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Sample records for out-of hospital cardiac

  1. Out-of-hospital therapeutic hypothermia in cardiac arrest victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer Michael

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite many years of research, outcome after cardiac arrest is dismal. Since 2005, the European Resuscitation Council recommends in its guidelines the use of mild therapeutic hypothermia (32-34° for 12 to 24 hours in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. The benefit of resuscitative mild hypothermia (induced after resuscitation is well established, while the benefit of preservative mild to moderate hypothermia (induced during cardiac arrest needs further investigation before recommending it for clinical routine. Animal data and limited human data suggest that early and fast cooling might be essential for the beneficial effect of resuscitative mild hypothermia. Out-of-hospital cooling has been shown to be feasible and safe by means of intravenous infusion with cold fluids or non-invasively with cooling pads. A combination of these cooling methods might further improve cooling efficacy. If out-of-hospital cooling will further improve functional outcome as compared with in-hospital cooling needs to be determined in a prospective, randomised, sufficiently powered clinical trial.

  2. Targeted temperature management after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Brian E.; Christenson, Jim; Brooks, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide a succinct review of the evidence, framed for the emergency department clinician, for the application of targeted temperature management (TTM) for patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Sources of information MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane database were searched for prospective and retrospective studies relevant to the indications of TTM, optimal timing of TTM initiation, method of cooling, and target temperature. Main message Two prospective interventional trials reported improved neurologically intact survival with the use of TTM (goal temperatures of 32°C to 34°C) compared with no temperature management in comatose OHCA patients with shockable initial cardiac arrest rhythms. A more recent, high-quality randomized controlled trial including OHCA patients with shockable and nonshockable initial rhythms compared TTM at 33°C versus TTM at 36°C. Despite the study being well powered, superiority of one target temperature over the other was not demonstrated. The benefit of TTM in patients with initial nonshockable rhythms is not clear; however, some observational studies have suggested benefit. There is no evidence that any particular method of temperature regulation is superior. The relationship between time and TTM initiation has not been well established. Conclusion Targeted temperature management, with a target temperature between 32°C and 36°C, as a component of comprehensive critical care is a beneficial intervention for comatose patients with return of spontaneous circulation after OHCA.

  3. Electronic registration of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Dahl, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The reported incidences of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in western countries vary considerably. According to the latest report from Danish Cardiac Arrest Database (DCAD) the incidence rate in Denmark in 2004 was 51/100,000/year. The report states however that this number is uncertain. As the first region in the country, North Denmark Region has introduced a prehospital electronic healthcare record (designated amPHI™) in all of its 50 emergency ambulances. We used data from amPHI™ to examine the incidence of OHCA in the region.   Methods: We extracted patient data from the amPHI™ database from 1st May to 31st December 2006. We then identified the patients who met the criteria for OHCA set by the DCAD: “Situations to which an ambulance is called, and where either the ambulance-staff or others have performed chest compressions or given electrical defibrillation”. We stratified those patients according to whether they received first aid, the identity of the first aid provider and the initial cardiac rhythm as diagnosed by the patient monitor.   Results: 18,666 patients where in contact with an emergency ambulance in the study period. Of those 296 (89/100,000/year) met the definition of cardiac arrest. 83 of those (28 %) received first aid. The first aid was provided by layman (68 %), physicians (11 %), nurses (11 %) and first-aiders (4 %). In 6 % the identity of the first aid provider was unknown. The majority of the patients (n = 177 (58 %)) had asystole upon ambulance arrival. 37 (12 %) had ventricular fibrillation, 32 (10 %) had other arrhythmias, 21 (7 %) had sinus rhythm and a single patient (0.3 %) had ventricular tachycardia.   Conclusions: We have shown amPHI™ to be a valuable tool for accessing information about OHCA. By a stringent electronic registration we found a considerably higher incidence rate for OHCA, than documented by the analogue nationwide registry. Further we discovered a high rate of first aid to OHCA-patients. Finally our data showed a high occurence of asystolia in patients who met the official criteria for OHCA.

  4. Pharmacotherapy and hospital admissions before out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Folke, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    For out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) to be predicted and prevented, it is imperative the healthcare system has access to those vulnerable before the event occurs. We aimed to determine the extent of contact to the healthcare system before OHCA.

  5. Hospital admissions and pharmacotherapy before out-of-hospital cardiac arrest according to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Folke, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The underlying etiology of sudden cardiac death varies with age and is likely to be reflected in type and number of healthcare contacts. We aimed to determine the specific type of healthcare contact shortly before out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) across ages. METHODS: OHCA patients were identified in the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Register and Copenhagen Medical Emergency Care Unit (2001-2006). We matched every OHCA patients with 10 controls on sex and age. Healthcare contacts were evaluated 30 days before event by individual-level-linkage of nationwide registers. RESULTS: We identified 16,924 OHCA patients, median age 70.0 years (Q1-Q3: 59-80). OHCA patients had a higher number of hospitalizations and received more pharmacotherapy compared to the control population across all ages (p for difference 89) were

  6. Out-of-hospital therapeutic hypothermia in cardiac arrest victims

    OpenAIRE

    Holzer Michael; Arrich Jasmin; Behringer Wilhelm; Sterz Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Despite many years of research, outcome after cardiac arrest is dismal. Since 2005, the European Resuscitation Council recommends in its guidelines the use of mild therapeutic hypothermia (32-34°) for 12 to 24 hours in patients successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. The benefit of resuscitative mild hypothermia (induced after resuscitation) is well established, while the benefit of preservative mild to moderate hypothermia (induced during cardiac arrest) needs further invest...

  7. Bystander initiated and dispatcher assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Bohm, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) is a common cause of death. In Sweden approximately 6 000- 10 000 people annually suffer a CA outside hospital. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can save lives in an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of this thesis was to describe various aspects of CPR and the emergency medical dispatcher (EMD) organisation to find approaches for enhancing bystander intervention in OHCA. Methods and results: In Study I, 315 consecutive cases of OHCA duri...

  8. Post-hypothermia fever is associated with increased mortality after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Hassager, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Post-cardiac arrest fever has been associated with adverse outcome before implementation of therapeutic hypothermia (TH), however the prognostic implications of post-hypothermia fever (PHF) in the era of modern post-resuscitation care including TH has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the study was to assess the prognostic implication of PHF in a large consecutive cohort of comatose survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) treated with TH.

  9. Oxygenation, Ventilation, and Airway Management in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Henlin; Pavel Michalek; Tomas Tyll; Hinds, John D.; Milos Dobias

    2014-01-01

    Recently published evidence has challenged some protocols related to oxygenation, ventilation, and airway management for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Interrupting chest compressions to attempt airway intervention in the early stages of OHCA in adults may worsen patient outcomes. The change of BLS algorithms from ABC to CAB was recommended by the AHA in 2010. Passive insufflation of oxygen into a patent airway may provide oxygenation in the early stages of cardiac arrest. Various alternativ...

  10. Therapeutic Hypothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest - implementation and clinical management

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: With the publication of two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in 2002, therapeutic hypothermia (TH) was re-introduced in postresuscitation care of comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Many issues, however, were unresolved, including implementation protocol, cooling technique, clinical management, implications of TH treatment on prognostic accuracy and therapeutic benefit in subgroups of OHCA excluded from the initial RCTs. Objectives: We wan...

  11. Year in review 2011: Critical Care - Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Scott A.; Metzger, Jeffery C.; Pepe, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, numerous studies were published in Critical Care focusing on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, trauma, and some related airway, respiratory, and response time factors. In this review, we summarize several of these studies, including those that brought forth advances in therapies for the post-resuscitative period. These advances involved hypothesis-generating concepts in therapeutic hypothermia as well as the impact of early percutaneous coronary artery in...

  12. Temporal variation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in an equatorial climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus EH Ong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marcus EH Ong1, Faith SP Ng2, Susan Yap1, Kok Leong Yong1, Mary A Peberdy3, Joseph P Ornato41Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore; 2Clinical Trials and Epidemiology Research Unit (now known as Singapore Clinical Research Institute, Singapore; 3Division of Cardiology, Virginia Commonwealth University – Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, USA; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University – Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: We aimed to determine whether there is a seasonal variation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA in an equatorial climate, which does not experience seasonal environmental change.Methods: We conducted an observational prospective study looking at the occurrence of OHCA in Singapore. Included were all patients with OHCA presented to Emergency Departments across the country. We examined the monthly, daily, and hourly number of cases over a threeyear period. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA.Results: From October, 1st 2001 to October, 14th 2004, 2428 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age for cardiac arrests was 60.6 years with 68.0% male. Ethnic distribution was 69.5% Chinese, 15.0% Malay, 11.0% Indian, and 4.4% Others. There was no significant seasonal variation (spring/summer/fall/winter of events (ANOVA P = 0.71, monthly variation (P = 0.88 or yearly variation (P = 0.26. We did find weekly peaks on Mondays and a circadian pattern with daily peaks from 9–10 am.Conclusions: We did not find any discernable seasonal pattern of cardiac arrests. This contrasts with findings from temperate countries and suggests a climatic influence on cardiac arrest occurrence. We also found that sudden cardiac arrests follow a circadian pattern.Keywords: cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac arrest, seasonal pattern, circadian pattern

  13. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) survival in rural Northwest Ireland: 17 years' experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Masterson, Siobhán

    2011-05-01

    SAVES, the name used to describe a register of survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), was established in rural Northwest Ireland in 1992. From 1992 to 2008, 80 survivors were identified (population 239,000 (2006)). Most incidents were witnessed (69\\/70) and all were in shockable rhythm at the time of first rhythm analysis (66\\/66). Of 66 patients who could be traced, 46 were alive in December 2008. Average survival rates appeared to increase over the lifetime of the database. SAVES has also contributed to the development of a national OHCA register.

  14. Near-death experiences and electrocardiogram patterns in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors: a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    ZALIKA KLEMENC-KETIS; STEFEK GRMEC; JANKO KERSNIK

    2011-01-01

    Aim. To determine the effect of several factors, that are a part of cardiac arrest and resuscitation, on the incidence of neardeath experiences (NDEs). Methods. We conducted a prospective observational study in the three largest hospitals in Slovenia in a consecutive sample of patients after out-of-hospital primary cardiac arrest. The presence of NDE was assessed with the self-administered Greyson’s near-death experiences scale. The electrocardiogram pattern at the beginning of resuscitat...

  15. Epidemiology and Outcomes in Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Report from the NEDIS-Based Cardiac Arrest Registry in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hyuk Jun; Kim, Gi Woon; Kim, Hyun; Cho, Jin Seong; Rho, Tai Ho; Yoon, Han Deok; Lee, Mi Jin

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a significant issue affecting national health policies. The National Emergency Department Information System for Cardiac Arrest (NEDIS-CA) consortium managed a prospective registry of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) at the emergency department (ED) level. We analyzed the NEDIS-CA data from 29 participating hospitals from January 2008 to July 2009. The primary outcomes were incidence of OHCA and final survival outcomes at discharge. Factors influencing survi...

  16. Laryngeal tube use in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by paramedics in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunde Geir A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there are numerous supraglottic airway alternatives to endotracheal intubation, it remains unclear which airway technique is optimal for use in prehospital cardiac arrests. We evaluated the use of the laryngeal tube (LT as an airway management tool among adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patients treated by our ambulance services in the Haukeland and Innlandet hospital districts. Methods Post-resuscitation forms and data concerning airway management in 347 adult OHCA victims were retrospectively assessed with regard to LT insertion success rates, ease and speed of insertion and insertion-related problems. Results A total of 402 insertions were performed on 347 OHCA patients. Overall, LT insertion was successful in 85.3% of the patients, with a 74.4% first-attempt success rate. In the minority of patients (n?=?46, 13.3%, the LT insertion time exceeded 30 seconds. Insertion-related problems were recorded in 52.7% of the patients. Lack of respiratory sounds on auscultation (n?=?100, 28.8%, problematic initial tube positioning (n?=?85, 24.5%, air leakage (n?=?61, 17.6%, vomitus/aspiration (n?=?44, 12.7%, and tube dislocation (n?=?17, 4.9% were the most common problems reported. Insertion difficulty was graded and documented for 95.4% of the patients, with the majority of insertions assessed as being “Easy” (62.5% or “Intermediate” (24.8%. Only 8.1% of the insertions were considered to be “Difficult”. Conclusions We found a high number of insertion related problems, indicating that supraglottic airway devices offering promising results in manikin studies may be less reliable in real-life resuscitations. Still, we consider the laryngeal tube to be an important alternative for airway management in prehospital cardiac arrest victims.

  17. Successful resuscitation of out of hospital cardiac arrest patients in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Yen Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. We examined factors associated with the successful resuscitation, in the emergency department (ED, of adult, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patients.Methods. The study cohort consisted of adult patients (over 18 years of age who presented to the ED in 2009 with a diagnosis of cardiac arrest. Data were retrieved from the institutional database. Results. A total of 122 adult, non-traumatic, OHCA patients were enrolled in the study. There were no significant differences between the sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC and non-sustained ROSC groups in initial body temperature (P = 0.420, time to successful intubation (P = 0.524, time to first intravenous epinephrine injection (P = 0.108, blood sugar levels (P = 0.122, hematocrit (P = 0.977, cardiac enzymes (P = 0.116 and serum sodium level (P = 0.429. Leukocytosis (P = 0.047 and cardiac rhythm of pulseless ventricular tachycardia/ ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity (P = 0.022, were significantly associated with sustained ROSC. In contrast, patients with more severe acidosis (P = 0.003 and hyperkalemia (P < 0.001 had a reduced likelihood of achieving sustained ROSC. After multiple variable logistic regression analysis adjusting for variables, the correlation between sustained ROSC and leukocytosis and hyperkalemia remained high (leukocytosis, P = 0.007, odds ratio [OR] 3.655, 95% CI 1.422-9.395; hyperkalemia, P = 0.001, OR 0.169, 95% CI 0.057-0.500Conclusion. Patients suffering an OHCA were appropriately resuscitated after arriving at the ED. Successful resuscitation in adult OHCA victims was determined by the patient's status, in particular their white blood cell count and potassium level.

  18. Improved survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using new guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, Jacob; Barnung, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with a poor prognosis. We hypothesized that the implementations of 2005 European Resuscitation Council resuscitation guidelines were associated with improved 30-day survival after OHCA. METHODS: We prospectively recorded data on all patients with OHCA treated by the Mobile Emergency Care Unit of Copenhagen in two periods: 1 June 2004 until 31 August 2005 (before implementation) and 1 January 2006 until 31 March 2007 (after implementation), separated by a 4-month period in which the above-mentioned change took place. RESULTS: We found that 30-day survival increased after the implementation from 31/372 (8.3%) to 67/419 (16%), P=0.001. ROSC at hospital admission, as well as survival to hospital discharge, were obtained in a significantly higher proportion from 23.4% to 39.1%, P<0.0001, and from 7.9% to 16.3%, P=0.0004, respectively. Treatment after implementation was confirmed as a significant predictor of better 30-day survival in a logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The implementation of new resuscitation guidelines was associated with improved 30-day survival after OHCA Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8

  19. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests and Outdoor Air Pollution Exposure in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Janine; Folke, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death globally and air pollution can be a contributing cause. Acute myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest are frequent manifestations of coronary heart disease. The objectives of the study were to investigate the association between 4 657 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) and hourly and daily outdoor levels of PM10, PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM (PM10-2.5), ultrafine particle proxies, NOx, NO2, O3 and CO in Copenhagen, Denmark, for the period 2000–2010. Susceptible groups by age and sex was also investigated. A case-crossover design was applied. None of the hourly lags of any of the pollutants were significantly associated with OHCA events. The strongest association with OHCA events was observed for the daily lag4 of PM2.5, lag3 of PM10, lag3 of PM10-2.5, lag3 of NOx and lag4 of CO. An IQR increase of PM2.5 and PM10 was associated with a significant increase of 4% (95% CI: 0%; 9%) and 5% (95% CI: 1%; 9%) in OHCA events with 3 days lag, respectively. None of the other daily lags or other pollutants was significantly associated with OHCA events. Adjustment for O3 slightly increased the association between OHCA and PM2.5 and PM10. No susceptible groups were identified.

  20. Antipsychotics and associated risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Jensen, Aksel

    2014-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs have been associated with sudden cardiac death, but differences in the risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) associated with different antipsychotic drug classes are not clear. We identified all OHCA in Denmark (2001-2010). Risk of OHCA associated with antipsychotic drug use was evaluated by conditional logistic regression analysis in case-time-control models. In total, 2,205 (7.6%) of 28,947 OHCA patients received treatment with an antipsychotic drug at the time of event. Overall treatment with any antipsychotic was associated with OHCA (odds ratio [OR]= 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.23-1.89) as was use with typical antipsychotics (OR= 1.66, CI: 1.27-2.17). By contrast, overall atypical antipsychotics drug use was not (OR= 1.29, CI: 0.90-1.85). Two individual typical antipsychotic drugs were associated with OHCA, haloperidol (OR= 2.43, CI: 1.20-4.93) and levomepromazine (OR= 2.05, CI: 1.18-3.56) as was one atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine (OR= 3.64, CI: 1.59-8.30).Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2014); Accepted article preview online 24 June 2014; doi:10.1038/clpt.2014.139.

  1. Prognostication after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, a clinical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busch Michael

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous parameters and tests have been proposed for outcome prediction in comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors. We conducted a survey of clinical practice of prognostication after therapeutic hypothermia (TH became common practice in Norway. Methods By telephone, we interviewed the consultants who were in charge of the 25 ICUs admitting cardiac patients using 6 structured questions regarding timing, tests used and medical specialties involved in prognostication, as well as the clinical importance of the different parameters used and the application of TH in these patients. Results Prognostication was conducted within 24–48 hours in the majority (72% of the participating ICUs. The most commonly applied parameters and tests were a clinical neurological examination (100%, prehospital data (76%, CCT (56% and EEG (52%. The parameters and tests considered to be of greatest importance for accurate prognostication were prehospital data (56%, neurological examination (52%, and EEG (20%. In 76% of the ICUs, a multidisciplinary approach to prognostication was applied, but only one ICU used a standardised protocol. Therapeutic hypothermia was in routine use in 80% of the surveyed ICUs. Conclusion Despite the routine use of TH, outcome prediction was performed early and was mainly based on prehospital information, neurological examination and CCT and EEG evaluation. Somatosensory evoked potentials appear to be underused and underrated, while the importance of prehospital data, CCT and EEG to appear to be overrated as methods for making accurate predictions. More evidence-based protocols for prognostication in cardiac arrest survivors, as well as additional studies on the effect of TH on known prognostic parameters are needed.

  2. Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS response to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is a common medical emergency with significant mortality and significant neurological morbidity. Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS may be tasked to OHCA. We sought to assess the impact of tasking a HEMS service to OHCA and characterise the nature of these calls. Method Retrospective case review of all HEMS calls to Surrey and Sussex Air Ambulance, United Kingdom, over a 1-year period (1/9/2010-1/9/2011. All missions to cases of suspected OHCA, of presumed medical origin, were reviewed systematically. Results HEMS was activated 89 times to suspected OHCA. This represented 11% of the total HEMS missions. In 23 cases HEMS was stood-down en-route and in 2 cases the patient had not suffered an OHCA on arrival of HEMS. 25 patients achieved return-of-spontaneous circulation (ROSC, 13 (52% prior to HEMS arrival. The HEMS team were never first on-scene. The median time from first collapse to HEMS arrival was 31 minutes (IQR 22–40. The median time from HEMS activation to arrival on scene was 17 minutes (IQR 11.5-21. 19 patients underwent pre-hospital anaesthesia, 5 patients had electrical or chemical cardioversion and 19 patients had therapeutic hypothermia initiated by HEMS. Only 1 post-OHCA patient was transported to hospital by air. The survival to discharge rate was 6.3%. Conclusion OHCA represents a significant proportion of HEMS call outs. HEMS most commonly attend post-ROSC OHCA patients and interventions, including pre-hospital anaesthesia and therapeutic hypothermia should be targeted to this phase. HEMS are rarely first on-scene and should only be tasked as a first response to OHCA in remote locations. HEMS may be most appropriately utilised in OHCA by only attending the scene if a patient achieves ROSC.

  3. Full recovery two months after therapeutic hypothermia following cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a patient with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurologic impairments are very common among patients who get a recovery of spontaneous circulation after suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Therapeutic hypothermia is established as a standardized therapeutic strategy for those patients in whom it decreases mortality rate and improves neurologic outcome. Herein, we report a case of patient who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with ischaemic heart disease and ventricular arrhythmia and got a full recovery without any neurologic impediments 2 months after being managed with therapeutic hypothermia. (author)

  4. Improving outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: impact of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and prehospital physician care

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Robert Jh; Nolan, Jerry P.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for the impact of prehospital, physician-delivered advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) on survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is conflicting. The prospective observational study by Yasunaga and co-workers demonstrates an improved survival at 1 month associated with prehospital physician-delivered ACLS over emergency life-saving technician-delivered ACLS. These effects are additive to the survival benefit seen with bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) com...

  5. Safety of therapeutic hypothermia combined with primary percutaneous coronary intervention after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chisholm, Gro E; Grejs, Anders

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The safety of therapeutic hypothermia combined with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has been challenged after reports of high risk of stent thrombosis. METHODS: We searched the Western Denmark Heart Registry to identify patients with an acute coronary angiography due to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest performed at our institution between September 2010 and September 2013. We identified 68 unconscious patients, who were resuscitated after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and underwent acute PCI with stent implantation and immediate therapeutic hypothermia, and followed these for 30 days. Target temperature of 32-34°C was achieved by either an invasive or a non-invasive cooling system. RESULTS: All patients had elevated myocardial biomarkers and 37 patients had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Bare metal stents were implanted in 14 and drug-eluting stents in 54 patients. All patients received antithrombotic treatment with a standard loading dose of 300 mg acetylsalicylic acid and 10,000 units heparin intravenously prior PCI. Clopidogrel or ticagrelor was administered orally through a gastric tube immediately after PCI. During the procedure abciximab or bivalirudin was administered in 44 patients. Electrocardiographic and clinical signs of stent thrombosis were found in one patient. CONCLUSIONS: We observed one stent thrombosis in this cohort of 68 consecutive patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who were treated with PCI and therapeutic hypothermia. This suggests that PCI with stent implantation can be performed with acceptable safety in these patients.

  6. Differences between out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in residential and public locations and implications for public-access defibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Fredrik; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2010-01-01

    The majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occur in residential locations, but knowledge about strategic placement of automated external defibrillators in residential areas is lacking. We examined whether residential OHCA areas suitable for placement of automated external defibrillators could be identified on the basis of demographic characteristics and characterized individuals with OHCA in residential locations.

  7. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in children and adolescents : Incidences, outcomes, and household socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajan, Shahzleen; Wissenberg, Mads

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is insufficient knowledge of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the very young. OBJECTIVES: This nationwide study sought to examine age-stratified OHCA characteristics and the role of parental socioeconomic differences and its contribution to mortality in the young population. METHODS: All OHCA patients in Denmark, ?21 years of age, were identified from 2001 to 2010. The population was divided into infants (<1 year); pre-school children (1-5 years); school children (6-15 years); and high school adolescents/young adults (16-21 years). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between pre-hospital factors and study endpoints: return of spontaneous circulation and survival. RESULTS: A total of 459 individuals were included. Overall incidence of OHCA was 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The incidence rates for infants, pre-school children, school children and high school adolescents were 11.5, 3.5, 1.3 and 5.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. Overall bystander CPR rate was 48.8%, and for age groups: 55.4%, 41.2%, 44.9% and 63.0%, respectively. Overall 30-day survival rate was 8.1%, and for age groups: 1.4%, 4.5%, 16.1% and 9.3%, respectively. High parental education was associated with improved survival after OHCA (OR 3.48, CI 1.27-9.41). Significant crude difference in survival (OR 3.18, CI 1.22-8.34) between high household incomes vs. low household incomes was found. CONCLUSION: OHCA incidences and survival rates varied significantly between age groups. High parental education was found to be associated with improved survival after OHCA.

  8. Survival to admission after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Seoul, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jin-Hue Kim,1 Tai-Hwan Uhm2 1Department of Emergency Medical Technology, Sun Moon University, Asan-si, Chungnam, South Korea; 2Department of Emergency Medical Services, Eulji University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Purpose: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA data derived according to the Utstein Style guidelines was used to try to determine factors influencing survival to admission (STA and epidemiological rates of OHCA. Patients and methods: This was an observational study of all age groups based on data from prehospital care reports in Seoul, South Korea. The collected data were reported according to the Utstein Style template for OHCA and analyzed in order to compare STA with non-STA. Univariate analysis was conducted using a binomial logistic regression model to identify predictors associated with trauma patients. Results: Eighty-three (4.8% OHCA survivors were admitted to the emergency department with carotid pulse. The median time from arrest to emergency medical personnel defibrillation was statistically significantly shorter in STA cases (8.0 minutes than in non-STA cases (12.0 minutes; P<0.001. Factors independently associated with better prognosis in terms of trauma patients were female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.50–0.91; P=0.01, arrest at home (OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27–0.49; P<0.001, and witnessed arrest (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.94–3.39; P<0.001. Conclusion: Early basic life support, performed by either a layperson or emergency medical personnel, had a positive effect on STA. Male sex, arrest outside of the home, and witnessed arrest are significantly associated with trauma. Keywords: Utstein Style, prehospital, defibrillation, basic life support

  9. Year in review 2013: Critical Care--out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, traumatic injury, and other emergency care conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Scott A; Kharbanda, Bryan; Pepe, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss articles published in 2013 contributing to the existing literature on the management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and the evaluation and management of several other emergency conditions, including traumatic injury. The utility of intravenous medications, including epinephrine and amiodarone, in the management of cardiac arrest is questioned, as are cardiac arrest termination-of-resuscitation rules. Articles discussing mode of transportation in trauma are evaluated, and novel strategies for outcome prediction in traumatic injury are proposed. Diagnostic strategies, including computerized tomography scan for the diagnosis of smoke inhalation injury and serum biomarkers for the diagnosis of post-cardiac arrest syndrome and acute aortic dissection, are also explored. Although many of the articles discussed raise more questions than they answer, they nevertheless provide ample opportunity for further investigation. PMID:25672494

  10. Development of a Web GIS Application for Visualizing and Analyzing Community Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Hugh; Qin, Han; Sasson, Comilla

    2013-01-01

    Improving survival rates at the neighborhood level is increasingly seen as a priority for reducing overall rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the United States. Since wide disparities exist in OHCA rates at the neighborhood level, it is important for public health officials and residents to be able to quickly locate neighborhoods where people are at elevated risk for cardiac arrest and to target these areas for educational outreach and other mitigation strategies. This paper describes an OHCA web mapping application that was developed to provide users with interactive maps and data for them to quickly visualize and analyze the geographic pattern of cardiac arrest rates, bystander CPR rates, and survival rates at the neighborhood level in different U.S. cities. The data comes from the CARES Registry and is provided over a period spanning several years so users can visualize trends in neighborhood out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patterns. Users can also visualize areas that are statistical hot and cold spots for cardiac arrest and compare OHCA and bystander CPR rates in the hot and cold spots. Although not designed as a public participation GIS (PPGIS), this application seeks to provide a forum around which data and maps about local patterns of OHCA can be shared, analyzed and discussed with a view of empowering local communities to take action to address the high rates of OHCA in their vicinity. PMID:23923097

  11. Predicting defibrillation success by "genetic" programming in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Podbregar, Matej; Kovac?ic?, Miha; Podbregar-mars?, Aleksandra; Brezoc?nik, Miran

    2012-01-01

    In some patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF) there may be a better chance of successful defibrillation after a period of chest compression and ventilation before the defibrillation attempt. It is therefore important to know whether a defibrillation attempt will be successful. The predictive powerof a model developed by "genetic" programming (GP) to predict defibrillation success was studied. Methods and Results: 203 defibrillations were administered in 47 patients with out-of-hospital ...

  12. Chest compressions before defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Pascal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current 2005 guidelines for advanced cardiac life support strongly recommend immediate defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, findings from experimental and clinical studies have indicated a potential advantage of pretreatment with chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR prior to defibrillation in improving outcomes. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the beneficial effect of chest compression-first versus defibrillation-first on survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods Main outcome measures were survival to hospital discharge (primary endpoint, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC, neurologic outcome and long-term survival. Randomized, controlled clinical trials that were published between January 1, 1950, and June 19, 2010, were identified by a computerized search using SCOPUS, MEDLINE, BIOS, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, and Web of Science and supplemented by conference proceedings. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs. A subgroup analysis was conducted to explore the effects of response interval greater than 5 min on outcomes. Results A total of four trials enrolling 1503 subjects were integrated into this analysis. No difference was found between chest compression-first versus defibrillation-first in the rate of return of spontaneous circulation (OR 1.01 [0.82-1.26]; P = 0.979, survival to hospital discharge (OR 1.10 [0.70-1.70]; P = 0.686 or favorable neurologic outcomes (OR 1.02 [0.31-3.38]; P = 0.979. For 1-year survival, however, the OR point estimates favored chest compression first (OR 1.38 [0.95-2.02]; P = 0.092 but the 95% CI crossed 1.0, suggesting insufficient estimate precision. Similarly, for cases with prolonged response times (> 5 min point estimates pointed toward superiority of chest compression first (OR 1.45 [0.66-3.20]; P = 0.353, but the 95% CI again crossed 1.0. Conclusions Current evidence does not support the notion that chest compression first prior to defibrillation improves the outcome of patients in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. It appears that both treatments are equivalent. However, subgroup analyses indicate that chest compression first may be beneficial for cardiac arrests with a prolonged response time.

  13. Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is hampered by interruptions in chest compressions--a nationwide prospective feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Niels Henrik; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl

    2011-01-01

    Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a critical determinant of outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of CPR provided by emergency medical service providers (Basic Life Support (BLS) capability) and emergency medical service providers assisted by paramedics, nurse anesthetists or physician-manned ambulances (Advanced Life Support (ALS) capability) in a nationwide, unselected cohort of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases.

  14. Epidemiology and outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a report from the NEDIS-based cardiac arrest registry in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyuk Jun; Kim, Gi Woon; Kim, Hyun; Cho, Jin Seong; Rho, Tai Ho; Yoon, Han Deok; Lee, Mi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a significant issue affecting national health policies. The National Emergency Department Information System for Cardiac Arrest (NEDIS-CA) consortium managed a prospective registry of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) at the emergency department (ED) level. We analyzed the NEDIS-CA data from 29 participating hospitals from January 2008 to July 2009. The primary outcomes were incidence of OHCA and final survival outcomes at discharge. Factors influencing survival outcomes were assessed as secondary outcomes. The implementation of advanced emergency management (drugs, endotracheal intubation) and post-cardiac arrest care (therapeutic hypothermia, coronary intervention) was also investigated. A total of 4,156 resuscitation-attempted OHCAs were included, of which 401 (9.6%) patients survived to discharge and 79 (1.9%) were discharged with good neurologic outcomes. During the study period, there were 1,662,470 ED visits in participant hospitals; therefore, the estimated number of resuscitation-attempted CAs was 1 per 400 ED visits (0.25%). Factors improving survival outcomes included younger age, witnessed collapse, onset in a public place, a shockable rhythm in the pre-hospital setting, and applied advanced resuscitation care. We found that active advanced multidisciplinary resuscitation efforts influenced improvement in the survival rate. Resuscitation by public witnesses improved the short-term outcomes (return of spontaneous circulation, survival admission) but did not increase the survival to discharge rate. Strategies are required to reinforce the chain of survival and high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Korea. PMID:25552889

  15. Advanced life support therapy and on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: Applying signal processing and pattern recognition methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Eftestøl

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the US alone, several hundred thousands die of sudden cardiac arrests each year. Basic life support defined as chest compressions and ventilations and early defibrillation are the only factors proven to increase the survival of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and are key elements in the chain of survival defined by the American Heart Association. The current cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines treat all patients the same, but studies show need for more individualiza- tion of treatment. This review will focus on ideas on how to strengthen the weak parts of the chain of survival including the ability to measure the effects of therapy, improve time efficiency, and optimize the sequence and quality of the various components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  16. Assessment of the Efficacy of Pulsed Biphasic Defibrillation Shocks for Treatment of Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Didon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficacy of a Pulsed Biphasic Waveform (PBW for treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patients in ventricular fibrillation (VF. Large database (2001-2006, collected with automated external defibrillators (AED, (FRED®, Schiller Medical SAS, France, is processed.In Study1 we compared the defibrillation efficacy of two energy stacks (90-130-180 J vs. (130-130-180 J in 248 OHCA VF patients. The analysis of the first shock PBW efficacy proves that energies as low as 90 J are able to terminate VF in a large proportion of OHCA patients (77% at 5 s and 69% at 30 s. Although the results show a trend towards the benefit of higher energy PBW with 130 J (86% at 5 s, 73% at 30 s, the difference in shock efficacy does not reach statistical significance. Both PBW energy stacks (90-130-180 J and (130-130-180 J achieve equal success rates of defibrillation. Analysis of the post-shock rhythm after the first shock is also provided.For Study2 of 21 patients with PBW shocks (130-130-180 J, we assessed some attending OHCA circumstances: call-to-shock delay (median 16min, range 11-41 min, phone advices of CPR (67%. About 50% of the patients were admitted alive to hospital, and 19% were discharged from hospital. After the first shock, patients admitted to hospital are more often presenting organized rhythm (OR (27% to 55% than patients not admitted (0% to 10%, with significant difference at 15 s and 30 s. Post-shock VFs appear significantly rare until 15s for patients admitted to hospital (0% to 9% than for patients not admitted to hospital (40% to 50%. Return of OR (ROOR and efficacy to defibrillate VF at 5 s and 15 s with first shock are important markers to predict patient admission to hospital.

