronized, interactive teleconferencing system for cardiac images that links St. James's Hospital with a remote site (Sligo General Hospital) and overcomes the problems of transmission of large image files. Teleconferencing was achieved by setting up lossless auto transmission of patie...
Many people think of earthworms as small, slimy creatures that belong in the garden. To teachers, however, earthworms are delicate animals that can help young students develop important science-process skills such as observation and data collection. This article describes the authors' three-day classroom exploration, Worms Out of This World , a unit in which second-grade students observed live earthworms and recorded their observations in a learning log. Along the way, students sharpened their observation skills and were motivated to learn science.
Full Text Available Hyponatremia, the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients is usually asymptomatic.Clinical cardiac toxicity associated with hyponatremia has not been previously described, Although it isusually difficult to single out hyponatremia as the cause of conduction defects thus,we describe a case thatdeveloped reversible cardiac conduction defect temporally associated with hyponatremia.
Pawan Suri, Kaiser Habeeb, M S Alai, H A Rather, S Jalal
Complicações que aumentam o tempo de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva na cirurgia cardíaca / Complications that increase the time of Hospitalization at ICU of patients submitted to cardiac surgery
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Apresentar as complicações que aumentam a permanência na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) dos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 85 prontuários de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca, no período de março a maio de 2009, na Santa [...] Casa de Misericórdia de Juiz de Fora (MG) e, destes pacientes, foram estudados 14 (16,47%) que permaneceram por mais de 5 dias na UTI. Dentre os 85 pacientes, houve três óbitos, sendo dois pacientes operados em caráter de urgência, o que aumenta a morbidade, e um paciente que permaneceu internado e em ventilação mecânica (VM) por 21 dias. RESULTADOS: O estudo demonstrou que as complicações que aumentaram o tempo de internação na UTI foram respiratórias e metabólicas, de acordo com a literatura. CONCLUSÃO: As complicações que aumentam o tempo de permanência na UTI são as relacionadas à função respiratória, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, tabagismo, congestão pulmonar, desmame da VM prolongado, diabetes, infecções, insuficiência renal, acidente vascular encefálico e instabilidade hemodinâmica. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To show the complications that increase the permanence at intensive care unit (ICU) of the patients submitted to cardiac surgery. METHODS: Eighty-five handbooks of patients submitted to cardiac surgery had been analyzed, retrospectively, from March to May 2009 at Santa Casa de Misericórdi [...] a de Juiz de Fora (MG) - Brazil - and 14 (16.47%) patients had been studied. They remained more than 5 days at ICU. In 85 patients occurred three deaths: two patients operated in urgency character and this increases the morbidity; one patient who remained in mechanical ventilation (MV) by 21 days. RESULTS: Complications that had increased the time of hospitalization at ICU had been respiratory and metabolic in accordance with literature. CONCLUSION: Complications that increase the time of permanence at ICU are those related to respiratory function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tabagism, pulmonary congestion, time of permanence under MV, diabetes, infections, renal insufficiency, stroke and hemodynamic instability.
Artur, Laizo; Francisco Eduardo da Fonseca, Delgado; Glauco Mendonça, Rocha.
Cardiac pacemakers are part of a growing group of expensive implantable electronic devices; hospitals in which 100 pacemakers are implanted per year must budget over $300 000 for these devices. This cost represents a considerable burden to health care resources. Since the "life-span" of modern pacemakers often exceeds that of the patients who receive them, the recovery and reuse of these devices seems logical. Pacemakers can be resterilized and tested with current hospital procedures. Reuse s...
Rosengarten, M. D.; Portnoy, D.; Chiu, R. C.; Paterson, A. K.
Gasometria arterial em dois diferentes métodos de transporte intra-hospitalar no pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca Arterial blood gas analysis in two different intra-hospital transport methods for postoperative cardiac surgery patients
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as repercussões gasométricas de dois métodos de ventilação (ventilador de transporte e ressuscitador manual autoinflável durante o transporte intra-hospitalar de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, longitudinal, prospectivo e randomizado. Foram coletadas gasometrias arteriais ao final da cirurgia e ao final do transporte do paciente. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 23 pacientes: 13 no Grupo ventilador de transporte e 10 no ressuscitador manual autoinflável. As características dos pacientes entre os grupos foram semelhantes, exceto pela maior gravidade no Grupo ventilador de transporte. Observaram-se diferenças significativas nas comparações das variações percentuais dos dados gasométricos: pH (VT: + 4% vs RMA: - 5%, p=0,007, PaCO2 (VT: - 8% vs RMA: + 13%, p=0,006, PaO2 (VT: + 47% vs RMA: - 34%, p=0,01 e SatO2 (VT: + 0,6% vs RMA: - 1,7%, p=0,001. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de ventilador mecânico causa menor repercussão nos gases sanguíneos no transporte intra-hospitalar de pacientes após de cirurgia cardíaca.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects on blood gases by two methods of ventilation (with transport ventilation or self-inflating manual resuscitator during intra-hospital transport of patients after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Observational, longitudinal, prospective, randomized study. Two samples of arterial blood were collected at the end of the surgery and another at the end of patient transport. RESULTS: We included 23 patients: 13 in the Group with transport ventilation and 10 in the Group with self-inflating manual resuscitator. Baseline characteristics were similar between both groups, except for higher acute severity of illness in the Group with transport ventilation. We observed significant differences in comparisons of percentage variations of gasometric data: pH (transport ventilation + 4% x MR -5%, p=0.007, PaCO2 (-8% x +13%, p=0.006, PaO2 (+47% x -34%, p=0.01 and SatO2 (+0.6% x -1.7%, p=0.001. CONCLUSION: The use of mechanical ventilation results in fewer repercussions for blood gas analysis in the intra-hospital transport of cardiac surgery patients.
Newton Almeida Lima Junior
Full Text Available Background. Primary malignant cardiac tumors are rare entities and rhabdomyosarcoma accounts 20% of these lesions. Case report. We presented a female patient with loss of appetite and loss of weight. She also had symptoms of heart failure and bilateral pleural effusions. A mobile tumor in the left heart with the entrance from the left atrium to left ventricle during diastole was seen by transthoracic echocardiography. The tumor was extirpated in total, histologic diagnosis was rhabdomyosarcoma, and the patient died after 6 months. Conclusion. Primary malignant cardiac tumors can simulate heart failure or systemic disorders. Cardiac rhabdomyosarcomas have a poor prognosis with the average survival of 6 months after the occurrence of symptoms and making a diagnosis. In cardiac insufficiency, differential diagnostics should be used to consider cardiac tumors that could be with certainty confirmed or excluded by echocardiography.
Damjanovi? Miodrag R.
Perinatal Outcomes of Pregnant Women with Cardiac Disease at the Ramón Gonzalez Coro Gynecologic & Obstetric Teaching Hospital. Resultados perinatales en las gestantes cardiópatas del Hospital Docente Ginecobstétrico Ramón González Coro.
Full Text Available Introduction: pregnancy in women with heart disease is commonly associated with increased perinatal morbidity. Objective: to describe perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with heart disease who were treated according to a new working protocol. Method: a descriptive study with some analytic aspects was conducted in the Heart Disease and Pregnancy service of the Ramón Gonzalez Coro Gynecologic and Obstetric Teaching Hospital from 2000-2009. The universe consisted on the 472 pregnant women with heart disease that received follow up during that period. They were treated according to the protocol applied since 2000. Data were obtained through a questionnaire and were processed using the SPSS 11,5 system for Windows, through determination of absolute and relative frequencies. They included: obstetric complications, mode of delivery, cesarean indication, gestational age at delivery and neonatal complications. Results: 51 (10, 8 % patients presented obstetric complications. Vaginal delivery was the most common mode of pregnancy termination. It took place in 242 (51, 3 % patients. Cesarean sections were performed in 146 (30, 9 % of cases, being previous cesarean sections the first cause, 42 (28, 8 %. 17 (3, 6 % patients presented neonatal complications. Conclusion: the new protocol applied to pregnant women with heart disease at Ramón Gonzalez Coro Gynecologic and Obstetric Teaching Hospital, contributed to improve perinatal outcomes.Introducción: el embarazo en las mujeres cardiópatas se asocia con un incremento de la morbilidad perinatal. Objetivo: describir los resultados perinatales en gestantes cardiópatas atendidas con un nuevo protocolo de trabajo. Método: estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo con algunos elementos analíticos, realizado en el Servicio de Cardiopatía y Embarazo del Hospital González Coro, del 2000-2009. El universo se constituyó por las 472 gestantes cardiópatas atendidas durante ese período y a las cuales se aplicó el protocolo diseñado desde el año 2000. Los datos analizados fueron: complicaciones obstétricas, tipo de terminación del embarazo, indicación de la cesárea, edad gestacional al parto y complicaciones neonatales, se obtuvieron a través de encuestas y se procesaron mediante el sistema estadístico SPSS- 11,5, utilizando frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: de 472 casos, 51 (10,8 % presentaron complicaciones obstétricas. La forma de terminación del embarazo más frecuente fue el parto eutocico en 242 (51,3 % pacientes, 146 (30,9 % gestantes terminaron su gestación mediante cesárea siendo la causa más frecuente: la cesárea anterior con 42 casos para un 28,8 %. En 17 pacientes para el 3,6 % se presentaron complicaciones neonatales. Conclusión: el nuevo protocolo de trabajo aplicado a la gestante cardiópata en el Servicio de Cardiopatía y Embarazo del Hospital González Coro contribuyó a mejorar los resultados perinatales.
Yanara Gutiérrez Aliaga
Abstract Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. Methods and results This was done by combining a ge...
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The prevalence of cardiac arrest among patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage [SAH], and the prevalence of SAH as the cause following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest [OHCA] or in-hospital cardiac arrest [IHCA] is unknown. In addition it is unclear whether cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] and post-resuscitation care management differs, and to what extent this will lead to meaningful survival following cardiac arrest [CA] due to SAH. Aim We reviewed the literature in order to describe; 1.The prevalence and predisposing factors of CA among patients with SAH 2.The prevalence of SAH as the cause of OHCA or IHCA and factors characterising CPR 3.The survival and management of SAH patients with CA. Material and methods The following sources, PubMed, CinAHL and The Cochrane DataBase were searched using the following Medical Subheadings [MeSH]; 1. OHCA, IHCA, heart arrest and 2. subarachnoid haemorrhage. Articles containing relevant data based on the abstract were reviewed in order to find results relevant to the proposed research questions. Manuscripts in other languages than English, animal studies, reviews and case reports were excluded. Results A total of 119 publications were screened for relevance and 13 papers were included. The prevalence of cardiac or respiratory arrest among all patients with SAH is between 3-11%, these patients commonly have a severe SAH with coma, large bleeds and evidence of raised intracerebral pressure on computed tomography scans compared to those who did not experience a CA. The prevalence of patients with SAH as the cause of the arrest among OHCA cases vary between 4 to 8% among those who die before hospital admission, and between 4 to 18% among those who are admitted. The prevalence of SAH as the cause following IHCA is low, around 0.5% according to one recent study. In patients with OHCA survival to hospital discharge is poor with 0 to 2% surviving. The initial rhythm is commonly asystole or pulseless electrical tachycardia. In IHCA the survival rate is variable with 0-27% surviving. All survivors experience brief cardiac arrests with short latencies to ROSC. Conclusion Cardiac arrest is a fairly common complication following severe SAH and these patients are encountered both in the pre-hospital and in-hospital setting. Survival is possible if the arrest occurs in the hospital and the latency to ROSC is short. In OHCA the outcome seems to be uniformly poor despite initially successful resuscitation.
Skrifvars Markus B
Purpose: This study aimed to assess the perception of hospitalized cardiac patients in coronary care units (CCUs) in the Gaza Strip about the importance of assessing and providing spiritual care to them. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Methods: A valid and reliable instrument previously developed by Musa was used to assess patients' perception about the importance of assessing spiritual needs and providing spiritual care to cardiac patients admitted to CCUs. Findings: Out of 279 cardiac patients, 275 (response rate of 98.6%) agreed to be involved in this study. Results revealed that both assessing spiritual needs (69.69%) and providing spiritual care (76.97%) were very important to cardiac patients with rating spiritual care intervention as more important than spiritual assessment. Conclusions: Assessing and providing spiritual care is crucial to cardiac patients. Therefore, health policy makers need to pay more attention to this group of vulnerable patients and need to adopt a spiritual care policy into the Palestinian health care system, which might help to decrease their stress, length of hospitalization, and the cost of treatment. PMID:24045703
Abu-El-Noor, Mysoon Khalil; Abu-El-Noor, Nasser Ibrahim
La formación en urgencias extrahospitalarias y su adecuación al nuevo programa de la especialidad de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria: ¿hemos avanzado? / Training in out-of-hospital emergency services and its adaptation to the new Family and Community Medicine speciality programme.: have we gone forward?
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Conocer la rotación en urgencias extrahospitalarias de los residentes de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria (MFyC) y comparar su evolución durante el periodo 2005-2010. Diseño del estudio: Estudio observacional descriptivo longitudinal. Emplazamiento: Unidades Docentes (UU.DD.) de MFyC. Parti [...] cipantes: Responsables de UU.DD. de MFyC. Respondieron el 61,1% en 2005 y el 60,0% en 2010. Mediciones principales: Mediante cuestionario autoadministrado, comparando su evolución entre 2005 y 2010, se midió la proporción de residentes que realizan guardias en atención primaria, rotación por servicios de emergencias, grado de supervisión de éstas y evaluación de las mismas. Se describen las variables de estudio mediante cálculo de proporciones y medias e intervalos de confianza al 95%. Resultados: En el año 2010 la proporción de UU.DD. en las que los residentes de MFyC realizaron guardias en atención primaria fue del 87,7% (IC95% 78,3-97,1) y en 2005 del 74,5% (IC95% 62,1-87,0), supervisadas por tutores de medicina de familia en el 61,5% de los casos en 2010 (53,7% en 2005). La rotación por los servicios de emergencias se incrementó del 87,3% al 91,1%. En los SUAP/servicios de emergencias la tutorización de los residentes fue ejercida por tutores acreditados en el 53,1% en 2005 y en el 51,0% en 2010. Conclusiones: La rotación en urgencias extrahospitalarias ha mejorado al aplicarse el nuevo programa de la especialidad. Se ha de mejorar la tutorización y evaluación de esta rotación. Abstract in english Objective: To establish family and community medicine (FCM) resident rotation in out-of-hospital emergencies and compare its progress during the period 2005-2010. Design: Observational, descriptive and longitudinal study. Location: FCM teaching units. Participants: Those in charge of FCM teaching un [...] its. 61,1% responded in 2005 and 60,0% en 2010. Main Surveyed Data: By way of self-administrated questionnaire, comparing its progress between 2005 and 2010, the proportion of residents who carry out primary care duties, emergency services rotation, degree of their supervision and their assessment. Study variables are described by way of calculation of proportions and averages and 95% confidence intervals. Results: In the year 2010, the proportion of teaching units in which FCM residents carried out primary care duties was 87,7% (IC95% 78,3-97,1), and in 2005, 74,5% (IC95% 62,1-87,0), supervised by family medicine tutors in 61,5% of cases in 2010 (53,7% en 2005). Emergency service rotation was increased by 87,3% to 91,1%. In the SUAP/emergency services, the tutoring of residents was performed by authorized tutors in 53,1% in 2005 and in 51,0% in 2010. Conclusions: Rotation in out-of-hospital emergencies has improved by applying the new speciality programme. The tutoring and assessment of this rotation are in need of improvement.
Magdalena, Canals Aracil; Alba, Riesgo García.
BACKGROUND: Despite wide dissemination, use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in community settings is limited. We assessed how AED accessibility affected coverage of cardiac arrests in public locations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified cardiac arrests in public locations (1994-2011) in terms of location and time and viewed them in relation to the location and accessibility of all AEDs linked to the emergency dispatch center as of December 31, 2011, in Copenhagen, Denmark. AED coverage of cardiac arrests was defined as cardiac arrests within 100 m (109.4 yd) of an AED and further categorized according to AED accessibility at the time of cardiac arrest. Daytime, evening, and nighttime were defined as 8 am to 3:59 pm, 4 to 11:59 pm, and midnight to 7:59 am, respectively. Of 1864 cardiac arrests in public locations, 61.8% (n=1152) occurred during the evening, nighttime, or weekends. Of 552 registered AEDs, 9.1% (n=50) were accessible at all hours, and 96.4% (n=532) were accessible during the daytime on all weekdays. Regardless of AED accessibility, 28.8% (537 of 1864) of all cardiac arrests were covered by an AED. Limited AED accessibility decreased coverage of cardiac arrests by 4.1% (9 of 217) during the daytime on weekdays and by 53.4% (171 of 320) during the evening, nighttime, and weekends. CONCLUSIONS: Limited AED accessibility at the time of cardiac arrest decreased AED coverage by 53.4% during the evening, nighttime, and weekends, which is when 61.8% of all cardiac arrests in public locations occurred. Thus, not only strategic placement but also uninterrupted AED accessibility warrant attention if public-access defibrillation is to improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Gislason, G. H.