  17. Out-of hospital cardiac arrest in Okayama city (Japan: outcome report according to the "Utsutein Style".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi,Hoei

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in the city of Okayama, Japan, during a 1-year period after the reorganization of defibrillation by Emergency Life-Saving Technicians (ELSTs with standing orders of CPR. The data were collected prospectively according to an Utstein style between June 1, 2003 and May 31, 2004; OHCA was confirmed in 363 patients. Cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology (179 was witnessed by a bystander in 62 (34.6% cases. Of this group, ventricular fibrillation (VF was documented in 20 cases (32.3%, and 1 patient (5% was discharged alive without severe neurological disability. This outcome is average in Japan, but it is quite low level compared with Western countries because there is less VF in Japan. The Utstein style revealed that we must try to detect VF before the rhythm changes and to provide defibrillation as soon as possible in order to improve outcomes. Further research will be required to accurately evaluate OHCA in Okayama city.

  18. Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in relation to sex : A nationwide registry-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg, Mads; Hansen, Carolina Malta

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Crude survival has increased following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We aimed to study sex-related differences in patient characteristics and survival during a 10-year study period. METHODS: Patients ?12 years old with OHCA of a presumed cardiac cause, and in whom resuscitation was attempted, were identified through the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry 2001-2010. A total of 19.372 patients were included. RESULTS: One-third were female, with a median age of 75 years (IQR 65-83). Compared to females, males were five years younger; and less likely to have severe comorbidities, e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (12.8% vs. 16.5%); but more likely to have arrest outside of the home (29.4% vs. 18.7%), receive bystander CPR (32.9% vs. 25.9%), and have a shockable rhythm (32.6% vs. 17.2%), all p<0.001. Thirty-day crude survival increased in males (3.0% in 2001 to 12.9% in 2010); and in females (4.8% in 2001 to 6.7% in 2010), p<0.001. Multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for patient characteristics including comorbidities, showed no survival difference between sexes in patients with a non-shockable rhythm (OR 1.00; CI 0.72-1.40), while female sex was positively associated with survival in patients with a shockable rhythm (OR 1.31; CI 1.07-1.59). Analyses were rhythm-stratified due to interaction between sex and heart rhythm. There was no interaction between sex and calendar-year. CONCLUSIONS: Temporal increase in crude survival was more marked in males due to poorer prognostic characteristics in females with a lower proportion of shockable rhythm. In an adjusted model, female sex was positively associated with survival in patients with a shockable rhythm.

  19. Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in relation to sex : a nationwide registry-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wissenberg, Mads; Hansen, Carolina Malta

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Crude survival has increased following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We aimed to study sex-related differences in patient characteristics and survival during a 10-year study period. METHODS: Patients?12 years old with OHCA of a presumed cardiac cause, and in whom resuscitation was attempted, were identified through the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry 2001-2010. A total of 19,372 patients were included. RESULTS: One-third were female, with a median age of 75 years (IQR 65-83). Compared to females, males were five years younger; and less likely to have severe comorbidities, e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (12.8% vs. 16.5%); but more likely to have arrest outside of the home (29.4% vs. 18.7%), receive bystander CPR (32.9% vs. 25.9%), and have a shockable rhythm (32.6% vs. 17.2%), all p<0.001. Thirty-day crude survival increased in males (3.0% in 2001 to 12.9% in 2010); and in females (4.8% in 2001 to 6.7% in 2010), p<0.001. Multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for patient characteristics including comorbidities, showed no survival difference between sexes in patients with a non-shockable rhythm (OR 1.00; CI 0.72-1.40), while female sex was positively associated with survival in patients with a shockable rhythm (OR 1.31; CI 1.07-1.59). Analyses were rhythm-stratified due to interaction between sex and heart rhythm; there was no interaction between sex and calendar-year. CONCLUSIONS: Temporal increase in crude survival was more marked in males due to poorer prognostic characteristics in females with a lower proportion of shockable rhythm. In an adjusted model, female sex was positively associated with survival in patients with a shockable rhythm.

  20. Serum Potassium Changes During Therapeutic Hypothermia After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest-Should It Be Treated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soeholm, Helle; Kirkegaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is associated with adverse events, for example hypokalemia and arrhythmias. In the present study, we report the impact of serum potassium changes related to the rate of cardiac arrhythmias, and the advantages and disadvantages of potassium supplementation are discussed. Methods: Fifty-four consecutive patients suffering from OHCA and treated with TH (32-34°C) for 24 hours at one University Hospital were included and followed for 48 hours. Results: Serum potassium levels decreased during cooling from a median admission value of 4.0?mmol/L (quartiles 3.6-4.5?mmol/L) to a nadir of 3.6?mmol/L (3.5-3.9?mmol/L) 6 hours after target temperature (p=0.005), and 76% reached values of 5.5?mmol/L. Potassium supplementation was initiated at 3.5?mmol/L (quartiles 3.2-3.6?mmol/L) and stopped at 4.5?mmol/L (4.1-4.8?mmol/L). A total of 11% of patients experienced ventricular fibrillation (VF) or ventricular tachycardia (VT). Potassium levels in patients experiencing VF or VT were lower, though not significantly (p=0.119) compared to the rest of the patients. Conclusion: Serum potassium decreases significantly during the induction of TH (p=0.005). Potassium levels were not found to be different in patients with and without VF/VT in this study, perhaps due to the low number of patients, as a difference has been seen in other studies. It is recommended that an infusion of supplementary potassium be initiated during the early cooling phase in order to avoid severe hypokalemia (serum potassium 5.5?mmol/L), as serum potassium increases during rewarming.

  1. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and placement of automated external defibrillators in the community.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    INDLEDNING Chancen for at overleve et hjertestop udenfor hospital er i de første minutter efter kollaps afhængig af hjælpen fra nærmeste tilstedeværende. Dette har faciliteret strategier for placering af automatiske eksterne defibrillatorer (AED) i det offentlige rum og muliggjort hurtig defibrillering før ambulance ankomst. Sådanne strategier betegnes ’defibrillering med offentlig adgang’ (public access defibrillation (PAD)). Megen forskning har fokuseret på placering af og overlevelse med brug af AED i udvalgte områder, hvorimod der er meget begrænset viden om hvor udbredt AED’er bør være i det offentlige rum. Tilsvarende er der begrænset viden om hvor AED’er strategisk bør opsættes uden for hospital, når forekomst af hjertestop i området er ukendt. I denne afhandling fokuseres på analyser af hjertestop i boligområder og offentligt rum og har følgende formål: 1) At undersøge hvordan forskellige AED placeringsstrategier påvirker PAD i boligområder og det offentligt rum; 2) at estimere risikoen for hjertestop afhængig af et områdes geografiske- og demografiske karakteristika, hvilket kan tjene som rettesnor for hvor AED bør placeres strategisk udenfor hospital; 3) at undersøge om der er forskelle i patientkarakteristika afhængigt af hvor hjertestoppet forekommer (boligområde versus offentligt rum); 4) at estimere omkostnings-effektiviteten for PAD programmer i boligområder og det offentligt rum afhængigt af valgte AED placeringsstrategi. METODE OG RESULTATER I perioden 1994-2005 blev alle personer med hjertestop udenfor hospital registreret af Akutlægebilen i København. Det Europæiske Kvadratnet, et defineret og harmoniseret kvadratnet for hele Europa med standardiseret størrelse og lokalisering af alle kvadratnetceller, blev benyttet til optælling af hjertestop forekommet i hver enkelt 100x100-meter celle i København. Antallet af hjertestop i hver enkelt celle blev analyseret i forhold til cellens underliggende geografiske og demografiske karakteristika. I alt blev 4828 hjertestop inkluderet i studieperioden; 3554 (74%) forekom i boligområder og 1274 (26%) i offentligt rum. Hvis anbefalingerne for AED placering fra det Europæiske Råd for Genoplivning fulgtes (1 hjertestop hvert 2. år), ville dette kræve AED opsætning svarende til 1% af det samlede areal for København og medføre dækning af 20% af alle hjertestop i offentligt rum. En større dækningsgrad kunne opnås ved at følge anbefalingerne fra den Amerikanske Hjerteforening (1 hjertestop hvert 5. år). Dette ville kræve AED opsætning svarende til 10% af Københavns areal og medføre dækning af næsten 70% af samtlige hjertestop i offentligt rum. Endvidere påvistes en paradoksal AED placering i offentligt rum, hvor hovedparten af opsatte AED’er skete i områder med lav hjertestop forekomst. Baseret på simple, demografiske karakteristika for beboede områder (befolkningstæthed, gennemsnitsalder, gennemsnitlig indkomst og andelen med kort uddannelse) var det muligt at identificere områder med høj forekomst af hjertestop. Disse områder udgjorde mindre end 3% af alle boligområder men inkluderede op mod 9% af alle hjertestop i boligområder. Personer med hjertestop i boligområder havde imidlertid øget forekomst af karakteristika forbundet med dårlig prognose, herunder højere alder, mandligt køn, oftere hjertestop om natten, længere responstid for ambulance og mindre sandsynlighed for at have stødbar hjerterytme sammenlignet med hjertestop i offentligt rum. KONKLUSION Denne afhandling viser, at en stor andel af hjertestop i offentligt rum kan dækkes ved strategisk opsætning af AED’er indenfor et begrænset geografisk område. Såfremt AED opsætning styres af tilfældige lokale eller politiske initiativer, fandtes en stor risiko for paradoksal AED placering, hvor opsætning primært forekom i områder med lav hjertestop forekomst. Ved at benytte simple, demografiske karakteristika for beboede områder i København, var det muligt at identificere boligområder med høj forekomst af hjertestop. Hj

  2. Survival and Neurologic Outcomes of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients Who Were Transferred after Return of Spontaneous Circulation for Integrated Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome Care: The Another Feasibility of the Cardiac Arrest Center

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Mun Ju; Lee, Tae Rim; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-01-01

    It has been proven that safety and efficiency of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients is transported to specialized hospitals that have the capability of performing therapeutic hypothermia (TH). However, the outcome of the patients who have been transferred after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) has not been well evaluated. We conducted a retrospective observational study between January 2010 to March 2012. There were primary outcomes as good neurofunctional status at 1 mont...

  3. Evolution of insulin sensitivity and its variability in out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients treated with hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah Pri, Azurahisham; Chase, James G; Pretty, Christopher G; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Oddo, Mauro; Taccone, Fabio S; Penning, Sophie; Desaive, Thomas

    2014-10-28

    IntroductionTherapeutic hypothermia (TH) is often used to treat out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who also often simultaneously receive insulin for stress-induced hyperglycaemia. However, the impact of TH on systemic metabolism and insulin resistance in critical illness is unknown. This study analyses the impact of TH on metabolism, including the evolution of insulin sensitivity (SI) and its variability, in patients with coma after OHCA.MethodsThis study uses a clinically validated, model-based measure of SI. Insulin sensitivity was identified hourly using retrospective data from 200 post-cardiac arrest patients (8,522 hours) treated with TH, shortly after admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Blood glucose and body temperature readings were taken every one to two hours. Data were divided into three periods: 1) cool (T 37 °C). A maximum of 24 hours each for the cool and warm periods were considered. The impact of each condition on SI is analysed per cohort and per patient for both level and hour-to-hour variability, between periods and in 6-hour blocks.ResultsCohort and per patient median SI levels increase consistently by 35% to 70% and 26% to 59% (P <0.001) respectively from cool to warm. Conversely, cohort and per patient SI variability decreased by 11.1% to 33.6% (P <0.001) for the first 12 hours of treatment. However, SI variability increases between the 18th and 30th hours over the cool-warm transition, before continuing to decrease afterward.ConclusionsOCHA patients treated with TH have significantly lower and more variable SI during the cool period, compared to the later warm period. As treatment continues, SI level rises, and variability decreases consistently except for a large, significant increase during the cool-warm transition. These results demonstrate increased resistance to insulin during mild induced hypothermia. Our study might have important implications for glycaemic control during targeted temperature management. PMID:25349023

  4. Acute coronary angiography in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest-A systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Jacob; Ravkilde, Jan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has a poor prognosis. The main aetiology is ischaemic heart disease. AIM: To make a systematic review addressing the question: "In patients with return of spontaneous circulation following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, does acute coronary angiography with coronary intervention improve survival compared to conventional treatment?" METHODS: Peer reviewed articles written in English with relevant prognostic data were included. Comparison studies on patients with and without acute coronary angiography were pooled in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-two non-randomised studies were included of which 22 were case-series without patients with conservative treatment. Seven studies with specific efforts to control confounding had statistical evidence to support the use of acute coronary angiography following resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The remaining 25 studies were considered neutral. Following acute coronary angiography, the survival to hospital discharge, 30 days or six months ranged from 23% to 86%. In patients without an obvious non-cardiac aetiology, the prevalence of significant coronary artery disease ranged from 59% to 71%. Electrocardiographic findings were unreliable for identifying angiographic findings of acute coronary syndrome. Ten comparison studies demonstrated a pooled unadjusted odds ratio for survival of 2.78 (1.89; 4.10) favouring acute coronary angiography. CONCLUSION: No randomised studies exist on acute coronary angiography following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. An increasing number of observational studies support feasibility and a possible survival benefit of an early invasive approach. In patients without an obvious non-cardiac aetiology, acute coronary angiography should be strongly considered irrespective of electrocardiographic findings due to a high prevalence of coronary artery disease.

  5. Prognostic implication of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in patients with cardiogenic shock and acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Sarah; Lindholm, Matias Greve

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and cardiogenic shock (CS) presenting with and without out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). BACKGROUND: Despite general improvement in outcome after acute MI, CS remains a leading cause of death in acute MI patients with a high 30-day mortality rate. OHCA on top of cardiogenic shock may further increase mortality in these patients resulting in premature withdrawal of supportive therapy, but this is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a retrospective study from 2008 to 2013, 248 consecutive patients admitted alive to a tertiary centre with the diagnosis of CS and acute MI were enrolled, 118 (48%) presented with OHCA and 130 (52%) without (non-OHCA patients). Mean lactate level at admission was significantly higher in OHCA patients compared with non-OCHA patients (9mmol/l (SD 6) vs. 6mmol/l (SD 4) p<0.0001). Co-morbidities were more prevalent in the non-OHCA group. By univariate analysis age (Hazard ratio (HR)=1.02 [CI 1.00-1.03], p=0.01) and lactate at admission (HR=1.06 [CI 1.03-1.09], p<0.001), but not OHCA (HR=1.1 [CI 0.8-1.4], p=NS) was associated with mortality. In multivariate analysis, only age (HR=1.02 [CI 1.01-1.04], p=0.003) and lactate level at admission (HR=1.06 [1.03-1.09], p<0.001) were independent predictors of mortality. One-week mortality was 63% in the OHCA group and 56% in the non-OHCA group, p=NS. CONCLUSION: OHCA is not an independent predictor of mortality in patients with acute MI complicated by cardiogenic shock. This should encourage active intensive treatment of CS patients regardless of OHCA.

  6. Does Pre-hospital Endotracheal Intubation Improve Survival in Adults with Non-traumatic Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Tiah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endotracheal intubation (ETI is currently considered superior to supraglottic airway devices (SGA for survival and other outcomes among adults with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. We aimed to determine if the research supports this conclusion by conducting a systematic review. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, Scopus and CINAHL databases for studies published between January 1, 1980, and 30 April 30, 2013, which compared pre-hospital use of ETI with SGA for outcomes of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC; survival to hospital admission; survival to hospital discharge; and favorable neurological or functional status. We selected studies using pre-specified criteria. Included studies were independently screened for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We did not pool results because of study variability. Study outcomes were extracted and results presented as summed odds ratios with 95% CI. Results: We identified five eligible studies: one quasi-randomized controlled trial and four cohort studies, involving 303,348 patients in total. Only three of the five studies reported a higher proportion of ROSC with ETI versus SGA with no difference reported in the remaining two. None found significant differences between ETI and SGA for survival to hospital admission or discharge. One study reported better functional status at discharge for ETI versus SGA. Two studies reported no significant difference for favorable neurological status between ETI and SGA. Conclusion: Current evidence does not conclusively support the superiority of ETI over SGA for multiple outcomes among adults with OHCA. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.

  7. Successful use of therapeutic hypothermia in an opiate induced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest complicated by severe hypoglycaemia and amphetamine intoxication: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søreide Eldar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The survival to discharge rate after unwitnessed, non-cardiac out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is dismal. We report the successful use of therapeutic hypothermia in a 26-year old woman with OHCA due to intentional poisoning with heroin, amphetamine and insulin. The cardiac arrest was not witnessed, no bystander CPR was initiated, the time interval from the call to ambulance arrival was 9 minutes and the initial cardiac rhythm was asystole. Eight minutes of advanced cardiac life support resulted in ROSC. Upon hospital admission, the patient's pupils were dilated. Her arterial lactate was 17 mmol/l, base excess -20, pH 6.9 and serum glucose 0.2 mmol/l. During the first 24 hours in the ICU, the patient developed maximally dilated pupils not reacting to light and became increasingly haemodynamically unstable, requiring both inotropic support and massive fluid resuscitation. After 1 week in the ICU, however, she made an uneventful recovery with a Cerebral Performance Category of 1 at hospital discharge and at a follow up examination at 6 months. Conclusion According to most prognostic factors, the patient had a statistical chance for survival of less than 1%, not taking into account her severe state of hypoglyaemia. We suggest that this case exemplifies the need for more studies on the use of TH in non-coronary causes of OHCA.

  8. Risk factors among people surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and their thoughts about what lifestyle means to them : a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Forslund, Ann-sofie; Lundblad, Dan; Jansson, Jan-ha?kan; Zingmark, Karin; So?derberg, Siv

    2013-01-01

    Background: The known risk factors for coronary heart disease among people prior suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with validated myocardial infarction aetiology and their thoughts about what lifestyle means to them after surviving have rarely been described. Therefore the aim of the study was to describe risk factors and lifestyle among survivors. Methods: An explanatory mixed methods design was used. All people registered in the Northern Sweden MONICA myocardial registry between t...

  9. Survival and neurologic outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients who were transferred after return of spontaneous circulation for integrated post-cardiac arrest syndrome care: the another feasibility of the cardiac arrest center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mun Ju; Lee, Tae Rim; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-09-01

    It has been proven that safety and efficiency of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients is transported to specialized hospitals that have the capability of performing therapeutic hypothermia (TH). However, the outcome of the patients who have been transferred after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) has not been well evaluated. We conducted a retrospective observational study between January 2010 to March 2012. There were primary outcomes as good neurofunctional status at 1 month and the secondary outcomes as the survivals at 1 month between Samsung Medical Center (SMC) group and transferred group. A total of 91 patients were enrolled this study. There was no statistical difference between good neurologic outcomes between both groups (38% transferred group vs. 40.6% SMC group, P=0.908). There was no statistical difference in 1 month survival between the 2 groups (66% transferred group vs. 75.6% SMC group, P=0.318). In the univariate and multivariate models, the ROSC to induction time and the induction time had no association with good neurologic outcomes. The good neurologic outcome and survival at 1 month had no significant differences between the 2 groups. This finding suggests the possibility of integrated post-cardiac arrest care for OHCA patients who are transferred from other hospitals after ROSC in the cardiac arrest center. PMID:25246751

  10. Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is hampered by interruptions in chest compressions-A nationwide prospective feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Niels Henrik; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl

    2010-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a critical determinant of outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of CPR provided by emergency medical service providers (Basic Life Support (BLS) capability) and emergency medical service providers assisted by paramedics, nurse anesthetists or physician-manned ambulances (Advanced Life Support (ALS) capability) in a nationwide, unselected cohort of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with non-traumatic etiology (>18 years of age) occurring from the 1st to the 31st of January 2009 and treated by the primary Danish emergency medical service operator, covering approximately 85% of the population. One hundred and ninety-one cases were eligible for analysis. Follow-up was up to one year or death. Quality of CPR was evaluated using measurements of transthoracic impedance. RESULTS: The majority of patients were treated by ambulances with ALS capability (54%). Interruptions in CPR related to loading of the patient into the emergency medical service vehicle were substantial, but independent of whether patients were managed by ALS or BLS capable units (222s versus 224s, P=0.76) as were duration of interruptions during rhythm analysis alone (20s versus 22s, P=0.33) and defibrillation (24s versus 26s, P=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Nationwide, routine monitoring of transthoracic impedance is feasible. CPR is hampered by extended interruptions, particularly during loading of the patient into the emergency medical service vehicle, rhythm analysis and defibrillation.

  11. Chest Compression Injuries Detected via Routine Post-arrest Care in Patients Who Survive to Admission after Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Lori L; Satterlee, Paul A; Hokanson, Jonathan S; Strauss, Craig E; Yost, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To examine injuries produced by chest compressions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who survive to hospital admission. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 235 consecutive patients who were hospitalized after nontraumatic OHCA in Minnesota between January 2009 and May 2012 (117 survived to discharge; 118 died during hospitalization). Cases were eligible if the patient had received prehospital compressions from an emergency medical services (EMS) provider. One EMS provider in the area was using a mechanical compression device (LUCAS(TM)) as standard equipment, so the association between injury and use of mechanical compression was also examined. Prehospital care information was abstracted from EMS run sheets, and hospital records were reviewed for injuries documented during the post-arrest hospitalization that likely resulted from compressions. Results. Injuries were identified in 31 patients (13%), the most common being rib fracture (9%) and intrathoracic hemorrhage (3%). Among those who survived to discharge, the mean length of stay was not statistically significantly different between those with injuries (13.5 days) and those without (10.8 days; p = 0.23). Crude injury prevalence was higher in those who died prior to discharge, had received compressions for >10 minutes (versus ?10 minutes) and underwent computer tomography (CT) imaging, but did not differ by bystander compressions or use of mechanical compression. After multivariable adjustment, only compression time > 10 min and CT imaging during hospitalization were positively associated with detected injury (OR = 7.86 [95% CI = 1.7-35.9] and 6.30 [95% CI = 2.6-15.5], respectively). Conclusion. In patients who survived OHCA to admission, longer duration of compressions and use of CT during the post-arrest course were associated positively with documented compression injury. Compression-induced injuries detected via routine post-arrest care are likely to be largely insignificant in terms of length of recovery. PMID:25076024

  12. Diurnal variations in incidence and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest including prior comorbidity and pharmacotherapy : a nationwide study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Lena I M; Wissenberg, Mads

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate diurnal variations in incidence and outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: OHCA of presumed cardiac etiology were identified through the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry (2001-2010). Time of day was divided into three time periods: daytime 07.00-14.59; evening 15.00-22.59; and nighttime 23.00-06.59. RESULTS: We identified 18,929 OHCA patients, aged ?18 years. The median age was 72 years (IQR 62-80) and the majority were male (67.5%). OHCA occurrence varied across time periods, with 43.9%, 35.7% and 20.6% occurring during daytime, evening and nighttime, respectively. Nighttime patients were more likely to have: severe comorbidity (i.e. COPD), arrest in private home (87.2% vs. 69.0% and 73.0% daytime and evening, respectively), non-witnessed arrest (51.2% vs. 48.4% and 43.7%), no bystander CPR (75.9% vs. 68.4% and 66.1%), longer time interval from recognition of OHCA to rhythm analysis (12 min vs. 11 min and 11 min), and non-shockable heart rhythm (80.1% vs. 70.3% and 69.4%), all p<0.0001. Nighttime patients were less likely to achieve return of spontaneous circulation on arrival at the hospital (7.5% vs. 14.8% and 15.1%) and 1-year survival (2.8% vs. 7.2% and 7.1%), p<0.0001. Overall, the lower 1-year survival rate persisted after adjusting for patient-related and cardiac-arrest related characteristics mentioned above (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.37-0.59; OR 0.51, 95%CI 0.40-0.65, compared to daytime and evening, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We found nighttime patients to have a lower survival compared to daytime and evening that persisted when adjusting for patient-related and cardiac-arrest related characteristics including comorbidities.

  13. No fate but what we make: a case of full recovery after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Maria J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An 80 years old man suffered a cardiac arrest shortly after arrival to his local health department. Basic Life Support was started promptly and nine minutes later, on evaluation by an Advanced Life Support team, the victim was defibrillated with a 200J shock. When orotracheal intubation was attempted, masseter muscle contraction was noticed: on revaluation, the victim had pulse and spontaneous breathing. Thirty minutes later, the patient had been transferred to an emergency department. As he complained of chest pain, the ECG showed a ST segment depression in leads V4 to V6 and laboratorial tests showed cardiac troponine I slightly elevated. A coronary angiography was performed urgently: significant left main plus three vessel coronary artery disease was disclosed. Eighteen hours after the cardiac arrest, a quadruple coronary artery bypass grafting operation was undertaken. During surgery, a fresh thrombus was removed from the middle left anterior descendent artery. Post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged seven days after the procedure. Twenty four months later, he remains asymptomatic. In this case, the immediate call for the Advanced Life Support team, prompt basic life support and the successful defibrillation, altogether, contributed for the full recovery. Furthermore, the swiftness in the detection and treatment of the acute reversible cause (myocardial ischemia in this case was crucial for long-term prognosis.

  14. Implementation of a post-cardiac arrest care bundle including therapeutic hypothermia and hemodynamic optimization in comatose patients with return of spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Elizabeth Lea; Morawski, Kyle; Dorotta, Ihab; Ramsingh, Davinder; Lumen, Kelly; Bland, David; Clem, Kathleen; Nguyen, H Bryant

    2011-04-01

    Patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with return of spontaneous circulation after cardiac arrest generally have poor outcomes. Guidelines for treatment can be complicated and difficult to implement. This study examined the feasibility of implementing a care bundle including therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and early hemodynamic optimization for comatose patients with return of spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The study included patients over a 2-year period in the ED and intensive care unit of an academic tertiary-care medical center. The first year (prebundle) provided a historical control, followed by a prospective observational period of bundle implementation during the second year. The bundle elements included (a) TH initiated; (b) central venous pressure/central venous oxygen saturation monitoring in 2 h; (c) target temperature in 4 h; (d) central venous pressure greater than 12 mmHg in 6 h; (e) MAP greater than 65 mmHg in 6 h; (f) central venous oxygen saturation greater than 70% in 6 h; (g) TH maintained for 24 h; and (h) decreasing lactate in 24 h. Fifty-five patients were enrolled, 26 patients in the prebundle phase and 29 patients in the bundle phase. Seventy-seven percent of bundle elements were completed during the bundle phase. In-hospital mortality in bundle compared with prebundle patients was 55.2% vs. 69.2% (P = 0.29). In the bundle patients, those patients who received all elements of the care bundle had mortality 33.3% compared with 60.9% in those receiving some of the bundle elements (P = 0.22). Bundle patients tended to achieve good neurologic outcome compared with prebundle patients, Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2 in 31 vs. 12% patients, respectively (P = 0.08). Our study demonstrated that a post-cardiac arrest care bundle that incorporates TH and early hemodynamic optimization can be implemented in the ED and intensive care unit collaboratively and can achieve similar clinical benefits compared with those observed in previous clinical trials. PMID:21068697

  15. Out-of-Hospital therapeutic hypothermia. A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nélida Conejo Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated therapeutic mild hypothermia improves neurological outcome of patients after suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.Other studies in animals suggest that the sooner hypothermia is started after return of spontaneous circulation, the lower neurological symptoms are suffered by patients.The aim of this work is to know the efficiency of the therapeutic moderated hipotermia after the cardiopulmonar resuscitation realized extra hospitable.Methods: We made a literature search in Medline (Pubmed, Cinahl, Cuiden, Cochrane Library and the Joanna Briggs Institute, combining mesh and free terms; and searched in the journals Circulation, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine Journal manually last year. We selected systematic reviews and randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials which had contrasted in-hospital and out-of-hospital TMH with over 18 years patients.Results: Only 5 articles met the inclusion criteria of the 35 selected: four randomized clinical trials and one nonrandomized. They were then subjected to a critical methodological evaluation (CASPe and statistic evaluation (IDIPaz.Conclusions: Pre hospital TMH is an effective and safe technique in comatose patients after being resuscitated from cardiac arrest, improving the neurological status at hospital discharge.

  16. Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C Versus 36°C and Impact on Systemic Vascular Resistance and Myocardial Function After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest : A Sub-Study of the Target Temperature Management Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Hassager, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular dysfunction is common after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest as part of the postcardiac arrest syndrome, and hypothermia may pose additional impact on hemodynamics. The aim was to investigate systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), cardiac index, and myocardial performance at a targeted temperature management of 33°C (TTM33) versus 36°C (TTM36). METHODS AND RESULTS: Single-center substudy of 171 patients included in the Target Temperature Management Trial (TTM Trial) randomly assigned to TTM33 or TTM36 for 24 hours after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Mean arterial pressure ?65 mm Hg and central venous pressure of 10 to 15 mm Hg were hemodynamic treatment goals. Hemodynamic evaluation was performed by serial right heart catheterization and transthoracic echocardiography. Primary end point was SVRI after 24 hours of cooling and secondary end points included mean SVRI, cardiac index, systolic function, and lactate levels. The TTM33 group had a significant increase in SVRI compared with TTM36 (2595; 95% confidence interval, 2422-2767) versus 1960 (95% confidence interval, 1787-2134) dynes m(2)/s per cm(5); P<0.0001, respectively) after 24 hours of cooling with an overall difference of 556 dynes m(2)/s per cm(5) (P(group) <0.0001). TTM33 was associated with decreased cardiac index (-0.4 L/min per m(2); P(group) <0.0001), decreased heart rate (P(group)=0.01), and stroke volume index (P(group)=0.004) compared with TTM36. Left ventricular ejection fraction (P=0.39) and peak systolic myocardial velocity (P=0.62) did not differ between TTM groups. Lactate levels were significantly higher in the TTM33 group (P=0.0008). CONCLUSIONS: Targeted temperature management at 33°C with target mean arterial pressure ?65 mm Hg is associated with increased SVRI and lower cardiac index because of lower heart rate with unaffected left ventricular systolic function compared with 36°C. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01020916.

  17. Reporting of data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest has to involve emergency medical dispatching--taking the recommendations on reporting OHCA the Utstein style a step further

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrén, M; Bohm, K

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: As a part of the chain of survival, the emergency medical communication centre (EMCC) and the emergency medical dispatcher (EMD) has an important role in early identification of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA). The EMD may provide instructions to the caller and thereby initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a substantial number of subjects and thus contribute to increased survival. The EMCC provides a response with first responders, ambulances, physician manned units and potentially other health care providers. EMCC in many cases initiates the communication with experts in the referral hospital and provide added value to the post resuscitation care by providing advanced transport, logistics and follow up. In research there is a growing focus on the EMCC/EMDs impact on survival in OHCA. The lack of standards in reporting results from medical dispatching is an obstacle for thorough evaluation of results in this area and comparison of data. The objective for this paper is to introduce a framework for uniform reporting of the dispatching process for quality improvement, collecting and reporting data and exchanging information regarding OHCA.

  18. Invasive coronary treatment strategies for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest : a consensus statement from the European Association for Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI)/Stent for Life (SFL) groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noc, Marko; Fajadet, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Due to significant improvement in the pre-hospital treatment of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), an increasing number of initially resuscitated patients are being admitted to hospitals. Because of the limited data available and lack of clear guideline recommendations, experts from the EAPCI and "Stent for Life" (SFL) groups reviewed existing literature and provided practical guidelines on selection of patients for immediate coronary angiography (CAG), PCI strategy, concomitant antiplatelet/anticoagulation treatment, haemodynamic support and use of therapeutic hypothermia. Conscious survivors of OHCA with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) should be treated according to recommendations for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and high-risk non-ST-segment elevation -ACS (NSTE-ACS) without OHCA and should undergo immediate (if STEMI) or rapid (less than two hours if NSTE-ACS) coronary invasive strategy. Comatose survivors of OHCA with ECG criteria for STEMI on the post-resuscitation ECG should be admitted directly to the catheterisation laboratory. For patients without STEMI ECG criteria, a short "emergency department or intensive care unit stop" is advised to exclude non-coronary causes. In the absence of an obvious non-coronary cause, CAG should be performed as soon as possible (less than two hours), in particular in haemodynamically unstable patients. Immediate PCI should be mainly directed towards the culprit lesion if identified. Interventional cardiologists should become an essential part of the "survival chain" for patients with OHCA. There is a need to centralise the care of patients with OHCA to experienced centres.

  19. Invasive coronary treatment strategies for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a consensus statement from the European association for percutaneous cardiovascular interventions (EAPCI)/stent for life (SFL) groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noc, Marko; Fajadet, Jean; Lassen, Jens F; Kala, Petr; MacCarthy, Philip; Olivecrona, Goran K; Windecker, Stephan; Spaulding, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Due to significant improvement in the pre-hospital treatment of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), an increasing number of initially resuscitated patients are being admitted to hospitals. Because of the limited data available and lack of clear guideline recommendations, experts from the EAPCI and "Stent for Life" (SFL) groups reviewed existing literature and provided practical guidelines on selection of patients for immediate coronary angiography (CAG), PCI strategy, concomitant antiplatelet/anticoagulation treatment, haemodynamic support and use of therapeutic hypothermia. Conscious survivors of OHCA with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) should be treated according to recommendations for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and high-risk non-ST-segment elevation -ACS (NSTE-ACS) without OHCA and should undergo immediate (if STEMI) or rapid (less than two hours if NSTE-ACS) coronary invasive strategy. Comatose survivors of OHCA with ECG criteria for STEMI on the post-resuscitation ECG should be admitted directly to the catheterisation laboratory. For patients without STEMI ECG criteria, a short "emergency department or intensive care unit stop" is advised to exclude non-coronary causes. In the absence of an obvious non-coronary cause, CAG should be performed as soon as possible (less than two hours), in particular in haemodynamically unstable patients. Immediate PCI should be mainly directed towards the culprit lesion if identified. Interventional cardiologists should become an essential part of the "survival chain" for patients with OHCA. There is a need to centralise the care of patients with OHCA to experienced centres. PMID:24832635

  20. Nurses’ attitude in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Meidani

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac arrest is one of the leading causes of death in Europe. Bystanders’ early Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR may double or triple survival rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims.Aim: To investigate nurses’ attitude, in starting or not CPR and also the most frequent reasons that deter them from engaging in.Materials and Methods: The study had a sample of 177 nurses and assistant nurses that were working in nine hospitals of Athens. Nurses filled out the same, predetermined questionnaire, voluntarily and anonymously. The collected answers were analyzed with the help of the statistical program SPSS v.16, using x2 and Kendall’s Tau-B methods.Results: From 177 participants, 78% (137 were women and 22% (40 men with mean age 31 years (±7. According to their education, 16% (28 were Assistant Nurses, 79% (140 Registered Nurses (ATEI, AEI and 5% (9 Nurses had an MSc diploma. Nurses that had been recently trained in certified BLS courses felt more confident and were more willing to start CPR in a known victim (p=0.004 and in an unknown victim (p=0.02 comparing to nurses that had been trained a long time ago or never. Most frequent reasons nurses reported that deter them from starting CPR are the fear of a possible lawsuit (43%, the fear of harming instead of helping (30% and the fear of infectious transmission from victim to rescuer (15%. The fear of harming correlates considerably with lower ages (the younger the nurse the more is afraid, p=0.04 and also correlates substantially with the training in a certified CPR course (the more a nurse is trained, the less is afraid, p<0.001. Accordingly, the fear of infection diminishes as long as the CPR training is repeated (p=0.03.Conclusions: According to the results, there is a necessity of continuous education and re-education of nurses, in certified Basic Life Support programs. With frequent and specialized training, nurses will show more willingness to engage in an out-of-hospital arrest situation, in a familiar or unknown victim and, moreover, fears that deter them from starting CPR are remarkably reduced.

  1. Análisis de la inclusión de la policía en la respuesta de emergencias al paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario / Analysis of the inclussion of police personnel on the out of hospital cardiac arrest emergency response

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Aguilera-Campos; Enrique, Asensio-Lafuente; Juan Manuel, Fraga-Sastrías.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: El presente estudio busca analizar una alternativa al pronóstico de paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario (PCE) como problema de salud pública al involucrar a los cuerpos policiacos en la respuesta de emergencias. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó retrospectivamente un registro de PCE in [...] iciado en junio de 2009. Se contrastó un modelo basado en un número limitado de ambulancias con primera respuesta por la policía. RESULTADOS: La mortalidad fue de 100%, tiempos de respuesta elevados y 10.8% recibió reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP) por testigos presenciales. En 63.7% de los eventos la policía llegaba antes que la ambulancia y en 1.5% el policía dio RCP. El costo por vida salvada fue 5.8-60 millones de pesos en un modelo sólo con ambulancias vs. 0.5-5.5 millones de pesos en un modelo con primera respuesta policiaca. CONCLUSIONES: La intervención de la policía en la ciudad de Querétaro facilitaría la disminución de la mortalidad por PCE a un menor costo. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OCHA) is a public health problem in which survival depends on community initial response among others. This study tries to analyze what's the proportional cost of enhancing such response by involving the police corps in it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed [...] retrospectively an OCHA registry started on June 2009. We contrasted a model with limited number of ambulances and police based first response. RESULTS: Mortality was 100%, response times high and 10.8% of the victims were receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by bystanders. In 63.7% of the events the police arrived before the ambulance, in 1.5% of these cases the police provided CPR. The cost for each saved life was of 5.8-60 million Mexican pesos per life with only ambulance model vs 0.5-5.5 million Mexican pesos on a police first response model with 12 ambulances. CONCLUSIONS: In Queretaro interventions can be performed taking advantage of the response capacity of the existing police focused on diminishing mortality from OCHA at a lesser cost than delegating this function only to ambulances.

  2. Análisis de la inclusión de la policía en la respuesta de emergencias al paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario / Analysis of the inclussion of police personnel on the out of hospital cardiac arrest emergency response

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Aguilera-Campos; Enrique, Asensio-Lafuente; Juan Manuel, Fraga-Sastrías.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: El presente estudio busca analizar una alternativa al pronóstico de paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario (PCE) como problema de salud pública al involucrar a los cuerpos policiacos en la respuesta de emergencias. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se analizó retrospectivamente un registro de PCE in [...] iciado en junio de 2009. Se contrastó un modelo basado en un número limitado de ambulancias con primera respuesta por la policía. RESULTADOS: La mortalidad fue de 100%, tiempos de respuesta elevados y 10.8% recibió reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP) por testigos presenciales. En 63.7% de los eventos la policía llegaba antes que la ambulancia y en 1.5% el policía dio RCP. El costo por vida salvada fue 5.8-60 millones de pesos en un modelo sólo con ambulancias vs. 0.5-5.5 millones de pesos en un modelo con primera respuesta policiaca. CONCLUSIONES: La intervención de la policía en la ciudad de Querétaro facilitaría la disminución de la mortalidad por PCE a un menor costo. Abstract in english OBJETIVE: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OCHA) is a public health problem in which survival depends on community initial response among others. This study tries to analyze what's the proportional cost of enhancing such response by involving the police corps in it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed [...] retrospectively an OCHA registry started on June 2009. We contrasted a model with limited number of ambulances and police based first response. RESULTS: Mortality was 100%, response times high and 10.8% of the victims were receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by bystanders. In 63.7% of the events the police arrived before the ambulance, in 1.5% of these cases the police provided CPR. The cost for each saved life was of 5.8-60 million Mexican pesos per life with only ambulance model vs 0.5-5.5 million Mexican pesos on a police first response model with 12 ambulances. CONCLUSIONS: In Queretaro interventions can be performed taking advantage of the response capacity of the existing police focused on diminishing mortality from OCHA at a lesser cost than delegating this function only to ambulances.

  3. [Aortic valve-sparing operation for chronic dissecting aneurysm of the sinus of valsalva associated with redissection in a young woman who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuaki; Kubo, Yoji; Kemmochi, Reiko; Yamasawa, Takahiko; Oka, Takefumi; Iwasaki, Jun; Morimoto, Naoki; Hagioka, Shingo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Hagiya, Hideharu

    2013-08-01

    A 38-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because she experienced cardiopulmonary arrest at her wedding;her cardiac beats were resumed 20 min after cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed by her relatives and hotel staffs. Enhanced computed tomography revealed acute aortic redissection in chronic dissecting aneurysm in the right sinus of Valsalva, which was believed to have occurred in the 4th month of pregnancy 2 years before. Echocardiography showed moderate aortic regurgitation. We performed aortic valve-sparing operation and ascending aortic replacement with partial remodeling of the right sinus of Valsalva. She returned to work 2 months later without high-order dysfunction. PMID:23917231

  4. Characteristiscs of fatal patient cases out of Riga hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Smits A.; Kleina R.; Vane S.

    2012-01-01

    Health care system becomes less accessible to the people in Latvia. Health insurance is practically destroyed from April, 2010. The aim of our study is to analyze reasons of death of persons who died out of hospital in Riga. We have investigated 130 post mortem examination protocols from Pathology centre of Riga Eastern Clinical university hospital. We have evaluated the information from family doctor and ambulance care medical staff. In our analyzed group 58% of persons were found dead at ho...

  5. What accounting leaves out of hospital financial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, K E; Glenn, J K

    1986-01-01

    As PPS and other fixed-price initiatives replace cost-based reimbursement in the hospital industry, the burden of assuming the risk for business success or failure shifts from the payor to the hospital. As a consequence, theories of risk to the business firm which have found application in other industries now deserve attention by hospital management. Incorporating such risk concepts into hospital strategies and actions requires a view of financial management that goes beyond the generally accepted accounting principles of managing and assigning costs for maximum revenue and profitability. This article examines the financial theory of risk in business firms, illustrates the various components of risk as they apply to a hospital business, and discusses how the hospital management strategies of cost-reduction, marketing, diversification, and multiorganizational affiliation can alter the risk characteristics of a hospital business. PMID:10275567

  6. An unusual cause of cardiac arrest in a hospitalized patient

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Ranjan K.; Tumkur, Anil; Bhat, Krishnamurthy; Chacko, Biby

    2013-01-01

    We present an unusual case of 24 year old male who was hospitalized for dental procedure and developed cardiac arrest 2 days after the procedure. The patient presented with swelling of buccal cavity for which a biopsy was taken. Two days after the procedure, apparently normal patient suddenly presented at mid night with VT and VF, which were intractable requiring multiple DC shocks. During this period arterial blood gas analysis revealed severe acidosis. The circumstances led us to suspect po...

  7. Pulseless electrical activity and successful out-of-hospital resuscitation – long-term survival and quality of life: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saarinen Sini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients successfully resuscitated from pre-hospital cardiac arrest with initial pulseless electrical activity (PEA, because the long-term outcome of these patients is unknown. Survival, neurological status one year after cardiac arrest and self-perceived quality of life after five years were assessed. Methods This retrospective study included adult patients resuscitated from PEA between August 2001 and March 2003 in three urban areas in southern Finland. A validated questionnaire was sent to patients while neurological status according to the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC -classification was assessed based on medical database notes recorded during follow-up evaluations. Results Out of 99 included patients in whom resuscitation was attempted, 41 (41% were successfully resuscitated and admitted to hospital. Ten (10% patients were discharged from hospital. Seven were alive after one year and six after five years following cardiac arrest. Five of the seven patients alive one year after resuscitation presented with the same functional level as prior to cardiac arrest. Conclusions Patients with initial PEA have been considered to have poor prognosis, but in our material, half of those who survived to hospital discharge were still alive after 5 years. Their self-assessed quality of life seems to be good with only mild to moderate impairments in activities of daily life.

  8. Acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning: cardiac arrhythmias, electrolyte disturbances, and serum cardiac glycoside concentrations on presentation to hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, M.; Ariaratnam, Ca; Sjo?stro?m, L.; Jayalath, S.; Rajakanthan, K.; Rajapakse, S.; Colbert, D.; Meyer, Wp; Perera, G.; Attapattu, S.; Kularatne, Sa; Sheriff, MR; Warrell, Da

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the cardiac arrhythmias, electrolyte disturbances, and serum cardiac glycoside levels seen in patients presenting to hospital with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning and to compare these with published reports of digitalis poisoning.?DESIGN—Case series.?SETTING—Medical wards of Anuradhapura District General Hospital, Sri Lanka, and coronary care unit of the Institute of Cardiology, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, the national tertiary...

  9. People with Intellectual Disabilities in Out-of-Area Specialist Hospitals: What Do Families Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Simon; Ali, Afia; Hall, Ian; Chinn, Deborah; Patkas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little has been published regarding the views of family members of people with intellectual disabilities who are being cared for in out-of-area psychiatric hospitals. This study explores this area with specific reference to whether culturally appropriate services were being provided. Materials and Methods: Sixteen family members were…

  10. Short-stay, out-of-hospital, radiologically guided liver biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the safety, the quality and adequacy of specimens obtained and the cost benefits associated with performing liver biopsy out of hospital, on a short-stay basis, using radiological guidance, a prospective study was undertaken over a three-year period, from March 1998 to March 2001, in a private radiology practice. 251 patients (159 men) with stable liver disease participated in this study. Coagulation studies were performed within a two-week period before biopsy, which was carried out under the guidance of ultrasound (143 patients) or computed tomography (108 patients). A disposable, spring-loaded gun with an 18-gauge biopsy needle was used in each case. A repeat ultrasound or CT scan was performed after the procedure to monitor for complications such as haemorrhage. Two hundred and twenty nine patients (91 2%) were discharged 60 minutes after the biopsy. The only post-biopsy complication was pain, either at the biopsy site or in the right shoulder. Pain was severe in three patients and, for one of these patients, a subcapsular hepatic haematoma was found on ultrasound eight days after the biopsy. Sufficient material for histopathological examination was obtained from all patients. The cost of out-of-hospital biopsies was substantially less than the cost of hospital-based, day-stay procedures. It was concluded that short-stay, out-of-hospital, radiologically guided liver biopsy is safe for patients who have stable chronic liver disease and acceptab stable chronic liver disease and acceptable coagulation profiles

  11. Symptoms of anxiety and cardiac hospitalizations at 12 months in patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Pelle, Aline J

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of hospitalization. Clinical and socio-demographic factors have been associated with cardiac admissions, but little is known about the role of anxiety. We examined whether symptoms of anxiety were associated with cardiac hospitalizations at 12 months in HF patients.

  12. Audit of cardiac catheterisation in a district general hospital: implications for training

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, L.; Spyer, G.; Dean, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess complications of diagnostic cardiac catheterisation in a non-surgical centre by review of the first three years' experience and audit of 2804 diagnostic left heart procedures.?DESIGN—Analysis of a prospective database of cardiac catheter procedures.?SETTING—District general hospital without available on site cardiac surgery.?RESULTS—The rate of major complications of cardiac catheterisation was 0.07%. Mortality was 0.07%, and the rate of arterial complicatio...

  13. Nutritional Status of the Cardiac Patients Hospitalized in Cardiology Ward of Alzahra Hospital and its Comparison with Healthy Eating Index

    OpenAIRE

    Bahreini, N.; Entezari, M.; Hassansadeh, A.; Ganjalideshti, M.; Jalali, M.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are getting epidemic due to social reconstruction, technology advancement and over population in urban areas, inappropriate food habits and immobility. This study has tried to define the indexes of healthy nutrition in cardiac patients hospitalized in cardiac ward of Alzahra hospital and to compare it with Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Healthy Eating Index has been also designed to evaluate diet quality in different societies. This is a descriptive analytical study...

  14. An unusual cause of cardiac arrest in a hospitalized patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ranjan K; Tumkur, Anil; Bhat, Krishnamurthy; Chacko, Biby

    2013-01-01

    We present an unusual case of 24 year old male who was hospitalized for dental procedure and developed cardiac arrest 2 days after the procedure. The patient presented with swelling of buccal cavity for which a biopsy was taken. Two days after the procedure, apparently normal patient suddenly presented at mid night with VT and VF, which were intractable requiring multiple DC shocks. During this period arterial blood gas analysis revealed severe acidosis. The circumstances led us to suspect poisoning as one of the cause for his medical condition. We looked for commonly available toxins. One of the commonly available toxins is hand sanitizer which contains Isopropyl alcohol, glycerin and perfume. Due to prolonged cardiac arrest and intractable arrhythmia patient had sustained hypoxic brain injury. Patient remained hemodynamically stable for next 9 days although his CNS status did not improve. Patient succumbed to sepsis on 9(th) day. Healthcare professionals should be aware of such possibilities and treat the patients at the earliest and put a check on the easy availability of IPA based hand sanitizers. PMID:23662032

  15. Withholding or termination of resuscitation in pediatric out-of-hospital traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallat, Mary E

    2014-04-01

    This multiorganizational literature review was undertaken to provide an evidence base for determining whether or not recommendations for out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation could be made for children who are victims of traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest. Although there is increasing acceptance of out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation for adult traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest when there is no expectation of a good outcome, children are routinely excluded from state termination-of-resuscitation protocols. The decision to withhold resuscitative efforts in a child under specific circumstances (decapitation or dependent lividity, rigor mortis, etc) is reasonable. If there is any doubt as to the circumstances or timing of the traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest, under the current status of limiting termination of resuscitation in the field to persons older than 18 years in most states, resuscitation should be initiated and continued until arrival to the appropriate facility. If the patient has arrested, resuscitation has already exceeded 30 minutes, and the nearest facility is more than 30 minutes away, involvement of parents and family of these children in the decision-making process with assistance and guidance from medical professionals should be considered as part of an emphasis on family-centered care, because the evidence suggests that either death or a poor outcome is inevitable. PMID:24655460

  16. A Computerized Evaluation Methodology for Pre-Hospital EMS Cardiac Care

    OpenAIRE

    Nagurney, Frank K.

    1980-01-01

    The computerized application of cardiac care protocols for pre-hospital EMS care is presented. The program logic is reviewed and an example of its application is provided. Uses of the results of the program in EMS management are suggested.

  17. Ethylene glycol exposure: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravati, E Martin; Erdman, Andrew R; Christianson, Gwenn; Manoguerra, Anthony S; Booze, Lisa L; Woolf, Alan D; Olson, Kent R; Chyka, Peter A; Scharman, Elizabeth J; Wax, Paul M; Keyes, Daniel C; Troutman, William G

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, poison centers in the US reported 5816 human exposures to ethylene glycol. A guideline that effectively determines the threshold dose for emergency department referral and need for pre-hospital decontamination could potentially avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, optimize patient outcome, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the primary author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with a suspected exposure to ethylene glycol by (1) describing the process by which the exposure might be evaluated, (2) identifying the key decision elements in managing the case, (3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and (4) identifying needs for research. This guideline is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. (1) A patient with exposure due to suspected self-harm, misuse, or potentially malicious administration should be referred to an emergency department immediately regardless of the dose reported (Grade D). (2) Patients with inhalation exposures will not develop systemic toxicity and can be managed out-of-hospital if asymptomatic (Grade B). Patients with clinically significant mucous membrane irritation should be referred for evaluation (Grade D). (3) Decontamination of dermal exposures should include routine cleansing with mild soap and water. Removal of contact lenses and immediate irrigation with room temperature tap water is recommended for ocular exposures. All patients with symptoms of eye injury should be referred for an ophthalmologic exam (Grade D). (4) Patients with symptoms of ethylene glycol poisoning should be referred immediately for evaluation regardless of the reported dose (Grade C). (5) The absence of symptoms shortly after ingestion does not exclude a potentially toxic dose and should not be used as a triage criterion (Grade C). (6) Adults who ingest a "swallow" (10-30 mL), children who ingest more than a witnessed taste or lick, or if the amount is unknown of most ethylene glycol products should be referred immediately for evaluation. The potential toxic volume of dilute solutions (e.g., concentration 24 hours since a potentially toxic unintentional exposure, the patient has been asymptomatic, and no alcohol was co-ingested (Grade D). (9) Gastrointestinal decontamination with ipecac syrup, gastric lavage or activated charcoal is not recommended. Transportation to an emergency department should not be delayed for any decontamination procedures (Grade D). (10) Patients meeting referral criteria should be evaluated at a hospital emergency department rather than a clinic. A facility that can quickly obtain an ethylene glycol serum concentration and has alcohol or fomepizole therapy available is preferred. This referral should be guided by local poison center procedures and community resources (Grade D). (11) The administration of alcohol, fomepizole, thiamine, or pyridoxine is n

  18. Comparison of hospital episode statistics and central cardiac audit database in public reporting of congenital heart surgery mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Westaby, Stephen; Archer, Nicholas; Manning, Nicola; Adwani, Satish; Grebenik, Catherine; Ormerod, Oliver; Pillai, Ravi; Wilson, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Objective To verify or refute the value of hospital episode statistics (HES) in determining 30 day mortality after open congenital cardiac surgery in infants nationally in comparison with central cardiac audit database (CCAD) information.

  19. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: determinant factors for immediate survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation / Parada cardíaca extrahospitalaria: factores determinantes de la sobrevida inmediata después de maniobras de resucitación cardiopulmonar / Parada cardíaca extra-hospitalar: fatores determinantes da sobrevida imediata após manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela Aparecida, Morais; Daclé Vilma, Carvalho; Allana dos Reis, Correa.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese, Spanish Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: analisar fatores determinantes da sobrevida imediata de pessoas que receberam manobras de ressuscitação cardiopulmonar pelas equipes de suporte avançado do Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência, de Belo Horizonte. MÉTODO: trata-se de estudo epidemiológico, retrospectivo, no qual f [...] oram analisadas 1.165 fichas de atendimento, do período de 2008 a 2010. Os dados coletados seguiram o estilo Utstein, sendo submetidos à estatística descritiva e analítica com testes de nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: a maioria era do sexo masculino, a mediana da idade foi de 64 anos e a do tempo de deslocamento, nove minutos. A sobrevida imediata foi observada em 239 pessoas. Verificou-se associação desse desfecho com a "parada cardiorrespiratória presenciada por pessoas treinadas em suporte básico de vida" (OR=3,49; p Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: analizar factores determinantes de la sobrevida inmediata de personas que recibieron maniobras de resucitación cardiopulmonar por los equipos de soporte avanzado del Servicio de Atención Móvil de Urgencia de Belo Horizonte. MÉTODO: se trata de estudio epidemiológico, retrospectivo en [...] el cual fueron analizadas 1.165 fichas de atención, en el período de 2008 a 2010. Los datos recolectados siguieron el estilo Utstein, siendo sometidos a la estadística descriptiva y analítica con pruebas de nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: la mayoría era del sexo masculino, la mediana de la edad fue de 64 años y el de tiempo de traslado, nueve minutos. La sobrevida inmediata fue observada en 239 personas. Se verificó asociación de ese resultado con la "parada cardiorrespiratoria presenciada por personas entrenadas en soporte básico de vida" (OR=3,49; p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: to analyze determinant factors for the immediate survival of persons who receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation from the advanced support units of the Mobile Emergency Medical Services (SAMU) of Belo Horizonte. METHOD: this is a retrospective, epidemiological study which analyzed 1,1 [...] 65 assistance forms, from the period 2008 - 2010. The collected data followed the Utstein style, being submitted to descriptive and analytical statistics with tests with levels of significance of 5%. RESULTS: the majority were male, the median age was 64 years, and the ambulance response time, nine minutes. Immediate survival was observed in 239 persons. An association was ascertained of this outcome with "cardiac arrest witnessed by persons trained in basic life support" (OR=3.49; p

  20. Iron ingestion: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S; Erdman, Andrew R; Booze, Lisa L; Christianson, Gwenn; Wax, Paul M; Scharman, Elizabeth J; Woolf, Alan D; Chyka, Peter A; Keyes, Daniel C; Olson, Kent R; Caravati, E Martin; Troutman, William G

    2005-01-01

    From 1983 to 1991, iron caused over 30% of the deaths from accidental ingestion of drug products by children. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the primary author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before its distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes in response to comments received. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with suspected ingestions of iron by 1) describing the manner in which an ingestion of iron might be managed, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of iron ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to ingestion of iron alone and is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. The panel's recommendations follow; the grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) Patients with stated or suspected self-harm or who are victims of malicious administration of an iron product should be referred to an acute care medical facility immediately. This activity should be guided by local poison center procedures. In general, this should occur regardless of the amount ingested (Grade D). 2) Pediatric or adult patients with a known ingestion of 40 mg/kg or greater of elemental iron in the form of adult ferrous salt formulations or who have severe or persistent symptoms related to iron ingestion should be referred to a healthcare facility for medical evaluation. Patients who have ingested less than 40 mg/kg of elemental iron and who are having mild symptoms can be observed at home. Mild symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea occur frequently. These mild symptoms should not necessarily prompt referral to a healthcare facility. Patients with more serious symptoms, such as persistent vomiting and diarrhea, alterations in level of consciousness, hematemesis, and bloody diarrhea require referral. The same dose threshold should be used for pregnant women, however, when calculating the mg/kg dose ingested, the pre-pregnancy weight of the woman should be used (Grade C). 3) Patients with ingestions of children's chewable vitamins plus iron should be observed at home with appropriate follow-up. The presence of diarrhea should not be the sole indicator for referral as these products are often sweetened with sorbitol. Children may need referral for the management of dehydration if vomiting or diarrhea is severe or prolonged (Grade C). 4) Patients with unintentional ingestions of carbonyl iron or polysaccharide-iron complex formulations should be observed at home with appropriate follow-up (Grade C). 5) Ipecac syrup, activated charcoal, cathartics, or oral complexing agents, such as bicarbonate or phosphate solutions, should not be used in the out-of-hospital management of iron ingestions (Grade C). 6) Asymptomatic patients are unlikely to develop symptoms if the interval between ingestion and the call to the poison center is greater than 6 hours. These patients should not need referral or prolonged observation. Depending on the specific circumstances, follow-up calls might be indicated (Grade C). PMID:16255338

  1. Camphor Poisoning: an evidence-based practice guideline for out-of-hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoguerra, Anthony S; Erdman, Andrew R; Wax, Paul M; Nelson, Lewis S; Caravati, E Martin; Cobaugh, Daniel J; Chyka, Peter A; Olson, Kent R; Booze, Lisa L; Woolf, Alan D; Keyes, Daniel C; Christianson, Gwenn; Scharman, Elizabeth J; Troutman, William G

    2006-01-01

    A review of national poison center data from 1990 through 2003 showed approximately 10,000 annual ingestion exposures to camphor-containing products. A guideline that determines the threshold dose for emergency department referral and need for pre-hospital decontamination could potentially avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, optimize patient outcome, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the primary author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with suspected exposures to camphor-containing products by 1) describing the manner in which an exposure to camphor might be managed, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of camphor exposure, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to camphor exposure alone. Co-ingestion of additional substances, such as in commercial products of camphor combined with other ingredients, could require different referral and management recommendations depending on the combined toxicities of the substances. This guideline is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline, and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) Patients with stated or suspected self-harm or who are the recipients of malicious administration of a camphor-containing product should be referred to an emergency department immediately, regardless of the amount ingested (Grade D). 2) Patients who have ingested more than 30 mg/kg of a camphor-containing product or who are exhibiting symptoms of moderate to severe toxicity (e.g., convulsions, lethargy, ataxia, severe nausea and vomiting) by any route of exposure should be referred to an emergency department for observation and treatment (Grade D). 3) Patients exhibiting convulsions following a camphor exposure should be transported to an emergency department by pre-hospital emergency medical care providers (Grade D). A benzodiazepine should be used to control convulsions (Grade C). 4) Patients who have been exposed to a camphor product and who remain asymptomatic after 4 hours can be safely observed at home (Grade C). 5) Induction of emesis with ipecac syrup should not be performed in patients who have ingested camphor products (Grade C). 6) Activated charcoal administration should not be used for the ingestion of camphor products. However, it could be considered if there are other ingredients in the product that are effectively adsorbed by activated charcoal or if other substances have been co-ingested. (Grade C). 7) For asymptomatic patients with topical exposures to camphor products, the skin should be thoroughly washed with soap and water and the patient can be observed at home for development of symptoms (Grade C). 8) For patients with topical splash exposures of camphor to the eye(s), the eye(s) should be irrigated in accordance with usual poison center procedures and that referral take place based on the presence and severity of symptoms (Grade D). 9) Patients with camphor inhalation exposures should be moved to a fresh air environment and referred for medical care based on the presence and severity of symptoms. It is unlikely tha

  2. Data integration in cardiac surgery health care institution: experience at G. Pasquinucci Heart Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Taddei, Alessandro; Dalmiani, Stefano; Vellani, Antonio; Rocca, E.; Piccini, Giacomo; Carducci, T.; Gori, A.; Borghini, R.; Marcheschi, Paolo; Mazzarisi, Alessandro; Salvatori, Cristina; Macerata, Alberto; Varanini, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    During the last ten years the Hospital Information System (HIS) was developed at the Institute of Clinical Physiology of National Research Council (IFC-CNR), recently reorganized on clinical side into the "Gabriele Monasterio Foundation" (FGM) by joint efforts of CNR, Tuscany Region and Universities. At G.Pasquinucci Heart Hospital (GPH), currently FGM's section in Massa, the HIS was adapted and extended to Cardiac Surgery and Pediatric Cardiology. Data archiving and middleware integration th...

  3. Prevalence of 22q11.2 microdeletion in 146 patients with cardiac malformation in a referral hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Isha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is a common condition that is associated with cardiac as well as extra-cardiac manifestations. Its prevalence and manifestations from north India has not been reported. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and ability of clinical criteria to predict 22q11.2 microdeletion. Methods A total of 146 cases of cardiac malformation requiring tertiary care at a teaching hospital were prospectively screened for 22q11.2 microdeletion using fluorescence in situ hybridization test. Detailed clinical information was obtained as per guidelines of Tobias, et al (1999. Results Nine out of 146 patients (6.16% was found to have 22q11.2 microdeletion. All the positive patients showed the presence of extra-cardiac features of 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome. None of the cases with isolated cardiac defect were positive for microdeletion. Conclusions It seems that 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is over-suspected in children with isolated congenital heart defects. Screening for 22q11.2 microdeletion should be considered in those cardiac malformation cases which have extra-cardiac manifestations in the form of facial dysmorphism and hypocalcaemia.

  4. Does seeing the doctor more often keep you out of the hospital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Robert; Lo Sasso, Anthony T

    2015-01-01

    By exploiting a unique health insurance benefit design, we provide novel evidence on the causal association between outpatient and inpatient care. Our results indicate that greater outpatient spending was associated with more hospital admissions: a $100 increase in outpatient spending was associated with a 1.9% increase in the probability of having an inpatient event and a 4.6% increase in inpatient spending among enrollees in our sample. Moreover, we present evidence that the increase in hospital admissions associated with greater outpatient spending was for conditions in which it is plausible to argue that the physician and patient could exercise discretion. PMID:25168306

  5. Cardiocerebral resuscitation: advances in cardiac arrest resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Mulia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest remains a leading cause of death in the world. Although advances in emergency cardiac care has been achieved, the survival rate of those non hospitalized hospital cardiac arrest remains low. Update in guidelines for CPR and emergency cardiovascular, their approach to out of hospital cardiac arrest is far from optimal. This provides an opportunity to advocate cardiocerebral resuscitation as an alternative to  traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation for non hospitalized cardiac arrest. Because cardiocerebral resuscitation results in improved survival and cerebral function in patients with witnessed cardiac arrest and a shockable rhythm whom have greatest chance of survival, it should replace CPR especially for non hospitalized cardiac arrest.(Med J Indones 2011; 20:306-9Keywords: cardiocerebral resuscitation, cardiac arrest,  cardiopulmonary resuscitation

  6. Cardiac arrest in children

    OpenAIRE

    Tress Erika; Kochanek Patrick; Saladino Richard; Manole Mioara

    2010-01-01

    Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term "post-cardiac arrest syndrome" has been proposed, along with treat...