Background: Early extubation after cardiac operation is an important aspect of fast-track cardiac anaesthesia. The length of stay in ICU limits utilisation of operation theatre in cardiac surgery. Increasing cost, limited resources, and newer surgical strategies have stimulated effectiveness of all routines in cardiac surgery, anaesthesia, and intensive care. Aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of fast-tracking in adult cardiac surgery and its effects on post operative recovery in our setup. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted over 14 months between Jul 16, 2007 to Sep 16, 2008. All the open heart cases were included unless absolute contraindications were there. We applied the rapid recovery protocol adopted from Oslo Hospital Norway in an attempt to achieve fast-tracking in our setup. Results: Two-hundred-seventy-four consecutive cases out of 400 operated cases were included in this study. Mean age was 47.69 +- 15.11 years, 27.7% were females, 5.8% were emergency cases, 5.1% were COPD, 11.1% were atrial fibrillation, and 6.9% were NYHA class-III cases. CABG was done in 66.1% cases and mean CPB-time was 75.92 +- 16.20 min. Mean Ventilation-time was 4.47+-4.48 hrs., 86% patients were fast-tracked to be extubated within 6 hours, and 85.4% patients remained free of post-op complications. Six (2.2%) re-intubatIions, 2.6% arrhythmias, 6.6% pleural effusions and 2.2% consolidation were observed post-operatively. Mean ICU stay was 2.49 +- 0.95 days and in-hospital mortality was 2.2%. Conclusion: Fast-tracking with extubation within 6 hours is feasible approach which minimises the post-operative complications significantly in adult cardiac surgical patients. (author)
The aim of the present study is to assess the complications of mild induced hypothermia (MIH) in patients with cardiac arrest. Presently, based on the guidelines of the American heart Association, MIH following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in unconscious adult patients due to ventricular fibrillation (VF) with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) is essential and required. However, MIH could be associated with complications in Patients with cardiac arrest. Studies conducted on the precautions and care following cardiac arrest and MIH were included. Valid scientific data bases were used for data collection. The obtained results from different studies revealed that mild MIH could be associated with numerous complications and the knowledge and awareness of the medical staff from the complications is required to guarantee successful therapeutic approaches in MIH following cardiac arrest which is a novel medical facility with different styles and complications. Overall, further future studies are required to improve the quality of MIH, to increase survival and to decrease complications rates.
Soleimanpour, Hassan; Rahmani, Farzad; Golzari, Samad EJ; Safari, Saeid
Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)
Cardiac injuries are classified as blunt and penetrating injuries. In both the injuries, the major issue is missing the diagnosis and high mortality. Blunt cardiac injuries (BCI) are much more common than penetrating injuries. Aiming at a better understanding of BCI, we searched the literature from January 1847 to January 2012 by using MEDLINE and EMBASE search engines. Using the key word "Blunt Cardiac Injury," we found 1814 articles; out of which 716 articles were relevant. Herein, we review the causes, diagnosis, and management of BCI. In conclusion, traumatic cardiac injury is a major challenge in critical trauma care, but the guidelines are lacking. A high index of suspicion, application of current diagnostic protocols, and prompt and appropriate management is mandatory. PMID:23041686
El-Menyar, Ayman; Al Thani, Hassan; Zarour, Ahmad; Latifi, Rifat
In the present study 100 cardiac patients were randomly selected from the cardiology ward, Allied Hospital Faisalabad, Pakistan. All the selected cases were analysed for different parameters like Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HbsAg), Bilirubin, Alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase. Out of total 16% patients were lying in the age of 21-30 year, 25% in the age of 31-40 year, 35% in the age of 41-50 year, 19% in the age of 51-60 ye...
Farina Saher; Khalil ur Rehman; Qureshi, Javed A.; Muhammad Irshad; Nasir Iqbal, Hafiz M.
Short-term prognostic factors in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) have previously been established using only hemodynamic parameters without taking into account classic intensive care unit (ICU) severity score or organ failure/support. The aim of this study was to assess early predictors of in-hospital mortality of a monocentric cohort of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by early CS. We retrospectively studied 85 consecutive patients with CS complicating acute myocardial infarction and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3 after percutaneous coronary revascularization. All patients were managed according to the following algorithm: initial resuscitation by a mobile medical unit or in-hospital critical care physician unit followed by percutaneous coronary revascularization and CS management in the ICU. Prehospital CS was diagnosed in 69% of cases, initially complicated by an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in 64% of cases. All patients were treated with vasopressors, 82% were ventilated, and 22% underwent extrarenal epuration. The 28-day mortality rate was 39%. Under multivariate analysis, initial cardiac power index, mean arterial pressure of less than 75 mmHg at hour 6 of ICU management, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II were independent predictive factors of in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, parameters directly related to cardiac performance and vascular response to vasopressors and admission Simplified Acute Physiology Score II are strong predictors of in-hospital mortality. PMID:24827392
Popovic, Batric; Fay, Renaud; Cravoisy-Popovic, Aurelie; Levy, Bruno
To determine the frequency of various causative factors of pleural effusion in adults. Combined Military Hospital, Attock and PAF hospital Faisal Karachi. One hundred and fifty patients of clinical signs of pleural effusion, were selected and then, further classified in to transudative and exudative variety by carrying out pleural fluid routine testing and using Light's criteria . Later the final etiological diagnosis was made with the help of appropriate laboratory tests. Out of total 150 patients who were studied, 123 patients were found to have exudative effusions whereas 27 cases had transudative effusion. A total of five 5 patients (3.33%) were lost to follow up. Three patients were out of exudative variety and 02 were from transudative variety. Out of 120 patient of exudative pleural effusion, 70(58.2%) had tuberculosis, 28(23.2%) had malignancy, 12(10%) had pneumonia, 5(6%) were uraemic, 2(1.6%) had pulmonary embolism, and rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic lupus erythematosis and liver abscess were causative factors in 1(0.8%) each patient. Out of transudative effusions, 14(56%) had congestive cardiac failure, 5(20%) had cirrhosis liver, 4(16%) had nephrotic syndrome and 1(4%) each had cardiac tamponade and myxoedema. The most common cause of pleural effusion remains tuberculosis. (author)
Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Irans hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and u...
Adib Hajbaghery, M.; Akbari, H.; Ga, Mousavi
Background Unconscious survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have a high risk of death or poor neurologic function. Therapeutic hypothermia is recommended by international guidelines, but the supporting evidence is limited, and the target temperature associated with the best outcome is unknown. Our objective was to compare two target temperatures, both intended to prevent fever. Methods In an international trial, we randomly assigned 950 unconscious adults after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause to targeted temperature management at either 33Â°C or 36Â°C. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality through the end of the trial. Secondary outcomes included a composite of poor neurologic function or death at 180 days, as evaluated with the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale and the modified Rankin scale. Results In total, 939 patients were included in the primary analysis. At the end of the trial, 50% of the patients in the 33Â°C group (235 of 473 patients) had died, ascompared with 48% of the patients in the 36Â°C group (225 of 466 patients) (hazard ratio with a temperature of 33Â°C, 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 1.28; P=0.51). At the 180-day follow-up, 54% of the patients in the 33Â°C group had died or had poor neurologic function according to the CPC, as compared with 52% of patients in the 36Â°C group (risk ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.16; P=0.78). In the analysis using the modified Rankin scale, the comparable rate was 52% in both groups (risk ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.14; P=0.87). The results of analyses adjusted for known prognostic factors were similar. Conclusions In unconscious survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause, hypothermia at a targeted temperature of 33Â°C did not confer a benefit as compared with a targeted temperature of 36Â°C. (Funded by the Swedish Heartâ??Lung Foundation and others; TTM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01020916.)
Hassager, Christian; Kjaergaard, Jesper
Introduction: The aim of this study is to explore the obstacles to collaborations between nurses in hospital and municipal care in the discharge of hospital patients who need continuing care.Methods: First, we conducted in-depth interviews of nurses in hospitals and nurses in municipal care. Second, we developed questionnaires and distributed them to a representative sample of Norwegian municipalities to study the representativeness of the most impo...
Bård Paulsen; Tor Inge Romøren; Anders Grimsmo
Monitoring of cardiac rhythms is of major importance in the treatment of heart failure patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) implanted. A continuous surveillance of these rhythms could improve out-of-hospital care in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiac rhythms using available pump data only. Datasets (n = 141) obtained in the normal ward, in the intensive care unit, and during bicycle ergometry were analyzed in 11 recipients of a continuous flow LVAD (59.1 ± 9.7 years; male 82%). Tachograms and arrhythmic patterns derived from the pump flow waveform, and a simultaneously recorded ECG were compared, as well as heart rate variability parameters such as: the average heart beat duration (RR interval), the standard deviation of the beat duration (SDNN), the root-mean-square of the difference of successive beat durations (RMSSD), and the number of pairs of adjacent beat duration differing by >50 ms divided by the number of all beats (pNN50). A very good agreement of cardiac rhythm parameters from the pump flow compared with ECG was found. Tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and extrasystoles could be accurately identified from the tachograms derived from the pump flow. Also, Bland-Altman analysis comparing pump flow with ECG indicated a very small difference in average RR interval of 0.3 ± 1.0 ms, in SSDN of 0.5 ± 2.7 ms, in RMSSD of 1.0 ± 5.6 ms, and in pNN50 of 0.3 ± 1.0%. Continuous monitoring of cardiac rhythms from available pump data is possible. It has the potential to reduce the out-of-hospital diagnostic burden and to permit a more efficient adjustment of the level of mechanical support. PMID:23902542
Moscato, Francesco; Granegger, Marcus; Edelmayer, Michael; Zimpfer, Daniel; Schima, Heinrich
A complete survey of physiological biophysical,clinical and engineering aspects of cardiac facing,including the history and an assessment of possible future developments.Among the topics studied are: pacemakers, energy search, heart stimulating with pacemakers ,mathematical aspects of the electric cardio stimulation chronic, pacemaker implants,proceeding,treatment and control
In general medical-surgical hospital services, depression is the most common reason for seeking psychiatric consultation in behalf of patients with cardiovascular disease. The nontreatment of depression or the use of a psychotropic agent mismatched to a patient's particular cardiac condition or individual sensitivities has considerable negative impact. Therefore, a systematic approach should be used in the differential diagnosis of depression in cardiac patients, to eliminate other psychiatri...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Continued breathing following ventricular fibrillation has here-to-fore not been described. Methods We analyzed the spontaneous ventilatory activity during the first several minutes of ventricular fibrillation (VF in our isoflurane anesthesized swine model of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The frequency and type of ventilatory activity was monitored by pneumotachometer and main stream infrared capnometer and analyzed in 61 swine during the first 3 to 6 minutes of untreated VF. Results During the first minute of VF, the air flow pattern in all 61 swine was similar to those recorded during regular spontaneous breathing during anesthesia and was clearly different from the patterns of gasping. The average rate of continued breathing during the first minute of untreated VF was 10 breaths per minute. During the second minute of untreated VF, spontaneous breathing activity either stopped or became typical of gasping. During minutes 2 to 5 of untreated VF, most animals exhibited very slow spontaneous ventilatory activity with a pattern typical of gasping; and the pattern of gasping was crescendo-decrescendo, as has been previously reported. In the absence of therapy, all ventilatory activity stopped 6 minutes after VF cardiac arrest. Conclusion In our swine model of VF cardiac arrest, we documented that normal breathing continued for the first minute following cardiac arrest.
Prevención primaria y secundaria de muerte súbita en un hospital de la Seguridad Social de Costa Rica: reporte del registro de pacientes con desfibrilador automático implantable, 2007-2011 / Primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death in a hospital of the social security system in Costa Rica: report from the registry of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, 2007-2011
Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Justificación y objetivo: diversos estudios han demostrado la eficacia de los desfibriladores automáticos implantables en la prevención de la muerte súbita cardiaca. La aplicación de dicha evidencia debe ser evaluada mediante registros. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las principales carac [...] terísticas epidemiológicas y clínicas y las complicaciones de los pacientes a quienes se les implanta un desfibrilador automático implantable en un hospital de tercer nivel en Costa Rica. Métodos: estudio observacional de cohorte, retrospectivo, que incluyó la totalidad de pacientes a quienes se les implantó un desfibrilador automático implantable en el hospital Dr. Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia entre 2007 y 2011. Resultados: se incluyó 23 pacientes. La edad media fue de 55 ± 18 años. La cardiopatía isquémica fue la etiología más frecuente (10 pacientes). Veinte pacientes estaban en clase funcional I o II; la fracción de eyección media fue 0,38 ± 0,17. En los 18 pacientes el desfibrilador automático se implantó por prevención secundaria. Cinco pacientes presentaron una complicación temprana, todos ellos con dispositivos bicamerales: 2 hematomas menores, una disección del seno coronario, un desplazamiento del electrodo atrial derecho y un ictus cardioembólico. Hubo un total de 101 terapias (en 8 pacientes), de las cuales 94 fueron apropiadas (en 5 pacientes) y 7 inapropiadas (en 3 pacientes); dos de estos últimos habían tenido episodios previos de fibrilación atrial. Conclusión: este registro muestra que la mayoría de los implantes de desfibriladores automáticos se realizan por prevención secundaria, con una alta tasa de terapias adecuadas y una baja tasa de terapias inadecuadas y de complicaciones; además, permite evaluar las indicaciones y las complicaciones asociadas con esta terapia. Abstract in english Aim: Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in the prevention of sudden cardiac death. The validation of this evidence has to be assessed through various registries. The objective of this study was to describe the main epidemiological and clinical c [...] haracteristics of patients who were referred to a tertiary hospital in Costa Rica to be treated with a cardioverter-defibrillators implantable; as well as the associated problems and complications. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study, which included all patients who were treated with a cardioverter-defibrillator implantable in the Dr. Rafael A. Calderón Guardia hospital between 2007 and 2011. Results: Twenty three patients were included. The mean age was 55 ± 18 years. Ischemic heart disease was the most frequent etiology (10 patients). Twenty patients had functional class I or II and the mean ejection fraction was 0.38 ± 0.17. In 18 patients, the cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted for secondary prevention. Five patients had an early complication; all of them had dual-chamber devices: 2 minor hematomas, 1 coronary sinus dissection, 1 right atrial lead displacement, and 1 cardio embolic stroke. From a total of 101 therapies (in 8 patients), 94 were appropriate (in 5 patients) and 7 were inappropriate (in 3 patients); 2 of the latter 3 patients had a history of atrial fibrillation episodes. Conclusion: This registry shows that the majority of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators implantations are performed as a secondary prevention, with a high rate of adequate therapies and a low rate of inadequate ones. The registry allowed an assessment of the indications and complications of this device therapy.
Arguedas-Jiménez, Hugo; Gutiérrez-Sotelo, Oswaldo.
UPMC McKeesport was founded in 1894 and is a nonprofit acute care community hospital that serves the 200,000 residents of McKeesport and the surrounding area. The Hospital offers 216 beds for acute care patients and 56 beds for patients who need skilled nursing care. The hospital offers an array of health care services including intensive care, cardiac care and ongoing rehabilitation and educational programs for patients with cardiac, neurologic, and orthopaedic diagnoses.
At "G. Pasquinucci" Hospital in Massa, a section of CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, an information system for cardiac surgery has been in use during the last years. This system was integrated with the Hospital Information System, already set up at the head of our institute in Pisa. Anesthesia data are recorded in the Operating Room (OR) as well as materials used during cardiac surgery operations. From the OR, data are transferred into the central clinical database, creating surgery repo...
Taddei, Alessandro; Dalmiani, Stefano; Piccini, Giacomo; Vellani, Antonio; Carducci, Tiziano; Buffa, Mariva; Scebba, Luigi; Glauber, Mattia; Murzi, Bruno; Biagini, Andrea; Macerata, Alberto
Emad F Aziz, Fahad Javed, Balaji Pratap, Eyal HerzogThe Advanced Cardiac Admission Program, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, University Hospital of Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Cardiovascular diseases account for 40% of all deaths in the West. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major health problem affecting over 300,000 patients annually in the United States alone. Presence of coronary artery disease (CAD), usually in the setting of...