  7. Drug–drug Interactions in Hospitalized Cardiac Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mateti, Uv; Rajakannan, T.; Nekkanti, H.; Rajesh, V.; Mallaysamy, Sr; Ramachandran, P

    2011-01-01

    Drug–drug interactions (DDIs) are defined as two or more drugs interacting in such a manner that the effectiveness or toxicity of one or more drugs is altered. DDI in patients receiving multidrug therapy is a major concern. The aim of the present study was to assess the incidence and risk factors of DDIs in patients admitted in cardiology unit of a teaching hospital. A prospective, observational study was carried out for a period of 3 months (April–July 2009). During the study period, a t...

  8. Prevalence of hospital malnutrition among cardiac patients: results from six nutrition screening tools

    OpenAIRE

    Pathirana, Anidu K.; Lokunarangoda, Niroshan; Ranathunga, Ishara; Santharaj, Wijeyasingam Samuel; Ekanayake, Ruwan; Jayawardena, Ranil

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent among hospitalized patients, ranging from 30% to 50% depending on the patient population and the criteria used for diagnosis. Identifying early those who are malnourished and at risk of malnutrition and intervening at an early stage will improve patients overall prognosis and will reduce the costs to the state. Even though cardiac patients are at risk of malnutrition, data on the prevalence of malnutrition among cardiology inpatients is limited. The aim of the...

  9. Emergencias extrahospitalarias: el paciente suicida Out-of-hospital emergencies: the suicidal patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacheco Tabuenca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La conducta suicida ha existido desde que la humanidad existe, sin embargo, la concepción positiva o negativa del mismo ha cambiado a través de las diferentes culturas. En la actualidad, supone un grave problema de salud pública, y se estudia desde diferentes perspectivas y áreas de conocimiento, tratando de dar una visión global para poder entender este fenómeno tan interesante, apasionante y, en ciertos momentos desconcertante. Objetivo: Por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio es analizar el perfil de las personas que cometen un acto suicida en la ciudad de Madrid y que son atendidos en el área de la emergencia extrahospitalaria. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo, encuadrado en SAMUR-Protección Civil durante el año 2008, analizando todos los casos atendidos de ideación, tentativa y suicidio consumado donde han intervenido un Soporte Vital Avanzado y la Unidad de Asistencia Psicológica. Se ha analizado una muestra de 96 pacientes suicidas, donde el 48,4% fueron tentativas de suicidio, seguidos de un 44,2% de suicidios consumados y un 7,4% de ideación autolítica, atendidos principalmente en los meses de marzo y mayo, turno de mañana - tarde, y en el distrito de Puente de Vallecas, intervenciones demandadas desde Madrid 112 en su mayor porcentaje. Resultados: Se establece un perfil de paciente suicida como varón, de 25-35 años, español, soltero, con patología psiquiátrica en tratamiento, sin tentativas previas, que había verbalizado sus intenciones autolíticas, teniendo como factor desencadenante la propia enfermedad física o psíquica, que elige como método autolítico la defenestración sin presencia de otras personas, al cuál se le traslada al Hospital y presenta como diagnóstico principal TCE, trauma o politraumatismo. Conclusiones: El conocimientog del perfil del paciente suicida atendidos en diversas áreas permite conocer en mayor medida, los factores de riesgo de la conducta suicida, así como puede favorecer actuaciones preventivas futuras.Background: Suicidal behavior has existed since mankind exists, however, positive or negative view of it has changed through different cultures. At present, poses a significant public health problem, and studied from different perspectives and areas of expertise, trying to give an overview to understand this phenomenon so interesting, exciting and at times bewildering. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the profile of people who commit a suicide in the city of Madrid and are treated in the outpatient emergency area. Methods: Observational, descriptive and retrospective study, framed in SAMUR-Civil Protection in 2008, analyzing all cases seen ideation, suicide attempt, which have involved an Advanced Life Support and Counselling Unit. We analyzed a sample of 96 suicidal patients, where 48.4% were attempted suicide, followed by 44.2% of suicides and suicidal ideation 7.4%, seen mainly in the months of March and May, morning session-afternoon, and in the district of Puente de Vallecas, intervention from Madrid 112 defendants in the highest percentage. Results: Establishing a patient profile suicide as male, 25-35 years, Spanish, single, with psychiatric disorders in treatment, but previous attempts, he had verbalized his intentions autolytic, taking as a trigger for the physical or mental illness itself, which chooses defenestration as autolytic method without the presence of others, to which he was transferred to the Hospital and has a diagnosis of TBI, trauma or polytrauma. Conclusions: Knowledge of the profile of the suicidal patient treated in different areas allows better known, the risk factors of suicidal behavior and may facilitate future preventive actions.

  10. Emergencias extrahospitalarias: el paciente suicida / Out-of-hospital emergencies: the suicidal patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T., Pacheco Tabuenca; J.I., Robles Sánchez.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La conducta suicida ha existido desde que la humanidad existe, sin embargo, la concepción positiva o negativa del mismo ha cambiado a través de las diferentes culturas. En la actualidad, supone un grave problema de salud pública, y se estudia desde diferentes perspectivas y áreas de co [...] nocimiento, tratando de dar una visión global para poder entender este fenómeno tan interesante, apasionante y, en ciertos momentos desconcertante. Objetivo: Por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio es analizar el perfil de las personas que cometen un acto suicida en la ciudad de Madrid y que son atendidos en el área de la emergencia extrahospitalaria. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo, encuadrado en SAMUR-Protección Civil durante el año 2008, analizando todos los casos atendidos de ideación, tentativa y suicidio consumado donde han intervenido un Soporte Vital Avanzado y la Unidad de Asistencia Psicológica. Se ha analizado una muestra de 96 pacientes suicidas, donde el 48,4% fueron tentativas de suicidio, seguidos de un 44,2% de suicidios consumados y un 7,4% de ideación autolítica, atendidos principalmente en los meses de marzo y mayo, turno de mañana - tarde, y en el distrito de Puente de Vallecas, intervenciones demandadas desde Madrid 112 en su mayor porcentaje. Resultados: Se establece un perfil de paciente suicida como varón, de 25-35 años, español, soltero, con patología psiquiátrica en tratamiento, sin tentativas previas, que había verbalizado sus intenciones autolíticas, teniendo como factor desencadenante la propia enfermedad física o psíquica, que elige como método autolítico la defenestración sin presencia de otras personas, al cuál se le traslada al Hospital y presenta como diagnóstico principal TCE, trauma o politraumatismo. Conclusiones: El conocimientog del perfil del paciente suicida atendidos en diversas áreas permite conocer en mayor medida, los factores de riesgo de la conducta suicida, así como puede favorecer actuaciones preventivas futuras. Abstract in english Background: Suicidal behavior has existed since mankind exists, however, positive or negative view of it has changed through different cultures. At present, poses a significant public health problem, and studied from different perspectives and areas of expertise, trying to give an overview to unders [...] tand this phenomenon so interesting, exciting and at times bewildering. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the profile of people who commit a suicide in the city of Madrid and are treated in the outpatient emergency area. Methods: Observational, descriptive and retrospective study, framed in SAMUR-Civil Protection in 2008, analyzing all cases seen ideation, suicide attempt, which have involved an Advanced Life Support and Counselling Unit. We analyzed a sample of 96 suicidal patients, where 48.4% were attempted suicide, followed by 44.2% of suicides and suicidal ideation 7.4%, seen mainly in the months of March and May, morning session-afternoon, and in the district of Puente de Vallecas, intervention from Madrid 112 defendants in the highest percentage. Results: Establishing a patient profile suicide as male, 25-35 years, Spanish, single, with psychiatric disorders in treatment, but previous attempts, he had verbalized his intentions autolytic, taking as a trigger for the physical or mental illness itself, which chooses defenestration as autolytic method without the presence of others, to which he was transferred to the Hospital and has a diagnosis of TBI, trauma or polytrauma. Conclusions: Knowledge of the profile of the suicidal patient treated in different areas allows better known, the risk factors of suicidal behavior and may facilitate future preventive actions.

  11. Tricyclic antidepressant poisoning: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Alan D; Erdman, Andrew R; Nelson, Lewis S; Caravati, E Martin; Cobaugh, Daniel J; Booze, Lisa L; Wax, Paul M; Manoguerra, Anthony S; Scharman, Elizabeth J; Olson, Kent R; Chyka, Peter A; Christianson, Gwenn; Troutman, William G

    2007-01-01

    A review of U.S. poison center data for 2004 showed over 12,000 exposures to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). A guideline that determines the conditions for emergency department referral and prehospital care could potentially optimize patient outcome, avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce healthcare costs, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the lead author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate prehospital triage and management of patients with suspected ingestions of TCAs by 1) describing the manner in which an ingestion of a TCA might be managed, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of TCA ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to ingestion of TCAs alone. Co-ingestion of additional substances could require different referral and management recommendations depending on their combined toxicities. This guideline is based on the assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) Patients with suspected self-harm or who are the victims of malicious administration of a TCA should be referred to an emergency department immediately (Grade D). 2) Patients with acute TCA ingestions who are less than 6 years of age and other patients without evidence of self-harm should have further evaluation including standard history taking and determination of the presence of co-ingestants (especially other psychopharmaceutical agents) and underlying exacerbating conditions, such as convulsions or cardiac arrhythmias. Ingestion of a TCA in combination with other drugs might warrant referral to an emergency department. The ingestion of a TCA by a patient with significant underlying cardiovascular or neurological disease should cause referral to an emergency department at a lower dose than for other individuals. Because of the potential severity of TCA poisoning, transportation by EMS, with close monitoring of clinical status and vital signs en route, should be considered (Grade D). 3) Patients who are symptomatic (e.g., weak, drowsy, dizzy, tremulous, palpitations) after a TCA ingestion should be referred to an emergency department (Grade B). 4) Ingestion of either of the following amounts (whichever is lower) would warrant consideration of referral to an emergency department: an amount that exceeds the usual maximum single therapeutic dose or an amount equal to or greater than the lowest reported toxic dose. For all TCAs except desipramine, nortriptyline, trimipramine, and protriptyline, this dose is >5 mg/kg. For despiramine it is >2.5 mg/kg; for nortriptyline it is >2.5 mg/kg; for trimipramine it is >2.5 mg/kg; and for protriptyline it is >1 mg/kg. This recommendation applies to both patients who are naïve to the specific TCA and to patients currently taking cyclic antidepressants who take extra doses, in which case the extra doses should be added to the daily dose taken and then compared to the threshold dose for referral to an emergency department (Grades B/C). 5) Do not induce emesis (Grade D). 6) The risk-to-benefit ratio of prehospital activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination in TCA poisoning is unknown. Pre

  12. Cardiac arrest teams and time of day: effects on surviving in-hospital resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christ M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Martin Christ, Wolfgang Dierschke, Katharina Isabel von Auenmueller, Marc van Bracht, Martin Grett, Hans-Joachim Trappe Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Marienhospital Herne, Ruhr – University Bochum, Herne, Germany Objectives: Little is known about the factors that influence survival following in-hospital resuscitation, but previous investigations have suggested that in-hospital resuscitations outside of regular working hours are associated with worse survival rates. Material and methods: In-hospital cardiac arrest teams at our hospital were instructed to complete a questionnaire following every emergency call between July 2011 and June 2013. Data on all resuscitation attempts were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 65 in-hospital resuscitations were recorded in 42 males (64.6% and 23 females (35.4% (mean age 72.0±14.3 years. A total of 54 (83.1% cardiac arrests were witnessed; seven (10.8% showed a shockable rhythm at the time of the first ECG. Resuscitation attempts lasted 29.3±41.3 minutes, and 4.1±3.1 mg epinephrine was given. Return of spontaneous circulation could be achieved in 38 patients (58.5%; 29 (44.6% survived the first day, 23 (35.4% the seventh day, and 15 patients (23.1% were discharged alive. Significantly more in-hospital resuscitations were obtained for those performed during non-regular working hours (P<0.001, with higher neuron-specific enolase levels at 72 hours after resuscitation during nonregular working hours (P=0.04. Patients who were discharged alive were significantly younger (P=0.01, presented more often with an initial shockable rhythm (P=0.04, and had a shorter duration of resuscitation (P<0.001 with the need of a lower dose of epinephrine (P<0.001. Discussion: Survival rates following in-hospital resuscitation were poor at any time, but appear to depend less on time-dependent effects of the quality of resuscitation and more on time-dependent effects of recognition of cardiac arrests. Keywords: sudden cardiac death, emergency medicine, time of day

  13. Frequency of cardiac defects among children at echocardiography centre in a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess frequency of cardiac defects among children from birth to 12 years of age on each Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted at echocardiography centre in coronary care unit at Bahawal Victoria Hby Paediatric Transthoracic echo probe; 2-D colour Doppler, Acuson CV-70 and Niemo-30 echocardiography machines. Mothers of children with cardiac defects were interviewed at the echocardiography centre. Variables included were A- Muscular plus Vascular defects; B- Valvular defects; C-Pericardial effusion; D- Dextrocardia and E- Congestive cardiac failure. History of children for sore throat followed by joint pains; history of mothers for drug intake (antihypertensive, antipyretic, anti-emetic, hypoglycaemic) as well as chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, anaemia) during pregnancy were surveyed. Parity of mothers, their cousin marriages, and family socio-economic status was also inquired. The results were tabulated, analyzed and finally subjected to suitable test of significant (SR of proportion) to find out statistical significant if any. Results: It was found that out of 150 patients, 76 (50.66%) were suffering from Cardiac muscular and Vascular defects, 61 (40.66%) Valvular defects, 7 (4.66%) Pericardial effusion, 2 (1.33%) Dextrocardia and 4 (2.66%) from Congestive Cardiac Failure. According to age, 54 (36%) were from birth to 3 years of age and 51 (34%) from 10 to 12 years. There was history of Rheumatic fever among 45 (30%) chilory of Rheumatic fever among 45 (30%) children. There were 106 (70.6%) children from lower socio-economic class and 79 (52.6%) parents had history of cousin marriages. Conclusion: Frequency of cardiac defects was more in children of male sex, lower socio-economic group, from birth to three years age and children from primipara mothers in our specified locality. Rheumatic fever, cousin's marriage, and prescribed drugs intake during pregnancy (for metabolic and hormonal disorders) were other contributors to cardiac defects. (author)

  14. Hospital ownership and performance: evidence from stroke and cardiac treatment in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Hsien-Ming; Chou, Shin-Yi; Liu, Jin-Tan

    2008-09-01

    This paper compares program expenditure and treatment quality of stroke and cardiac patients between 1997 and 2000 across hospitals of various ownership types in Taiwan. Because Taiwan implemented national health insurance in 1995, the analysis is immune from problems arising from the complex setting of the U.S. health care market, such as segmentation of insurance status or multiple payers. Because patients may select admitted hospitals based on their observed and unobserved characteristics, we employ instrument variable (IV) estimation to account for the endogeneity of ownership status. Results of IV estimation find that patients admitted to non-profit hospitals receive better quality care, either measured by 1- or 12-month mortality rates. In terms of treatment expenditure, our results indicate no difference between non-profits and for-profits index admission expenditures, and at most 10% higher long-term expenditure for patients admitted to non-profits than to for-profits. PMID:18486978

  15. Utility of a Dedicated Pediatric Cardiac Anticoagulation Program: The Boston Children's Hospital Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jenna M; Hellinger, Amy; Dionne, Roger; Brown, Loren; Galvin, Rosemary; Griggs, Suzanne; Mittler, Karen; Harney, Kathy; Manzi, Shannon; VanderPluym, Christina; Baker, Annette; O'Brien, Patricia; O'Connell, Cheryl; Almond, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Congenital heart disease is the leading cause of stroke in children. Warfarin therapy can be difficult to manage safely in this population because of its narrow therapeutic index, multiple drug and dietary interactions, small patient size, high-risk cardiac indications, and lack of data to support anticoagulation recommendations. We sought to describe our institution's effort to develop a dedicated cardiac anticoagulation service to address the special needs of this population and to review the literature. In 2009, in response to Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals for Anticoagulation, Boston Children's Hospital created a dedicated pediatric Cardiac Anticoagulation Monitoring Program (CAMP). The primary purpose was to provide centralized management of outpatient anticoagulation to cardiac patients, to serve as a disease-specific resource to families and providers, and to devise strategies to evolve clinical care with rapidly emerging trends in anticoagulation care. Over 5 years the CAMP Service, staffed by a primary pediatric cardiology attending, a full-time nurse practitioner, and administrative assistant with dedicated support from pharmacy and nutrition, has enrolled over 240 patients ranging in age from 5 months to 55 years. The most common indications include a prosthetic valve (34 %), Fontan prophylaxis (20 %), atrial arrhythmias (11 %), cardiomyopathy (10 %), Kawasaki disease (7 %), and a ventricular assist device (2 %). A patient-centered multi-disciplinary cardiac anticoagulation clinic was created in 2012. Overall program international normalized ratio (INR) time in therapeutic range (TTR) is favorable at 67 % (81 % with a 0.2 margin) and has improved steadily over 5 years. Pediatric-specific guidelines for VKOR1 and CYP2C9 pharmacogenomics testing, procedural bridging with enoxaparin, novel anticoagulant use, and quality metrics have been developed. Program satisfaction is rated highly among families and providers. A dedicated pediatric cardiac anticoagulation program offers a safe and effective strategy to standardize anticoagulation care for pediatric cardiology patients, is associated with high patient and provider satisfaction, and is capable of evolving care strategies with emerging trends in anticoagulation. PMID:25573076

  16. Outcome of In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Adult General Wards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Te Kung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Few studies have focused on factors influencing outcomes of patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA in general wards. The goal of this study was to report the outcomes of adult patients with IHCA in the general wards and identified the prognostic factors. Methods: Adult patients with IHCA having received cardiopulmonary resuscitation in general wards from January 2008 to December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed from our registry system. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge, while the secondary outcome was sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Results: A total of 544 general ward patients were analyzed for event variables and resuscitation results. The rate of establishing a ROSC was 40.1% and the rate of survival to discharge was 5.1%. Ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF was the initial rhythm in 3.9% of patients. Pre-arrest factors including a high Charlson comorbidity index (CCI ? 9 (OR 0.251, 95% CI 0.098 - 0.646, cardiac comorbidity (OR 0.612, 95% CI 0.401 - 0.933, and arrest time on the midnight shift (OR 0.403, 95% CI 0.252 - 0.642 were independently associated with a low possibility of ROSC. The initial VT/VF presenting rhythms (OR 0.135, 95% CI 0.030 - 0.601 were independently associated with a high survival rate, whereas patients with deteriorated disease course were independently associated with a decreased hospital survival (OR 3.902, 95% CI 1.619 - 9.403. Conclusions: We demonstrated that pre-arrest factors can predict patient outcome after IHCA in general wards, including the association of a CCI ? 9 and cardiac comorbidity with poor ROSC, and deteriorated disease course as an independent predictor of a low survival rate.

  17. Use of the out-of-hours emergency dental service at two south-east London hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Desmond

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to the introduction of the 2006 NHS dental contract in England and Wales, general dental practitioners (GDPs were responsible for the provision of out-of-hours (OOH emergency dental services (EDS; however there was great national variation in service provision. Under the contractual arrangements introduced 1st April 2006, local commissioning agencies became formally responsible for the provision of out-of-hours emergency dental services. This study aimed to examine patients' use of an out-of-hours emergency dental service and to determine whether the introduction of the 2006 national NHS dental contract had resulted in a change in service use, with a view to informing future planning and commissioning of care. Methods A questionnaire was administered to people attending the out-of-hours emergency dental service at two inner city London hospitals over two time periods; four weeks before and six months after the introduction of the dental contract in April 2006. The questionnaire explored: reasons for attending; dental registration status and attendance; method of access; knowledge and use of NHS Direct; satisfaction with the service; future preferences for access and use of out-of-hours dental services. Data were compared to determine any impact of the new contract on how and why people accessed the emergency dental service. Results The response rate was 73% of attendees with 981 respondents for the first time period and 546 for the second. There were no significant differences between the two time periods in the gender, age, ethnic distribution or main language of service users accessing the service. Overall, the main dental problem was toothache (72% and the main reason for choosing this service was due to the inability to access another emergency dental service (42%. Significantly fewer service users attended the out-of-hours emergency dental service during the second period because they could not get an appointment with their own dentist (p = 0.002 from 28% to 20% and significantly more service users in the second period felt the emergency dental service was easier to get to than their own dentist (P = 0.003 from 8% to 14%. Service users found out about the service from multiple sources, of which family and friends were the most common source (30%. In the second period fewer service users were obtaining information about the service from dental receptionists (P = 0.002 from 14% to 9% and increased use of NHS Direct for a dental problem was reported (P = 0.002 from 16% to 22% along with more service users being referred to the service by NHS Direct (P = 0.02 from 19% to 24%. The most common preference for future emergency dental care was face-to-face with a dentist (79%. Conclusion This study has provided an insight into how and why people use an out-of-hours emergency dental service and has helped to guide future commissioning of these services. Overall, the service was being used in much the same way both before and after the 2006 dental contract. Significantly more use was being made of NHS Direct after April 2006; however, informal information networks such as friends and family remain an important source of information about accessing emergency dental services.

  18. Relationship between quantitative cardiac neuronal imaging with 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine and hospitalization in patients with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hospitalization in patients with systolic heart failure is associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost. Myocardial sympathetic innervation, imaged by 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (123I-mIBG), has been associated with cardiac events in a recent multicenter study. The present analysis explored the relationship between 123I-mIBG imaging findings and hospitalization. Source documents from the ADMIRE-HF trial were reviewed to identify hospitalization events in patients with systolic heart failure following cardiac neuronal imaging using 123I-mIBG. Time to hospitalization was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared to the mIBG heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio using multiple-failure Cox regression. During 1.4 years of median follow-up, 362 end-point hospitalizations occurred in 207 of 961 subjects, 79 % of whom had H/M ratio <1.6. Among subjects hospitalized for any cause, 88 % had H/M ratio <1.6 and subjects with H/M ratio <1.6 experienced hospitalization earlier than subjects with higher H/M ratios (log-rank p = 0.003). After adjusting for elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and time since heart failure diagnosis, a low mIBG H/M ratio was associated with cardiac-related hospitalization (HR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.05 - 2.0; p = 0.02). The mIBG H/M ratio may risk-stratify patients with heart failure for cardiac-related hospitalization, especially when used in conjunction with BNP. Further studies are warranted to examine these relationships. (orig.)

  19. Relationship between quantitative cardiac neuronal imaging with {sup 123}I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine and hospitalization in patients with heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Matthew W.; Sood, Nitesh [University of Connecticut, School of Medicine Department of Medicine, Farmington, CT (United States); Hartford Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Hartford, CT (United States); Ahlberg, Alan W. [Hartford Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Hartford, CT (United States); Jacobson, Arnold F. [GE Healthcare, Princeton, NJ (United States); Heller, Gary V. [The Intersocietal Accreditation Commission, Ellicott City, MD (United States); Lundbye, Justin B. [University of Connecticut, School of Medicine Department of Medicine, Farmington, CT (United States); The Hospital of Central Connecticut, Division of Cardiology, New Britain, CT (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Hospitalization in patients with systolic heart failure is associated with morbidity, mortality, and cost. Myocardial sympathetic innervation, imaged by {sup 123}I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ({sup 123}I-mIBG), has been associated with cardiac events in a recent multicenter study. The present analysis explored the relationship between {sup 123}I-mIBG imaging findings and hospitalization. Source documents from the ADMIRE-HF trial were reviewed to identify hospitalization events in patients with systolic heart failure following cardiac neuronal imaging using {sup 123}I-mIBG. Time to hospitalization was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared to the mIBG heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio using multiple-failure Cox regression. During 1.4 years of median follow-up, 362 end-point hospitalizations occurred in 207 of 961 subjects, 79 % of whom had H/M ratio <1.6. Among subjects hospitalized for any cause, 88 % had H/M ratio <1.6 and subjects with H/M ratio <1.6 experienced hospitalization earlier than subjects with higher H/M ratios (log-rank p = 0.003). After adjusting for elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and time since heart failure diagnosis, a low mIBG H/M ratio was associated with cardiac-related hospitalization (HR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.05 - 2.0; p = 0.02). The mIBG H/M ratio may risk-stratify patients with heart failure for cardiac-related hospitalization, especially when used in conjunction with BNP. Further studies are warranted to examine these relationships. (orig.)

  20. Cardiac arrhythmias 48 hours before, during, and 48 hours after discharge from hospital following acute myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, G. W.; Kumar, E. B.; Portal, R. W.; Aber, C. P.

    1981-01-01

    The cardiac rate and rhythm were studied by 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic recording in 44 patients before, during, and after being discharged from hospital following an acute myocardial infarction. The first recordings were started 48 hours before discharge, the second on the morning of the day of discharge, and the third 48 hours after discharge (at home). While in hospital and after returning home the heart rate fell during sleep but there was no diurnal variation in the frequency...

  1. Postoperative cardiac arrest due to cardiac surgery complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the role of anesthetists in the management of cardiac arrest occurring in association with cardiac anesthesia. In this retrospective study we studied the potential performances for each of the relevant incidents among 712 patients undergoing cardiac operations at Golestan and Naft Hospitals Ahwaz between November 2006 and July 2008. Out of total 712 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, cardiac arrest occurred in 28 cases (3.9%) due to different postoperative complications. This included massive bleeding (50% of cardiac arrest cases, 1.9% of patients); pulseless supra ventricular tachycardia (28.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 1.1% of patients); Heart Failure (7% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.2% of patients); Aorta Arc Rapture (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients); Tamponade due to pericardial effusion (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of total patients); Right Atrium Rupture (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients) were detected after cardiac surgery. Out of 28 cases 7 deaths occurred (25% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients). The most prevalent reason for cardiac arrest during post operative phase was massive bleeding (50%) followed by pulseless supra ventricular tachycardia (28.5%). Six patients had some morbidity and the remaining 15 patients recovered. There are often multiple contributing factors to a cardiac arrest under cardiac anesthesia, as much a complete systematic assessment of the patient, equipment, and drugs should be comptient, equipment, and drugs should be completed. We also found that the diagnosis and management of cardiac arrest in association with cardiac anesthesia differs considerably from that encountered elsewhere. (author)

  2. A process model to support automated measurement and detection of out-of-bounds events in a hospital laboratory process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claire, Costello; Owen, Molloy.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Business Activity Monitoring (BAM) allows organizations to capture enterprise events from their source systems and utilize these to detect non-compliant business situations. Similar concepts may be leveraged in the healthcare domain to improve the quality of patient care and the efficiency of clinic [...] al processes. This paper introduces a generic set of constructs for formally specifying threshold values relevant for cycle time and utilization calculations. It also describes a mechanism to capture information, including thresholds, about important business parameters for Six Sigma measurement. This full set of constructs are the basis for automated measurement and monitoring and are incorporated into the process model during the definition or capture phase thereby linking the definition and monitoring phases through a common underlying process model. Bespoke software is also described which uses the constructs contributed by this research to manage and monitor process models and enterprise events. A process performance module provides automated measurement and monitoring capabilities. At an aggregate level, this is achieved through the provision of process cycle time data for selected time periods on demand and the examination of business processes at frequent intervals with alerts generated for exceptional scenarios. At a more granular level, this solution uses a rules-based approach to evaluate individual events and generate alerts for out-of-bounds business parameters. This paper demonstrates the benefits of these capabilities for health informatics through application to a Laboratory Testing process observed at a local hospital. The paper also suggests recommendations for the extension of current modelling languages with respect to the constructs detailed herein.

  3. Dimensionality of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in Cardiac Patients: Comparison of Mokken Scale Analysis and Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken…

  4. Pleuropulmonary and cardiac changes after cardiac surgery in plain-film radiography and their influence on the length of hospital treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the parameters investigated, the increase in size of the cardiac shadow was the only one to have an effect on the length of the patients' stay in the hospital. In patients with increased heart size after surgery, pleural effusions on the right side were rather more frequent than in the control group. Intrapulmonary or pleural changes were frequent. The length of stationary treatment was not affected by the incidence or localisation of these. (orig.)

  5. Penalized count data regression with application to hospital stay after pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Ma, Shuangge; Zappitelli, Michael; Parikh, Chirag; Wang, Ching-Yun; Devarajan, Prasad

    2014-04-17

    Pediatric cardiac surgery may lead to poor outcomes such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS). Plasma and urine biomarkers may help with early identification and prediction of these adverse clinical outcomes. In a recent multi-center study, 311 children undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled to evaluate multiple biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of AKI and other clinical outcomes. LOS is often analyzed as count data, thus Poisson regression and negative binomial (NB) regression are common choices for developing predictive models. With many correlated prognostic factors and biomarkers, variable selection is an important step. The present paper proposes new variable selection methods for Poisson and NB regression. We evaluated regularized regression through penalized likelihood function. We first extend the elastic net (Enet) Poisson to two penalized Poisson regression: Mnet, a combination of minimax concave and ridge penalties; and Snet, a combination of smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) and ridge penalties. Furthermore, we extend the above methods to the penalized NB regression. For the Enet, Mnet, and Snet penalties (EMSnet), we develop a unified algorithm to estimate the parameters and conduct variable selection simultaneously. Simulation studies show that the proposed methods have advantages with highly correlated predictors, against some of the competing methods. Applying the proposed methods to the aforementioned data, it is discovered that early postoperative urine biomarkers including NGAL, IL18, and KIM-1 independently predict LOS, after adjusting for risk and biomarker variables. PMID:24742430

  6. Survival of male patients with spinal cord injury after cardiac arrest in Department of Veterans Affairs hospital: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Caruso, MD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Survivability characteristics after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the population with spinal cord injury (SCI are unclear but may be useful for advanced care planning discussions with patients. Retrospective evaluation from records of all SCI patients over 10 yr at a Department of Veterans Affairs medical center who experienced in-hospital cardiac arrest was performed. Demographic data and other common measurements were recorded. Thirty-six male subjects were identified, and only two patients survived to discharge (5.5% survival rate, both of whom were admitted for nonacute issues and were asymptomatic shortly before the cardiac arrest. The mean age at the time of cardiopulmonary arrest was 62.4 yr, with a mean time from cardiac arrest to death of 3.02 d. No significant demographic parameters were identified. Overall, SCI likely portends worse outcome for acutely ill patients in the situation of a cardiac arrest. Conclusions are limited by sample size.

  7. August 2014 Tucson critical care journal club: bacteremia in cardiac arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Hypes C; Jk, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is an uncommon, but important, condition encountered in the emergency department (ED). While cardiac arrest represents the final common pathway of multiple conditions, early evaluation often focuses on cardiac abnormalities. However, observed associations between infection, particularly pneumonia, and in-hospital cardiac arrest led Coba et al. (1) to investigate the incidence of bacteremia among OHCA ...

  8. Desmosomal Molecules In and Out of Adhering Junctions: Normal and Diseased States of Epidermal, Cardiac and Mesenchymally Derived Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Pieperhoff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current cell biology textbooks mention only two kinds of cell-to-cell adhering junctions coated with the cytoplasmic plaques: the desmosomes (maculae adhaerentes, anchoring intermediate-sized filaments (IFs, and the actin microfilament-anchoring adherens junctions (AJs, including both punctate (puncta adhaerentia and elongate (fasciae adhaerentes structures. In addition, however, a series of other junction types has been identified and characterized which contain desmosomal molecules but do not fit the definition of desmosomes. Of these special cell-cell junctions containing desmosomal glycoproteins or proteins we review the composite junctions (areae compositae connecting the cardiomyocytes of mature mammalian hearts and their importance in relation to human arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies. We also emphasize the various plakophilin-2-positive plaques in AJs (coniunctiones adhaerentes connecting proliferatively active mesenchymally-derived cells, including interstitial cells of the heart and several soft tissue tumor cell types. Moreover, desmoplakin has also been recognized as a constituent of the plaques of the complexus adhaerentes connecting certain lymphatic endothelial cells. Finally, we emphasize the occurrence of the desmosomal transmembrane glycoprotein, desmoglein Dsg2, out of the context of any junction as dispersed cell surface molecules in certain types of melanoma cells and melanocytes. This broadening of our knowledge on the diversity of AJ structures indicates that it may still be too premature to close the textbook chapters on cell-cell junctions.

  9. Multilayer out-of-plane overlap electrostatic energy harvesting structure actuated by blood pressure for powering intra-cardiac implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deterre, M.; Risquez, S.; Bouthaud, B.; Dal Molin, R.; Woytasik, M.; Lefeuvre, E.

    2013-12-01

    We present an innovative multilayer out-of-plane electrostatic energy harvesting device conceived in view of scavenging energy from regular blood pressure in the heart. This concept involves the use of a deformable packaging for the implant in order to transmit the blood pressure to the electrostatic transducer. As shown in previous work, this is possible by using thin metal micro-bellows structure, providing long term hermeticity and high flexibility. The design of the electrostatic device has overcome several challenges such as the very low frequency of the mechanical excitation (1 to 2 Hz) and the small available room in the medical implant. Analytical and numerical models have been used to maximize the capacitance variation, and hence to optimize the energy conversion. We have theoretically shown that a 25-layer transducer with 6-mm diameter and 1-mm thickness could harvest at least 20 mJ per heart beat in the left ventricle under a maximum voltage of 75 V. These results show that the proposed concept is promising and could power the next generation of leadless pacemakers.

  10. Cardiac tumors in a tertiary care cancer hospital: clinical features, echocardiographic findings, treatment and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Swafford; Daher, Iyad N.; Vinod Ravi; Trent, Jonathan C.; Husnu Evren Kaynak; Jose Banchs; Bathina, Jaya D.; Suhail Qureshi; Syed Wamique Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are a rare entity, comprised of tumors with diverse histology and natural history. We report the clinical characteristics, echocardiograhic findings, therapy and outcome of 59 patients with primary and metastatic cardiac tumors. Our institutional echocardiogram data base from 1993 through 2005 was reviewed to identify patients diagnosed with intra-cardiac tumor. A total of 59 patients with cardiac tumors were identified and included in the study. The patients' characteristics, ...

  11. Seroprevalence study of Helicobacter pylori infection among visitors of cardiac patients in Razi hospital in Ahvaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Alavi; Seyed Mohammad Hasan Adel; Alireza Rajabzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Seroepidemiological studies have shown a significant difference in seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP) and its outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HP infection in a normal population (patient's visitors) and to determine frequency of some risk factors of this infectious agent. Materials and methods: Cardiac visitors in Razi hospital in Ahvaz were tested for the presence of anti HP-IgG by ELISA assay. Frequency of risk factors for H...

  12. Parameters influencing in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized in intensive cardiac care unit: is there an influence of anemia and iron deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uscinska, Ewa; Sobkowicz, Bozena; Sawicki, Robert; Kiluk, Izabela; Baranicz, Malgorzata; Stepek, Tomasz; Dabrowska, Milena; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Musial, Wlodzimierz J; Tycinska, Agnieszka M

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the incidence and prognostic value of anemia as well as of the iron status in non-selected patients admitted to an intensive cardiac care unit (ICCU). 392 patients (mean age 70 ± 13.8 years, 43 % women), 168 with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), 122 with acute decompensated heart failure, and 102 with other acute cardiac disorders were consecutively, prospectively assessed. The biomarkers of iron status-serum iron concentration (SIC), total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and transferrin saturation (TSAT) together with standard clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic variables-were analyzed. In-hospital mortality was 3.8 % (15 patients). The prevalences of anemia (according to WHO criteria), and iron deficiency (ID) were 64 and 63 %, respectively. The level of biomarkers of iron status, but not anemia, was lower in patients who died (p age [odds ratio (OD) 1.38, 95 % CI 1.27-1.55], SIC (OR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.78-0.94), TIBC (OR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91-0.98), left ventricle ejection fraction (OR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.77-0.93), as well as hospitalization for non-ACS (OR 0.25, 95 % CI 0.14-0.46), (p iron status, but not anemia per se, independently influence in-hospital mortality. The prevalence of anemia is higher in non-ACS patients, and tends to worsen the prognosis. PMID:25502592

  13. Predictors of in-hospital mortality following non-cardiac surgery: Findings from an analysis of a South African hospital administrative database

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y, Moodley; B M, Biccard.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predictors of in-hospital mortality (IHM) following non-cardiac surgery in South African (SA) patients are not well described. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between patient comorbidity and IHM in a cohort of SA non-cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: Data related to comorbidity [...] and IHM for 3 727 patients aged >45 years were obtained from a large administrative database at a tertiary SA hospital. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of IHM. In addition, population-attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated for all clinical factors identified as independent predictors of IHM. RESULTS: Renal dysfunction, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, male gender and high-risk surgical specialties were independently associated with IHM (odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) 7.585 (5.480 - 10.50); 2.604 (1.119 - 6.060); 2.645 (1.414 - 4.950); 1.433 (1.107 -1.853); and 1.646 (1.213 - 2.233), respectively). Ischaemic heart disease, diabetes and hypertension were not identified as independent predictors of IHM in SA non-cardiac surgery patients. Renal dysfunction had the largest contribution to IHM in this study (PAF 0.34), followed by high-risk surgical specialties (PAF 0.15), male gender (PAF 0.08), cerebrovascular disease (PAF 0.03) and congestive heart failure (PAF 0.03). CONCLUSION: Renal dysfunction, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, male gender and high-risk surgical specialties were major contributors to increased IHM in SA non-cardiac surgery patients. Prospectively designed research is required to determine whether ischaemic heart disease, diabetes and hypertension contribute to IHM in these patients.

  14. A Community Collaborative to Develop Consensus Guidelines to Standardize Out-of-Hospital Maintenance Care of Central Venous Catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nailon, Regina; Rupp, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) maintenance is integral to preventing complications and improving outcomes. This process is made more challenging when patients transition from hospital to home care or to an outpatient infusion setting, because different CVC maintenance practices and care parameters confuse patients and care providers alike. Through collaboration and consensus building, a group of metropolitan home health and home infusion agencies developed a standardized approach to CVC maintenance care. This article discusses the multiagency collaborative and resulting guideline and other educational materials that better enable providers, patients, and families to maintain CVC integrity and achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:25723833

  15. Ambulatory care sensitive conditions at out-of-hospital emergence services in Croatia: a longitudinal study based on routinely collected data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjšek, Diana; Ben?i?, Miro; Keglevi?, Mladenka Vrci?

    2014-12-01

    Conditions for which a hospital and emergency utilization can be considered avoidable are often referred as ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs). Until now, there has been no published research related to ACSCs in Croatia. This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the trends relating to ACSCs in out-of-hospital ES from 1995-2012. The study is based on data from the Croatian Health Service Yearbooks. Five chronic and three acute conditions were chosen: diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, asthma and COPD, bacterial pneumonia, urinary tract infections and skin infections. The results indicate that the ES in Croatia is overused, and consequently ACSCs are over-represented; 23.3% Croatian citizens visited the ES and around 15% of all diagnoses belonged to the ACSCs, with decreased trend. The leading diagnosis is hypertension, followed by asthma and COPD. For a better understanding of the importance of ACSC within the Croatian context, further research is needed. PMID:25643542

  16. Cardiac arrest in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tress Erika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term "post-cardiac arrest syndrome" has been proposed, along with treatment goals for each of its four phases: immediate post-arrest, early post-arrest, intermediate and recovery phase. Hypothermia is recommended to be considered as a therapy for post-CA syndrome in comatose patients after CA, and large multicenter prospective studies are underway. We reviewed landmark articles related to pediatric CA published during the last decade. We present the current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CA relevant to pre-hospital and acute care health practitioners.

  17. Hypothermia and pediatric cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlunt Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The survival outcome following pediatric cardiac arrest still remains poor. Survival to hospital discharge ranges anywhere from 0 to 38% when considering both out-of-hospital and in-hospital arrests, with up to 50% of the survivors having neurologic injury. The use of mild induced hypothermia has not been definitively proven to improve outcomes following pediatric cardiac arrest. This may be due to the lack of consensus regarding target temperature, best method of cooling, optimal duration of cooling and identifying the patient population who will receive the greatest benefit. We review the current applications of induced hypothermia in pediatric patients following cardiac arrest after searching the current literature through Pubmed and Ovid journal databases. We put forth compiled recommendations/guidelines for initiating hypothermia therapy, its maintenance, associated monitoring and suggested adjunctive therapies to produce favorable neurologic and survival outcomes.

  18. Hospital-based versus community-based shared care cardiac rehabilitation after acute coronary syndrome : protocol for a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Jannik Buus; Refsgaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is poor although CR reduces morbidity and mortality. One way in which attendance may potentially be improved is by involving municipal health-care centres (MHCC) and the patient's general practitioner (GP) to a larger degree in a model of shared care cardiac rehabilitation (SC-CR). Our study tests the feasibility of SC-CR and compares the attendance and effects of SC-CR with the individually tailored hospital-based CR (H-CR) programme.

  19. TORACOTOMÍA DE EMERGENCIA EN LESIONES CARDIACAS POR ARMA BLANCA EN EL HOSPITAL CLÍNICO FRANCISCO VIEDMA / Emergency toracothomy in cardiac injury in the Hospital Clinical Francisco Viedma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronald D., Quinteros Virreir; Marcelo E., Almanza Uribe; Monica, Abularach Heredia.

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cardiacas se han descrito con mucha claridad en el transcurso de la historia. Existen descripciones de heridas penetrantes de tórax en el papiro de Smith que data de 3000 a. C. y en la Ilíada, siglo XIX a. C, que contiene referencias específicas del desangramiento como causa de muerte y [...] de cuerpos extraños localizados dentro del corazón. Muchos de los pacientes con lesiones cardiacas mueren en el sitio de la agresión, durante el traslado o en la sala de emergencia y muchas de estas muertes se pueden prevenir con un transporte rápido asistido, realizando un diagnóstico y manejo hemodinámico precoz en sala de emergencia y realizando una TORACOTOMÍA INMEDIATA DE EMERGENCIA, ADECUADA, AMPLIA Y DE ABORDAJE RÁPIDO, con excelente exposición cardiaca y de sus grandes vasos. Presentamos tres casos de pacientes hospitalizados en el Hospital Clínico Viedma con lesiones penetrantes de corazón que fueron sometidos a Toracotomía de Emergencia, dos de los cuales simultáneamente presentaron traumas penetrantes de abdomen por arma blanca, el manejo a cargo de cirugía general de emergencia, los tres pacientes evolucionaron de manera favorable y fueron dados de alta en óptimas condiciones. Abstract in english Cardiac lesions have been described very clearly in the course of history. There are descriptions of penetrating chest wounds in the Smith papyrus dating from 3000 B C. and in the Iliad, XIX century B C, which contains specific refer-ences to the bleeding as the cause of death of foreign bodies loca [...] ted within the heart. Many patients with cardiac injuries die at the site of the attack, during transport or in the emergency room and many of these deaths can be prevented by rapid transport assisted by an early diagnosis and hemodynamic management in emergency room mak-ing immediate emergency thoracotomy, RIGHT, LARGE AND RAPID APPROACH, with excellent exposure heart and its large vessels. The cardiac lesions appear to be the biggest challenge of trauma surgery. Its handling requires immediate surgery, an experienced surgeon who has good technique, and the ability to offer better recovery and post-operative lifestyle for the patient. We present three patients hospitalized at Hospital Viedma with heart penetrating injuries who underwent emergency thoracotomy, two of which presented simultaneously penetrating abdominal trauma stab in charge of handling emergency general surgery, three patients evolved favorably and were discharged in optimal conditions.

  20. Avaliação da aderência ao programa de reabilitação cardíaca em um hospital particular geral / Evaluating compliance to a cardiac rehabilitation program in a private general hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa, Mair; Ana Paula, Breda; Marcos Eduardo Boquembuzo, Nunes; Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot de, Matos.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os principais fatores que influenciaram o participante do nosso programa de reabilitação cardiovascular a faltar em suas terapias e correlacioná-los a idade, risco cardiovascular e motivação de nossa população. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo transversal com 42 pac [...] ientes (69,15±13,93 anos) participantes do programa de reabilitação cardíaca de um hospital geral particular de São Paulo, por meio da análise de duas escalas: a Escala de Barreiras para Reabilitação Cardíaca e a Escala de Disposição. Utilizou-se a correlação de Spearman para relacioná-las com absenteísmo, risco cardiovascular, idade e tempo de reabilitação cardíaca. RESULTADOS: A pontuação total da escala de barreiras foi 31±6 e o escore médio foi de 1,47±0,31. As principais barreiras foram relacionadas às subescalas "viagem/conflito de trabalho" e "problemas pessoais/familiares". A porcentagem de absenteísmo foi 8,4% do número de sessões possíveis de serem realizadas no mês. As faltas e os cancelamentos apresentaram correlação positiva com o risco cardiovascular (p=0,01; r=0,4) e correlações negativas com Escala de Disposição inicial (p=0,03; r=-0,35) e idade (p=0,02; r=-0,35). CONCLUSÃO: "Viagem/conflito de trabalho", "problemas pessoais/familiares" e baixa disposição inicial foram os principais fatores de absenteísmo em um programa de reabilitação cardíaca de um hospital geral particular de São Paulo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Identify the primary factors that influenced the participant in our cardiovascular rehabilitation program towards missing their therapy sessions, and to correlate those factors with age, cardiovascular risk, and motivation of our population. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study wit [...] h 42 patients (69.15±13.93 years) participating in the cardiac rehabilitation program at a general hospital in São Paulo, through the analysis of two scales applied during the initial evaluation: Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale and scale of the original provision. We used Spearman correlation to relate them to absenteeism, cardiovascular risk age and duration of cardiac rehabilitation. RESULTS: The total score of barriers was 31±6 and the mean score of 1.47±0.31. The main barriers subscales were related to "travel/labor dispute" and "personal problems/family." The percentage of absenteeism was 8.4% in the number of sessions that could be made in the month. The faults and cancellations were positively correlated with cardiovascular risk (p=0.01; r=0.4) and negatively with scale provision of baseline (p=0.03; r=-0.35) and age (p=0.02; r=-0.35). CONCLUSION: "Travel/labor dispute", "personal/ family problems", and low initial provision are the main factors absenteism in a cardiac rehabilitation program in a general hospital in São Paulo.

  1. Femoral sheath removal after cardiac catheterization in the Jordanian hospitals: An explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar M. Nabolsi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of sheath removal (femostop, compressor and manual compression among Jordanian patients post cardiac catherization. Material and Methods: A descriptive explorative design utilized to collect data from 87 patients underwent cardiac catherization. Data collected on demographics, health remarks and complication pre and post cardiac catherization and in relation to sheath removal methods and complications. Results: The majority of the patients (94.2%, n = 80 had a manual sheath removal compared to 1% (n = 1 compression and 7% (n = 6 had femostop method. Kruskal-Wallis H test revealed there were significance difference in PTT and ACT reports in relation to type of procedures (0.24, p 0.015; 0.32, p = 0.005 respectively. However, there were no significant differences between methods of sheath removal methods in relation to pain level, MAP before, MAP after, and heart rate with p value > 0.05. Patient’s age had negative association with HR after the procedure (BTAU = -0.19, p = 0.02, while no significant differences found in post catherization complication (hematoma and pain level and all other health remarks (p > 0.05 in regards to patients’ age and gender. Moreover, patients’ MAP readings were significantly different in relation to number of rest hour that patients had post cardiac catherization (p = 0.049. Conclusion: The study found that most patients and health professionals preferred manual removal methods of sheath post cardiac catherization. Cardiac health professionals, has to consider health remarks and demographic characteristics of their patients when planning care for their patients and more research needed to explore these issues.

  2. Major depression and first-time hospitalization with ischemic heart disease, cardiac procedures and mortality in the general population : A retrospective Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasse, Christiane; Laursen, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the association between unipolar depression and incident hospital admissions due to ischemic heart disease, invasive cardiac procedures and mortality independent of other medical illnesses.Methods: A population-based cohort of 4.6 million persons aged 15 years or older and born in Denmark was followed up from 1995-2009. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) and mortality rate ratio (MRR) were estimated by survival analysis, stratified by or adjusted for gender, age, severe chronic somatic comorbidity and calendar time.Results: Adjusted risks of cardiac hospital admissions and death were significantly increased by up to 15% and 68%, respectively, in persons with hospital admissions due to depression, and were most increased in 15-59 year old women (IRR: 1.64; MRR: 2.57) and men with depression (IRR: 1.39; MRR: 2.21), and during the first 180 days after being diagnosed with depression (women: IRR: 1.38; MRR: 2.35; men: IRR: 1.42; MRR: 2.67). One-year mortality after new ischemic heart disease was elevated by 34% in women and men. By contrast, overall rates of invasive cardiac procedures following cardiac hospitalizations were significantly decreased by 34% in persons with depression but were twofold increased in men recently diagnosed with depression.Conclusion: Clinical depression leading to hospitalization was a risk factor for new cardiac complications independent of somatic comorbidity in the magnitude of other cardiac risk factors, particularly in individuals between 15-59 years of age and during the first weeks following psychiatric admission. Our findings support recent cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines on assessing depression among other psychosocial factors in patients at increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.

  3. Gasto de hogares durante la hospitalización de menores derechohabientes, con diagnóstico de leucemia, en dos hospitales en México / Out-of-pocket expenditures during hospitalization of young leukemia patients with state medical insurance in two Mexican hospitals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arnoldo, Rocha-García; Patricia, Hernández-Peña; Silvia, Ruiz-Velazco; Leticia, Avila-Burgos; Teresa, Marín-Palomares; Eduardo, Lazcano-Ponce.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Estimar el gasto de los hogares durante la primera hospitalización en 51 menores de 15 años de edad con leucemia, atendidos en dos hospitales del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, en México durante 1997. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal hecho en 1997 en el Distrito Federal y en [...] León, Guanajuato. Se aplicó un cuestionario a los padres de 51 menores de 15 años de edad con diagnóstico de leucemia, hospitalizados por primera vez, en dos unidades del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Se capturó la información de los costos directos e indirectos enfrentados por los hogares durante esa primera hospitalización. Se aplicó el Indice de Precios al Consumidor (1997-2002) para expresar las estimaciones en precios de 2002. Se estimaron indicadores de gasto promedio y gastos catastróficos. Se establecieron los factores asociados, mediante un modelo de regresión lineal, utilizando el gasto total durante la hospitalización como variable dependiente. RESULTADOS: El costo promedio por paciente hospitalizado es de 7 318 pesos. El 86% corresponde a gastos asociados con la atención y 14% a costos indirectos. Para 14% de los hogares este gasto fue catastrófico. En 47% de los casos la erogación rebasó 100% de su ingreso disponible durante el periodo. Estos gastos se asociaron con lugar de residencia, nivel de ingreso y tipo de seguro. CONCLUSIONES: Ser derechohabiente de la seguridad social reduce los gastos de bolsillo por atención directa de los pacientes, pero no reduce los gastos complementarios, que pueden resultar onerosos para una elevada proporción de hogares. El costo de la primera hospitalización significó, en más de la mitad de los casos estudiados, el consumo de los ahorros, el endeudamiento o la venta de propiedades de los hogares, y dificultó la continuidad del tratamiento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To estimate out-of-pocket expenditures for health care during the first hospitalization of children treated for leukemia in two hospitals of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social -IMSS-). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted [...] in Mexico City and Leon, Guanajato, Mexico in 1997. The study population consisted of the parents of 51 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with leukemia, who were hospitalized for the first time in two IMSS hospitals. A questionnaire was applied to participants to obtain direct and indirect expenditures during that period. Consumer price indexes (1997-2002) were used to estimate expenditure prices for 2002. Average expenditures and catastrophic expenditures were estimated. Factors associated with expenditures were analyzed using a linear regression model in which the dependent variable was the total household expenditures during hospitalization. RESULTS: The average household cost per hospitalization was 7 318 pesos, 86% of which corresponded to medical care and 14% to indirect costs. Catastrophic expenditures occurred in 14% of households. In 47% of household expenditures exceeded 100% of the total household income during the hospitalization period. Expenditures during hospitalization were associated with place of residence, income level, and type of medical insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Being an IMSS policyholder decreased out-of-pocket expenditures, but not complementary expenditures, which may still be unaffordable for a large segment of the population. For more than a half of the households studied, continuity of care was compromised, as expenditures during the first hospitalization entailed using up savings, going into debt, and/or selling household property.

  4. Gasto de hogares durante la hospitalización de menores derechohabientes, con diagnóstico de leucemia, en dos hospitales en México / Out-of-pocket expenditures during hospitalization of young leukemia patients with state medical insurance in two Mexican hospitals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arnoldo, Rocha-García; Patricia, Hernández-Peña; Silvia, Ruiz-Velazco; Leticia, Avila-Burgos; Teresa, Marín-Palomares; Eduardo, Lazcano-Ponce.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Estimar el gasto de los hogares durante la primera hospitalización en 51 menores de 15 años de edad con leucemia, atendidos en dos hospitales del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, en México durante 1997. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal hecho en 1997 en el Distrito Federal y en [...] León, Guanajuato. Se aplicó un cuestionario a los padres de 51 menores de 15 años de edad con diagnóstico de leucemia, hospitalizados por primera vez, en dos unidades del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Se capturó la información de los costos directos e indirectos enfrentados por los hogares durante esa primera hospitalización. Se aplicó el Indice de Precios al Consumidor (1997-2002) para expresar las estimaciones en precios de 2002. Se estimaron indicadores de gasto promedio y gastos catastróficos. Se establecieron los factores asociados, mediante un modelo de regresión lineal, utilizando el gasto total durante la hospitalización como variable dependiente. RESULTADOS: El costo promedio por paciente hospitalizado es de 7 318 pesos. El 86% corresponde a gastos asociados con la atención y 14% a costos indirectos. Para 14% de los hogares este gasto fue catastrófico. En 47% de los casos la erogación rebasó 100% de su ingreso disponible durante el periodo. Estos gastos se asociaron con lugar de residencia, nivel de ingreso y tipo de seguro. CONCLUSIONES: Ser derechohabiente de la seguridad social reduce los gastos de bolsillo por atención directa de los pacientes, pero no reduce los gastos complementarios, que pueden resultar onerosos para una elevada proporción de hogares. El costo de la primera hospitalización significó, en más de la mitad de los casos estudiados, el consumo de los ahorros, el endeudamiento o la venta de propiedades de los hogares, y dificultó la continuidad del tratamiento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To estimate out-of-pocket expenditures for health care during the first hospitalization of children treated for leukemia in two hospitals of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social -IMSS-). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted [...] in Mexico City and Leon, Guanajato, Mexico in 1997. The study population consisted of the parents of 51 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with leukemia, who were hospitalized for the first time in two IMSS hospitals. A questionnaire was applied to participants to obtain direct and indirect expenditures during that period. Consumer price indexes (1997-2002) were used to estimate expenditure prices for 2002. Average expenditures and catastrophic expenditures were estimated. Factors associated with expenditures were analyzed using a linear regression model in which the dependent variable was the total household expenditures during hospitalization. RESULTS: The average household cost per hospitalization was 7 318 pesos, 86% of which corresponded to medical care and 14% to indirect costs. Catastrophic expenditures occurred in 14% of households. In 47% of household expenditures exceeded 100% of the total household income during the hospitalization period. Expenditures during hospitalization were associated with place of residence, income level, and type of medical insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Being an IMSS policyholder decreased out-of-pocket expenditures, but not complementary expenditures, which may still be unaffordable for a large segment of the population. For more than a half of the households studied, continuity of care was compromised, as expenditures during the first hospitalization entailed using up savings, going into debt, and/or selling household property.

  5. Gasto de hogares durante la hospitalización de menores derechohabientes, con diagnóstico de leucemia, en dos hospitales en México Out-of-pocket expenditures during hospitalization of young leukemia patients with state medical insurance in two Mexican hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Rocha-García

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar el gasto de los hogares durante la primera hospitalización en 51 menores de 15 años de edad con leucemia, atendidos en dos hospitales del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, en México durante 1997. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal hecho en 1997 en el Distrito Federal y en León, Guanajuato. Se aplicó un cuestionario a los padres de 51 menores de 15 años de edad con diagnóstico de leucemia, hospitalizados por primera vez, en dos unidades del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Se capturó la información de los costos directos e indirectos enfrentados por los hogares durante esa primera hospitalización. Se aplicó el Indice de Precios al Consumidor (1997-2002 para expresar las estimaciones en precios de 2002. Se estimaron indicadores de gasto promedio y gastos catastróficos. Se establecieron los factores asociados, mediante un modelo de regresión lineal, utilizando el gasto total durante la hospitalización como variable dependiente. RESULTADOS: El costo promedio por paciente hospitalizado es de 7 318 pesos. El 86% corresponde a gastos asociados con la atención y 14% a costos indirectos. Para 14% de los hogares este gasto fue catastrófico. En 47% de los casos la erogación rebasó 100% de su ingreso disponible durante el periodo. Estos gastos se asociaron con lugar de residencia, nivel de ingreso y tipo de seguro. CONCLUSIONES: Ser derechohabiente de la seguridad social reduce los gastos de bolsillo por atención directa de los pacientes, pero no reduce los gastos complementarios, que pueden resultar onerosos para una elevada proporción de hogares. El costo de la primera hospitalización significó, en más de la mitad de los casos estudiados, el consumo de los ahorros, el endeudamiento o la venta de propiedades de los hogares, y dificultó la continuidad del tratamiento.OBJECTIVE: To estimate out-of-pocket expenditures for health care during the first hospitalization of children treated for leukemia in two hospitals of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social -IMSS-. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mexico City and Leon, Guanajato, Mexico in 1997. The study population consisted of the parents of 51 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with leukemia, who were hospitalized for the first time in two IMSS hospitals. A questionnaire was applied to participants to obtain direct and indirect expenditures during that period. Consumer price indexes (1997-2002 were used to estimate expenditure prices for 2002. Average expenditures and catastrophic expenditures were estimated. Factors associated with expenditures were analyzed using a linear regression model in which the dependent variable was the total household expenditures during hospitalization. RESULTS: The average household cost per hospitalization was 7 318 pesos, 86% of which corresponded to medical care and 14% to indirect costs. Catastrophic expenditures occurred in 14% of households. In 47% of household expenditures exceeded 100% of the total household income during the hospitalization period. Expenditures during hospitalization were associated with place of residence, income level, and type of medical insurance. CONCLUSIONS: Being an IMSS policyholder decreased out-of-pocket expenditures, but not complementary expenditures, which may still be unaffordable for a large segment of the population. For more than a half of the households studied, continuity of care was compromised, as expenditures during the first hospitalization entailed using up savings, going into debt, and/or selling household property.

  6. Dimensionality of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) in cardiac patients : comparison of Mokken scale analysis and factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken scale analysis and factor analysis and (b) the scale properties of the HADS. Mokken scale analysis and factor analysis suggested that three dimensions adequately capture the structure of the HADS. Of the three corresponding scales, two scales of five items each were found to be structurally sound and reliable. These scales covered the two key attributes of anxiety and (anhedonic) depression. The findings suggest that the HADS may be reduced to a 10-item questionnaire comprising two 5-item scales measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms.

  7. Prolonged Chest Compressions during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest due to Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Carla; Thomas, Boban; Santos, Luis; Tavares, João

    2015-04-01

    Patients with hemodynamic collapse due to acute pulmonary embolism have a dismal prognosis if not treated rapidly. Therapeutic options include systemic thrombolytic therapy, rheolytic thrombectomy, and surgical embolectomy. However, the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy is diminished because the low-output state hinders effective delivery of the lytic agent to the thrombus. In the absence of any form of mechanical circulatory support, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or cardiac surgery on site, we think that prolonged vigorous manual compressions might be the only way to support the circulation during the initial critical state, when thrombolytic therapy has been administered. We report the results of prolonged manual chest compressions (exceeding 30 minutes) on 6 patients who received tenecteplase in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism that induced in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. Four of 6 patients survived and were discharged from the hospital. In an era of increasing technologic complexity for patients with hemodynamic instability, we emphasize the importance of prolonged chest compressions, which can improve systemic perfusion, counteract the prothrombotic state associated with cardiopulmonary arrest, and give the lytic agent time to act. PMID:25873823

  8. Repair of a Complex Congenital Cardiac Defect

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OF A COMPLEX CONGENITAL CARDIAC DEFECT CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL BOSTON BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS October 5, 2007 00:00:14 ANNOUNCER: Over the next hour, live from Children's Hospital Boston's cardiac OR, see cardiac surgeons repair a complex ...

  9. Repair of a Complex Congenital Cardiac Defect

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available REPAIR OF A COMPLEX CONGENITAL CARDIAC DEFECT CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL BOSTON BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS October 5, 2007 00:00: ... ANNOUNCER: Over the next hour, live from Children's Hospital Boston's cardiac OR, see cardiac surgeons repair a ...

  10. The cardiac catheterization laboratory personnel TLD dosimetry in Dr. Faghihi Hospital in Shiraz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study all of the personnel of Angiography of Dr.Faghihi hospital used TLD service During 2002-2003. This service was given by center for Radiation Protection and Application of the Shiraz University. These staff were divided in two group, one groups was technicians and the other group was the nurses. The result of this research shows that the maximum dose received to Technicians and nurses were 0.4mSv and 0.55mSV respectively. The average annual dose to technicians and nurses were 0.02 mSv and 0.19 mSv. This result shows that the nurses of this hospital receive more dose than the techniques

  11. Outcomes associated with amiodarone and lidocaine in the treatment of in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest with pulse less ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Santiago O.; Donoghue, Aaron J.; Hoyme, Derek B.; Hammond, Rachel; Berg, Marc D.; Berg, Robert A.; Samson, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the association between amiodarone and lidocaine and outcomes in children with cardiac arrest with pulse less ventricular tachycardia (pVT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Background Current AHA guidelines for CPR and emergency cardiovascular care recommend amiodarone for cardiac arrest in children associated with shock refractory pVT/VF, based on a single pediatric study and extrapolation from adult data. Methods Retrospective cohort study from the Get With the Guidelines-Resuscitation database for in-patient cardiac arrest. Patientsoutcomes. Multivariate analysis was performed to address independent association between lidocaine and amiodarone use and outcomes. Results Of 889 patients. 171 (19%) received amiodarone, 295 (33%) received lidocaine. and 82 (10%) received both. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) occurred in 484/889 (54%), 24-h survival in 342/874 (39%), and survival to hospital discharge in 194/889 (22%}. Lidocaine was associated with improved ROSC (adjusted OR 2.02, 95% Cl 1.36-3 ). and 24-h survival (adjusted OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.11-2.49), but not hospital discharge. Amiodarone use was not associated with ROSC, 24 h survival, or survival to discharge. Conclusions For children with in-hospital pVT/VF, lidocaine use was independently associated with improved ROSC and 24-h survival. Amiodarone use was not associated with superior rates of ROSC, survival at 24 h. Neither drug was associated with survival to hospital discharge. PMID:24361455

  12. Variation in Critical Care Unit Admission Rates and Outcomes for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes or Heart Failure Among High? and Low?Volume Cardiac Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Sean; Bakal, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Meng; Kaul, Padma; McAlister, Finlay A.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about cross?hospital differences in critical care units admission rates and related resource utilization and outcomes among patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or heart failure (HF). Methods and Results Using a population?based sample of 16 078 patients admitted to a critical care unit with a primary diagnosis of ACS (n=14 610) or HF (n=1467) between April 1, 2003 and March 31, 2013 in Alberta, Canada, we stratified hospitals into high (>250), medium (200 to 250), or low (hospitalization. The percentage of hospitalized patients admitted to critical care units varied across low, medium, and high?volume hospitals for both ACS and HF as follows: 77.9%, 81.3%, and 76.3% (Phospitals had shorter mean critical care stays (56.6 versus 95.6 hours, Phospital mortality (5.5% versus 6.2%, adjusted odds ratio 0.93; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.41) were observed between high? and low?volume hospitals; however, 30?day cardiovascular readmissions (4.6% versus 6.8%, odds ratio 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.99) and cardiovascular emergency?room visits (6.6% versus 9.5%, odds ratio 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.94) were lower in high?volume compared to low?volume hospitals. Outcomes stratified by ACS or HF admission diagnosis were similar. Conclusions Cardiac patients hospitalized in low?volume hospitals were more frequently admitted to critical care units and had longer hospitals stays despite lower resource?intensive weighting. These findings may provide opportunities to standardize critical care utilization for ACS and HF patients across high? and low?volume hospitals. PMID:25725089

  13. Impact of 'fire drill' training and dedicated obstetric resuscitation code in improving fetomaternal outcome following cardiac arrest in a tertiary referral hospital setting in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Radha; Mathur, Manisha; Mathur, Deepak

    2015-04-01

    Cardiac arrest in pregnancy is a rare but catastrophic obstetric emergency, with a quoted incidence of 1:20,000 pregnancies. Speedy multidisciplinary interventions are crucial for good maternal and foetal outcomes. A perimortem caesarean section (PMCS) initiated within 4 min of onset of cardiac arrest to minimise the effect of aortocaval compression on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been recommended as a key intervention, which is likely to improve survival of both mother and foetus. Sudden collapse is uncommon in pregnant women and their management is more challenging than in a non-pregnant patient. This article aims to emphasise the significance of early identification and management of impending or established maternal cardiac arrest. We propose that a focus on effective and good-quality CPR, utilising key interventions such as early airway control, left uterine displacement and a timely decision for a PMCS with multidisciplinary input is more likely to result in good maternal and foetal survival and neurological outcomes. We also discuss the role of 'fire drill' obstetric training for key staff and the use of a dedicated hospital-wide resuscitation code for managing collapse in obstetric patients in improving survival and outcomes. We present four cases of maternal cardiac arrest managed with PMCS in our hospital, highlighting the evolution in management and with improved outcomes following changes to our resuscitation guidelines, training and workflows. PMID:25472736

  14. Preparedness for Cardiac Emergencies among Cambodians with Limited English Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Meischke, Hendrika; Taylor, Victoria; Calhoun, Rebecca; Liu, Qi; Sos, Channdara; Tu, Shin-ping; Yip, Mei-po; Eisenberg, Devora

    2012-01-01

    In the United Sates, populations with limited English proficiency (LEP) report barriers to seeking emergency care and experience significant health disparities, including being less likely to survive cardiac arrest than whites. Rapid utilization of 9-1-1 to access emergency services and early bystander CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) is crucial for successful resuscitation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. Little is understood about Asian LEP communities’ preparedness for emer...