Aziz, Emad F.; Fahad Javed; Balaji Pratap; et al
... Heart Diseases & Disorders > Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) SCA: Who's At Risk? Prevention of SCA ...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the main cause of death for men in most European countries, and in all for women. While mortality rates have been declining in most countries, hospital discharge for CVD has been stable since 2004, increasing the pool of patients eligible for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The physical rehabilitation of patients with CVD has been practiced in Europe to varying degrees since the early 1970s with most countries now engaged in Phase I through Phase III programs. Funding for CR comes from a variety of sources including patient pay, private insurance, retirement and/or obligatory and governmental subsidy. CR is practiced based on best available evidence but participation rates range between 30-50% of eligible patients. Participation rates present one of several challenges and opportunities for future research in Europe, along with assessment of long-term CR outcomes and better extension to primary prevention. PMID:24607021
Humphrey, Reed; Guazzi, Marco; Niebauer, Josef
Aim: To review the provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology (IR) services in the London Strategic Health Authority (SHA). Materials and methods: All 29 acute hospitals in the London SHA were contacted between November 2008 and January 2009. A questionnaire based on the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines assessed the provision of out-of-hours IR services. An 'ad-hoc' service was defined as on-call provision where not all the radiologists could perform intervention: If IR was required out of hours, an interventionalist came in when off-duty or the patient was transferred. Results: Seventeen out of the 29 (59%) hospitals provided ad-hoc out-of-hours services, eight (28%) provided a 24-hour rota, and four (14%) provide no out-of-hours cover. No ad-hoc service had formal transfer arrangements to a centre providing a 24 h service. Only two hospitals providing a 24 h service had six radiologists on the rota. Conclusion: Strategic planning for out-of-hours IR across London is recommended. This is likely to be welcomed by the hospitals involved, allowing informal arrangements to be formalized, and collaboration to provide comprehensive regional networks, provided appropriate funding is made available. A national audit is recommended; it is unlikely these findings are unique to London.
Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La insuficiencia cardiaca es un cuadro clínico frecuente y de apreciable mortalidad. A menudo de nuestra área de atracción emergen cardiópatas con diferentes grados de discapacidad, dependientes de familiares para su atención y que requieren re-hospitalizaciones y tratamientos costosos y a pesar de [...] ello con mal pronóstico. Las autoridades sanitarias y particularmente el estado invierten anualmente mucho dinero en el tratamiento de los enfermos que la padecen y también en la cobertura de incapacidades para estos individuos. El trasplante cardiaco se ha implementado en el mundo como una excelente opción de tratamiento de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca, capaz de brindar al menos 10 años de vida a pesar de lo riguroso del seguimiento, tanto para el paciente y su familia, como para el personal medico. El Hospital R. A. Calderón Guardia inició hace un año un Programa de Trasplante Cardiaco, presentamos aquí los 2 primeros pacientes y su seguimiento. Abstract in english Heart failure is a common clinical problem that implies pretty high mortality. From the Calderon Guardia Hospital drawing area emerge individuals with different degrees of disability, depending upon their families for their needs, requiring frequent hospitalizations and expensive treatments and stil [...] l with bad prognosis. The government dedicates large amounts of money to the treatment of these patients and also to cover for their disability. Cardiac transplantation has been implemented worldwide as a viable solution for persons with heart failure, able to expand their life for at least 10 extra years, in spite of the rigorous follow up protocols for the patients and health personnel as well. One year ago the R. A. Calderon Guardia Hospital started a heart transplant program, we herein present the first 2 patients and their follow up.
Donato, Salas-Segura; Mario, Sánchez Suen; Carlos, Salazar-Vargas.
Full Text Available La insuficiencia cardiaca es un cuadro clínico frecuente y de apreciable mortalidad. A menudo de nuestra área de atracción emergen cardiópatas con diferentes grados de discapacidad, dependientes de familiares para su atención y que requieren re-hospitalizaciones y tratamientos costosos y a pesar de ello con mal pronóstico. Las autoridades sanitarias y particularmente el estado invierten anualmente mucho dinero en el tratamiento de los enfermos que la padecen y también en la cobertura de incapacidades para estos individuos. El trasplante cardiaco se ha implementado en el mundo como una excelente opción de tratamiento de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca, capaz de brindar al menos 10 años de vida a pesar de lo riguroso del seguimiento, tanto para el paciente y su familia, como para el personal medico. El Hospital R. A. Calderón Guardia inició hace un año un Programa de Trasplante Cardiaco, presentamos aquí los 2 primeros pacientes y su seguimiento.Heart failure is a common clinical problem that implies pretty high mortality. From the Calderon Guardia Hospital drawing area emerge individuals with different degrees of disability, depending upon their families for their needs, requiring frequent hospitalizations and expensive treatments and still with bad prognosis. The government dedicates large amounts of money to the treatment of these patients and also to cover for their disability. Cardiac transplantation has been implemented worldwide as a viable solution for persons with heart failure, able to expand their life for at least 10 extra years, in spite of the rigorous follow up protocols for the patients and health personnel as well. One year ago the R. A. Calderon Guardia Hospital started a heart transplant program, we herein present the first 2 patients and their follow up.
Background:Sexual problems are common among cardiac patients. Further information is required on patients' experiences of sexuality and preferences for sexual counselling. Aim:To characterise sexual dysfunction and related factors among patients following cardiac rehabilitation and examine related treatment delivery. Methods:Telephone interviews with 382 patients (32% response rate) recruited from six hospital rehabilitation centres. Results:Seventy-nine per cent were male; average age was 64...
... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Warning Signs for Cardiac Arrest Updated:Oct 5,2011 Cardiac arrest strikes immediately ... content was last reviewed on 07/12/2011." Cardiac Arrest Home About Cardiac Arrest Warning Signs for Cardiac ...
Background: Cardiac arrest attributable to anaesthesia occurs at the rate of between 0.5 and 1 case per 10 000 cases, tends to have a different profile to that of cardiac arrest occurring elsewhere, and has an in-hospital mortality of 20%. However, as individual practitioners encounter cardiac arrest rarely, the rapidity with which the diagnosis is made and the consistency of appropriate management varies considerably. Objectives: To examine the role of a previously described core algorithm "COVER ABCDA SWIFT CHECK", supplemented by a sub-algorithm for cardiac arrest, in the management of cardiac arrest occurring in association with anaesthesia. Methods: The potential performance of this structured approach for each the relevant incidents among the first 4000 reported to the Australian Incident Monitoring Study (AIMS) was compared with the actual management as reported by the anaesthetists involved. Results: There were 129 reports of cardiac arrest associated with anaesthesia among the first 4000 AIMS incident reports. Identified aetiological factors were grouped into five categories: (1) anaesthetic technique (11 cases with this category alone; 32 with this and one or more of the other categories, representing 25% of all 129 cardiac arrests); (2) drug related (16; 32, 25%); (3) associated with surgical procedure (9; 29, 22%); (4) associated with pre-existing medical or surgical disease (30; 82, 64%); (5) unknown (8; 14, 11%). The "real life" presentation and management of cardiac arrest in association with anaesthesia differs substantially from that detailed in general published guidelines. Cardiac rhythms at the time were sinus bradycardia (23%); asystole (22%); tachycardia/ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (14%); and normal (7%), with a further third unknown. Details of treatment were recorded in 110 reports; modalities employed included cardiac compression (72%); adrenaline (61%); 100% oxygen (58%); atropine (38%); intravenous fluids (25%), and electrical defibrillation (17%). There were no deaths or permanent morbidity in the 11 cases due solely to anaesthetic technique. 24 of the 25 deaths occurred in patients with significant pre-existing medical or surgical disease. Conclusion: Because there are often multiple contributing factors to a cardiac arrest under anaesthesia, a complete systematic assessment of the patient, equipment, and drugs should be completed. The "COVER ABCDA SWIFT CHECK" algorithm was judged to be a satisfactory process in this context and should be carried out even if the cause of the cardiac arrest is already thought to have been found. The diagnosis and management of cardiac arrest in association with anaesthesia differs considerably from that encountered elsewhere. The outcome is generally good, with most patients leaving hospital alive and apparently well.
Runciman, W; Morris, R; Watterson, L; Williamson, J; Paix, A
Full Text Available ... is Emile Bacha. I'm one of the cardiac surgeons at Children's Hospital Boston and associate professor of surgery at Harvard Medical School. The theme today is LV rehabilitation in borderline left ventricles, something we have extensive ...
In patients with cardiac sarcoidosis, the sarcoid granulomas usually involve the myocardium or endocardium. The disease typically presents as heart failure with ventricular arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, or both. Constrictive pericarditis has rarely been described in patients with sarcoidosis: we found only 2 reports of this association. We report the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with clinical and hemodynamic features of constrictive pericarditis, of unclear cause. He was admitted for treatment of recurrent pleural effusion. After a complicated hospital course, he underwent pericardiectomy. His clinical and hemodynamic conditions improved substantially, and he was discharged from the hospital in good condition. The pathologic findings, the patient's clinical course, and his response to pericardiectomy led to our diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis presenting as constrictive pericarditis. In addition to the patient's case, we discuss the nature and diagnostic challenges of cardiac sarcoidosis. Increased awareness of this disease is necessary for its early detection, appropriate management, and potential cure. PMID:24955053
Darda, Saba; Zughaib, Marcel E; Alexander, Patrick B; Machado, Christian E; David, Shukri W; Saba, Souheil
Full Text Available Luigi Padeletti1, Giosuè Mascioli2, Alessandro Paoletti Perini1, Gino Grifoni1, Laura Perrotta1, Procolo Marchese3, Luca Bontempi3, Antonio Curnis31Istituto di Clinica Medica e Cardiologia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italia; 2Elettrofisiologia, Istituto Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo, Italia; 3Elettrofisiologia, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItaliaAbstract: Population aging and broader indications for the implant of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs are the main reasons for the continuous increase in the use of pacemakers (PMs, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs and devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-P, CRT-D. The growing burden of comorbidities in CIED patients, the greater complexity of the devices, and the increased duration of procedures have led to an augmented risk of infections, which is out of proportion to the increase in implantation rate. CIED infections are an ominous condition, which often implies the necessity of hospitalization and carries an augmented risk of in-hospital death. Their clinical presentation may be either at pocket or at endocardial level, but they can also manifest themselves with lone bacteremia. The management of these infections requires the complete removal of the device and subsequent, specific, antibiotic therapy. CIED failures are monitored by competent public authorities, that require physicians to alert them to any failures, and that suggest the opportune strategies for their management. Although the replacement of all potentially affected devices is often suggested, common practice indicates the replacement of only a minority of devices, as close follow-up of the patients involved may be a safer strategy. Implantation of a PM or an ICD may cause problems in the patients' psychosocial adaptation and quality of life, and may contribute to the development of affective disorders. Clinicians are usually unaware of the psychosocial impact of implanted PMs and ICDs. The main difference between PM and ICD patients is the latter's dramatic experience of receiving a shock. Technological improvements and new clinical evidences may help reduce the total burden of shocks. A specific supporting team, providing psychosocial help, may contribute to improving patient quality of life.Keywords: pacemaker, cardiac cardioverter-defibrillator, cardiac implantable electronic devices, infection, recall, quality of life
Desigualdades entre pacientes hospitalizados por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais em localidade do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, 1986 Inequalities among patients hospitalized for cardiac and cerebral-vascular diseases in the City of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, 1986
Full Text Available Valendo-se de um sistema de informações sobre hospitalizações no Município de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil foram estudadas as características clínico-epidemiológicas referidas dos pacientes internados, em 1986, por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais (DCVC. De 43.499 hospitalizações ocorridas naquele ano, 4.673 foram ocasionadas por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais. Utilizando a fonte de financiamento da internação como indicador do estrato social ao qual pertence o paciente, foram compostos 4 grupos de estudo: particulares, "outros", previdenciários e "não pagantes"; estes grupos apresentaram diferenças significativas quanto a coeficiente de internações por DCVC, média e mediana de idade na hospitalização, perfil ocupacional, duração da internação, freqüência dos sub-grupos diagnósticos, coeficientes de mortalidade e a idade média e mediana nos casos de óbitos. Estas diferenças foram atribuídas às disparidades sociais no nível de vida e condições de trabalho dos grupos estudados o que determina diferenças no adoecer, ser assistido e no morrer.The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hospitalizations due to cardiac and cerebral-vascular diseases (CCVD - ICD 390 - 438, which occurred in 1986, were studied on the basis of data from an information system relating to medical care in the City of Ribeirão Preto, State of S. Paulo, Brazil. These causes accounted for 4,673 of the annual total of 43,449 hospital admissions. Using the sources of payment of the hospitalization as an indicator of the patients' social strata, the following four study groups were defined: private, social insurance, non-paying and "others". These groups showed significant differences in relation to the following variables: hospitalization rates due to CCVD, mean and median age at admission and time of death, occupation, average length of stay in the hospital, mortality rates and relative frequencies of specific sub-group diagnosis. These differences are attributed to inequalities in the standard of living and in the working conditions of the groups, which determine diverse patterns of disease, medical care and mortality.
Juan Stuardo Yazlle Rocha
"A funding crisis at one of the UK's leading research councils has forced the country to pull out of plans for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) says in a report published today that it does not see "a practicable path towards the realization of this facility as currently conceived on a reasonable timescale". (1 page)
A proposed design of a closed shell tuner for the LEB cavity is presented. The tuner is made out of Ti alloy which has a high electrical resistivity as well as very good mechanical strength. Using this alloy results in a substantial reduction in the eddy current heating as well as allowing for faster frequency control. 9 figs
Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary embolism as a possible cause of acute heart failure is a potentially fatal condition that can cause death in all age groups. Patients successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest have a high risk of increased mortality and their poor longterm outcome is often associated with severe neurological complications. Case Outline. This is a case report of a 67yearold man after a successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR which was followed by therapeutic hypothermia (TH. The patient visited the dermatological outpatients department with clinical presentation of pain and swelling of the right leg, shortness of breath and chest pain. During examination the patient lost consciousness, stopped breathing and had cardiac arrest. ECG was done which registered asystole. We began CPR. After 59 minutes of resuscitation return of heartbeat was achieved. The patient was transported to the Emergency Department. On admission, after computerized tomography (CT of the chest confirmed massive pulmonary embolism (PE, the patient was administered thrombolytic therapy with Metalyse (tenecteplase and anticoagulation therapy (heparin. After stabilization, therapeutic hypothermia was applied. Combination of EMCOOLSpad on the chest and abdomen and cold Ringer lactate 500 ml at 4°C was flushed. Temperature was decreased to 33°C and kept stabile for 24 hours. After eight days the patient was conscious with a minimal neurological deficit. Conclusion. As shown in this case report, and according to the rich experience elsewhere, cooling therapy after outofhospital cardiac arrest and successful CRP may be useful in preventing neurological complications.
We define an effective temperature and study its properties for a class of out-of-equilibrium steady states in a heat bath. Our analysis is based on the anti-de Sitter spacetime/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, and examples include systems driven by applied electric fields and branes dragged in plasmas. We found that the effective temperature can be lower than that of the heat bath and that the out-of-equilibrium noise can be smaller than that in equilibrium. We show that a generalization of the fluctuation-dissipation relation holds for the effective temperature. In particular, we generalize the Johnson-Nyquist relation for a large electric field.
Nakamura, Shin; Ooguri, Hirosi
Investigations of corrosion resistance in different corrosive media (HNO3, NaCl, NaOH, H2SO4, HCl, H2SO4+HNO3, H2SO4+HCl, H2SO4+NaCl solutions) of tubes produced out of 12Kh18N10T steel oxidized in solutions of chromic anhydride and potassium bichromate have been carried out. Regularities of interaction of metal systems with gases are practically confirmed in Yuzhnotrubnyj plant conditions. Introduction of the procedure of tube oxidation out of corrosion-resistant steels simplifies essentially the technological cycle of tube preparation after rolling before heat treatment, increases their high-temperature - and acid resistance, decreases their tendency to ICC. Application of the tube oxidation method (in melts and solutions) as a measure of technological protection gives a considerable economic benefit
This paper investigates the role of skill depreciation in the relationship between work interruptions and subsequent wages. Using a unique longitudinal dataset, the Swedish part of the International Adult Literacy Survey, we are able to analyze changes in literacy skills for individuals as a function of time out of work. In general, we find statistically strong evidence on a negative relationship between work interruptions and skills. Our analysis suggests that depreciation of general (litera...