  15. Cardiac ablation procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheter ablation; Radiofrequency catheter ablation ... Cardiac ablation procedures are done in a hospital laboratory by specially trained staff. This includes cardiologists (heart doctors) trained ...

  16. Response interval is important for survival until admission after prehospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Hien Quoc; Nielsen, SØren Loumann

    2010-01-01

    An increasing distance to the nearest hospital must be expected as a result of centralization of acute care at a small number of hospitals. This may have important consequences in emergency situations, such as prehospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) where the aim is to obtain return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), i.e. successful resuscitation. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of response interval on sustained ROSC, i.e. ROSC at hospital admission, after OHCA with presumed cardiac aetiology.

  17. Complement Inhibition as a Proposed Neuroprotective Strategy following Cardiac Arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Sander Connolly, E.; Ducruet, Andrew F.; Grobelny, Bartosz T.; Derosa, Peter A.; Hickman, Zachary L.; Zacharia, Brad E.

    2009-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a devastating disease process with neurological injury accounting for a disproportionate amount of the morbidity and mortality following return of spontaneous circulation. A dearth of effective treatment strategies exists for global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (GCI/R) injury following ...

  18. Supporting lay bystanders during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest :comparison of video calls and audio calls for instructions and supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Bolle, Stein Roald

    2011-01-01

    Akuttmedisinske situasjoner krever rask, god og effektiv kommunikasjon. Publikum har i økende grad mulighet for videokonferanse via vanlige mobiltelefoner. Kan legfolk i fremtiden få bedre hjelp fra medisinsk nødnummer (113) hvis de kan vise levende bilder fra akuttmedisinske situasjoner via mobiltelefonen? Dette er hovedspørsmålet i dette doktorgradsarbeidet utført ved Nasjonalt senter for samhandling og telemedisin og Akuttmedisinsk klinikk ved Universitetssykehuset Nord-Norge. 180 el...

  19. Supporting lay bystanders during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest : comparison of video calls and audio calls for instructions and supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Bolle, Stein Roald

    2011-01-01

    Akuttmedisinske situasjoner krever rask, god og effektiv kommunikasjon. Publikum har i økende grad mulighet for videokonferanse via vanlige mobiltelefoner. Kan legfolk i fremtiden få bedre hjelp fra medisinsk nødnummer (113) hvis de kan vise levende bilder fra akuttmedisinske situasjoner via mobiltelefonen? Dette er hovedspørsmålet i dette doktorgradsarbeidet utført ved Nasjonalt senter for samhandling og telemedisin og Akuttmedisinsk klinikk ved Universitetssykehuset Nord-Norge. 180 el...

  20. Hospitalization rates and associated cost analysis of cardiac resynchronization therapy with an implantable defibrillator and quadripolar vs. bipolar left ventricular leads: a comparative effectiveness study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forleo, Giovanni B.; Di Biase, Luigi; Bharmi, Rupinder; Dalal, Nirav; Panattoni, Germana; Pollastrelli, Annalisa; Tesauro, Manfredi; Santini, Luca; Natale, Andrea; Romeo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study compares, from a prospective, observational, non-randomized registry, the post-implant hospitalization rates and associated healthcare resource utilization of cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) patients with quadripolar (QUAD) vs. bipolar (BIP) left ventricular (LV) leads. Methods and results Between January 2009 and December 2012, 193 consecutive patients receiving de novo CRT-D implants with either a QUAD (n = 116) or a BIP (n = 77) LV lead were enrolled at implant and followed until July 2013 at a single-centre, university hospital. Post-implant hospitalizations related to heart failure (HF) or LV lead surgical revision and associated payer costs were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes. Italian national reimbursement rates were determined. Propensity scores were estimated using a logistic regression model based upon 11 pre-implant baseline characteristics and were used to derive a 1 : 1 matched cohort of QUAD (n = 77) and BIP (n = 77) patients. Hospitalization rates for the two groups were compared using negative binomial regression and associated payer costs were compared using non-parametric bootstrapping (×10 000) and one-sided hypothesis test. Hospitalization rates of the QUAD group [0.15/ patient (pt)-year] were lower than those of the BIP group (0.32/ pt-year); the incidence rate ratio was 0.46, P = 0.04. The hospitalization costs for the QUAD group (434 ± 128 €/pt-year) were lower than those for the BIP group (1136 ± 362 €/pt-year). The average difference was 718 €/pt-year, P = 0.016. Conclusions In this comparative effectiveness assessment of well-matched groups of CRT-D patients with quadripolar and bipolar LV leads, QUAD patients experienced a lower rate of hospitalizations for HF and LV lead surgical revision, and a lower cost burden. This has important implications for LV pacing lead choice. PMID:25371428

  1. Repair of a Complex Congenital Cardiac Defect

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 00:00:14 ANNOUNCER: Over the next hour, live from Children's Hospital Boston's cardiac OR, see cardiac ... cardiac case and answer your email questions. OR-Live makes it easy for you to learn more. ...

  2. Repair of a Complex Congenital Cardiac Defect

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available REPAIR OF A COMPLEX CONGENITAL CARDIAC DEFECT CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL BOSTON BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS October 5, 2007 00:00:14 ANNOUNCER: Over the next hour, live from Children's Hospital Boston's cardiac OR, see ...

  3. Trauma penetrante cardíaco en la unidad de emergencia del Hospital Carlos Van Buren / Penetrating cardiac trauma. Review of 36 operated patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GONZALO, GÓMEZ C; JOSÉ, HOLA B.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El trauma penetrante cardíaco representa una de las mayores causas de muerte por motivo de violencia urbana y se clasifica en penetrante o contuso. La causa más común de trauma cardíaco penetrante es la herida por arma blanca o de fuego. La principal causa de trauma penetrante cardíaco en nuestra se [...] rie fue la lesión por arma blanca, siendo el ventrículo derecho la principal cámara cardíaca afectada. Los resultados quirúrgicos son comparables con otras series, con una mortalidad del 16,6% y una morbilidad de 22%. La mortalidad quirúrgica está relacionada con el retraso de la cirugía, o la lesión por arma de fuego, o la presencia de lesiones complejas. Aún sigue siendo fundamental el diagnóstico clínico y el manejo precoz. Abstract in english Background: The most common cause of cardiac penetrating trauma is wounds caused by knives or firearms. Aim: To review the operated cases of penetrating cardiac trauma in a public hospital emergency room. Material and Methods: Review of medical records of patients operated for penetrating cardiac tr [...] auma between 1986 and 2009. Results: We retrieved the records of 36 patients (33 males) with a median age of 30 years. Ninety four percent of lesions were cause by knife wounds. In 24 patients, the right ventncle was injured. Immediate surgical mortality was 17% and 22% of patients had complications. Conclusions: Surgical mortality in penetrating cardiac trauma is related to the delay of surgical correction, injury by firearms or the presence of complex lesions.

  4. Urgent response telecardiology services and training--collaboration between Onassis Cardiac Surgery Hospital and Aegian Islands' Health Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, S; Tsirintani, M; Kokkinos, D

    1997-01-01

    Since 1995, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center participates in the development of Telecardiology Services in Greece. Existing connections include the islands Skiathos, Naxos, Santorini, Mykonos, Milos, Plomari and Amorgos. First hundred fifty three (153) cases have been already analysed. Eleven of them were acute myocardial infarctions and have been treated by thrombolytic medication (anistreplase). The participation of physicians and nurses was valuable for the success of the program and their further involvement in the new area of Telemedicine. The purpose of the project was to offer high quality cardiac services in remote area patients and to provide specific training in telemedicine issues to health care professionals. PMID:10179799

  5. Forskelle mellem hospitaler i prognose efter hjertestop uden for hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are substantial differences in long-term survival of patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and the level of care during hospitalization may be a contributing factor. The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in long-term prognosis between hospitals could be detected in patients surviving cardiac arrest in Copenhagen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The mobile emergency care unit attempted resuscitation in 1,098 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the period 2002 to 2006, among whom return of spontaneous circulation occurred in 336 (30%) of the patients admitted to hospital. Survival was determined using the Central Population Registry through Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: Patients admitted to a tertiary facility were younger, more frequently male, they had more commonly ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/pVT) as their initial rhythm, and they had more frequently received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Survival at 4.6 years was 41% in patients admitted to the tertiary hospital and 10% in patients admitted to other hospitals, p < 0.0001. After adjustment for other known risk factors, patients admitted to other hospitals had a hazard ratio of 1.8 for death (95% confidence interval: 1,4-2,5) compared with patients admitted to a tertiary facility. CONCLUSION: The survival rate after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was significantly higher in patients admitted to a tertiary facility than among patients admitted to less specialized hospitals. Further studies are needed to identify causal factors. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jun-22

  6. Cardiac arrest in Ontario: circumstances, community response, role of prehospital defibrillation and predictors of survival.

    OpenAIRE

    Brison, R. J.; Davidson, J. R.; Dreyer, J. F.; Jones, G.; Maloney, J.; Munkley, D. P.; O Connor, H. M.; Rowe, B. H.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the patient characteristics, circumstances and community response in cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; to evaluate the effect on survival of the introduction of prehospital defibrillation; and to identify factors that predict survival. DESIGN: Population-based before-and-after clinical trial. SETTING: Five Ontario communities: London, Sudbury, the Greater Niagara region, Kingston and Ottawa. PATIENTS: A consecutive sample of 1510 primary cardiac arrest patients ...

  7. Comparison of effective doses between computed tomography cardiac angiography and conventional angiography at Pantai Hospital, Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Faizal; Moin, F. H. A.

    2013-05-01

    This research studies two types of cardiac angiography procedures, namely Computed Tomography Cardiac Angiography (CTCA) and Conventional Angiography (CA). The following research was executed to estimate the difference of mean effective doses that the patients received through both procedures. The mean dose-length-product (DLP) from CTCA and mean dose-area-product (DAP) from CA were utilized in calculating the effective doses. The result shows that the mean effective dose for CTCA and CA are 1.71±0.59 mSv and 53.25±14.22 mSv respectively. This proves that the mean effective dose received by patients undergoing CA is higher than patients undergoing CTCA. According to t-test, both procedures differ significantly, with a difference amounting to p<0.0001. The increases of the effective dose that the patients received through CA procedure were influenced by exposure time, the coronary anatomical condition, the operator's experience, and the operation methods.

  8. Predictores de mortalidad intrahospitalaria y hospitalización prolongada en la insuficiencia cardíaca: resultados preliminares del registro nacional de insuficiencia cardíaca. Grupo ICARO / Predictors of hospital death and prolonged hospitalization in patients with cardiac failure in Chilean hospitals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo, Castro G; Hugo, Verdejo P; José Luis, Vukasovic R; Eduardo, Garcés; Ilse, González.

    1083-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Heart failure (HF) is one of the most common causes for hospital admission. Aim: To evaluate clinical predictors of mortality and prolonged hospital stay among patients admitted for HF in Chilean hospitals. Patients and Methods: Prospective registry of 14 centers. Patients admitted for H [...] F in functional class III and IV were included. Epidemiological, clinical data, functional class, decompensation cause, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, treatment and evolution were registered. The endpoint was hospital death and hospital stay greater than 10 days. Results: Data from 646 patients (mean age 69±13 years, 56% men) was collected. The main etiologies of HF were hypertensive in 29.6%, ischemic in 27.1% and valvular in 20%. Mean hospital stay was 10±9 days and mortality was 5.6%. Independent predictors of death and prolonged hospital stay were serum sodium

  9. Fibrilación auricular en el postoperatorio de cirugía cardíaca: Prevalencia y tiempo de internación / Atrial fibrillation in postoperative cardiac surgery: Prevalence and hospitalized period

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro E., Contreras; Adolfo, Ferrero Guadagnoli; Eduardo J., Brenna; Pablo, Pogonza; Luis A., Coppa; Guillermo G., Paladini; Oscar A., Salomone.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La fibrilación auricular es el trastorno del ritmo más frecuente luego de la cirugía cardíaca. En estudios previos se ha asociado a prolongación de la internación, aumento en los costos e incremento en la mortalidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la prevalencia de fibrilación auricular en [...] el postoperatorio de cirugía cardíaca y determinar el efecto en el tiempo de estadía hospitalaria. Se analizaron retrospectivamente las historias clínicas de pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca consecutivamente (de revascularización miocárdica, valvulares o ambas) entre enero 2006 y noviembre 2008. El punto final evaluado en el postoperatorio fue la presencia de fibrilación auricular. Se dividió a la muestra en dos grupos según tuvieran o no fibrilación auricular, y se compararon las variables clínicas y el tiempo de estadía hospitalaria. Ciento setenta y dos pacientes fueron operados en este período. Se excluyeron del análisis siete pacientes por falta de datos. La edad media fue 64.2 ± 9.5 años, con predominio del sexo masculino. La fibrilación auricular fue la complicación más frecuente (23.6%). El tiempo promedio de internación fue 6.7 ± 4.6 días. No hubo diferencias relevantes al comparar la estadía hospitalaria entre los grupos con o sin fibrilación auricular, 7.5 ± 4.1 días vs. 6.5 ± 4.7 días respectivamente, p = 0.21. La presencia de fibrilación auricular no prolongó la hospitalización. Probablemente una estrategia de prevención indiscriminada no sería costo-efectiva. Abstract in english Atrial fibrillation is the most common heart rhythm disorder after cardiac surgery. In previous studies it has been associated with prolonged hospitalization, increased costs and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery and its i [...] mpact on the hospitalization period. Medical records of consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass graft, valvular, or both) between January 2006 and November 2008 were included and retrospectively analyzed. Primary outcome was the presence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. The sample was divided into two groups, with and without atrial fibrillation in the postoperative. The clinical variables and length of hospital stay were compared between both groups. A total of 172 patients underwent surgery in this period. Seven patients were excluded from analysis due to lack of data. The mean age was 64.2 ± 9.5 years, and they were predominantly male. Atrial fibrillation was the most common complication (23.6%). The average length hospital stay was 6.7 ± 4.6 days. There were no significant differences between both groups, with atrial fibrillation (7.5 ± 4.1 days), and without (6.5 ± 4.7 days), p = 0.21. The presence of atrial fibrillation did not prolong hospitalization. Probably, such strategy of prevention would not be cost-effective.

  10. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ll also appreciate the volume of cardiac disease compared to other diseases. If you look at the ... represents admissions to the hospital for cardiovascular disease compared to many other causes of illness. And if ...

  11. Nocturnal periodic breathing is an independent predictor of cardiac death and multiple hospital admissions in heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Pinna, Gd; Maestri, R.; Mortara, A.; Johnson, P.; Witkowski, T.; Ponikowski, P.; Andrews, D.; Capomolla, S.; La Rovere, Mt; Sleight, P.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the association of periodic breathing (PB) with mortality and hospital re-admissions in a large sample of patients enrolled in the European Community study HHH (Home or Hospital in Heart failure). A 24-hour cardiorespiratory recording was carried out in 443 clinically stable heart failure (HF) subjects (age: 60±11 years, NYHA class 2.4±0.6, LVEF 29±7%). We computed the apnoea/hypopnea index (AHI, events/hour) and the duration of PB (hours) during night-time and tested their ass...

  12. Positive predictive value and impact of misdiagnosis of a heart failure diagnosis in administrative registers among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Mard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Shan Mard, Finn Erland NielsenDepartment of Cardiology, Herlev University Hospital, DenmarkObjective: To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV of a diagnosis of heart failure (HF in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit, and to evaluate the impact of misdiagnosing HF.Design: The NRP was used to identify patients with heart failure from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2007. Heart failure was defined in accordance with European Society of Cardiology (ESC guidelines. The recorded diagnoses from the NRP were compared with clinical data from the medical records.Results: We identified 758 patients with a diagnosis of heart failure in the NRP. The PPV of a heart failure discharge diagnosis was 84.0% (95% confidence interval: 81.2–86.6. Patients with a discharge diagnosis of HF in the NRP without fulfilling the ESC criteria for HF had a better survival rate, a lower rate of rehospitalization, none were followed in the outpatient clinic, and they had a lower consumption of anticongestive medicine after discharge.Conclusion: We found a relatively high PPV of the HF diagnosis in the NRP, and the NRP can therefore be a valuable tool for identification of patients with HF. However, using the NRP alone will not give a true picture of the cost and total burden of the disease.Keywords: heart failure, diagnosis, positive predictive value, National Registry of Patients

  13. Nursing assistance at the hospital discharge after cardiac surgery: integrative review / Assistência de enfermagem na alta hospitalar em pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca: revisão integrativa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela Fraga de, Jesus; Patrícia Figueiredo, Marques.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O estudo objetivou analisar evidências disponíveis na literatura sobre a assistência de enfermagem na alta hospitalar em pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca. Os dados foram coletados das bases eletrônicas LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, através dos DeCS cirurgia torácica, alta hospitalar, cuidados de enfer [...] magem, no período de 2001 a 2011. Foram selecionados dez artigos que revelaram a necessidade de desenvolver um plano de alta de enfermagem com foco na prevenção das complicações e no enfrentamento das limitações físicas decorrentes da cirurgia cardíaca. Destarte, a alta hospitalar deve ser pensada desde o momento da admissão, com ações de cuidado planejadas envolvendo paciente e familiar. Abstract in english The study aimed to analyze the available evidence in the literature on nursing care in the hospital post-cardiac surgery. Data were collected from electronic databases LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, via DeCS thoracic surgery, hospital, nursing care, in the period 2001 to 2011. Ten articles were selected t [...] hat showed the need to develop a plan of nursing discharge focusing on prevention of complications and coping with physical limitations resulting from heart surgery. Thus, the discharge should be considered from the time of admission, with carefully planned actions involving patient and family.

  14. Predictores de mortalidad intrahospitalaria y hospitalización prolongada en la insuficiencia cardíaca: resultados preliminares del registro nacional de insuficiencia cardíaca. Grupo ICARO Predictors of hospital death and prolonged hospitalization in patients with cardiac failure in Chilean hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Castro G

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure (HF is one of the most common causes for hospital admission. Aim: To evaluate clinical predictors of mortality and prolonged hospital stay among patients admitted for HF in Chilean hospitals. Patients and Methods: Prospective registry of 14 centers. Patients admitted for HF in functional class III and IV were included. Epidemiological, clinical data, functional class, decompensation cause, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, treatment and evolution were registered. The endpoint was hospital death and hospital stay greater than 10 days. Results: Data from 646 patients (mean age 69±13 years, 56% men was collected. The main etiologies of HF were hypertensive in 29.6%, ischemic in 27.1% and valvular in 20%. Mean hospital stay was 10±9 days and mortality was 5.6%. Independent predictors of death and prolonged hospital stay were serum sodium <130 mEq/L at admission (odds ratio (OR 2.6, confidence interval (CI= 1.2-5.9, serum albumin <3 g/dL (OR 3.2, CI= 1.42-7.2 and a history of hypertension (OR 1.98, CI=1.1-3.85. The model predicted correctly the occurrence of the endpoint in 67% of cases. Conclusions: In patients admitted for worsening HF, low serum sodium, decreased serum albumin on admission and a history of hypertension increase the risk for in-hospital death and prolonged hospital stay

  15. Availability and Utilization of Cardiac Resuscitation Centers

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    Bryn E. Mumma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The American Heart Association (AHA recommends regionalized care following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA at cardiac resuscitation centers (CRCs. Key level 1 CRC criteria include 24/7 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI capability, therapeutic hypothermia capability, and annual volume of ?40 patients resuscitated from OHCA. Our objective was to characterize the availability and utilization of resources relevant to post-cardiac arrest care, including level 1 CRCs in California. Methods: We combined data from the AHA, the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD, and surveys to identify CRCs. We surveyed emergency department directors and nurse managers at all 24/7 PCI centers identified by the AHA to determine their post-OHCA care capabilities. The survey included questions regarding therapeutic hypothermia use and specialist availability and was pilot-tested prior to distribution. Cases of OHCA were identified in the 2011 OSHPD Patient Discharge Database using a “present on admission” diagnosis of cardiac arrest (ICD-9-CM code 427.5. We defined key level 1 CRC criteria as 24/7 PCI capability, therapeutic hypothermia, and annual volume ?40 patients admitted with a “present on admission” diagnosis of cardiac arrest. Our primary outcome was the proportion of hospitals meeting these criteria. Descriptive statistics and 95% CI are presented. Results: Of the 333 acute care hospitals in California, 31 (9.3%, 95% CI 6.4-13% met level 1 CRC criteria. These hospitals treated 25% (1937/7780; 95% CI 24-26% of all admitted OHCA patients in California in 2011. Of the 125 hospitals identified as 24/7 PCI centers by the AHA, 54 (43%, 95% CI 34-52% admitted ?40 patients following OHCA in 2011. Seventy (56%, 95% CI 47-65% responded to the survey; 69/70 (99%, 95% CI 92-100% reported having a therapeutic hypothermia protocol in effect by 2011. Five percent of admitted OHCA patients (402/7780; 95% CI 4.7-5.7% received therapeutic hypothermia and 18% (1372/7780; 95% CI 17-19% underwent cardiac catheterization. Conclusion: Approximately 10% of hospitals met key criteria for AHA level 1 CRCs. These hospitals treated one-quarter of patients resuscitated from OHCA in 2011. The feasibility of regionalized care for OHCA requires detailed evaluation prior to widespread implementation. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  16. Red Blood Cell Membrane Alpha-linolenic Acid and the Risk of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; King, Irena B.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Rea, Thomas D.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.; Rice, Ken; Lumley, Thomas; Knopp, Robert H.; Cobb, Leonard A.; Copass, Michael K.; Siscovick, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Higher levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membranes are associated with lower risk of sudden cardiac arrest. Whether membrane levels of ?-linolenic acid, a medium-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, show a similar association is unclear. We investigated the association of red blood cell membrane alpha-linolenic acid with sudden cardiac arrest risk in a population-based case-control study. Cases, aged 25–74 years, were out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arr...

  17. Prehospital cooling in cardiac arrest - the next frontier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søreide Eldar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Therapeutic hypothermia (TH in unconscious survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is now a well-documented part of post-resuscitation care. Implementation of TH into daily clinical practice has been far more successful in the Scandinavian countries than in the rest of the world. Still, many questions remain. One of them is whether prehospital cooling will result in better outcomes.

  18. Repair of a Complex Congenital Cardiac Defect

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cardiac surgery program provides surgical care to approximately 1,100 patients, including more than 700 cases of ... webcast. My name is Emile Bacha. I'm one of the cardiac surgeons at Children's Hospital Boston ...

  19. Resultados de la revascularización coronaria en el cardiocentro del Hospital «Hermanos Ameijeiras», en un período de 20 años / Results of coronary revascularization in the Cardiac Center of the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Clinical Surgical Hospital over 20 years

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Nafeh Abi-Rezk; Raiza, Hernández Núñez; Natanael, Carballo Hidalgo; Alejandro, Villar Inclan; Luis, Guevara González; Nicolás, Chaos González; Rigoberto, Chil Díaz; Katina, Rodríguez Rey.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN. En el cardiocentro del Hospital «Hermanos Ameijeiras», la cirugía cardiovascular se practica hace más de 20 años, a lo largo de los cuales se fueron introduciendo y desarrollando diversas técnicas de revascularización miocárdica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir los resu [...] ltados de la cirugía de revascularización coronaria en ese período. MÉTODOS. Se realizó una investigación descriptiva, longitudinal, retrospectiva, con cortes transversales quinquenales, comparando cada quinquenio con el siguiente. Del total de 763 pacientes sometidos a revascularización coronaria en el período comprendido entre enero de 1985 y diciembre del 2004, se excluyeron 17 por presentar historias clínicas extraviadas o con datos incompletos y 15 pacientes operados sin circulación extracorpórea, por lo que el universo de estudio quedó conformado por 731 pacientes, operados todos con circulación extracorpórea. RESULTADOS. Predominaron los pacientes con edades entre 51 y 60 años de edad y del sexo masculino; con el tabaquismo y la hipertensión arterial como factores de riesgo más frecuentes. Los estados clínicos predominantes fueron la angina estable crónica y la angina inestable. Predominó la revascularización con tres puentes con tendencia al ascenso, así como el uso de la vena safena, pero con una evolución ascendente en el empleo de la arteria mamaria interna y disminución en la implantación de la vena safena como único conducto. El tiempo de circulación extracorpórea y de paro anóxico mostró una tendencia a la disminución. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron las sepsis urinaria y respiratoria. Disminuyeron las muertes por causas cardíacas, entre las cuales el fallo multiorgánico y el bajo gasto cardíaco fueron las principales. Disminuyó el bajo gasto transoperatorio pero hubo tendencia al aumento en el posoperatorio y del fallo multiorgánico. CONCLUSIONES. El uso de revascularización coronaria tuvo una tendencia ascendente en estos 20 años, sobre todo en pacientes de la tercera edad y del sexo masculino, en los que el tabaquismo y la hipertensión arterial fueron los factores de riesgo mayormente asociados. Predominó la revascularización con tres puentes y el uso de la safena, pero con tendencia al uso ascendente de la arteria mamaria interna. La mortalidad tuvo un comportamiento decreciente. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION. In Cardiac Center of the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Clinical Surgical Hospital cardiovascular surgery is done from more twenty years ago introducing and developing different techniques of myocardial revascularization. The objective of present research was to describe the results of coronary [...] revascularization over that period. METHODS. A retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive research with five-year cross-sectional cuts was conducted comparing each five-year period with the following one. From the total of 763 patients underwent coronary revascularization from January,1985 to December, 2004, 17 patients were excluded due to missing medical records or with incomplete data and 15 patients operated on without extracorporeal circulation, thus, the universe included 731 patients operated on with this technique. RESULTS. There was predominance the patients aged between 51 and 60years and male sex where smoking and high blood pressure were the more frequent risk factors. The predominant clinical stages were the chronic stable angina and the unstable angina as well as revascularization with three bridges and a trend to rise, as well as the saphenous vein use but with an ascending evolution as the only duct. The time of extracorporeal circulation and anoxic arrest showed a trend to decrease. The more frequent complications were the urinary and respiratory sepsis. There was a decrease of deaths from cardiac causes among which the multiorgan failure and the low cardiac output were the major ones. The low transoperative output decreased but there was a trend to increase

  20. Resultados de la revascularización coronaria en el cardiocentro del Hospital «Hermanos Ameijeiras», en un período de 20 años Results of coronary revascularization in the Cardiac Center of the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Clinical Surgical Hospital over 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Nafeh Abi-Rezk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. En el cardiocentro del Hospital «Hermanos Ameijeiras», la cirugía cardiovascular se practica hace más de 20 años, a lo largo de los cuales se fueron introduciendo y desarrollando diversas técnicas de revascularización miocárdica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue describir los resultados de la cirugía de revascularización coronaria en ese período. MÉTODOS. Se realizó una investigación descriptiva, longitudinal, retrospectiva, con cortes transversales quinquenales, comparando cada quinquenio con el siguiente. Del total de 763 pacientes sometidos a revascularización coronaria en el período comprendido entre enero de 1985 y diciembre del 2004, se excluyeron 17 por presentar historias clínicas extraviadas o con datos incompletos y 15 pacientes operados sin circulación extracorpórea, por lo que el universo de estudio quedó conformado por 731 pacientes, operados todos con circulación extracorpórea. RESULTADOS. Predominaron los pacientes con edades entre 51 y 60 años de edad y del sexo masculino; con el tabaquismo y la hipertensión arterial como factores de riesgo más frecuentes. Los estados clínicos predominantes fueron la angina estable crónica y la angina inestable. Predominó la revascularización con tres puentes con tendencia al ascenso, así como el uso de la vena safena, pero con una evolución ascendente en el empleo de la arteria mamaria interna y disminución en la implantación de la vena safena como único conducto. El tiempo de circulación extracorpórea y de paro anóxico mostró una tendencia a la disminución. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron las sepsis urinaria y respiratoria. Disminuyeron las muertes por causas cardíacas, entre las cuales el fallo multiorgánico y el bajo gasto cardíaco fueron las principales. Disminuyó el bajo gasto transoperatorio pero hubo tendencia al aumento en el posoperatorio y del fallo multiorgánico. CONCLUSIONES. El uso de revascularización coronaria tuvo una tendencia ascendente en estos 20 años, sobre todo en pacientes de la tercera edad y del sexo masculino, en los que el tabaquismo y la hipertensión arterial fueron los factores de riesgo mayormente asociados. Predominó la revascularización con tres puentes y el uso de la safena, pero con tendencia al uso ascendente de la arteria mamaria interna. La mortalidad tuvo un comportamiento decreciente.INTRODUCTION. In Cardiac Center of the "Hermanos Ameijeiras" Clinical Surgical Hospital cardiovascular surgery is done from more twenty years ago introducing and developing different techniques of myocardial revascularization. The objective of present research was to describe the results of coronary revascularization over that period. METHODS. A retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive research with five-year cross-sectional cuts was conducted comparing each five-year period with the following one. From the total of 763 patients underwent coronary revascularization from January,1985 to December, 2004, 17 patients were excluded due to missing medical records or with incomplete data and 15 patients operated on without extracorporeal circulation, thus, the universe included 731 patients operated on with this technique. RESULTS. There was predominance the patients aged between 51 and 60years and male sex where smoking and high blood pressure were the more frequent risk factors. The predominant clinical stages were the chronic stable angina and the unstable angina as well as revascularization with three bridges and a trend to rise, as well as the saphenous vein use but with an ascending evolution as the only duct. The time of extracorporeal circulation and anoxic arrest showed a trend to decrease. The more frequent complications were the urinary and respiratory sepsis. There was a decrease of deaths from cardiac causes among which the multiorgan failure and the low cardiac output were the major ones. The low transoperative output decreased but there was a trend to increase during the postoperative one and of the multiorgan failure. CONCLUSIONS. The use of c

  1. Ritmo circadiano y variaciones temporales en el paro cardiaco súbito extrahospitalario / Circadian rhythm and time variations in out-hospital sudden cardiac arrest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.B., López-Messa; J.I., Alonso-Fernández; J.M., Andrés-de Llano; J.R., Garmendia-Leiza; J., Ardura-Fernández; F. de, Castro-Rodríguez; J.M., Gil-González.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Analizar las características cronobiológicas y las variaciones temporales del paro cardiaco extrahospitalario (PCEH). Diseño: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. Pacientes: Todos los casos de PCEH de origen cardíaco registrados en la base de datos del servicio de emergencias médicas (SEM) [...] de la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León (España) durante 18 meses. Variables de interés principales: Edad, sexo, recuperación de la circulación espontánea, primer ritmo monitorizado (desfibrilable /no desfibrilable), lugar de alerta [(hogar, lugar público, centro atención primaria (AP)], testigo (familiar, transeúnte, fuerzas de seguridad, personal AP), hora de alerta (0-8; 8-16; 16-24), hora de activación del equipo de emergencias, hora de atención y día de la semana. Análisis univariante mediante Chi², varianza y tests no paramétricos. Análisis cronobiológico mediante transformada rápida de Fourier y test Cosinor. Resultados: Se estudiaron 1.286 casos registrados entre enero 2007 y junio 2008. Se observaron diferencias estadísticas significativas en menor edad (p Abstract in english Objectives: To analyze the chronobiological and time variations of out- hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Design: A retrospective descriptive study was made. Patients: All cases of OHCA of cardiac origin registered over 18 months in the database of the emergency medical service (EMS) of the Autonomous [...] Community of Castilla y León (Spain) were evaluated. Variables analyzed: Age, sex, recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), first monitored rhythm (amenable / not amenable to defibrillation), alert site [(home, public place, primary care (PC) center], alerting person (family, witness, law enforcement member, PC center staff), alert time (0-8; 8-16; 16-24), emergency team activation time, care time and day of the week. Univariate analysis (chi-squared), variance, and nonparametric tests comparing the variables in three periods of 8hours. Chronobiological analysis by fast Fourier transform and Cosinor testing. Results: We studied 1286 cases reported between January 2007 and June 2008. Statistically significant differences were observed in terms of younger age, higher incidence in the victim's home, and greater frequency of family-cohabiting persons as witnesses in the period between 0 and 8hours. Chronobiological analysis found daily rhythm (circadian) with acrophase at 11.16h (p

  2. Cardiac risk factors and metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia admitted to a general hospital psychiatric unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Nebhinani, Naresh; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit; Basu, Debasish; Kulhara, Parmanand; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar; Malhotra, Savita

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors and metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: By consecutive sampling, 143 patients (of age ? 20 years), out of total 159 patients with schizophrenia admitted to the inpatient unit were evaluated for the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk as per Framingham (10-year all CHD events) function/risk equation and systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE) - 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk (CMR). Prevalence of MS was estimated by using the consensus definition. Results: Fifty-two (36.4%) patients fulfilled the criteria for MS. 10-year CHD risk was 1.65%, and 10-year CMR was 1.39%. Compared to females, males had higher Framingham score (1.96 ± 2.74 vs. 1.09 ± 0.41, U value 1987.5*, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Patients of schizophrenia have a high prevalence of MS and CVR factors. Hence, there is a need to screen the patient of schizophrenia for the same and manage the same as early as possible during the course of illness. PMID:25568478

  3. Survival after Cardiac Arrest and Changing Task Profile of the Cardiac Arrest Team in a Tertiary Care Center

    OpenAIRE

    Mo?hnle, Patrick; Huge, Volker; Polasek, Jan; Weig, Isabella; Atzinger, Rolf; Kreimeier, Uwe; Briegel, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Background. The characteristics of in-hospital emergency response systems, survival rates, and variables associated with survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest vary significantly among medical centers worldwide. Aiming to optimize in-hospital emergency response, we performed an analysis of survival after in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the task profile of our cardiac arrest team. Methods. In-hospital emergencies handled by the cardiac arrest team in the years 2004 to 2006 wer...

  4. Características cardíacas e metabólicas de corredores de longa distância do ambulatório de cardiologia do esporte e exercício, de um hospital terciário Cardiac and metabolic characteristics in long distance runners of sport and exercise cardiology outpatient facility of a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Ferreira Azevedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar parâmetros cardíacos, eletrocardiográficos e funcionais, e respostas cardiopulmonares ao exercício em corredores de longa distância brasileiros, acompanhados no Ambulatório de Cardiologia do Esporte e Exercício de um hospital terciário. MÉTODOS: De uma população inicial de 443 atletas, de ambos os sexos, de diferentes modalidades esportivas, foram avaliados 162 (37% corredores de longa distância, do sexo masculino, com idade variando entre quatorze e 67 anos. Registros eletrocardiográficos (doze derivações e ecocardiográficos (modos mono e bidimensional foram realizados em repouso. Respostas cardiopulmonares foram avaliadas durante teste em esteira rolante, com protocolo em rampa. RESULTADOS: Alterações metabólicas e doenças cardiovasculares foram diagnosticadas em 17% e 9% dos corredores, respectivamente. Bradicardia sinusal e hipertrofia ventricular esquerda foram verificadas em 62% e 33% dos corredores, respectivamente. Alterações estruturais, como cavidade ventricular > 55mm, espessura relativa de parede > 0,44 e índice de massa ventricular > 134g/m2 foram encontradas em 15%, 11% e 7% dos corredores, respectivamente. Fração de ejeção OBJECTIVE: To characterize electrocardiographic and functional cardiac parameters and cardiopulmonary responses to exercise in long-distance Brazilian runners monitored at the Sport and Exercise Cardiology Outpatient Facility of a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Of an initial population of 443 male and female athletes of different sport modalities, we assessed 162 (37% long-distance male runners, aged from 14 to 67. Electrocardiographic (12 leads and echocardiographic (M-mode and two-dimensional parameters were recorded at rest. Cardiopulmonary responses were evaluated on a treadmill with a ramp protocol. RESULTS: Metabolic alterations and cardiovascular diseases were diagnosed in 17% and 9% of the runners, respectively. Sinus bradycardia and left ventricular hypertrophy were observed in 62% and 33% of the runners, respectively. Structural alterations such as ventricular cavity > 55mm, relative wall thickness > 0.44, and ventricular mass index > 134g/m2 were found in 15%, 11% and 7% of the runners, respectively. Ejection fraction < 55% was observed in 4% of the runners. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak decreased as of the age of 41, although the anaerobic threshold relative to the VO2peak remained unchanged with age. CONCLUSION: Resting bradycardia and left ventricular hypertrophy are the most frequent cardiovascular adaptations in Brazilian long distance runners monitored by the Sport and Exercise Cardiology Outpatient Facility. Although VO2peak decreases after the age of 41, the relative oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold of these runners remained unchanged.

  5. Evaluation of clinical and demographic characteristics and their association with length of hospital stay in patients admitted to cardiac intensive care unit with the diagnosis of acute heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami ?ahin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite increasing incidence, data regarding clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with acute heart failure (AHF admitted to cardiac intensive care unit (ICU are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the presentation characteristics and factors determining the length of hospital stay in this particular patient population.Methods: We conducted a single-center, prospective study involving 150 patients hospitalized to cardiac ICU with the primary diagnosis of AHF. Chi-square and Student t tests were used for the analysis of categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Linear regression analysis (LRA was used to determine the factors affecting the length of hospital stay. Results: Forty-nine percent of the patients had new-onset AHF and 25% had preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. In 25.3% of all patients and 46.6% of the patients with new-onset HF the precipitating factor was acute coronary syndrome. Atrial fibrillation and valvular heart disease as precipitating factors were more common in patients with preserved EF, when compared to low EF group. LRA showed that presence of anemia [?=1.62; 95% CI 0.08-3.15; p=0.039] and severe mitral regurgitation (?=2.55; 95% CI 0.06-5.05; p=0.045 and systolic blood pressure (?=-0.03; 95% CI -0.06 - -0.002; p=0.039 and blood urea nitrogen (?=0.034; 95% CI 0.006 - 0.06; p=0.016 were the independent predictors of length of stay. Conclusion: Underlying cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities and precipitating pathologies were diverse and highlighted the inhomogeneous characteristics of AHF syndromes. However, in-hospital mortality was high and initial clinical presentation characteristics were significantly associated with in-hospital outcome.

  6. Outcomes in robotic cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Evelio; Randolph Chitwood, W.

    2007-01-01

    The specialty of cardiac surgery has evolved substantially over the last 50 years, and surgical procedures that seemed impossible then are now commonly encountered in hospitals throughout the world. The latest development in this ever-evolving field is minimally invasive and robot-assisted procedures. In this article we will review the surgical outcomes reported for different series of procedures in cardiac surgery.

  7. Optimizing Neurologically Intact Survival from Sudden Cardiac Arrest: A Call to Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Goodloe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. national out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrest survival rates, although improving recently, have remained suboptimal despite the collective efforts of individuals, communities, and professional societies. Only until very recently, and still with inconsistency, has focus been placed specifically on survival with pre-arrest neurologic function. The reality of current approaches to sudden cardiac arrest is that they are often lacking an integrative, multi-disciplinary approach, and without deserved funding and outcome analysis. In this manuscript, a multidisciplinary group of authors propose practice, process, technology, and policy initiatives to improve cardiac arrest survival with a focus on neurologic function. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.

  8. Cardiac Catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their arm or neck. Why Is Cardiac Catheterization Done? Cardiac catheterization is done to gather information about the heart and its ... operation. Treatments for heart conditions that can be done during a cardiac catheterization include: closing small holes ...

  9. The effect of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Mavrogianni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurological impairment is common in survivors after cardiac arrest. Mild therapeutic hypothermia (32-34°C has been suggested to be useful in improving both survival rates and neurological outcome of these patients. Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore the relation between the method of mild therapeutic hypothermia, in ICU, with the traditional method (normothermia, for the treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivals, after restoring spontaneous circulation. Material and method: As for the design, it was a retrospective study. The studied population consisted of 25 patients who suffered cardiac arrest, with initial cardiac rhythm ventricular fibrillation (VF or ventricular tachycardia (VT,who were successfully resuscitated and hospitalized after restoration of spontaneous circulation. During a 2-year period (2009-2011 these patients were treated with hypothermia (32-34°C with ice packs or an endovascular cooling device. Results: he systematic cooling of survivals, between 32-34°C for a 24-hour period, increased the probability of survival (p=0.17 and improved neurological outcomes (p= 0.06, compared to normothermia. Complications, such as arrhythmias, bleeding and infections were treated by rewarming. Conclusions: Although there is a number of complications associated with hypothermia such as arrhythmias, bleeding disorders and infection, none seems to relate to adverse patient outcomes.

  10. Cardiac Crises and the Family Physician Robert

    OpenAIRE

    Galliver, Robert H. L.

    1980-01-01

    Family physicians involved in pre-hospital emergency cardiac care need training in basic cardiac life support (BCLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). They should also become involved in mobilizing community resources to provide necessary equipment and training for the public in CPR. The article outlines the procedure to be followed in cardiac arrest, the contents of a critical care bag, and the administration of various drugs.

  11. Ways out of danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume divides into five sections: ways out of danger; pressure leading into danger; what might save us, and will it grow to become effective; tedious paths out of danger; companions out of danger. The author puts the question whether the true art of politics will be restored. He shows that by reducing politics to mere crisis management we shall not be enabled to overcome the serious problems of the eighties. He points out future possibilities by making clear the chances and misdevelopments of energy policy, of foreign, development and defence policy. The political experience of recent years, the new approach showing different needs and ways of life should be taken seriously as hopeful signs and ought to be reflected in politics again. (HSCH)

  12. Sudden cardiac death: Role of therapeutic hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Derwall

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Permanent neurocognitive deficits due to cerebral sequelae account for the majority of long-term morbidity and mortality in survivors of cardiac arrest today. Albeit therapeutic hypothermia had been used as effective measure to ameliorate cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury during surgery for decades, it was not yet introduced into regular post-arrest care until 2003 due to significant side effects of profound hypothermia. These include shivering, higher infection rates, coagulopathy or cardiac arrhythmias, but are less frequently observed with mild therapeutic hypothermia. When body temperature is kept around 33°C, the beneficial effects of hypothermia clearly outweigh its adverse effects. Therefore, treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using mild therapeutic hypothermia has now been widely adopted around the globe. Although it still remains controversial who, how, when, and for how long to cool, with only six patients requiring treatment to save one additional life, it is clear that therapeutic hypothermia is the single most effective intervention in brain resuscitation available today.

  13. Patients with worsening chronic heart failure who present to a hospital emergency department require hospital care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafazand Masoud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic heart failure (CHF is a major public health problem characterised by progressive deterioration with disabling symptoms and frequent hospital admissions. To influence hospitalisation rates it is crucial to identify precipitating factors. To characterise patients with CHF who seek an emergency department (ED because of worsening symptoms and signs and to explore the reasons why they are admitted to hospital. Method Patients (n = 2,648 seeking care for dyspnoea were identified at the ED, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra. Out of 2,648 patients, 1,127 had a previous diagnosis of CHF, and of these, 786 were included in the present study with at least one sign and one symptom of worsening CHF. Results Although several of the patients wanted to go home after acute treatment in the ED, only 2% could be sent home. These patients were enrolled in an interventional study, which evaluated the acute care at home compared to the conventional, in hospital care. The remaining patients were admitted to hospital because of serious condition, including pneumonia/respiratory disease, myocardial infarction, pulmonary oedema, anaemia, the need to monitor cardiac rhythm, pathological blood chemistry and difficulties to communicate. Conclusion The vast majority of patients with worsening CHF seeking the ED required hospital care, predominantly because of co-morbidities. Patients with CHF with symptomatic deterioration may be admitted to hospital without additional emergency room investigations.

  14. Akut koronarangiografi er indiceret ved ST-elevation efter hjertestop uden for hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines suggest that acute coronary angiography (CAG) is considered in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with presumed cardiac aetiology. Since specialized post-resuscitation care, including therapeutic hypothermia, has proved beneficial in randomized studies, CAG should be offered to patients with a high likelihood of thrombotic coronary lesions, i.e. patients with ST-segment elevation in electrocardiogram (ECG) following resuscitation. This article suggests a triage and referral based on electronic transmission of ECG and teleconference with specialized centres in all patients.

  15. Causes and indications for reoperation in valve replacement and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG in 915 patients in cardiac surgery department in Imam Khomeini Hospital, 1374-77

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmehr H

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Valvular and coronary artery disease are among the most important causes of disability and death in the world and Iran as well. Every year, half a million death because of these diseases is reported in United State. The incidence of degenerative and valvular diseases of heart is increasing. Considering the industrialization of our country, the incidence of these kind of problems are increasing as well. In this study, there is an attempt to recognize the causes of cardiac surgery. We conducted a retrospective study in 915 cardiac surgery patients (630 CABG and 285 valve replacement from 1374 to 1377. In CABG patients, there were 46 cases of reoperation (78.3 percent male 21.7 percent female. The most reoperations for bleeding was less than 24 hours in 90.3 percent. In valvular patients the causes of reoperation were: A Valvular complications (female/male=3/1, B Non valvular complications (female/male=1/3. The most common nonvalvular complication was bleeding (66.6 percent. The most common valvular complication was bioprosthetic valve degeneration. The meantime between two operation in valvular complications was 11.8 years. In all cases (915 the incidence of bleeding was 3.8 percent, mediastinitis 0.8 percent, cardiac tamponade 0.8 percent and GI bleeding 0.5 percent.

  16. Cardiac Arrest from Postpartum Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Kuo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department with a witnessed cardiac arrest. She was otherwise healthy with no cardiac risk factors and had undergone an uneventful repeated cesarean section 3 days priorly. The patient underwent defibrillation, out of ventricular fibrillation to a perfusing sinus rhythm, and was taken to the catheterization laboratory where coronary angiography findings showed spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending artery. The patient received a total of 6 stents during her hospital stay and was eventually discharged in good condition. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare entity with a predilection for pregnant or postpartum women. Early diagnosis and treatment are key for survival, and when identified early, mortality is good. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:567–570.

  17. Out of the woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L

    1992-01-01

    Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity. PMID:12285836

  18. Perfil de recém-nascidos submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca em hospital privado do Município de São Paulo Perfil de los recién nacidos sometidos a cirugía cardiaca en un Hospital privado del municipio de Sao Paulo Profile of newborns who underwent cardiac surgery in a private hospital in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bueno

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo transversal cujo objetivo foi descrever o perfil dos recém-nascidos submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca em um hospital privado, referência em cirurgia cardíaca neonatal, no município de São Paulo. Foram analisados prontuários de 30 pacientes internados entre julho de 2001 a dezembro de 2005. Foram incluídos neonatos com idade > 35 semanas, com anomalias cardíacas. Excluíram-se os neonatos com óbito no 1. pós-operatório (OP e com outras malformações sistêmicas. A maioria dos RNs nasceu a termo, com peso > a 2.500g e submetidos à cirurgia na primeira semana de vida. Foram identificados 24 diferentes diagnósticos de cardiopatias e 14 diferentes intervenções cirúrgicas. No 1. PO, todos os neonatos estavam com dispositivos para monitorar os parâmetros vitais ou como via de acesso para tratamento e suporte de vida, mostrando não só a complexidade do tratamento, como a necessidade de planejamento e organização do serviço na implementação da assistência a estes pacientes.El objetivo en este estudio transversal fue caracterizar a los recién nacidos sometidos a cirugía cardiaca en un hospital privado del municipio de Sao Paulo. Los dados fueron obtenidos de las historias clínicas de los recién nacidos sometidos a cirugía entre julio de 2001 y diciembre del 2005. Los recién nacidos con 35 semanas o más de gestación fueron incluidos y excluidos los recién nacidos con óbito en el 1er dia de post-operatorio (PO y con otras malformaciones sistémicas. La mayoría de los RNs nació a término, con peso a 2.500g e sometidos a la cirugía en la primera semana de vida. Fueron identificados 24 diferentes diagnósticos de cardiopatías y 14 diferentes intervenciones quirúrgicas. En el 1er dia de PO, todos los neonatos estaban con dispositivos para monitorear los parámetros vitales o como vía de acceso para el tratamiento y soporte de vida, mostrando no sólo la complejidad del tratamiento, sino también la necesidad de planificación y organización del servicio en la implementación de la asistencia a estos pacientes.The aim of this cross-sectional study was to characterize newborns that underwent cardiac surgery in a private hospital, a reference center in neonatal cardiac surgery, in the city of São Paulo. Data were collected from medical reports from July, 2001 to December, 2005. Newborns with gestational age of more than 35 weeks were included in the study. Newborns that died on the first 48 postoperative hours and with other malformations were excluded. Most of the neonates were term, weighted 2,500 grams or more, and underwent surgery in the first week of life. There were 24 different diagnoses identified and 14 different types of surgery performed. In the first post-operative day, all newborns had invasive devices for vital signs monitoring or for treatment and life support, which shows not only the complexity of the treatment but the need for planning and organizing health services in order to provide adequate care for these patients.

  19. Oil, Out of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil, Out of Control is an in-depth Whyfiles story that follows from news coverage of an oil spill off Spain's northwest coast in 2002. This Web site offers a straight look at the issues surrounding this and other famous oil spills, particularly that of the Exxon Valdez off Prince William Sound in 1992. The authors make clear the allegiances of people quoted in the story, while clearly explaining both the science and politics of oil spills and cleanup efforts. The Web site also features a news release from Unocal regarding a spill in Indonesia, with a humorous Whyfiles "plain-English" translation of slippery corporate jargon.

  20. A randomized clinical trial of hospital-based, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk of ischemic heart disease (the DANREHAB trial) - design, intervention, and population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, A.D.O.; Schou, O.

    2005-01-01

    Background Current guidelines broadly recommend comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR), although evidence for this is still limited. It is not known whether evidence from before 1995 is still valid. Study Design The DANish Cardiac REHABilitation (DANREHAB) trial was designed as a centrally randomized clinical trial to clarify whether hospital-based comprehensive CR is superior to usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk for ischemic heart disease. A combined primary outcome measure included total mortality, myocardial infarction, or readmissions due to heart disease based on linkage to public registries. The CR was an individually tailored, multidisciplinary program (6 weeks of intensive CR and 12 months of follow-up) including patient education, exercise training, dietary counseling, smoking cessation, psychosocial support, risk factor management, and clinical assessment. Study Population Of 5060 discharged patients, 1614 (32%) were eligible for the trialand 770 patients were randomized (47% of those eligible). Participants were younger (P < .001) and had less comorbidity than nonparticipants (P < .03). Conclusion Our trial shows that a large-scale, centrally randomized clinical trial on comprehensive CR can be conducted among a broadly defined patient group, but reaching the stipulated number of 1800 patients was difficult. Although the study included relatively many women and older people, elderly patients and patients with high comorbidity were underrepresented, which may influence the external validity

  1. A randomized clinical trial of hospital-based, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk of ischemic heart disease (the DANREHAB trial)--design, intervention, and population.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Soja, Anne Merete Boas

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines broadly recommend comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR), although evidence for this is still limited. It is not known whether evidence from before 1995 is still valid. STUDY DESIGN: The DANish Cardiac ReHABilitation (DANREHAB) trial was designed as a centrally randomized clinical trial to clarify whether hospital-based comprehensive CR is superior to usual care for patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk for ischemic heart disease. A combined primary outcome measure included total mortality, myocardial infarction, or readmissions due to heart disease based on linkage to public registries. The CR was an individually tailored, multidisciplinary program (6 weeks of intensive CR and 12 months of follow-up) including patient education, exercise training, dietary counseling, smoking cessation, psychosocial support, risk factor management, and clinical assessment. STUDY POPULATION: Of 5060 discharged patients, 1614 (32%) were eligible for the trial and 770 patients were randomized (47% of those eligible). Participants were younger (P < .001) and had less comorbidity than nonparticipants (P < .03). CONCLUSION: Our trial shows that a large-scale, centrally randomized clinical trial on comprehensive CR can be conducted among a broadly defined patient group, but reaching the stipulated number of 1800 patients was difficult. Although the study included relatively many women and older people, elderly patients and patients with high comorbidity were underrepresented, which may influence the external validity. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Nov

  2. Dynamin-related protein 1 as a therapeutic target in cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Willard W

    2015-03-01

    Despite improvements in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality, defibrillation technologies, and implementation of therapeutic hypothermia, less than 10 % of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims survive to hospital discharge. New resuscitation therapies have been slow to develop, in part, because the pathophysiologic mechanisms critical for resuscitation are not understood. During cardiac arrest, systemic cessation of blood flow results in whole body ischemia. CPR and the restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), both result in immediate reperfusion injury of the heart that is characterized by severe contractile dysfunction. Unlike diseases of localized ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury (myocardial infarction and stroke), global IR injury of organs results in profound organ dysfunction with far shorter ischemic times. The two most commonly injured organs following cardiac arrest resuscitation, the heart and brain, are critically dependent on mitochondrial function. New insights into mitochondrial dynamics and the role of the mitochondrial fission protein Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) in apoptosis have made targeting these mechanisms attractive for IR therapy. In animal models, inhibiting Drp1 following IR injury or cardiac arrest confers protection to both the heart and brain. In this review, the relationship of the major mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 to ischemic changes in the heart and its targeting as a new therapeutic target following cardiac arrest are discussed. PMID:25659608

  3. Learning Out of Leaders

    CERN Document Server

    Kerkyacharian, Gerard; Picard, Dominique; Tribouley, Karine

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of selection and estimation in a high dimensional regression-type model. We propose a procedure with no optimization called LOL, for Learning Out of Leaders. LOL is an auto-driven algorithm with two thresholding steps. A first adaptive thresholding helps to select leaders among the initial regressors in such a way to reduce the dimensionality. Then a second thresholding follows the estimations and predictions performed by linear regression on the leaders. Theoretical results are proved. As an estimation procedure, LOL is optimal since the upper exponential bounds are achieved. Rates of convergence are provided and show that LOL is also consistent as a selection procedure. An extensive computational experiment is conducted to emphasize the practical good performances of LOL.

  4. Cardiac Rehabilitation in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Agneta

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis has been to investigate the prognostic value of exercise capacity and whether a multifactorial rehabilitation program could affect traditional cardiac risk factors as well as self-rated health, quality of life, depression, anxiety, hospital utilization and sickness absenteeism in women younger than 66 years with coronary artery disease (CAD). Study I Evaluation of the role of exercise capacity and how physical capacity, leisure time and phys...

  5. Reducción de la morbilidad y de los costos hospitalarios en cirugía cardiaca, mediante una estrategia prequirúrgica ambulatoria / Morbidity and hospital cost reduction in cardiac surgery using a presurgery ambulatory strategy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nydia, Ávila-Vanzzini; Jorge, Kuri-Alfaro; Laura Leticia, Rodríguez-Chávez; Gabriela, Meléndez-Ramírez; Sergio, Trevethan-Cravioto; Alejandro, Quiroz-Martínez; Héctor, Herrera-Bello; Valentín, Herrera-Alarcón; Humberto, Martínez-Hernández; Marco Antonio, Martínez-Ríos.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los pacientes que van a una cirugía electiva de corazón, se internan a través de una lista de espera de admisión hospitalaria. Desde 1999 existe en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, la "vía rápida de internamiento" para pacientes de bajo riesgo quirúrgico, que en el 2004 se extend [...] ió a riesgo moderado, tomando como base criterios propios y criterios internacionalmente aceptados. Objetivos: 1) comparar las dos alternativas de internamiento utilizadas actualmente: vía de internamiento rápido; y el internamiento a través de la lista de espera del departamento de admisión, tomando en consideración los eventos mayores que presentaron como: muerte o complicaciones que prolongaron la estancia hospitalaria a más de 14 días (Infecciones, reoperación, alteraciones del ritmo y de la conducción y otros). 2) Comparar los días de estancia y consumo de recursos hospitalarios. Métodos: Se tomaron dos cohortes de 347 pacientes, el grupo control fue obtenido de la lista de espera del departamento de admisión, mientras que el grupo de la vía de internamiento rápido, tuvo como requisito tener los estudios preoperatorios completos y a los enfermos con comorbilidad resuelta o compensada. Los gastos generados al hospital por cada paciente se calcularon de acuerdo a la clasificación socioeconómica de los enfermos. Análisis estadístico: Se utilizó la prueba t de Student para muestras independientes y variables numéricas y Ji cuadrada para las variables categóricas, se consideró significativo un valor de p Abstract in english In our hospital, the patients that need an elective cardiac surgery are admitted through the admission department on the basis of a waiting list. Since 1999, a fast track to hospitalization program has existed in the National Institute of Cardiology Ignacio Chavez for patients with low surgical risk [...] . Later, in 2004, this program was extended to patients to moderate risk, based on rules accepted worldwide, and our own experience. Objectives: 1) To compare two ways of admission that are used currently: fast track to hospitalization, against admission department waiting list. We compared major events: death or events that increased the hospital stay by more than 14 days (infections, alterations of rhythm and conduction, reoperations and others), 2) To compare the days of hospitalization and money spent by the hospital. Methods: We conformed 2 groups of 347 patients. The admission department waiting list group was admitted before doing their preoperative studies, which is the customary form for hospitalization by our admissions department, while the group of fast track to hospitalization was obligated to have their laboratory exams complete and any other diseases resolved or controlled previously. The monetary cost per patient for the hospital was calculated based on the patient's socioeconomic classification. Statistical analysis: Student t test was conducted on independent samples and numerical variables, and Chi square for categorical variables. We considered a p

  6. Therapeutic hypothermia in the intensive cardiac care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchi, Andrea; Valente, Serafina; Gensini, Gianfranco

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has demonstrated to improve both survival and neurological outcome in patients who experienced an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Nevertheless, many aspects of its clinical application are still controversial. Current guidelines recommend to cool patients who survive a cardiac arrest due to either ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, whereas the beneficial effect of lowering body temperature in nonshockable rhythms is still questionable due to the lack of randomized controlled trial involving this subgroup of patients. Although therapeutic hypothermia is often begun before hospital arrival, the optimal time to start cooling is still a matter of debate. Furthermore, different methods are available to low body temperature, but no direct comparisons are available to establish which device performs better than others, and a combination of external and endovascular cooling is usually preferred. The present review is aimed at summarizing the available evidence supporting the use in clinical practice of mild hypothermia in comatose survivors from cardiac arrest and at evaluating its adverse events and their treatment. PMID:25022927

  7. A collaborative chain out of phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bård Paulsen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to explore the obstacles to collaborations between nurses in hospital and municipal care in the discharge of hospital patients who need continuing care.Methods: First, we conducted in-depth interviews of nurses in hospitals and nurses in municipal care. Second, we developed questionnaires and distributed them to a representative sample of Norwegian municipalities to study the representativeness of the most important findings from the interviews.Results: Municipal care nurses reported that the information they receive from hospital departments usually is insufficient for a complete understanding of a patient's needs. Formal discharge reports from hospital serve as a post factum formalization and authorization of information collected by municipal nurses in an ad hoc fashion and via oral communication.  Typically, formal information routines are out of phase with the information needed by municipal care professionals.Conclusions: Hospital information provided at discharge is neither sufficient nor timely with respect to the information needs of nurses in municipal care. Organizational efforts and the use of information technology might ease some obstacles, but several problems will remain because of differences in professional orientation and the contexts of care delivery.

  8. Cardiac perioperative complications in noncardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanovi? Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthesiologists are confronted with an increasing population of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery who are at risk for cardiac complications in the perioperative period. Perioperative cardiac complications are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence of perioperative (operative and postoperative cardiac complications and correlations between the incidence of perioperative cardiac complications and type of surgical procedure, age, presence of concurrent diseases. A total of 100 patients with cardiac diseases undergoing noncardiac surgery were included in the prospective study (Group A 50 patients undergoing intraperitoneal surgery and Group B 50 patients undergoing breast and thyroid surgery. The patients were followed up during the perioperative period and after surgery until leaving hospital to assess the occurrence of cardiac events. Cardiac complications (systemic arterial hypertension, systemic arterial hypotension, abnormalities of cardiac conduction and cardiac rhythm, perioperative myocardial ischemia and acute myocardial infarction occurred in 64% of the patients. One of the 100 patients (1% had postoperative myocardial infarction which was fatal. Systemic arterial hypertension occurred in 57% of patients intraoperatively and 33% postoperatively, abnormalities of cardiac rhythm in 31% of patients intraoperatively and 17% postoperatively, perioperative myocardial ischemia in 23% of patients intraoperatively and 11% of postoperatively. The most often cardiac complications were systemic arterial hypertension, abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and perioperative myocardial ischemia. Factors independently associated with the incidence of cardiac complications included the type of surgical procedure, advanced age, duration of anaesthesia and surgery, abnormal preoperative electrocardiogram, abnormal preoperative chest radiography and diabetes.

  9. Insuficiencia cardíaca en hospitales chilenos: resultados del Registro Nacional de Insuficiencia Cardíaca, Grupo ICARO / Cardiac failure in Chilean hospitals: results of the National Registry of Heart Failure, ICARO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo, Castro G; José Luis, Vukasovic R; Eduardo, Garcés S; Luis, Sepúlveda M; Marcela, Ferrada K; Sergio, Alvarado O.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem. In Chile hospitalized patients due to HF have not been characterized. Aim: To evaluate clinical profile and outcome of patients hospitalized for heart failure in Chilean hospitals. Patients and Methods: Prospective registry of 14 cente [...] rs. Patients hospitalized for HF in functional class III and IV were included. Epidemiological and clinical data, functional class, type of presentation, decompensation cause, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, treatment and evolution were registered. Results: Three hundred seventy two patients aged 69±13 years old, 59% men, were assessed. The main etiologies of HF were ischemic in 31.6%, hypertensive in 35.2%, valvular in 14.9% and idiopathic in 7.4%. There was a history of hypertension 69%, diabetes in 35%, myocardial infarction in 22%, atrial fibrillation (AF) in 28%. The presentation form of HF was chronic decompensated in 86%, acute in 12%, refractory in 2%. The causes of decompensation were non compliance with diet or medical prescriptions in 28%, infections in 22% and AF 17%. ECG showed AF in 36% and left bundle branch block in 16%. Echocardiography was performed in 52% of the patients, 69% had left ventricular ejection fraction

  10. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just be based on a modus vivendi designed to secure peaceful co-existence, but should be based on moral reasons. Forst therefore advances what he calls the ‘respect conception’ of toleration as an in itself morally desirable type of relationship, which is furthermore the only conception of toleration that avoids various so-called ‘paradoxes of toleration’. The paper first examines whether Forst’s respect conception can be applied descriptively to distinguish between actual patterns of behaviour and classify different acts of toleration. Then the focus is shifted to toleration out of respect as a normative prescription, which Forst presents as a requirement of justice. At both levels, it is argued that Forst’s respect conception is problematic since it presupposes that answers to very substantial normative questions, which are precisely what people tend to disagree on under conditions of pluralism, are already at hand. The respect conception therefore seems to be at best a theoretical idea belonging in ideal-theory, not a useful practical solution to actual conflicts under conditions of pluralism.