Edin, Per-anders; Gustavsson, Magnus
This paper investigates the role of skill depreciation in the relationship between work interruptions and subsequent wages. Using unique longitudinal microdata containing information on the ability to understand and practically employ printed information, we are able to analyze changes in skills for individuals as a function of time out of work. In general, we find statistically strong evidence of a negative relationship between work interruptions and skills. Our analysis suggests that deprec...
Edin, Per-anders; Gustavsson, Magnus
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the fungi causing dying out of one-yearold heather seedlings. Observations were carried out on: 'Amethyst', 'Annemarie', 'Colette', 'Perestroika' and 'Reini'. The shoots revealing necrotic symptoms were plated on PDA medium. 25 species of fungi were isolated. Among them Pestalotia sydowiana, Alternaria alternata, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Leptosphaeria coniothyrium and Epicoccum purpurascens were dominant, while Mammaria echinobotryoides, Phoma leveillei, Kaissleriella subalpina, Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora cinnamomi occurred less frequently.
Redução do período de internação e de despesas no atendimento de portadores de cardiopatias congênitas submetidos à intervenção cirúrgica cardíaca no protocolo da via rápida / The reduction in hospital stay and costs in the care of patients with congenital heart diseases undergoing fast-track cardiac surgery
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Avaliar o atendimento de cardiopatas congênitos e cardiopatas isquêmicos submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca no protocolo de atendimento na via rápida (fast-track recovery) em relação ao convencional. MÉTODOS: Avaliada a movimentação de 175 pacientes, 107 (61%) homens e 68 (39%) mulheres, idade [...] s entre 0,3-81 anos nas diferentes unidades hospitalares. RESULTADOS: A taxa de alta das diferentes unidades hospitalares por unidade de tempo, dos cardiopatas congênitos atendidos no protocolo da via rápida em relação ao convencional foi: a) 11,3 vezes a taxa de alta quando assistidos no protocolo da via convencional, quanto ao tempo de permanência no centro cirúrgico; b) 6,3 vezes quanto à duração da intervenção cirúrgica; c) 6,8 vezes quanto à duração da anestesia; d) 1,5 vezes quanto à duração da perfusão; e) 2,8 vezes quanto à permanência na unidade de recuperação pós-operatória I; f) 6,7 vezes quanto à permanência no hospital (período de tempo entre a data da internação e a data da alta); g) 2,8 vezes quanto à permanência na unidade de internação pré-operatória; h) 2,1 vezes quanto à permanência na unidade de internação após a alta da recuperação pós-operatória; i) associada com redução de despesas pré e pós-operatórias. A diferença não foi significativa nos portadores de cardiopatia isquêmica. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se redução do período de internação e de despesas no atendimento dos pacientes submetidos à intervenção cirúrgica cardíaca no protocolo da via rápida. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the care provided to patients with congenital heart diseases and ischemic heart diseases undergoing cardiac surgery according to the fast-track recovery protocol compared with those undergoing the conventional procedure. METHODS: The transfer of patients from one hospital unit t [...] o another was assessed for 175 patients, 107 (61%) men and 68 (39%) women, with ages ranging from 0.3 to 81 years. RESULTS: The discharge rate from the different hospital units per unit of time of the patients with congenital heart diseases treated according to the fast-track recovery protocol compared with that of patients conventionally treated was as follows: a) 11.3 times faster than the discharge rate of patients treated according to the conventional protocol, in regard to the time spent in the operating room; b) 6.3 times faster in regard to the duration of the surgical intervention; c) 6.8 times faster in regard to the duration of anesthesia; d) 1.5 times faster in regard to the duration of perfusion; e) 2.8 times faster in regard to the stay in the postoperative recovery I unit; f) 6.7 times faster in regard to hospital stay (time period between hospital admission and hospital discharge); g) 2.8 times faster in regard to the stay in the preoperative unit; h) 2.1 times faster in regard to the stay in the admission unit after discharge from postoperative recovery; i) associated with reduced costs. The difference was not significant for patients with ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION: A reduction in the length of hospital stay and costs for the care of patients undergoing cardiac surgery according to the fast-track protocol was observed.
Alfredo Manoel da Silva, Fernandes; Alfredo José, Mansur; Luis Fernando, Canêo; Domingos Dias, Lourenço; Marilde Albuquerque, Piccioni; Sonia Mieken, Franchi; Cristina Machado C., Afiune; Jorge Wiliam, Gadioli; Sérgio de Almeida, Oliveira; José Antonio Franchini, Ramires.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Assessment of incidence and behavior of mediastinitis after cardiac transplantation. METHODS: From 1985 to 1999, 214 cardiac transplantations were performed, 12 (5.6%) of the transplanted patients developed confirmed mediastinitis. Patient's ages ranged from 42 to 66 years (mean of 52.3±1 [...] 0.0 years) and 10 (83.3%) patients were males. Seven (58.3%) patients showed sternal stability on palpation, 4 (33.3%) patients had pleural empyema, and 2 (16.7%) patients did not show purulent secretion draining through the wound. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was the infectious agent identified in the wound secretion or in the mediastinum, or both, in 8 (66.7%) patients. Staphylococcus epidermidis was identified in 2 (16.7%) patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 1 (8.3%) patient, and the cause of mediastinitis could not be determined in 1 (8.3%) patient. Surgical treatment was performed on an emergency basis, and the extension of the débridement varied with local conditions. In 2 (16.7%) patients, we chose to leave the surgical wound open and performed daily dressings with granulated sugar. Total sternal resection was performed in only 1 (8.3%) patient. Out of this series, 5 (41.7%) patients died, and the causes of death were related to the infection. Autopsy revealed persistence of mediastinitis in 1 (8.3%) patient. CONCLUSION: Promptness in diagnosing mediastinitis and precocious surgical drainage have changed the natural evolution of this disease. Nevertheless, observance of the basic precepts of prophylaxis of infection is still the best way to treat mediastinitis.
Stolf, Noedir A. G.; Fiorelli, Alfredo I.; Bacal, Fernando; Camargo, Luiz F.; Bocchi, Edimar A.; Freitas, Andréa; Nicoletti, André; Meira, Daniela.
Incidência de parada cardíaca durante anestesia, em hospital universitário de atendimento terciário: estudo prospectivo entre 1996 e 2002 Incidencia de parada cardíaca durante anestesia, en hospital universitario de servicio terciario: estudio prospectivo entre 1996 y 2002 Cardiac arrest during anesthesia at a tertiary teaching hospital: prospective survey from 1996 to 2002
Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A incidência e causas de parada cardíaca (PC durante a anestesia variam e são difíceis de comparar diante dos diversos métodos usados nos estudos. A pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar todas as PC ocorridas no intra e pós-operatório, durante um período de sete anos, de 1996 a 2002, em hospital de ensino de atendimento terciário para determinar incidência e causas da PC. MÉTODO: A incidência prospectiva de PC ocorrida durante a anestesia em 40.941 pacientes consecutivos foi identificada, utilizando-se um Banco de Dados. Todos os casos de PC e óbito foram revisados por uma Comissão, para determinar o fator desencadeante da PC ou óbito. A incidência de PC foi calculada em relação à idade, sexo, estado físico, segundo a classificação da ASA, tipo de atendimento, fatores desencadeantes, como alteração do estado físico do paciente e complicações cirúrgicas e anestésicas, tipo de anestesia e evolução para óbito. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram 138 PC (33,7:10.000, sendo a maioria em recém-nascidos, crianças até um ano e idosos, no sexo masculino (65,2%, em pacientes com estado físico ASA III ou superior, em atendimento de emergência e durante anestesia geral. Alterações do estado físico foram o principal fator de PC (23,9:10.000, seguidas de complicações cirúrgicas isoladamente (4,64:10.000 ou associadas a alterações do estado físico (2,44:10.000 e da anestesia isoladamente (1,71:10.000 ou associadas a alterações do estado físico (0,98:10.000. O risco de óbito relacionado à anestesia como fator principal ou contributivo foi igual para ambos (0,49:10.000. As principais causas da mortalidade associada à anestesia foram os problemas ventilatórios (45,4%, eventos relacionados à medicação empregada (27,3%, aspiração pulmonar (18,2% e hidratação excessiva (9,1%. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de PC durante a anestesia ainda continua elevada. A maioria das PC e óbitos associados à anestesia foi relacionada ao manuseio das vias aéreas e à administração de medicamentos e anestésicos.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La incidencia y causas de parada cardíaca (PC durante la anestesia varían y son difíciles de comparar delante de los diversos métodos usados en los estudios. El objetivo de la pesquisa fue de como estudiar todas las PC ocurridas en el intra y pos-operatorio, durante un período de siete años, de 1996 a 2002, en un hospital de enseñanza de servicio terciario para determinar incidencia y causas de la PC. MÉTODO: La incidencia prospectiva de PC ocurrida durante la anestesia en 40.941 pacientes consecutivos fue identificada, utilizándose un Banco de datos. Todos los casos de PC y fallecimiento fueron revisados por una Comisión, para determinar el factor desencadenante de la PC o fallecimiento. La incidencia de la PC fue calculada con relación a la edad, sexo, estado físico, según la clasificación de la ASA, tipo de servicio, factores desencadenantes, como alteración del estado físico del paciente y complicaciones quirúrgicas y anestésicas, tipo de anestesia y evolución para fallecimiento. RESULTADOS: Ocurrieron 138 PC (33,7:10.000, siendo la mayoría en recién nacidos, niños hasta un año de edad y ancianos, en el sexo masculino (65,2%, en pacientes con estado físico ASA III o superior, en servicio de emergencia y durante anestesia general. Alteraciones del estado físico fueron el principal factor de PC (23,9:10.000, seguidas de complicaciones quirúrgicas aisladamente (4,64:10.000 o asociadas a alteraciones del estado físico (2,44:10.000 y de la anestesia aisladamente (1,71:10.000 o asociadas a alteraciones del estado físico (0,98:10.000. El riesgo de fallecimiento relacionado a la anestesia como factor principal o contributivo fue igual para ambos (0,49:10.000. Las principales causas de la mortalidad asociada a la anestesia fueron los problemas ventilatorios (45,4%, eventos relacionados a la medicación usada (27,3%, aspiración pulmonar (18,2% e hidratación excesiva (9,1%. CONCLUSIONES: La incidencia de PC dur
Leandro Gobbo Braz
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness This artist's animation illustrates the universe's early years, from its explosive formation to its dark ages to its first stars and mini-galaxies. Scientists using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found patches of infrared light splattered across the sky that might be the collective glow of clumps of the universe's first objects. Astronomers do not know if these first objects were stars or 'quasars,' which are black holes voraciously consuming surrounding gas. The movie begins with a flash of color that represents the birth of the universe, an explosion called the Big Bang that occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. A period of darkness ensues, where gas begins to clump together. The universe's first stars are then shown springing up out of the gas clumps, flooding the universe with light, an event that probably happened about a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Though these first stars formed out of gas alone, their deaths seeded the universe with the dusty heavy chemical elements that helped create future generations of stars. The first stars, called Population III stars (our star is a Population I star), were much bigger and brighter than any in our nearby universe, with masses about 1,000 times that of our sun. They grouped together into mini-galaxies, which then merged to form galaxies like our own mature Milky Way galaxy. The first quasars, not shown here, ultimately became the centers of powerful galaxies that are more common in the distant universe.
The objective of this diploma thesis is to perform a conceptual lay-out of a small launcher. Re- quirements have been defined in order to realize this first preliminary study and design of a small launcher. In that frame, a MATLAB code has been written in order to simulate the rocket tra- jectories. An optimization program on launcher staging has been written as well. To validate this code, the VEGA and Ariane 5 launchers have been used. Then from studies on existing launchers, simulations ha...
Building and racing mousetrap cars is a common activity in many eighth- and ninth-grade physical science classrooms. However, once students have raced their cars, most mousetrap assignments come to an end. The project described here was developed to help teachers get more mileage out of mousetrap cars. The project enables students to investigate the physics behind car construction and performance and is completed in four stages: assembly and materials, the race, data collection for the laboratory, and a final assignment that includes a to-scale diagram of the car and reflective essay.
Wylo, Bonnie; Rutherford, Sandra
Three-dimensional MEMS magnetometers with use of residual stresses in thin multilayers cantilevers are presented. Half-loop cantilevers based on Lorentz-force deflection convert magnetic flux in changes, thanks to piezoresistive transducers mounted in Wheatstone bridge. Magnetic field in the order of 10 Gauss was measured with a sensitivity of 0.015 mV/Gauss. A Finite Element Model of the device has been developed with Ansys for static and dynamic simulations. Novel out-of-plane ferromagnetic nickel plate magnetometer is also presented.
Ghorba, M El; Sobieski, S; Raskin, J -P
Full Text Available The superiority of MR in assessing cardiac masses"nand review of relevant and practical techniques."nEvaluation of pseudotumors, lipomatous hypertrophy"nof the interatrial septum (LHIS, cardiac neoplasms,"nmyxomas, fibromas and other interesting cardiac"ntumors, including benign and malignant tumors."nWe will review tissue characterization, anatomic"nlocalization, in order to make cardiac MR non operator"ndependent.
Babak Bob Raissi
It is not rare for patients with cardiomyopathy to be asymptomatic for long periods or to show improved cardiac function following various medical interventions. Conversely, cardiac events sometimes occur in those patients, requiring close observation. We assessed the usefulness of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy (MIBG) to predict the occurrence of cardiac events in patients with stable cardiomyopathy. The subjects comprised 74 outpatients with stable cardiomyopathy. MIBG was performed calculate the extent score, severity score, washout rate (WR), and heart-to-mediastinum ratio. At about the same time, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiography and the plasma brain natriuretic peptide were measured. The mean observation period extended for 741±437 days with an end point of cardiac events (cardiac death, heart failure requiring hospitalization, and arrhythmias requiring hospitalization). During the mean follow-up period, 15 cardiac events occurred. Results of multivariate analysis revealed that LVEF was the most powerful predictor of cardiac events (0.006, p<0.01). However, WR was the only significant predictor of hard events such as cardiac death (1.171, p<0.001) and cardiac events in the group of patients who preserved cardiac function with LVEF 0.4 or higher (1.079, p<0.05). Combined use of LVEF and WR is useful to predict the occurrence of cardiac events in patients with stable cardiomyopathy. (author)
The uranium hexafluoride (UF6) is one of the most important uranium chemical forms in nuclear fuel cycle, which is used in the uranium enrichment process and in the study of fluoride volatility process, one of the dry reprocessing methods. Normally, UF6 is confined in the solid state in the cylinder type container and handled as gas by adjusting the temperature and pressure. Since it is highly reactive with water vapor in the air, it must be carefully handled. By the reaction with water vapor, particle of UO2F2 appeared as a white cloud and corrosive HF gas are released to the atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to describe safety handling for clean out of empty UF6 cylinder and to summarize physical and chemical properties of uranium compounds in relation to treatment for UF6. The clean-out of the UF6 cylinder was carried out successfully by trapping the generated UO2F2 and HF adequately in a temporary globe box made of the polyvinyl chloride that set up in a laboratory hood. (author)
Full Text Available Historically, biomarkers have been used in two major ways to maintain and improve better health status: first, for diagnostic purposes, and second, as specific targets to treat various diseases. A new era in treatment and even cure for the some diseases using reprograming of somatic cells is about to be born. In this approach, scientists are successfully taking human skin cells (previously considered terminally-differentiated cells and re-programming them into functional cardiac myocytes and other cell types in vitro. A cell reprograming approach for treatment of cardiovascular diseases will revolutionize the field of medicine and significantly expand the human lifetime. Availability of a comprehensive catalogue for cardiac biomarkers is necessary for developing cell reprograming modalities to treat cardiac diseases, as well as for determining the progress of reprogrammed cells as they become cardiac cells. In this review, we present a comprehensive survey of the cardiac biomarkers currently known.
... cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, ...
The widespread increase in adult cardiac surgery over the last decade has meant that many more junior anaesthetists have become involved in the management of anaesthesia for cardiac surgery before they have taken the final part of the FRCA examination. Although cardiac anaesthesia is still a specialized area, FRCA candidates are expected to have a working knowledge of the principles involved. PMID:8826042
Freeman, J M; Clutton-Brock, T H
Full Text Available Objective: Chest pain (CP is a common cause of referral to hospital, not always directly related with cardiac diseases (CD. We investigated the causes for cardiac CP in children.Methods: A hundred and twenty children, admitted consecutively to pediatric cardiology clinic with CP, were evaluated in two groups (5-12 and 13-16 age-group in a cross-sectional and a retrospective way. Chest X-ray, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were performed. In case of necessity, 24-hour Holter monitoring, exercise stress test, tilt-table test were performed, and hemogram, serum glucose, electrolytes were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test and risk ratio [(Odds-ratio (OR, (95% CI] in groups were evaluated. Results: Most children with CP were older. Cardiac diseases were established in 52 (42.5% patients. Cardiac diseases, which may cause CP (aortic stenosis, mitral valve prolapse, arrhythmias, etc. were found in 23.3% (n=28 of patients. Compared with the younger, the risk of structural CD was found to be 2.84 times higher (OR=2.84, 95%CI 1.24-6.48, p=0.011 and risk of arrhythmia was 3.53 times higher in the elder age group (OR=3.53, 95%CI 0.93-13.38, p=0.051. When all CD were evaluated, elder children were found to have 4.12 times more risk of having CD (OR=4.12, 95%CI 1.89-9.01, p<0.0001.Conclusion: Most children with CP were older than 12 years old. CDs were frequent and about half of them were thought to directly cause pain. So, further investigations according to standard algorithms are needed in the evaluation of children with CP. Other important result is the increased risk of CD found in elder children.
F. Ay?enur Paç
Introduction. It is well known that during weightlessness a redistribution of body fluids occurs towards the upper parts of the body causing altered cardiovascular reflex activities. During head out of water immersion (HOI), the hydrostatic pressure on the soft tissues of the lower limbs causes thoracic blood volume to increase, comparably with the observed haemodynamics during weightlessness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate HOI as a simulation model of microgravity concerning the cardiovascular autonomic control system. Methods. Heartbeat and continuous blood pressure (fingerplethysmography) were measured in 18 (age=22.2± 10.3yr) healthy subjects in different conditions: Supine, sitting and standing in air (25C); upright submersion in thermo neutral water (34C) up to the shoulders (HOI). After 5 minutes of accommodation to the position and condition, recordings were made for 10 minutes. Time domain parameters (MeanRR, SD, rMSSD and pNN50) as well as frequency domain parameters (Total Power, high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF)) of HRV and BPV were calculated. An index of baroreflex sensitivity was determined by the sequence method. Results from the HOI experiment were compared to results obtained from microgravity phases in parabolic flights in 5 subjects. Results. Cardiac autonomic control during HOI was characterized by a gain in vagal predominance as shown by a decrease of the LF/HF-ratio from 950 ± 130 ms2 during standing control towards 389 ± 119 ms2 during HOI and a increase of BRS by approximately 20%. As a result, heart rate decreased by approximately 28% during HOI. The same evolution was shown during the transition from a standing control position towards 0G obtained during parabolic flights. LF power of BPV, as a marker of peripheral vasomotor sympathetic activity, decreased significantly both in absolute values and normalized units during HOI compared to standing and seated control (p LF power of BPV was observed during the 0G phase obtained in parabolic flights. Conclusion. It is concluded that HOI serves as a valid microgravity simulation model concerning cardiac autonomic reflex activity. In contrast, results from this study suggest that peripheral autonomic cardiovascular control is different during HOI compared to real microgravity obtained during parabolic flights. Probably, different intravascular pressure gradients in microgravity and during HOI result in a proper peripheral autonomic reflex modulation through the activity of low pressure baroreceptors.
Verheyden, B.; Beckers, F.; Aubert, Ae.
Economic and financial networks play a crucial role in various important processes, including economic integration, globalization, and financial crises. Of particular interest is understanding whether the temporal evolution of a real economic network is in a (quasi-)stationary equilibrium, i.e. characterized by smooth structural changes rather than abrupt transitions. Smooth changes in quasi-equilibrium networks can be generally controlled for, and largely predicted, via an appropriate rescaling of structural quantities, while this is generally not possible for abrupt transitions in non-stationary networks. Here we study whether real economic networks are in or out of equilibrium by checking their consistency with quasi-equilibrium maximum-entropy ensembles of graphs. As illustrative examples, we consider the International Trade Network (ITN) and the Dutch Interbank Network (DIN). We show that, despite the globalization process, the ITN is an almost perfect example of quasi-equilibrium network, while the DIN ...
Full Text Available This essay on cultural studies and the African Diaspora argues for a rethinking of cultural studies in two critical ways: firstly, that cultural studies, from its founding institutional and conceptual moment, cannot but be thought diasporically; and, secondly, that cultural studies be thought out of, or, against, contextthat is, cultural studies is most revealing in its political and literary articulation when it is not read, as many of its advocates claim, contextually. This essay offers a broad critique of cultural studies and the (African diaspora but derives its most cogent and creative argument from its ability to read together the work of two diasporic authors, deracinated South African and Australian writers, J. M. Coetzee and David Malouf.
Desigualdades entre pacientes hospitalizados por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais em localidade do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil), 1986 / Inequalities among patients hospitalized for cardiac and cerebral-vascular diseases in the City of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, 1986
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Valendo-se de um sistema de informações sobre hospitalizações no Município de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil) foram estudadas as características clínico-epidemiológicas referidas dos pacientes internados, em 1986, por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais (DCVC). De 43.499 hospitalizações ocorridas n [...] aquele ano, 4.673 foram ocasionadas por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais. Utilizando a fonte de financiamento da internação como indicador do estrato social ao qual pertence o paciente, foram compostos 4 grupos de estudo: particulares, "outros", previdenciários e "não pagantes"; estes grupos apresentaram diferenças significativas quanto a coeficiente de internações por DCVC, média e mediana de idade na hospitalização, perfil ocupacional, duração da internação, freqüência dos sub-grupos diagnósticos, coeficientes de mortalidade e a idade média e mediana nos casos de óbitos. Estas diferenças foram atribuídas às disparidades sociais no nível de vida e condições de trabalho dos grupos estudados o que determina diferenças no adoecer, ser assistido e no morrer. Abstract in english The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hospitalizations due to cardiac and cerebral-vascular diseases (CCVD - ICD 390 - 438), which occurred in 1986, were studied on the basis of data from an information system relating to medical care in the City of Ribeirão Preto, State of S. Paulo, B [...] razil. These causes accounted for 4,673 of the annual total of 43,449 hospital admissions. Using the sources of payment of the hospitalization as an indicator of the patients' social strata, the following four study groups were defined: private, social insurance, non-paying and "others". These groups showed significant differences in relation to the following variables: hospitalization rates due to CCVD, mean and median age at admission and time of death, occupation, average length of stay in the hospital, mortality rates and relative frequencies of specific sub-group diagnosis. These differences are attributed to inequalities in the standard of living and in the working conditions of the groups, which determine diverse patterns of disease, medical care and mortality.
Juan Stuardo, Yazlle Rocha; Alzira de Oliveira, Jorge; Breno José G., Simões; Fábio Leite, Vichi.
Desigualdades entre pacientes hospitalizados por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais em localidade do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil), 1986 / Inequalities among patients hospitalized for cardiac and cerebral-vascular diseases in the City of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, 1986
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Valendo-se de um sistema de informações sobre hospitalizações no Município de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil) foram estudadas as características clínico-epidemiológicas referidas dos pacientes internados, em 1986, por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais (DCVC). De 43.499 hospitalizações ocorridas n [...] aquele ano, 4.673 foram ocasionadas por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais. Utilizando a fonte de financiamento da internação como indicador do estrato social ao qual pertence o paciente, foram compostos 4 grupos de estudo: particulares, "outros", previdenciários e "não pagantes"; estes grupos apresentaram diferenças significativas quanto a coeficiente de internações por DCVC, média e mediana de idade na hospitalização, perfil ocupacional, duração da internação, freqüência dos sub-grupos diagnósticos, coeficientes de mortalidade e a idade média e mediana nos casos de óbitos. Estas diferenças foram atribuídas às disparidades sociais no nível de vida e condições de trabalho dos grupos estudados o que determina diferenças no adoecer, ser assistido e no morrer. Abstract in english The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hospitalizations due to cardiac and cerebral-vascular diseases (CCVD - ICD 390 - 438), which occurred in 1986, were studied on the basis of data from an information system relating to medical care in the City of Ribeirão Preto, State of S. Paulo, B [...] razil. These causes accounted for 4,673 of the annual total of 43,449 hospital admissions. Using the sources of payment of the hospitalization as an indicator of the patients' social strata, the following four study groups were defined: private, social insurance, non-paying and "others". These groups showed significant differences in relation to the following variables: hospitalization rates due to CCVD, mean and median age at admission and time of death, occupation, average length of stay in the hospital, mortality rates and relative frequencies of specific sub-group diagnosis. These differences are attributed to inequalities in the standard of living and in the working conditions of the groups, which determine diverse patterns of disease, medical care and mortality.
Juan Stuardo, Yazlle Rocha; Alzira de Oliveira, Jorge; Breno José G., Simões; Fábio Leite, Vichi.
Guidance is needed to help clinicians decide which out-of-center (OOC) testing devices are appropriate for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A new classification system that details the type of signals measured by these devices is presented. This proposed system categorizes OOC devices based on measurements of Sleep, Cardiovascular, Oximetry, Position, Effort, and Respiratory (SCOPER) parameters.Criteria for evaluating the devices are also presented, which were generated from chosen pre-test and post-test probabilities. These criteria state that in patients with a high pretest probability of having OSA, the OOC testing device has a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 5 or greater coinciding with an in-lab-polysomnography (PSG)-generated apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ? 5, and an adequate sensitivity (at least 0.825).Since oximetry is a mandatory signal for scoring AHI using PSG, devices that do not incorporate oximetry were excluded. English peer-reviewed literature on FDA-approved devices utilizing more than 1 signal was reviewed according to the above criteria for 6 questions. These questions specifically addressed the adequacy of different respiratory and effort sensors and combinations thereof to diagnose OSA. In summary, the literature is currently inadequate to state with confidence that a thermistor alone without any effort sensor is adequate to diagnose OSA; if a thermal sensing device is used as the only measure of respiration, 2 effort belts are required as part of the montage and piezoelectric belts are acceptable in this context; nasal pressure can be an adequate measurement of respiration with no effort measure with the caveat that this may be device specific; nasal pressure may be used in combination with either 2 piezoelectric or respiratory inductance plethysmographic (RIP) belts (but not 1 piezoelectric belt); and there is insufficient evidence to state that both nasal pressure and thermistor are required to adequately diagnose OSA. With respect to alternative devices for diagnosing OSA, the data indicate that peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) devices are adequate for the proposed use; the device based on cardiac signals shows promise, but more study is required as it has not been tested in the home setting; for the device based on end-tidal CO(2) (ETCO(2)), it appears to be adequate for a hospital population; and for devices utilizing acoustic signals, the data are insufficient to determine whether the use of acoustic signals with other signals as a substitute for airflow is adequate to diagnose OSA.Standardized research is needed on OOC devices that report LR+ at the appropriate AHI (? 5) and scored according to the recommended definitions, while using appropriate research reporting and methodology to minimize bias. PMID:22003351
Collop, Nancy A; Tracy, Sharon L; Kapur, Vishesh; Mehra, Reena; Kuhlmann, David; Fleishman, Sam A; Ojile, Joseph M
The scientific literature has pointed out several predictors of negative outcome after surgery such as pain and depression, negatively affecting the postoperative outcome in cardiac surgery. From January 2009 until June 2010, 15 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were enrolled. The patients were assessed by psychological evaluation either in the hospital stay either in the rehabilitation period with the aim of identifying their emotional condition (sentiments about the onset of the diseas...
Fabrizio Sansone; Erika Bellini; Sabrina Ghersi; Edoardo Zingarelli; Roberto Flocco; Guglielmo Mario Actis Dato; Pier Giuseppe Forsennati; Francesco Parisi; Giuseppe Punta; Gian Luca Bardi; Stefano del Ponte; Riccardo Casabona
Abstract We describe here a 42-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital with a pedunculated mass in her left atrium. She was diagnosed with a primary cardiac osteosarcoma with special immunohistochemical characteristics. Echocardiography and computed tomography can be used to differentiate cardiac osteosarcomas from routine intracardiac tumors. The patient was treated by surgical removal of the mass. Two years later, she has shown no evidence of disease recurrence. We discuss pri...
Luo Honghe; Lei Yiyan; Su Chunhua; Cai Lie; Wang Tao; Zou Jianyong; Chen Zhenguang
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of low cardiac output and mortality in decompensated heart failure. INTRODUCTION: Introduction: Patients with decompensated heart failure have a high mortality rate, especially those patients with low cardiac output. However, this clinical presentation is uncommon, and its management is controversial. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 452 patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure with an ejection fraction of <0.45. Patients underwent clinical-hemod...
Marcelo Eidi Ochiai; Juliano Novaes Cardoso; Kelly Regina Novaes Vieira; Marcelo Villaça Lima; Euler Cristovan Ochiai Brancalhao; Antonio Carlos Pereira Barretto
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interruption in chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be characterized as no flow ratio (NFR and the importance of minimizing these pauses in chest compression has been highlighted recently. Further, documentation of resuscitation performance has been reported to be insufficient and there is a lack of identification of important issues where future efforts might be beneficial. By implementing in situ simulation we created a model to evaluate resuscitation performance. The aims of the study were to evaluate the feasibility of the applied method, and to examine differences in the resuscitation performance between the first responders and the cardiac arrest team. Methods A prospective observational study of 16 unannounced simulated cardiopulmonary arrest scenarios was conducted. The participants of the study involved all health care personel on duty who responded to a cardiac arrest. We measured NFR and time to detection of initial rhythm on defibrillator and performed a comparison between the first responders and the cardiac arrest team. Results Data from 13 out of 16 simulations was used to evaluate the ability of generating resuscitation performance data in simulated cardiac arrest. The defibrillator arrived after median 214 seconds (180-254 and detected initial rhythm after median 311 seconds (283-349. A significant difference in no flow ratio (NFR was observed between the first responders, median NFR 38% (32-46, and the resuscitation teams, median NFR 25% (19-29, p Conclusion The main finding of this study was a significant difference between the first responders and the cardiac arrest team with the latter performing more adequate cardiopulmonary resuscitation with regards to NFR. Future research should focus on the educational potential for in-situ simulation in terms of improving skills of hospital staff and patient outcome.
Wiborg Karsten R
There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart.
Hanson, C.W. III [Hospital of the Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. Anesthesia; Hoffman, E.A. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States). Div. of Physiologic Imaging
There are several theoretic advantages to synchronizing positive pressure breaths with the cardiac cycle, including the potential for improving distribution of pulmonary and myocardial blood flow and enhancing cardiac output. The authors evaluated the effects of synchronizing respiration to the cardiac cycle using a programmable ventilator and electron beam CT (EBCT) scanning. The hearts of anesthetized dogs were imaged during cardiac gated respiration with a 50 msec scan aperture. Multi slice, short axis, dynamic image data sets spanning the apex to base of the left ventricle were evaluated to determine the volume of the left ventricular chamber at end-diastole and end-systole during apnea, systolic and diastolic cardiac gating. The authors observed an increase in cardiac output of up to 30% with inspiration gated to the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle in a non-failing model of the heart
Despite the increasingly positive outcome of organ transplantation as an accepted treatment of end-stage organ diseases, an average of 15 people die each day awaiting organ transplantation. According to the United Network for Organ Sharing, there are more than 90,000 people in the United States waiting for an organ transplant. In the United States, less than 1% of all deaths are attributed to brain death. A single brain-dead organ donor has the potential to save up to 8 individuals by donating organs and providing up to 50 people with tissue and cornea transplants. The reality is that the source of available brain-dead donors does not meet the needs of the growing waiting list. To help deal with the increasing demand for organs, donation after cardiac death has been reintroduced to families of patients with catastrophic brain injuries. Families have the right to be informed of all potential end-of-life options, including that of organ donation and the use of donation after cardiac death when appropriate. Hospitals and healthcare workers must be committed to provide the option of donation after cardiac death for both donor families and transplant recipients. The purpose of this article is to examine the process of implementing a donation after cardiac death policy in a 1,061-bed tertiary care hospital with level I trauma designation. PMID:17420653
Sills, Patty; Bair, Holly A; Gates, Liz; Janczyk, Randy J
Introduction: To characterize cardiac complications in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients admitted from an urban emergency department (ED). Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study evaluating AIS patients admitted from the ED within 24 hours of symptom onset who also had an echocardiogram performed within 72 hours of admission. Results: Two hundred AIS patients were identified with an overall in-hospital mortality rate of 8% (n¼ 16). In our cohort, 57 (28.5%) of 200 ...
Abstract Background Many patients experience anxiety and depression after cardiac bypass surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation on anxiety and depression in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in southern Iran. Methods For this randomized controlled trial, 80 patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited and randomly assign...
Sharif Farkhondeh; Shoul Alireza; Janati Mansour; Kojuri Javad; Zare Najaf
Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 1020 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.
Parsons Jonathan M
Full Text Available Yutaka Nakashima,1 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,2 Masanobu Okayama,3 Eiji Kajii31Department for Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 2Division of General Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan; 3Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, JapanAbstract: A 23-year-old man became unconscious while jogging. He immediately received basic life support from a bystander and was transported to our hospital. On arrival, his spontaneous circulation had returned from a state of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity. Following admission, hyperthyroidism led to a suspicion of thyroid storm, which was then diagnosed as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest. Although hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac arrest including ventricular fibrillation is rare, it should be considered when diagnosing the cause of treatable cardiac arrest.Keywords: hyperthyroidism, ventricular fibrillation, treatable cardiac arrest, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest
A 23-year-old man became unconscious while jogging. He immediately received basic life support from a bystander and was transported to our hospital. On arrival, his spontaneous circulation had returned from a state of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity. Following admission, hyperthyroidism led to a suspicion of thyroid storm, which was then diagnosed as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest. Although hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac arrest including ventricular fibrillation is rare, it should be considered when diagnosing the cause of treatable cardiac arrest.
Nakashima, Yutaka; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Okayama, Masanobu; Kajii, Eiji
Risk evaluation is a challenging problem in clinical cardiology. Recently, the development of new therapeutic strategies for malignant cardiac arrhythmias and ischemia has urged the need for more accurate screening methods of risk patients The purpose of this review is to summarize the current scientific evidence on the applicability of a new method, high-resolution magnetocardiography (HR-MCG), in identification of cardiac patients at risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and ischemic episodes. In recent years different methods for recognizing the electromagnetic abnormalities indicating the increased risk have been used with promising results. At present, the following conclusions can be made: 1) MCG can reliably identify patients prone to malignant ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction as well as in cardiomyopathy, in long QT syndrome, and in operated congenital heart disease. 2) Several analysis methods seem to work: high-pass filtering, relative smoothness score and magnetic field map trajectory plots. 3) Detection and localization of acute and chronic ischemia seems technically feasible and may be one of the most important new clinical applications of the method. 4) Larger clinical series are needed to optimize these techniques and to evaluate their feasibility in the clinics. 5) Prognostic studies should also be started as soon as possible. There are already many multichannel MCG measurement systems available in hospitals to enable clinical studies.ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Die Risikoabschätzung stellt in der klinischen Kardiologie ein schwieriges Problem dar. Kürzlich hat die Entwicklung neuer Strategien bei malignen kardialen Arrhythmien und der Ischämie die, Notwendigkeit an exakteren Untersuchungsmethoden bei Risikopatienten unterstrichen. Diese Ubersicht soll dem Zweck dienen, die derzeitige wissenschaftliche Anwendbarkeit einer neuen Methode, der hochauflösenden Magnetokardiographie (HR-MCG) bei Herzpatienten nachzuweisen, bei denen ein Risiko des Auftretens maligner Kammerarrhythmien und ischämischen Episoden beseht. Im Verlauf der letzten Jahre sind mit vielversprechenden Resultaten verschiedene Methoden zum Nachweis elektromagnetischer Störungen entwickelt worden, die auf ein erhöhtes Risiko hinweisen. Momentan können daraus die folgenden Schlussfolgerungen gezogen werden: 1) Die MCG kann das erhöhte Risiko bei den Patienten zuverlässig aufzeigen, die einen Herzinfarkt durchgemacht haben oder an einer Kardiomyopathie, einem langen QT-Syndrom oder einer operierten, kongenitalen Herzerkrankung leiden. 2) Es scheinen verschiedene Auswertungsmethoden zu funktionieren: Hochpassfiltrierung, Relative Smoothness Score und Magnetkarten-Trajektaufzeichnungen. 3) Nachweis und Lokalisation der akuten und chronischen Ischämie erscheinen technisch möglich zu sein und können eine der wichtigsten neuen klinischen Untersuchungsmethoden darstellen. 4) Umfangreichere klinische Studien sind erforderlich, um die Optimierung dieser Methoden zu erreichen und ihre Eignung unter klinischen Bedingungen aufzuzeigen. 5) So bald als möglich sollten ausserdem prognostische Studien eingeleitet werden. Es existieren in Krankenhäusern bereits einige Multikanal-MCG-Messgeräte, die sich zur Durchführung klinischer Studien eignen. PMID:19484514
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, Dutch general practitioner (GP out-of-hours service has been reorganised into large-scale GP cooperatives. Until now little is known about GPs' experiences with working at these cooperatives for out-of-hours care. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into GPs' satisfaction with working at GP cooperatives for out-of-hours care in separated and integrated cooperatives. Methods A GP cooperative separate from the hospital Accident and Emergency (A&E department, and a GP cooperative integrated within the A&E department of another hospital. Both cooperatives are situated in adjacent geographic regions in the South of the Netherlands. One hundred GPs were interviewed by telephone; fifty GPs working at the separated GP cooperative and fifty GPs from the integrated GP cooperative. Opinions on different aspects of GP cooperatives for out-of-hours care were measured, and regression analysis was performed to investigate if these could be related to GP satisfaction with out-of-hours care organisation. Results GPs from the separated model were more satisfied with the organisation of out-of-hours care than GPs from the integrated model (70 vs. 60 on a scale score from 0 to 100; P = 0.020. Satisfaction about out-of-hours care organisation was related to opinions on workload, guarantee of gatekeeper function, and attitude towards out-of-hours care as being an essential part of general practice. Cooperation with medical specialists was much more appreciated at the integrated model (77 vs. 48; P Conclusion GPs in this study appear to be generally satisfied with the organisation of GP cooperatives for out-of-hours care. Furthermore, GPs working at the separated cooperative seem to be more satisfied compared to GPs working at the integrated cooperative.
Objective of this survey was to compare a new algorithm for pulse contour measurement, which additionally considers the individual compliance of the aorta for calculating the cardiac output (CO), with the previously used algorithm for the same pulsion continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) device (Medical Systems, Munich, Germany). Measurements were carried out on the surgical intensive care unit H3A of the Munich University Hospital Großhadern in 47 patients that had undergone cardiac surgery. R...
Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR ocorrida em ambulatório tem elevada mortalidade, sendo a sobrevida entre 5% e 35%. Dos pacientes que são reanimados uma percentagem elevada permanece com déficits neurológicos, resultantes das lesões ocorridas, tanto no período de ausência de circulação ou durante a reperfusão. No entanto a compreensão dos mecanismos da lesão cerebral não tem traduzido na melhoria do prognóstico. A hipotermia terapêutica após a reanimação parece ser uma opção válida associada à diminuição destas seqüelas neurológicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi rever a evidência científica relativa à abordagem do paciente reanimado após PCR. CONTEÚDO: Descrição e abordagem dos principais fatores de risco associados à lesão neurológica após PCR, bem como dos seus critérios de prognóstico.Feita pesquisa não sistemática na base de dados PubMed dos artigos referentes à abordagem terapêutica dos pacientes reanimados de parada cardíaca. As referências bibliográficas dos artigos de revisão foram igualmente analisadas. Elaboradas normas práticas para essa abordagem. CONCLUSÕES: Os pacientes que sobrevivem à PCR têm elevado risco de permanecer com lesões neurológicas graves. A hipotermia terapêutica e o controle das variáveis fisiológicas, com otimização da perfusão cerebral, podem melhorar o seu prognóstico.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a major cause of death with survival rates as low as 5% to 35%. A large number of patients who survive resuscitation will face significant neurological damage, as a result of the ischemia that occurs both during cardiac arrest and reperfusion. However understanding of the mechanisms responsible for brain damage has not resulted in prognostic improvement. Therapeutic hypothermia after resuscitation may be a valid option associated to reduction of neurological damage. The purpose of this study was to review scientific evidence related to a therapy for patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest. CONTENTS: Description and analysis of the main risk factors associated with neurological damage after resuscitation from cardiac arrest as well as prognostic criteria was carried out. A non-systematic search was conducted in the PubMed data base for papers on a therapeutic approach for patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Bibliographic references of reviewed papers were also analyzed. Practical rules were drafted for such an approach. CONCLUSIONS: Patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest face a high level of risk of neurological damage. Therapeutic hypothermia and control of physiological parameters to optimise brain perfusion, may improve prognosis.
João Carlos Ramos Gonçalves Pereira
Full Text Available
Introduction: sudden cardiac death (SCD is an unexpected natural death due to cardiac causes in a short time period in a person with or without preexisting heart disease. Incidence of SCD in general population is 1/1000 inhabitants.
Aims: to determine the incidence of SCD at a territory of Zivinice municipality.
Patients and methods: this study is a prospective examination of SCD by using the data from death certificates, data received from interviews with competent physicians, witnesses and family members. Definition and criteria of SCD by European Society of Cardiologist and American Heart Association from 2001 and use of International Classification of Diseases, version 10, were applied to determine the number of SCD.
Results: sudden cardiac death is the single most frequent cause of death in inhabitants of the ivinice municipality. The incidence of SCD at the municipal ivinice was 1 .4 cases per 1000 inhabitants per year. Mean age was 66.3 (±12,6 years; in average, men were 7.2 years younger than women. The risk for SCD was 1.24-fold higher in men than in women. Correlation between the age and numbers of SCD was high (r=0.89; p<0.005. The most frequent risk factors were age, family history of SCD and/or cardiovascular disease and inadequate physical activity; leading conventional risk factor was hypertension. Witnesses of sudden cardiac death were present in 58.0% cases. None of the persons with out-of-hospital SCD received adequate first aid from bystanders.
Conclusion: Sudden cardiac death is the single most frequent cause of death among inhabitants of Zivinice municipality; proportion of SCD within all other causes of death was 22.3%. Incidence of SCD however, is not significantly higher when compared to industrialized countries. A risk for sudden cardiac death is significantly higher and directly depends on the presence and number of risk factors.
Full Text Available Jean-Philippe Baguet1,21Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, 2Bioclinic Radiopharmaceutics Laboratory, INSERM U1039, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble, FranceAbstract: Hypertension is an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally, hypertension diagnosis and treatment and clinical evaluations of antihypertensive efficacy have been based on office blood pressure (BP measurements; however, there is increasing evidence that office measures may provide inadequate or misleading estimates of a patients true BP status and level of cardiovascular risk. The introduction, and endorsement by treatment guidelines, of 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and self (or home BP monitoring has facilitated more reliable and reproducible estimations of true BP, including the identification of white-coat and masked hypertension, and evaluation of BP variability. In addition, ambulatory BP monitoring enables accurate assessment of treatment effectiveness over 24 hours and both ambulatory and self BP monitoring may lead to better tailoring of therapy according to BP profile and concomitant disease. This review describes the clinical benefits and limitations of out-of-office assessments and their applications for effective management of hypertension and attainment of BP control.Keywords: ambulatory, ABPM, SBPM, blood pressure measurement, hypertension
The British Orthopaedic Association have recommended that all hospitals should have daily, consultant-led, trauma lists. We have prospectively examined the introduction of a daily trauma list on the out-of-hours operating and the management of trauma in one district hospital. The data collected were compared with a corresponding 6-month period in 1996. It was found that the mean usage of the list was 2 h 38 min; 10% of lists were not used. There has been a significant reduction in the number ...
Jennings, A. G.; Saeed, K.; Dolan, S.; Wise, D. I.
We present the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with a witnessed cardiac arrest. She was otherwise healthy with no cardiac risk factors and had undergone an uneventful repeated cesarean section 3 days priorly. The patient underwent defibrillation, out of ventricular fibrillation to a perfusing sinus rhythm, and was taken to the catheterization laboratory where coronary angiography findings showed spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending ar...
Pillow, Malford T.; Ngoc Anh Nguyen; Dick Kuo
Population aging and broader indications for the implant of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are the main reasons for the continuous increase in the use of pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-P, CRT-D). The growing burden of comorbidities in CIED patients, the greater complexity of the devices, and the increased duration of procedures have led to an augmented risk of infections, which is out of p...
Padeletti, Luigi; Mascioli, Giosue?; Perini, Alessandro Paoletti; Grifoni, Gino; Perrotta, Laura; Marchese, Procolo; Bontempi, Luca; Curnis, Antonio
Background & Aim: Cardiac rehabilitation is one of the most effective ways of secondary prevention in patients with myocardial infarction manifestations. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation on clinical manifestations of myocardial infarction in post-MI patients. Methods & Materials: In this interventional study, 66 patients (58 males and eight females) with myocardial infarction who were hospitalized in public hospitals of Ahwaz were selected using p...
Sh Davoodvand (MSc.); Elahi, N.; Haghighizadeh, M.
Wound management in burns is a potentially complex issue. Salivary constituents have been shown experimentally to be of benefit in the treatment of thermal injuries. In our clinical experience we have encountered patients who have saliva directly applied to the burn wound prior to presenting to the national burns service. The practice is known as "Licking". We report two cases to illustrate the presentations we have encountered. We believe that these illustrate an isolated phenomenon unique to the Republic of Ireland.
Seoighe, Deirdre M
An 8-year-old boy suffered a skull fracture and severe brain injury while attending a skiing event. A physician, equipped with his private emergency kit accomplished placement of a venous access line enabling administration of analgesic and sedating medication with ketamine and midazolam. When the helicopter emergency medical service arrived on the scene the patients peripheral circulation had decreased to such an extent that further attempts to place a second peripheral venous line were i...
Lederer, Wolfgang; Rieger, Michael; Kroesen, Gunnar; Wiedermann, Franz J.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS Access to Care Working Group recommended a 30-day wait time benchmark for cardiac rehabilitation (CR. The objectives of the current study were to: (1 describe cardiac patient perceptions of actual and ideal CR wait times, (2 describe and compare cardiac specialist and CR program perceptions of wait times, as well as whether the recommendations are appropriate and feasible, and (3 investigate actual wait times and factors that CR programs perceive to affect these wait times. Methods Postal and online surveys to assess perceptions of CR wait times were administered to CR enrollees at intake into 1 of 8 programs, all CCS member cardiac specialists treating patients indicated for CR, and all CR programs listed in Canadian directories. Actual wait times were ascertained from the Canadian Cardiac Rehabilitation Registry. The design was cross-sectional. Responses were described and compared. Results Responses were received from 163 CR enrollees, 71 cardiac specialists (9.3% response rate, and 92 CR programs (61.7% response rate. Patients reported that their wait time from hospital discharge to CR initiation was 65.6?±?88.4?days (median, 42?days, while their ideal median wait time was 28?days. Most patients (91.5% considered their wait to be acceptable, but ideal wait times varied significantly by the type of cardiac indication for CR. There were significant differences between specialist and program perceptions of the appropriate number of days to wait by most indications, with CR programs perceiving shorter waits as appropriate (p? Conclusions Wait times following access to cardiac rehabilitation are prolonged compared with consensus recommendations, and yet are generally acceptable to most patients. Wait times following percutaneous coronary intervention in particular may need to be shortened. Future research is required to provide an evidence base for wait time benchmarks.
Grace Sherry L
Acebutolol (M & B 17,803 A), a new cardioselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent, was given intravenously to 20 selected patients with various cardiac arrhythmias. Cumulative doses ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg were moderately or highly effective in 4 out of 4 patients with sinus tachycardia, 2 out of 3 patients with premature atrial beats, 3 out of 4 patients with premature ventricular beats, 3 out of 5 patients with atrial fibrillation (one was converted to sinus rhythm) and in 2 out of 3 patients with atrial flutter. The drug was ineffective in one patient with atrial tachycardia. Mild systolic hypotension occured in two patients with recent myocardial infarction and there was some aggravation of a preexisting bronchospasm in a patient with congestive heart failure secondary to hyper-thyroidism. It was concluded that acebutolol is a cardioselective beta-blocker which by intravenous route may be useful in the treatment of selected cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:1233201
Biron, P; Proulx, A; Lapointe, L; Nadeau, R; Tremblay, G
Cardiac contusion following blunt chest trauma remains a diagnostic problem because of a lack of sensitive diagnostic tests. This study evaluated thallous chloride Tl 201 single-photon-emission computed tomography in a series of 48 patients following blunt chest trauma. Of the 48 patients, 23 had normal scans. None of these patients proved to have serious arrhythmias during three days of continuous monitoring. Of 25 patients with abnormal or ambiguous studies, five (20%) developed serious arrhythmias requiring therapy. Single-photon-emission computed tomography scanning thus was sensitive in indicating that group of patients at risk of serious arrhythmias, and may therefore prove to be a useful screening test to determine the need for hospitalization and arrhythmia monitoring following blunt chest trauma
Eleven children between 4 and 17 years of age underwent ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus during two medical camps in September 2003 and August 2004 at the Sonam Norboo Memorial District Hospital at Leh, Ladakh (11,400 feet above mean sea level). These children had a low mean arterial oxygen saturation while breathing room air. They were all acclimatized to high altitude. Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia with endotracheal intubation. Patients were extubated on the table. All children survived the operation and were discharged within 5-6 days following surgery. No surgical or anaesthetic complications were encountered. Simple cardiac surgical procedures such as ligation of a patent ductus arteriosus can be performed safely at high altitudes. PMID:16130615
Kumar, Arkalgud Sampath; Mishra, Sandeep; Dorjey, Motup; Morup, Tsering; Motup, Tashi; Ali, Ramzan
OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristic cardiac MRI features of primary and secondary cardiac tumors, including differentiation from masslike lesions, such as thrombus or focal myocardial hypertrophy. CONCLUSION. The frequency and type of cardiac tumors in children differ from those in adults. Although transthoracic echocardiography is the initial imaging technique of choice for evaluation of cardiac tumors, cardiac MRI is an important complementary modality for characterization of the mass and effect on cardiac function. PMID:24758649
Mahani, Maryam Ghadimi; Lu, Jimmy C; Rigsby, Cynthia K; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Dorfman, Adam L; Agarwal, Prachi P
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perioperative cardioprotective effect of high thoracic epidural analgesia (HTEA), primarily expressed as an effect on cardiac performance and hemodynamics in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A randomized, prospective study. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty low-to-moderate risk patients between the ages of 65 and 80 years scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery with or without aortic valve replacement. SETTING: A university hospital. INTERVENTION: Patients randomized to receive HTEA as a supplement to general anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Perioperative hemodynamic measurements, perioperative fluid balance, and postoperative release of cardiac enzymes were collected. The end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), the stroke volume index (overall 38 v 32 mL), the cardiac index (overall 2.35 v. 2.18 L/minute/m(2)), the central venous pressure, and central venous oxygenation were higher in the HTEA group. The mean arterial blood pressure was marginally lower in the HTEA group, whereas no difference was noted in the heart rate or peripheral saturation between the groups. No differences were found in the postoperative levels of troponin T and CK-MB between groups. NT-proBNP changed over time (p <0.001) and was lower in the HTEA group (p = 0.013), with maximal values of 291 Â± 265 versus 326 Â± 274. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of a higher stroke volume index and central venous oxygenation without an increase in heart rate or mean arterial pressure suggest that HTEA improves cardiac performance in elderly cardiac surgery patients.
Jakobsen, Carl-Johan; Bhavsar, Rajesh
There is little in the literature about out-of-hours calls to medical microbiologists. The calls taken by a consultant medical microbiologist over a five-year period in an Irish tertiary referral hospital were reviewed. Excluding calls on weekend mornings and significant evening positive blood cultures, the mean annual number of calls on a one-in-four rota was 89 (range 70-111). Over 90% of calls were received before midnight and 51% were from specialist registrars. Medical specialties, neurosurgery and intensive care were the most common departments seeking advice. Two-thirds of calls related to the management of an individual patient, but advice on infection prevention and control is increasingly requested. Calls out-of-hours are not insignificant but little is known about how these vary between hospitals and what contribution they make to patient care.
A morte no contexto hospitalar: as equipes de reanimação cardíaca La muerte en el contexto hospitalario: los equipos de reanimación cardiaca Death in the hospital context: the teams of cardiac reviving
Full Text Available A autora investigou o significado do trabalho cotidiano com a morte sob a perspectiva dos profissionais que integram uma equipe de reanimação cárdio-pulmonar de um Hospital Universitário. Pertencer a esta equipe implica em uma forma de lidar com a morte com a intenção explícita de revertê-la. A literatura vem evidenciando a preocupação de diferentes autores com o cotidiano profissional dessa natureza, dada sua tendência ao desgaste das pessoas. O estudo foi conduzido segundo a metodologia de investigação fenomenológica; foram realizadas entrevistas com todos os integrantes da referida equipe, utilizando a gravação. Os dados analisados evidenciam que os profissionais percebem o trabalho sob uma perspectiva funcionalista, onde o tempo se revela como fator determinante na luta contra a morte; é um trabalho permeado pelo sucesso/insucesso e por dificuldades; gera uma postura de onipotência/impotência e requer um enfrentamento. Evidenciam também desgaste, sentimentos de impotência e fracasso quando a reanimação não é possível. Referendam ainda o alerta mundial de se atentar para cotidianos de trabalho desgastantes e de que as escolas e instituições de saúde implementem canais para elaboração dessa forma de desgaste e para o redimensionamento do papel do profissional de saúde.La autora investigó el significado del trabajo cotidiano con la muerte sobre la perspectiva de los profesionales que integran un equipo de reanimación cardiopulmonar de un hospital universitario. Pertenecer a este equipo implica de alguna manera, convivir con la muerte con una intensión explícita de revertirla. La literatura viene evidenciando la preocupación de diferentes autores con el cotidiano profesional de esta naturaleza, dada su tendencia al desgaste de las personas. El estudio fue conducido según la metodología de investigación fenomenológica y fueron realizadas entrevistas con todos los integrantes del equipo referido, utilizando la grabación. Los datos analizados permiten evidenciar que los profesionales perciben el trabajo sobre una perspectiva funcionalista, donde el tiempo se revela como factor determinante en la lucha contra la muerte; es un trabajo permeado por el éxito/fracaso y por dificultades; genera una postura de omnipotencia/impotencia y requiere un enfrentamiento. Evidencian también desgaste, sentimientos de impotencia y de fracaso cuando la reanimación no es posible. Refuerzan aún la alerta mundial en relación con trabajos cotidianos desgastantes y el hecho de que las escuelas e instituciones de salud desarrollen canales para la valoración de esa forma de desgaste y para la redimensión del papel del profesional de salud.The author investigated the meaning of the daily work with the death on the perspective of the professionals that integrate a team of heart and lung revival from a university hospital. To belong to this team implies somehow, to live together with the death with an explicit objective of reverting it. The literature evidences the concern of several authors with these professionals, considering their tendency of wearines. The study was developed according to the methodology of phenomenological investigation and was carried out through recorded interviews with all members of the referred team. The analyzed data allowed authors to evidence that the professionals perceive the work on a functionalist perspective, where the time is revealed as a decisive factor against death; it is a work permeated by the success/failure and difficulties; it generates a posture of omnipotence/ impotence and requires a confrontation. They also evidenced waste, feelings of impotence and of failure when the reanimation is not possible. They still reinforce the concern about daily exhausting work and the advise for schools and institutions of health to develop channels for the evaluation of weariness and for the new valuation of the health professionals role.
Nájela Hassan Saloum
A morte no contexto hospitalar: as equipes de reanimação cardíaca / Death in the hospital context: the teams of cardiac reviving / La muerte en el contexto hospitalario: los equipos de reanimación cardiaca
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A autora investigou o significado do trabalho cotidiano com a morte sob a perspectiva dos profissionais que integram uma equipe de reanimação cárdio-pulmonar de um Hospital Universitário. Pertencer a esta equipe implica em uma forma de lidar com a morte com a intenção explícita de revertê-la. A lite [...] ratura vem evidenciando a preocupação de diferentes autores com o cotidiano profissional dessa natureza, dada sua tendência ao desgaste das pessoas. O estudo foi conduzido segundo a metodologia de investigação fenomenológica; foram realizadas entrevistas com todos os integrantes da referida equipe, utilizando a gravação. Os dados analisados evidenciam que os profissionais percebem o trabalho sob uma perspectiva funcionalista, onde o tempo se revela como fator determinante na luta contra a morte; é um trabalho permeado pelo sucesso/insucesso e por dificuldades; gera uma postura de onipotência/impotência e requer um enfrentamento. Evidenciam também desgaste, sentimentos de impotência e fracasso quando a reanimação não é possível. Referendam ainda o alerta mundial de se atentar para cotidianos de trabalho desgastantes e de que as escolas e instituições de saúde implementem canais para elaboração dessa forma de desgaste e para o redimensionamento do papel do profissional de saúde. Abstract in spanish La autora investigó el significado del trabajo cotidiano con la muerte sobre la perspectiva de los profesionales que integran un equipo de reanimación cardiopulmonar de un hospital universitario. Pertenecer a este equipo implica de alguna manera, convivir con la muerte con una intensión explícita de [...] revertirla. La literatura viene evidenciando la preocupación de diferentes autores con el cotidiano profesional de esta naturaleza, dada su tendencia al desgaste de las personas. El estudio fue conducido según la metodología de investigación fenomenológica y fueron realizadas entrevistas con todos los integrantes del equipo referido, utilizando la grabación. Los datos analizados permiten evidenciar que los profesionales perciben el trabajo sobre una perspectiva funcionalista, donde el tiempo se revela como factor determinante en la lucha contra la muerte; es un trabajo permeado por el éxito/fracaso y por dificultades; genera una postura de omnipotencia/impotencia y requiere un enfrentamiento. Evidencian también desgaste, sentimientos de impotencia y de fracaso cuando la reanimación no es posible. Refuerzan aún la alerta mundial en relación con trabajos cotidianos desgastantes y el hecho de que las escuelas e instituciones de salud desarrollen canales para la valoración de esa forma de desgaste y para la redimensión del papel del profesional de salud. Abstract in english The author investigated the meaning of the daily work with the death on the perspective of the professionals that integrate a team of heart and lung revival from a university hospital. To belong to this team implies somehow, to live together with the death with an explicit objective of reverting it. [...] The literature evidences the concern of several authors with these professionals, considering their tendency of wearines. The study was developed according to the methodology of phenomenological investigation and was carried out through recorded interviews with all members of the referred team. The analyzed data allowed authors to evidence that the professionals perceive the work on a functionalist perspective, where the time is revealed as a decisive factor against death; it is a work permeated by the success/failure and difficulties; it generates a posture of omnipotence/ impotence and requires a confrontation. They also evidenced waste, feelings of impotence and of failure when the reanimation is not possible. They still reinforce the concern about daily exhausting work and the advise for schools and institutions of health to develop channels for the evaluation of weariness and for the new valuation of the health professionals rol
Saloum, Nájela Hassan; Boemer, Magali Roseira.
... Tools & Resources Stroke More Understand Your Risk for Cardiac Arrest Updated:Sep 20,2012 Sudden cardiac arrest may ... content was last reviewed on 07/12/2011." Cardiac Arrest Home About Cardiac Arrest Warning Signs for Cardiac ...
The aim of the present work is to identify the risk factors for maternal cardiac complications and for adverse neonatal outcome in women with heart disease in pregnancy. Prospective observational study was carried out at a tertiary referral hospital in South India. Data was collected from 144 women going through 146 pregnancies and delivered after 24 weeks of gestation, over a period of 7 years. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify the risk factors for maternal and the neonatal c...
Full Text Available Background: During recent years, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in hospital has received much attention. However, the survival rate of CPR in Irans hospitals is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate outcome of in-hospital CPR in Kashan. Methods: A longitudinal case registry study was conducted on all cases of in-hospital CPR during 6 months at 2002. Necessary data including; age, sex, underlying disease, working shift, time from cardiac arrest until initiating of CPR and until defibrillation, duration and result of CPR, frequency of tracheal intubations and time served for it were collected in a checklist. Results: In six months study, 206 cases of cardiopulmonary resuscitation attempted. The survival rate was similar for both sexes. Short-term survival observed in19.9% of cases and only 5.3% survived to discharge. Conclusions: Duration of CPR, time of the first defibrillation, response time and the location of cardiac arrest are the key predictors of survival to hospital discharge and in-hospital CPR strategies require improvement. This study promotes a national study on post CPR survival for accurate data on our performance in attention to chain of survival. KeyWords: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR, Survival rate, Iran
M Adib Hajbaghery
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article reports the case of an adverse event of cardiac tamponade associated with central catheter peripheral insertion in a premature newborn. The approach was pericardial puncture, which reversed the cardiorespiratory arrest. The newborn showed good clinical progress and was discharged from hospital with no complications associated with the event.
Maria Fernanda Pellegrino da Silva Dornaus
Full Text Available Video. Computational 3D models dont actually model any thing. They are assumed imitative, but in contemporary production, these are vectorized thought- objects, prototypes of notions and design ideals. The photographic image on the other hand, as a pipeline of indexical pixels, is the apogee of our attempts to describe and represent the world outside. 65,536 levels of red, green and blue, rendered into and out of the real world of electrons, photons and live-action.
Cardiac Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT) is mainly used for the quantification of coronary artery calcification and for minimally invasive coronary angiography. Many physicians are not aware of the radiation doses delivered to the patient in these exams. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the radiation doses that are delivered to the patient during specific cardiac MSCT examinations in two different hospitals in Madrid. The volume computed tomographic dose index (CTDI vol), the dose length product (DLP), and the effective dose (E) are the most useful parameters to describe and compare radiation doses received from cardiac MSCT examinations. To calculate effective doses the spreadsheet developed by ImPACT was used. Computed tomography dose index (CTDIn) in air was measured with an ionization chamber model 20x5-2CT and dose-length product (DLP) values were obtained from the scanner consol for each examination. Results and conclusions: Effective dose values of 18,2 mSv and 24 mSv for coronary angiography were found in the two hospitals. The difference in dose is mainly due to the different mode of acquisition in the applied protocols rather than to the type of scanner used. (Author)
[Remarks on the guideline recommendations for cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac Death in patients with severe ventricular dysfunction. Consensus Document of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO)/Italian Society of Cardiology (SIC)/Italian Association of Arrhythmology and Cardiac Pacing (AIAC)].
The indications for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for the prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction have rapidly expanded over the last 10 years on the basis of the very satisfying results of the numerous randomized clinical trials that have provided the framework for guidelines. However, the analysis of clinical practice in the real world has highlighted some important criticisms in the complex process of selection-management of those patients candidates for ICD therapy: 1) approximately one fourth of all ICD implantations is not justified by clinical evidence, 2) approximately one half of patients with an indication for ICD therapy do not undergo implantation, 3) the benefits from ICD therapy do not apply uniformly to all patients, 4) the relationship between the lifesaving benefit and the potential for harm of ICD therapy is still scarcely known. The main reason for this clinical scenario can be ascribed to the guideline recommendations that are based only on few standard cut-off criteria and therefore too generic and insufficiently detailed. This does not help cardiologists in their decision-making process, and results in fear, uncertainty, and sometimes emotional choices. The aim of this consensus document is to discuss current guideline recommendations and to provide the Italian cardiologists with the most updated information to optimize the selection of patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction who should receive ICD therapy. PMID:24326639
Berisso, Massimo Zoni; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Curnis, Antonio; Calvi, Valeria; Catanzariti, Domenico; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Gulizia, Michele Massimo; Inama, Giuseppe; Landolina, Maurizio E; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Mantovan, Roberto; Mascioli, Giosuè; Occhetta, Eraldo; Padeletti, Luigi; Salerno-Uriarte, Jorge A; Santini, Massimo; Sassone, Biagio; Senni, Michele; Zecchin, Massimo
Full Text Available Abstract Medical imaging market consists of several billion tests per year worldwide. Out of these, at least one third are cardiovascular procedures. Keeping in mind that each test represents a cost, often a risk, and a diagnostic hypothesis, we can agree that every unnecessary and unjustifiable test is one test too many. Small individual costs, risks, and wastes multiplied by billions of examinations per year represent an important population, society and environmental burden. Unfortunately, the appropriateness of cardiac imaging is extra-ordinarily low and there is little awareness in patients and physicians of differential costs, radiological doses, and long term risks of different imaging modalities. For a resting cardiac imaging test, being the average cost (not charges of an echocardiogram equal to 1 (as a cost comparator, the cost of a CT is 3.1x, of a SPECT 3.27x, of a Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance imaging 5.51x, of a PET 14.03x, and of a right and left heart catheterization 19.96x. For stress cardiac imaging, compared with the treadmill exercise test equal to 1 (as a cost comparator, the cost of stress echocardiography is 2.1x and of a stress SPECT scintigraphy is 5.7x. Biohazards and downstream long-term costs linked to radiation-induced oncogenesis should also be considered. The radiation exposure is absent in echo and magnetic resonance, and corresponds to 500 chest x rays for a sestamibi cardiac stress scan and to 1150 chest x rays for a thallium scan. The corresponding extra-risk in a lifetime of fatal cancer is 1 in 2000 exposed patients for a sestamibi stress and 1 in 1000 for a thallium scan. Increased awareness of economic, biologic, and environmental costs of cardiac imaging will hopefully lead to greater appropriateness, wisdom and prudence from both the prescriber and the practitioner. In this way, the sustainability of cardiac imaging will eventually improve.
Medical imaging market consists of several billion tests per year worldwide. Out of these, at least one third are cardiovascular procedures. Keeping in mind that each test represents a cost, often a risk, and a diagnostic hypothesis, we can agree that every unnecessary and unjustifiable test is one test too many. Small individual costs, risks, and wastes multiplied by billions of examinations per year represent an important population, society and environmental burden. Unfortunately, the appropriateness of cardiac imaging is extra-ordinarily low and there is little awareness in patients and physicians of differential costs, radiological doses, and long term risks of different imaging modalities. For a resting cardiac imaging test, being the average cost (not charges) of an echocardiogram equal to 1 (as a cost comparator), the cost of a CT is 3.1x, of a SPECT 3.27x, of a Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance imaging 5.51x, of a PET 14.03x, and of a right and left heart catheterization 19.96x. For stress cardiac imaging, compared with the treadmill exercise test equal to 1 (as a cost comparator), the cost of stress echocardiography is 2.1x and of a stress SPECT scintigraphy is 5.7x. Biohazards and downstream long-term costs linked to radiation-induced oncogenesis should also be considered. The radiation exposure is absent in echo and magnetic resonance, and corresponds to 500 chest x rays for a sestamibi cardiac stress scan and to 1150 chest x rays for a thallium scan. The corresponding extra-risk in a lifetime of fatal cancer is 1 in 2000 exposed patients for a sestamibi stress and 1 in 1000 for a thallium scan. Increased awareness of economic, biologic, and environmental costs of cardiac imaging will hopefully lead to greater appropriateness, wisdom and prudence from both the prescriber and the practitioner. In this way, the sustainability of cardiac imaging will eventually improve. PMID:15916702
Most cardiac arrest teams are made up of junior doctors. The stressful effect of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on doctors has not previously been established. A questionnaire was sent to all 52 junior doctors who participated in the cardiac arrest team at a district general hospital. Forty one questionnaires were returned by 22 junior house officers, 12 senior house officers, and seven specialist registrars. The questionnaire was anonymous so non-responders could not be recontacted. Sev...
Morgan, R.; Westmoreland, C.
Cardiac fibromas are benign tumours, often diagnosed in childhood, but rarely they may be diagnosed in adults or the elderly. We present an interesting case of a middle-aged lady presenting with exertional chest pain and breathlessness, who was found to have a heavily calcified mass within the myocardium. With a previous history of chest trauma, a calcified myocardial haematoma was initially suspected. Complete surgical excision led to a total resolution of symptoms. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a cardiac fibroma. Complete excision of cardiac fibromas, where possible, is advised and is associated with excellent survival. PMID:17126934
Iqbal, M Bilal; Stavri, George; Mittal, Tarun; Khaghani, Asghar
Criminal justice-related outcomes for youth who have been served in out-of-home mental health settings such as residential treatment and inpatient hospitalization are unclear. This study longitudinally modeled the changing probability of being charged with a crime from age 16 to 25, including being served in out-of-home treatment and aging into adulthood, while controlling for person-level covariates such as gender, race, past criminal charges, and mental health diagnoses. Results indicated t...
With the introduction of the New Deal and the Calman Report, the duration of higher specialist training will be halved. We have examined the effect of reduced on-call rotas on exposure to relatively uncommon out-of-hours emergencies in cardiothoracic surgery. Operations for post-infarction ventricular septal defect, aortic dissection or transection, oesophageal perforation and pulmonary embolus performed out-of-hours between 1990 and 1995 were identified from hospital records. Over 6 years...
Kelty, C.; Duffy, J.; Cooper, G.
On the 27th of April 1970, at the Broussais Hospital in Paris, was realized the first implantation in the world of a cardiac pacemaker, fed by an isotopic battery using plutonium 238. For the time being, a little more than one thousand implantations have been carried out in the world using essentially the pacemaker developed by the Company Medronic in cooperation with Dr. Laurens, the Company Alcatel and C.E.A. The design and the operation of this apparatus are described. A clinical appraisal of the implantations carried out is made and the main problems raised in connection with this type of stimulation on both technical and administrative level are called forth. In conclusion the unnumerable advantages resulting for patients are stated. The results attained by the technique of isotopic cardiac pacemaker are underlined
Ireland\\'s over 65 year population is growing. As incidence of coronary events rises with age, there is a growing population of elderly patients with cardiac disease. The changing age profile of patients treated by a tertiary hospital\\'s Cardiology service was quantified using Hospital Inpatient Enquiry data. 53% of CCU admissions were aged > or = 65 years, with admissions aged > or = 85 years in 2008 four times greater than in 2002. Percentages of patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions in 1997 aged > or = 70 years were 19% and 18% respectively. By 2007, these percentages had risen to 31% and 34% respectively--greatest increases were in the very elderly age categories. The proportion of ICD recipients aged > 70 years increased from 8% in 2003 to 25% by 2008. The proportion of elderly patients receiving advanced cardiac care is increasing. This trend will continue and has clear resource implications. Outcomes of interventions in the very old need further investigation, since the \\'old old\\' are under-represented in clinical trials.
Groarke, J D
Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis.
Singhal, Pooja; Luk, Adriana; Rao, Vivek; Butany, Jagdish
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac arrest victims most often collapse at home, where only a modest proportion receives life-saving bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. As many as 40% of all sudden cardiac arrest victims have agonal or abnormal breathing in the first minutes following cardiac arrest. 9-1-1 call takers may wrongly interpret agonal breathing as a sign of life, and not initiate telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions. Improving 9-1-1 call takers' ability to recognize agonal breathing as a sign of cardiac arrest could result in improved bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims. Methods/Design The overall goal of this study is to design and conduct a survey of 9-1-1 call takers in the province of Ontario to better understand the factors associated with the successful identification of cardiac arrest (including patients with agonal breathing over the phone, and subsequent administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions to callers. This study will be conducted in three phases using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In Phase One, we will conduct semi-structured qualitative interviews with a purposeful selection of 9-1-1 call takers from Ontario, and identify common themes and belief categories. In Phase Two, we will use the qualitative interview results to design and pilot a quantitative survey. In Phase Three, a final version of the quantitative survey will be administered via an electronic medium to all registered call takers in the province of Ontario. We will perform qualitative thematic analysis (Phase One and regression modelling (Phases Two and Three, to determine direct and indirect relationship of behavioural constructs with intentions to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions. Discussion The results of this study will provide valuable insight into the factors associated with the successful recognition of agonal breathing and cardiac arrest by 9-1-1 call takers. This will guide future interventional studies, which may include continuing education and protocol changes, in order to help increase the number of callers appropriately receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions, and save the lives of more cardiac arrest victims. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00848588
This article illustrates a method of analyzing market share based on product lines or specific hospital services, using 1990 data from a health service catchment area in South Carolina. Hospital discharges from two specific services: vascular and cardiac surgery; and obstetrics, were used to compute market rates of retention, discharge, escape, commitment, opening, and capture. The results confirm that as hospitals become more specialized, market share analysis based on total discharges is often misleading. Rather, discharges should be disaggregated and separate service areas with different boundaries constructed for different product lines. This method of market analysis can be performed easily and periodically by hospitals to monitor the market situation of their product lines. PMID:10173144
To describe the characteristics and outcome of patients with cardiac myxomas. All patients diagnosed and managed as having cardiac myxomas at AKUH, during a period of six years (1999-2004) were included. Data was collected by reviewing clinical records. Follow-up data was collected from the clinical records and by a telephone interview where required. Out of 15 patients who were diagnosed to have cardiac myxomas, complete information was available in 14 patients. There was a female predominance (64%) with a mean age of 47 years. About two-thirds (71%) had symptom of dyspnoea. Half of the patients (50%) had neurological symptoms at presentation. Constitutional symptoms were present in 36% of patients. About two-third of patients (71%) had positive findings on cardiac auscultation. None of the patients had any rhythm abnormalities on the ECG. Diagnosis was made by transthoracic echocardiography in all patients. All of the tumors were located in the left atrium, and majority (64%) were attached to the interatrial septum. All patients were advised surgical treatment, however, only 8 (57%) were operated upon. Outcome was good in those who were operated upon, with no peri and postoperative mortality. (author)
Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Akinwumi Oluwole Komolafe,3 Olanrewaju Olayinka Olayemi,2 Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi41Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, 3Department of Morbid Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching, Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 4Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the etiology and epidemiologic characteristics of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, South West Nigeria.Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of natural unexpected death, either occurring out of hospital or less than 24 hours after admission to LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, over a nine-year period from January 2003 to December 2011. Data were generated from information in the case notes and autopsy reports for these cases.Results: Sudden death accounted for 29 (4.0% of 718 adult medical deaths and 1.0% of all adult medical admissions. Out-of-hospital deaths occurred in 72.4% of cases. The mean age of the patients was 46.8 ± 11.5 (range 2574 years. The male to female ratio was 6.25:1. Cardiovascular disease were the most common cause of death (51.7%, followed by respiratory disease (20.7%, pulmonary thromboembolism (10.4%, central nervous system disease (13.8%, gastrointestinal disorders (13.8%, severe chemical/drug poisoning (13.8%, and combined cardiovascular and central nervous system disease (13.8%. Hypertension-related causes were responsible for 14/29 (48.3% of the sudden deaths. Hypertensive heart disease accounted for 86.7% of the cardiovascular deaths, hypertensive heart failure accounted for 73.3%, whilst all heart failure cases accounted for 80.0%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 69.2% of the patients with hypertensive heart disease. Moderate to severe atheromatous changes occurred in the aorta in 38.5% of patients aged ?50 years. No case of myocardial infarction was found.Conclusion: Hypertensive heart disease and hypertension-related disorders are the most common causes of sudden death in South West Nigeria, so effective public health strategies should be channeled towards prevention, detection, and treatment of hypertension.Keywords: sudden cardiac death, hypertensive heart disease, hypertensive heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, atheromatous changes
The five and one-half year study to evaluate methods of rehabilitating cardiac patients found that programs for rehabilitation must be individualized according to preconditions and guidelines given in detail in the report. The yoga exercise 'Shavasan' was...
K. K. Datey
Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death in an athlete is rare and tragic event. An athlete's death draws high public attention given that athletes are considered the healthiest category of society. The vast majority of sudden cardiac death in young athletes is due to congenital cardiac malformations such as hypertrophie cardiomyopathy and various coronary artery anomalies. In athletes over age 35, the usual cause of sudden cardiac death is coronary artery disease. With each tragic death of a young athlete, there is a question why this tragedy has not been prevented. The American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association recommend that a pre-participation exam should include a complete cardiovascular history and physical examination.
Aran?elovi? Aleksandra ?.
Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)
Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)
Cardiac surgery represents a sub-group of patients at significantly increased risk of intraoperative awareness. Relatively few recent publications have targeted the topic of awareness in this group. The aim of this review is to identify areas of awareness research that may equally be extrapolated to cardiac anesthesia in the attempt to increase understanding of the nature and significance of this scenario and how to reduce it.
In this book, authorities on cardiac imaging techniques provide an up-to-date description of the field, covering the clinical applicability, efficacy, and future potential of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, quantitation of regional blood flow, assessment of ventricular performance, and detection of acute infarction using radiotracers. This book provides the physician involved in cardiac diagnosis with the background necessary to integrate the radiotracer method into his diagnostic armamentarium. (orig./MG)
The identification of cardiac progenitor cells in mammals raises the possibility that the human heart contains a population of stem cells capable of generating cardiomyocytes and coronary vessels. The characterization of human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) would have important clinical implications for the management of the failing heart. We have established the conditions for the isolation and expansion of c-kit-positive hCSCs from small samples of myocardium. Additionally, we have tested wheth...
After several years of research development cardiovascular MRI has evolved into a widely accepted clinical tool. It offers important diagnostic and prognostic information for a variety of clinical indications, which include ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, valvular dysfunction and congenital heart disorders. It is a safe non-invasive technique that employs a variety of imaging sequences optimized for temporal or spatial resolution, tissue-specific contrast, flow quantification or angiography. Cardiac MRI offers specific advantages over conventional imaging techniques for a significant number of patients. The demand for cardiac MRI studies from cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiologists and other referrers is likely to continue to rise with pressure for more widespread local service provision. Setting up a cardiac MRI service requires careful consideration regarding funding issues and how it will be integrated with existing service provision. The purchase of cardiac phased array coils, monitoring equipment and software upgrades must also be considered, as well as the training needs of those involved. The choice of appropriate imaging protocols will be guided by operator experience, clinical indication and equipment capability, and is likely to evolve as the service develops. Post-processing and offline analysis form a significant part of the time taken to report studies and an efficient method of providing quantitative reports is an important requirement. Collaboration between radiologists and cardiologists is needed to develop a successful service and multi-disciplinary meetings are key component of this. This review will explore these issues from our perspective of a new clinical cardiac MRI service operating over its first year in a teaching hospital imaging department.
O' Regan, D.P. [Imaging Sciences Department, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Schmitz, S.A. [Imaging Sciences Department, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)
After several years of research development cardiovascular MRI has evolved into a widely accepted clinical tool. It offers important diagnostic and prognostic information for a variety of clinical indications, which include ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, valvular dysfunction and congenital heart disorders. It is a safe non-invasive technique that employs a variety of imaging sequences optimized for temporal or spatial resolution, tissue-specific contrast, flow quantification or angiography. Cardiac MRI offers specific advantages over conventional imaging techniques for a significant number of patients. The demand for cardiac MRI studies from cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiologists and other referrers is likely to continue to rise with pressure for more widespread local service provision. Setting up a cardiac MRI service requires careful consideration regarding funding issues and how it will be integrated with existing service provision. The purchase of cardiac phased array coils, monitoring equipment and software upgrades must also be considered, as well as the training needs of those involved. The choice of appropriate imaging protocols will be guided by operator experience, clinical indication and equipment capability, and is likely to evolve as the service develops. Post-processing and offline analysis form a significant part of the time taken to report studies and an efficient method of providing quantitative reports is an important requirement. Collaboration between radiologists and cardiologists is needed to develop a successful service and multi-disciplinary meetings are key component of this. This review will explore these issues from our perspective of a new clinical cardiac MRI service operating over its first year in a teaching hospital imaging department
Wide variation between hospitals in the quality of critical care lead to many potentially avoidable deaths. Regionalization of critical care is a possible solution; regionalization has been implemented for trauma and neonatal intensive care, and it is under active discussion for medical and cardiac critical care. However, regionalization is only one possible approach to reorganizing critical care services. This commentary introduces the technique of network analysis as a framework for the fol...
Iwashyna, Theodore J.; Christie, Jason D.; Kahn, Jeremy M.; Asch, David A.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although orthotopic heart transplantation has been an effective treatment for end-stage heart failure, the incidence of allograft failure has increased, necessitating treatment options. Cardiac retransplantation remains the only viable long-term solution for end-stage cardiac allograft failure. Given the limited number of available donor hearts, the long term results of this treatment option need to be evaluated. Methods 709 heart transplants were performed over a 20 year period at our institution. Repeat cardiac transplantation was performed in 15 patients (2.1%. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the efficacy of cardiac retransplantation. Variables investigated included: 1 yr and 5 yr survival, length of hospitalization, post-operative complications, allograft failure, recipient and donor demographics, renal function, allograft ischemic time, UNOS listing status, blood group, allograft rejection, and hemodynamic function. Results Etiology of primary graft failure included transplant arteriopathy (n = 10, acute rejection (n = 3, hyperacute rejection (n = 1, and a post-transplant diagnosis of metastatic melanoma in the donor (n = 1. Mean age at retransplantation was 45.5 ± 9.7 years. 1 and 5 year survival for retransplantation were 86.6% and 71.4% respectively, as compared to 90.9% and 79.1% for primary transplantation. Mean ejection fraction was 67.3 ± 12.2% at a mean follow-up of 32.6 ± 18.5 mos post-retransplant; follow-up biopsy demonstrated either ISHLT grade 1A or 0 rejection (77.5 ± 95.7 mos post-transplant. Conclusion Cardiac retransplantation is an efficacious treatment strategy for cardiac allograft failure.
Acker Michael A