  11. Repair of a Complex Congenital Cardiac Defect

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... live webcast. My name is Emile Bacha. I'm one of the cardiac surgeons at Children's Hospital ... the heart is immobile and has stopped. I'm not quite certain whether he's going to want ...

  12. Repair of a Complex Congenital Cardiac Defect

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CARDIAC DEFECT CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL BOSTON BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS October 5, 2007 00:00:14 ANNOUNCER: Over the next ... in no significant distress. His weight is 6.5 kg, but he's not growing well. The echo -- ...

  13. Initial efficacy of a cardiac rehabilitation transition program: Cardiac TRUST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolansky, Mary A; Zullo, Melissa D; Boxer, Rebecca S; Moore, Shirley M

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to test the initial efficacy, feasibility, and safety of a specially designed postacute care transitional rehabilitation intervention for cardiac patients. Cardiac Transitional Rehabilitation Using Self-Management Techniques (Cardiac TRUST) is a family-focused intervention that includes progressive low-intensity walking and education in self-management skills to facilitate recovery following a cardiac event. Using a randomized two-group design, exercise self-efficacy, steps walked, and participation in an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program were compared in a sample of 38 older adults (17 Cardiac TRUST, 21 usual care). At discharge from postacute care, the intervention group trended toward higher levels of self-efficacy for exercise outcomes than the usual care group. During the 6 weeks following discharge, the intervention group had greater attendance in outpatient CR and a trend toward more steps walked during the first week. The feasibility of the intervention was better for the home health care participants than for those in the skilled nursing facility. The provision of CR during postacute care has the potential to bridge the gap in transitional services from hospitalization to outpatient CR for these patients at high risk for future cardiac events. Further evidence of the efficacy of Cardiac TRUST is warranted. PMID:22084960

  14. Relation of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio With GRACE Risk Score to In-Hospital Cardiac Events in Patients With ST-Segment Elevated Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Ramazan Can; Ucar, Mustafa; Karakas, Mustafa Serkan; Akdemir, Baris; Yanikoglu, Atakan; Gulcan, Ali Riza; Altekin, Refik Emre; Demir, Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score in patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI). We analyzed 101 consecutive patients with STEMI. Patients were divided into 3 groups by use of GRACE risk score. The association between NLR and GRACE risk score was assessed. The NLR showed a proportional increase correlated with GRACE risk score (P NLR at admission (P NLR and GRACE risk score showed a significant positive correlation (r = .803, P NLR resulted as a predictor of worse in-hospital outcomes independent of GRACE risk score. Our study suggests that the NLR is significantly associated with adverse in-hospital outcomes, independent of GRACE risk score in patients with STEMI. PMID:24078555

  15. Pre-hospital treatment of STEMI patients. A scientific statement of the Working Group Acute Cardiac Care of the European Society of Cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Tubaro, M.; Danchin, N.; Goldstein, P.; Filippatos, G.; Hasin, Y.; Heras, M.; Jansky, P.; Norekval, Tm; Swahn, E.; Thygesen, K.; Vrints, C.; Zahger, D.; Arntz, Hr; Bellou, A.; La Coussaye, Je

    2011-01-01

    In ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) the pre-hospital phase is the most critical, as the administration of the most appropriate treatment in a timely manner is instrumental for mortality reduction. STEMI systems of care based on networks of medical institutions connected by an efficient emergency medical service are pivotal. The first steps are devoted to minimize the patient's delay in seeking care, rapidly dispatch a properly staffed and equipped ambulance to make the diagnosis on ...

  16. Cardiac Hydatidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Neuville, Mathilde; Grisoli, Dominique; Nicoud, Alexane; Jacquier, Alexis; Lagier, Jean-christophe; Collart, Fre?de?ric; Thomas, Pascal; Parola, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of an adult who developed superior vena cava syndrome because of cardiac hydatidosis. A 37-year-old man from Morocco developed progressive dyspnoea and cough. Cardiac hydatidosis was diagnosed because of both the typical radiological findings and the positive serology for echinococcosis. The patient was treated by surgery and albendazole without complications.

  17. Cardiac trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To maintain a high index of suspicion in all wounded pre cordial and the use of new diagnostic methods, it has solved many of the problems in the evaluation and in the treatment of the cardiac wounds. The following text revises the history, etiologies, classifications, pathophysiology and aspects related with the valuation and the current handling of the cardiac trauma

  18. Gasometria arterial em dois diferentes métodos de transporte intra-hospitalar no pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca / Arterial blood gas analysis in two different intra-hospital transport methods for postoperative cardiac surgery patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Newton Almeida, Lima Junior; Silvia Correa, Bacelar; André Miguel, Japiassú; Samária Ali, Cader; Rosane Coelho Fernandes, Lima; Estélio Henrique Martin, Dantas; Alexandre Gomes, Sancho; Jefferson Braga, Caldeira.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as repercussões gasométricas de dois métodos de ventilação (ventilador de transporte e ressuscitador manual autoinflável) durante o transporte intra-hospitalar de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, longitudinal, prospectivo e randomizado. Foram [...] coletadas gasometrias arteriais ao final da cirurgia e ao final do transporte do paciente. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 23 pacientes: 13 no Grupo ventilador de transporte e 10 no ressuscitador manual autoinflável. As características dos pacientes entre os grupos foram semelhantes, exceto pela maior gravidade no Grupo ventilador de transporte. Observaram-se diferenças significativas nas comparações das variações percentuais dos dados gasométricos: pH (VT: + 4% vs RMA: - 5%, p=0,007), PaCO2 (VT: - 8% vs RMA: + 13%, p=0,006), PaO2 (VT: + 47% vs RMA: - 34%, p=0,01) e SatO2 (VT: + 0,6% vs RMA: - 1,7%, p=0,001). CONCLUSÃO: O uso de ventilador mecânico causa menor repercussão nos gases sanguíneos no transporte intra-hospitalar de pacientes após de cirurgia cardíaca. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects on blood gases by two methods of ventilation (with transport ventilation or self-inflating manual resuscitator) during intra-hospital transport of patients after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Observational, longitudinal, prospective, randomized study. Two samples of ar [...] terial blood were collected at the end of the surgery and another at the end of patient transport. RESULTS: We included 23 patients: 13 in the Group with transport ventilation and 10 in the Group with self-inflating manual resuscitator. Baseline characteristics were similar between both groups, except for higher acute severity of illness in the Group with transport ventilation. We observed significant differences in comparisons of percentage variations of gasometric data: pH (transport ventilation + 4% x MR -5%, p=0.007), PaCO2 (-8% x +13%, p=0.006), PaO2 (+47% x -34%, p=0.01) and SatO2 (+0.6% x -1.7%, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: The use of mechanical ventilation results in fewer repercussions for blood gas analysis in the intra-hospital transport of cardiac surgery patients.

  19. Gasometria arterial em dois diferentes métodos de transporte intra-hospitalar no pós-operatório imediato de cirurgia cardíaca Arterial blood gas analysis in two different intra-hospital transport methods for postoperative cardiac surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Almeida Lima Junior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as repercussões gasométricas de dois métodos de ventilação (ventilador de transporte e ressuscitador manual autoinflável durante o transporte intra-hospitalar de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, longitudinal, prospectivo e randomizado. Foram coletadas gasometrias arteriais ao final da cirurgia e ao final do transporte do paciente. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 23 pacientes: 13 no Grupo ventilador de transporte e 10 no ressuscitador manual autoinflável. As características dos pacientes entre os grupos foram semelhantes, exceto pela maior gravidade no Grupo ventilador de transporte. Observaram-se diferenças significativas nas comparações das variações percentuais dos dados gasométricos: pH (VT: + 4% vs RMA: - 5%, p=0,007, PaCO2 (VT: - 8% vs RMA: + 13%, p=0,006, PaO2 (VT: + 47% vs RMA: - 34%, p=0,01 e SatO2 (VT: + 0,6% vs RMA: - 1,7%, p=0,001. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de ventilador mecânico causa menor repercussão nos gases sanguíneos no transporte intra-hospitalar de pacientes após de cirurgia cardíaca.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects on blood gases by two methods of ventilation (with transport ventilation or self-inflating manual resuscitator during intra-hospital transport of patients after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Observational, longitudinal, prospective, randomized study. Two samples of arterial blood were collected at the end of the surgery and another at the end of patient transport. RESULTS: We included 23 patients: 13 in the Group with transport ventilation and 10 in the Group with self-inflating manual resuscitator. Baseline characteristics were similar between both groups, except for higher acute severity of illness in the Group with transport ventilation. We observed significant differences in comparisons of percentage variations of gasometric data: pH (transport ventilation + 4% x MR -5%, p=0.007, PaCO2 (-8% x +13%, p=0.006, PaO2 (+47% x -34%, p=0.01 and SatO2 (+0.6% x -1.7%, p=0.001. CONCLUSION: The use of mechanical ventilation results in fewer repercussions for blood gas analysis in the intra-hospital transport of cardiac surgery patients.

  20. August 2014 Tucson critical care journal club: bacteremia in cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hypes C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is an uncommon, but important, condition encountered in the emergency department (ED. While cardiac arrest represents the final common pathway of multiple conditions, early evaluation often focuses on cardiac abnormalities. However, observed associations between infection, particularly pneumonia, and in-hospital cardiac arrest led Coba et al. (1 to investigate the incidence of bacteremia among OHCA patients. The study prospectively investigated 250 adult patients who presented to an academic ED with OHCA between 2007 and 2009. Two blood culture samples were drawn during resuscitation or shortly after return of spontaneous circulation through vascular devices placed for clinical purposes. Children, pregnant women, victims of trauma were excluded. To minimize false positive results, patients were classified as bacteremic if one sample was positive for a typical pathogen or both samples were positive for the same skin colonizing organism. Patients in whom only 1 sample was positive for suspected skin contaminant ...

  1. Developing an analytical tool for evaluating EMS system design changes and their impact on cardiac arrest outcomes: combining geographic information systems with register data on survival rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sund Björn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a frequent and acute medical condition that requires immediate care. We estimate survival rates from OHCA in the area of Stockholm, through developing an analytical tool for evaluating Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system design changes. The study also is an attempt to validate the proposed model used to generate the outcome measures for the study. Methods and results This was done by combining a geographic information systems (G...

  2. Automated external defibrillators inaccessible to more than half of nearby cardiac arrests in public locations during evening, nighttime, and weekends : Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carolina Malta; Wissenberg, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite wide dissemination, use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in community settings is limited. We assessed how AED accessibility affected coverage of cardiac arrests in public locations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified cardiac arrests in public locations (1994-2011) in terms of location and time and viewed them in relation to the location and accessibility of all AEDs linked to the emergency dispatch center as of December 31, 2011, in Copenhagen, Denmark. AED coverage of cardiac arrests was defined as cardiac arrests within 100 m (109.4 yd) of an AED and further categorized according to AED accessibility at the time of cardiac arrest. Daytime, evening, and nighttime were defined as 8 am to 3:59 pm, 4 to 11:59 pm, and midnight to 7:59 am, respectively. Of 1864 cardiac arrests in public locations, 61.8% (n=1152) occurred during the evening, nighttime, or weekends. Of 552 registered AEDs, 9.1% (n=50) were accessible at all hours, and 96.4% (n=532) were accessible during the daytime on all weekdays. Regardless of AED accessibility, 28.8% (537 of 1864) of all cardiac arrests were covered by an AED. Limited AED accessibility decreased coverage of cardiac arrests by 4.1% (9 of 217) during the daytime on weekdays and by 53.4% (171 of 320) during the evening, nighttime, and weekends. CONCLUSIONS: Limited AED accessibility at the time of cardiac arrest decreased AED coverage by 53.4% during the evening, nighttime, and weekends, which is when 61.8% of all cardiac arrests in public locations occurred. Thus, not only strategic placement but also uninterrupted AED accessibility warrant attention if public-access defibrillation is to improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

  3. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will be sudden death. Sudden death, even you survive to go to the hospital but survive out of those people to be discharged, going ... even though less than 10 percent going to survive. Is rate -- this is of men. A lot ...

  4. Socioeconomic status and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinier, Kyndaron; Thomas, Elizabeth; Andrusiek, Douglas L.; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Brooks, Steven C.; Callaway, Clifton W.; Pepe, Paul E.; Rea, Thomas D.; Schmicker, Robert H.; Vaillancourt, Christian; Chugh, Sumeet S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor cardiovascular health. We evaluated the association between socioeconomic status and the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest, a condition that accounts for a substantial proportion of cardiovascular-related deaths, in seven large North American urban populations. Methods: Using a population-based registry, we collected data on out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrests occurring at home or at a residential institution from Apr. 1, 2006, to Mar. 31, 2007. We limited the analysis to cardiac arrests in seven metropolitan areas in the United States (Dallas, Texas; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Portland, Oregon; and Seattle–King County, Washington) and Canada (Ottawa and Toronto, Ontario; and Vancouver, British Columbia). Each incident was linked to a census tract; tracts were classified into quartiles of median household income. Results: A total of 9235 sudden cardiac arrests were included in the analysis. For all sites combined, the incidence of sudden cardiac arrestin the lowest socioeconomic quartile was nearly double that in the highest quartile (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8–2.0). This disparity was greater among people less than 65 years old (IRR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5–3.0) than among those 65 or older (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.4). After adjustment for study site and for population age structure of each census tract, the disparity across socioeconomic quartiles for all ages combined was greater in the United States (IRR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9–2.2) than in Canada (IRR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6–2.0) (p < 0.001 for interaction). Interpretation: The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest at home or at a residential institution was higher in poorer neighbourhoods of the US and Canadian sites studied, although the association was attenuated in Canada. The disparity across socioeconomic quartiles was greatest among people younger than 65. The association between socioeconomic status and incidence of sudden cardiac arrest merits consideration in the development of strategies to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest, and possibly to identify opportunities for prevention. PMID:21911550

  5. Fast tracking in adult cardiac surgery at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Early extubation after cardiac operation is an important aspect of fast-track cardiac anaesthesia. The length of stay in ICU limits utilisation of operation theatre in cardiac surgery. Increasing cost, limited resources, and newer surgical strategies have stimulated effectiveness of all routines in cardiac surgery, anaesthesia, and intensive care. Aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of fast-tracking in adult cardiac surgery and its effects on post operative recovery in our setup. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted over 14 months between Jul 16, 2007 to Sep 16, 2008. All the open heart cases were included unless absolute contraindications were there. We applied the rapid recovery protocol adopted from Oslo Hospital Norway in an attempt to achieve fast-tracking in our setup. Results: Two-hundred-seventy-four consecutive cases out of 400 operated cases were included in this study. Mean age was 47.69 +- 15.11 years, 27.7% were females, 5.8% were emergency cases, 5.1% were COPD, 11.1% were atrial fibrillation, and 6.9% were NYHA class-III cases. CABG was done in 66.1% cases and mean CPB-time was 75.92 +- 16.20 min. Mean Ventilation-time was 4.47+-4.48 hrs., 86% patients were fast-tracked to be extubated within 6 hours, and 85.4% patients remained free of post-op complications. Six (2.2%) re-intubatIions, 2.6% arrhythmias, 6.6% pleural effusions and 2.2% consolidation were observed post-operatively. Mean ICU stay was 2.49 +- 0.95 days aely. Mean ICU stay was 2.49 +- 0.95 days and in-hospital mortality was 2.2%. Conclusion: Fast-tracking with extubation within 6 hours is feasible approach which minimises the post-operative complications significantly in adult cardiac surgical patients. (author)

  6. Main Complications of Mild Induced Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest: A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Rahmani, Farzad; Golzari, Samad EJ; Safari, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the complications of mild induced hypothermia (MIH) in patients with cardiac arrest. Presently, based on the guidelines of the American heart Association, MIH following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in unconscious adult patients due to ventricular fibrillation (VF) with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) is essential and required. However, MIH could be associated with complications in Patients with cardiac arrest. Studies conducted on the precautions and care following cardiac arrest and MIH were included. Valid scientific data bases were used for data collection. The obtained results from different studies revealed that mild MIH could be associated with numerous complications and the knowledge and awareness of the medical staff from the complications is required to guarantee successful therapeutic approaches in MIH following cardiac arrest which is a novel medical facility with different styles and complications. Overall, further future studies are required to improve the quality of MIH, to increase survival and to decrease complications rates. PMID:24753824

  7. Clinically Significant Contrast Induced Acute Kidney Injury after Non-Emergent Cardiac Catheterization - Risk Factors and Impact on Length of Hospital Stay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency and risk factors associated with clinically significant contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing non-emergent coronary angiography. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2005 to December 2007. Methodology: Case records of patients who underwent coronary angiography with a serum creatinine of >= 1.5 mg/dl at the time of procedure were evaluated. Clinically significant contrast induced nephropathy (CSCIN) was defined as either doubling of serum creatinine from baseline value within a week following the procedure or need for emergency hemodialysis after the procedure. Results: One hundred and sixteen patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 64.0 +- 11.5 years, 72% were males. Overall prevalence of CIN was 17% (rise of serum creatinine by A= 0.5 mg/dl) while that of clinically significant CIN (CSCIN) was 9.5% (11 patients). Patients with CSCIN had significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.03, OR: 0.24; 95% CI = 0.06 A= 0.91) and higher prevalence of cerebrovascular disease (p < 0.001, OR: 14.66; 95% CI = 3.30 - 65.08). Mean baseline serum creatinine was significantly higher, 3.0 +- 1.5 vs. 2.0 +- 1.1 mg/dl (p = 0.03, OR: 1.47; 95% CI = 1.03 - 2.11) whereas mean GFR estimated by Cockcroft-Gault formula was significantly lower at 25 +- 7.4 vs. 41.0 +- 14.6 ml/minute (p = 0.001, OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.84 A= 0.95) at the time of procedure in patients with CSCIN. Mean length of hospital stay was significantly higher in this group compared to those without CIN, 9.0 +- 5.1 vs. 3.0 +- 3.2 days (p = 0.001, OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.12 - 1.54). Multivariate analysis revealed low GFR (p = 0.001, OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.82 - 0.95) and low ejection fraction (p = 0.03, OR = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.04 - 0.91) to be independent factors associated with CSCIN. No significant differences were noted between the two groups in patients with hypertension, diabetes and heart failure. Conclusion: CSCIN is a significant concern in high risk groups despite prophylaxis. Patients with lower EF, cerebrovascular disease and low GFR at the time of procedure are more likely to have CIN. (author)

  8. Cardiac cephalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Yaghi, Yasar; Salerian, Justin; Dougherty, Carrie

    2015-04-01

    "Cardiac cephalgia" is a type of secondary headache disorder, usually initiated by exertion that is related to myocardial ischemia. Primary exertional headaches such as sex-, cough-, or exercise-induced headaches are typically benign. Cardiac cephalgia, on the other hand, can have life-threatening complications. Due to overlapping features and similarities in presentation, cardiac cephalgia can be misdiagnosed as a primary headache disorder such as migraine. However, the management of these conditions is unique, and treatment of cardiac cephalgia with vasoconstrictors intended for migraine can potentially worsen myocardial ischemia. Thus, it is important to make the correct diagnosis by evaluating cardiac function with an electrocardiogram and/or stress testing. In this review, we examine reported cases of cardiac cephalgia from the past 5 years to highlight the importance of this condition in the differential diagnosis of a headache in a patient with a history of cardiovascular risk factors, as well as to discuss the appropriate approach to diagnosis and the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of this condition. PMID:25819974

  9. Relação do teste de caminhada pós-operatório e função pulmonar com o tempo de internação da cirurgia cardíaca Relationship on walk test and pulmonary function tests with the length of hospitalization in cardiac surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayne Kelen de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A função pulmonar é apontada como preditora do tempo de hospitalização na cirurgia cardíaca. E o teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6' tem sido utilizado para caracterizar a capacidade funcional em pacientes cardiopatas, porém há poucos estudos que o correlacione com tempo de internação hospitalar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar se há correlação da função pulmonar pré e pós-operatória e da capacidade da deambulação pósoperatória com tempo de internação pós-operatória. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma coorte prospectiva com 18 pacientes, sendo 8 do gênero masculino e 10 do gênero feminino, com idade acima de 40 anos (média 64,89 ± 6,95 anos, internados para a submissão de cirurgias de revascularização do miocárdio e/ou troca valvar. Para caracterizar a função pulmonar, os pacientes foram submetidos a uma espirometria no pré-operatório e ao 5º dia pós-operatório. Neste último período também foi realizado um teste de caminhada de 6 minutos (TC6' para caracterizar a capacidade de deambulação. RESULTADO: Não houve correlação significativa da função pulmonar pré e pós-operatória com o tempo de internação pós-operatória. Somente a distância percorrida no TC6' apresentou correlação negativa significativa (rho=-0,62 com o tempo de internação pós-operatória. A distância no TC6' obteve correlação positiva significativa com a capacidade vital forçada (r=0,59 e volume expiratório forçado no 1º segundo (r=0,52. CONCLUSÃO: Esses resultados sugerem que os pacientes com maior capacidade de deambulação no pós-operatório apresentam menor tempo de internação e sugere-se também que a distância no TC6' pode representar melhor a capacidade funcional desses pacientes do que a função pulmonar isoladamente.OBJECTIVE: The lung function is identified as a predictor of time of hospitalization in heart surgery. Meanwhile sixminute walk test has been used to establish functional capacity of cardiac patients, however there are few studies that correlate it with the length of hospital stay. The aim of this research was to determine whether there is correlation of preoperative and postoperative lung function and the ability of walking during the hospital stay. METHODS: A prospective cohort with 18 patients was performed, being 8 males and 10 females, with age above 40 years (medium 64.89 ± 6.95 years. Patients where admitted for coronary artery bypass graft surgery and/or exchange valve. To characterize the pulmonary function, patients were submitted to spirometry in preoperative and the 5th postoperative day. In the latter period was also a test for 6 minutes walk (6MWT to characterize the ability to walk. RESULTS: There was not significant correlation of preoperative and postoperative pulmonary function with length of hospital stay. Only the distance covered in 6MWT showed a significant negative correlation (rho= 0.62 with length of stay. The distance in 6MWT obtained a significant positive correlation with forced vital capacity (r=0.59 and first second of a maximal forced expiratory manoeuvre (r=0.52. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that patients with increased postoperative capacity to walk have a shorter time of hospitalization and it also suggest that the distance in the 6MWT can better represent the functional capacity of these patients than pulmonary function alone.

  10. Personal and environmental dosimetric measurements using TLD method in Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory (CathLab) at the Rzeszow's Regional Hospital No 2, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete test of publication follows. One of the basic problem in CathLab is the monitoring of ionizing radiation, calculations of doses for workers and finally to build a system to prevent workers from X-ray radiation. To measure doses from X-rays a passive method with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) were applied. Experimental part was based on creating 3D grid of Tl environmental dosemeters with 2 high sensitive TL detectors based on MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P). Dosemeters were placed evenly (as far as staff's work conditions allowed such positioning) in operating room and a control room. Grid of about 100 dosemeters was designed to measure X-ray dose distribution present during interventional cardiology procedures. That part of the project was especially important for hospital's employee, because it has brought an information about most radiative dangerous areas of each room. Patient dosimetry measurements have been also made using TLD method just during the interventional cardiology procedures. Every patient got a few dosemeters dor different parts of body. Experimental part consists of measurements of absorbed dose equivalent, mean dose rate of absorbed dose equivalent, and mean dose of effective dose per each body part. That last measurements were accomplished by placing TLD's near patient's head, chest and gonads. Personal dosimetry for employees, has been made using TLD's during hemodynamics procedures. Every employee (medical doctors, nurses, technicians and charwoman) has received few dosemeters also based on high sensitive MCP-N detectors. The main dosimetry was done for whole body covered by led gown and additionally for unprotected parts: (hands, arm, eyes and protected by gown: chest, gonads). For individual dosimetry Hp(10) in mSv was calculated, while using environmental dosemeters KERMA in air in mGy. This work will present results obtained from ca. 100 environmental placed in CathLab room. Additionally personal doses for whole body and for parts of workers and patients will be shown.

  11. Cardiac angiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtahara, A; Hattori, K; Fukuki, M; Hirata, S; Ahmmed, G U; Kato, M; Fujimoto, Y; Shigemasa, C; Mashiba, H

    1996-10-01

    Angiosarcoma is one of the most common cardiac tumors, but early detection of this tumor is often difficult, as exemplified by our patient, a 55-year-old woman whose cardiac tumor was first detected by echocardiography. Surgical removal of the tumor was impossible due to its extensive pericardial invasion. Pathological diagnosis was not complete before autopsy because of the wide occupied necrotized area of the tumor. There is no diagnostic imaging technique available to detect such a necrotized area. An imaging technique more powerful than echocardiography and able to diagnose angiosarcoma earlier is needed. PMID:8933189

  12. Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C versus 36°C after Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Wetterslev, JØrn

    2013-01-01

    Background Unconscious survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have a high risk of death or poor neurologic function. Therapeutic hypothermia is recommended by international guidelines, but the supporting evidence is limited, and the target temperature associated with the best outcome is unknown. Our objective was to compare two target temperatures, both intended to prevent fever. Methods In an international trial, we randomly assigned 950 unconscious adults after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause to targeted temperature management at either 33°C or 36°C. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality through the end of the trial. Secondary outcomes included a composite of poor neurologic function or death at 180 days, as evaluated with the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale and the modified Rankin scale. Results In total, 939 patients were included in the primary analysis. At the end of the trial, 50% of the patients in the 33°C group (235 of 473 patients) had died, ascompared with 48% of the patients in the 36°C group (225 of 466 patients) (hazard ratio with a temperature of 33°C, 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 1.28; P=0.51). At the 180-day follow-up, 54% of the patients in the 33°C group had died or had poor neurologic function according to the CPC, as compared with 52% of patients in the 36°C group (risk ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.16; P=0.78). In the analysis using the modified Rankin scale, the comparable rate was 52% in both groups (risk ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.14; P=0.87). The results of analyses adjusted for known prognostic factors were similar. Conclusions In unconscious survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause, hypothermia at a targeted temperature of 33°C did not confer a benefit as compared with a targeted temperature of 36°C. (Funded by the Swedish Heart–Lung Foundation and others; TTM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01020916.)

  13. Characterization of Out of Lesson and Out Of School Physical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof WARCHO?

    Full Text Available Principal purpose of the study is characteristics of out of lesson and out of school physical activities of children in selectedprimary schools in the Podkarpackie province. Inspiration for undertakings originate research was the opportunity to familiarizeoneself with the types of physical activity of students in their free time and the influence of formal and legal factors on theorganizational level of additional physical activities. The research was conducted in 60 primary schools in the Podkarpackieprovince. The basic condition in selecting the schools for the research owned a proper sport facility by the school. Research wasconducted in April and May, 2005. Empirical material was gathered by means of a diagnostic survey. Questionnaire of thesurvey included a set of closed questions. Students of physical education and headmasters of the schools were the respondents.The research indicates low level of physical activity of people of various ages. It should be assumed that this state of affairscorresponds to the state of physical education at schools. Therefore, in the search for optimal solutions, out of lesson and outof school activities should be included in the process of preparation of the young generation to physical activity in their adultlives. In conclusion, additional physical activity of children relies, to a large extent, on community service performed byteachers. Most of the times, out of lesson and out of school activities are occasional and incidental in nature and rarelyconstitute a part of an organized sequence of systematic events scheduled for specified points in time.

  14. Cardiac MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contrast agent). Rate This Content: Next >> Featured Video New pediatric imaging facility aims to improve treatment for congenital heart disease 10/14/2014 February 2, 2012 Cardiac MRI Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, ...

  15. Cardiac Amyloidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the voltage is lower than normal on an ECG in the setting of thick walls on an ... that the implantation of a defibrillator to prevent sudden death plays any role in the majority of patients with cardiac amyloidosis. Treatment of the Underlying Condition To prevent ...

  16. Hospital Hints

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bracelet to make sure the information is correct. Hospital Staff While you are in the hospital, many ... long-term care, and support groups. Inside the Hospital Hospitals have many patient-care areas. For example, ...

  17. Trends in mortality, incidence, hospitalisation, cardiac procedures and outcomes of care for coronary heart disease in Singapore, 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T P; Mak, K H; Phua, K H; Tan, C H

    1999-05-01

    In this study, we used Singapore population-based data from 1991 to 1996 to examine recent trends in mortality, incidence and hospitalisation for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and explored the roles of primary prevention and medical care interventions in explaining these trends. We examined trends in medical interventions, namely coronary angiography (catheterisation), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), length of stay, and payment methods, and explored the roles of technological, healthcare financing and delivery, and regulatory factors in influencing the diffusion and outcomes of these medical interventions. During the period 1991 to 1996, there were parallel declines in resident population rates of mortality, incidence and hospitalisation for AMI. The rates of angiograms, CABG and PTCA among residents also increased greatly, with the greatest increase among elderly aged 60 years and above. The rates of invasive cardiac procedures for AMI were all lower in females than in males. The population case-fatality rate of AMI declined slightly only for persons below 40 years of age. The case-fatality rate was higher in females than in males. The number of hospitalisations and cardiac procedures all rose sharply, and was phenomenal for PTCA (247%). The increase in volume of resource use was starkly greater in private hospitals than in restructured hospitals. The ratios of PTCA to CABG from 1991 to 1996 for private and restructured hospitals showed a greater rate of technology substitution in restructured hospitals than in private hospitals. The average length of stay (LOS, 6.7 days) was fairly constant in restructured hospitals. For private hospitals, LOS declined from 7.6 days in 1991 to 5.6 in 1996. LOS varied little among individual restructured hospitals, but widely among private hospitals. The most common method of payment for AMI hospitalisation was Medisave alone (50%), but for CABG surgery, the proportion of payment made through this method was only 12%. Out-of-pocket payments, Medisave, Medishield and private insurance have increased steadily. These data indirectly suggest that primary prevention and medical care interventions might have begun to succeed in reducing the rates of coronary heart disease in Singapore. The sharp increases in cardiac procedures may be explained by changing supply and demand factors for care of AMI and chronic ischaemic heart disease, including consumer preference for cardiac procedures, overuse of medical intervention, and technological change. More studies are needed to test these hypotheses. PMID:10575526

  18. Out-of-ecliptic dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictions of the number density of interplanetary dust particles out of the ecliptic plane are derived from model computations by adjusting the parameters to the run of brightness of the zodiacal light in the ecliptic plane and at right angles to the Sun from the ecliptic plane to the ecliptic pole. Within the limits of the simple models, surfaces of equal number density are presented. The number density of zodiacal dust particles is not expected to fall below 20% within 0.5 AU above the earth's orbit. The use of space probes in and out of the ecliptic is discussed, and the possibility of discriminating between different dust distribution functions by means of out-of-ecliptic probes is demonstrated for a space probe in an orbit of 1 AU radius and 30 deg inclination with respect to the ecliptic plane

  19. The evolution of a cardiac catheterization laboratory fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Powell, Jacqueline; Burns, Deborah; Tanzi, Donna; Floyd, Jonathan C

    2013-03-01

    This column explores the development and implementation of a cardiac catheterization laboratory nursing fellowship at a 600-bed, tertiary-care hospital that is part of a large, multi-facility health system. PMID:23444876

  20. Cardiac Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Joorabian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a spectrum of different types of cardiac"ncalcifications with the importance and significance"nof each type of cardiac calcification, especially"ncoronary artery calcification. Radiologic detection of"ncalcifications within the heart is quite common. The"namount of coronary artery calcification correlates"nwith the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD."nCalcification of the aortic or mitral valve may indicate"nhemodynamically significant valvular stenosis."nMyocardial calcification is a sign of prior infarction,"nwhile pericardial calcification is strongly associated"nwith constrictive pericarditis. A spectrum of different"ntypes of cardiac calcifications (linear, annular,"ncurvilinear,... could be seen in chest radiography and"nother imaging modalities. So a carful inspection for"ndetection and reorganization of these calcifications"nshould be necessary. Numerous modalities exist for"nidentifying coronary calcification, including plain"nradiography, fluoroscopy, intravascular ultrasound,"nMRI, echocardiography, and conventional, helical and"nelectron-beam CT (EBCT. Coronary calcifications"ndetected on EBCT or helical CT can be quantifie,"nand a total calcification score (Cardiac Calcification"nScoring may be calculated. In an asymptomatic"npopulation and/or patients with concomitant risk"nfactors like diabetes mellitus, determination of the"npresence of coronary calcifications identifies the"npatients at risk for future myocardial infarction and"ncoronary artery disease. In patients without coronary"ncalcifications, future cardiovascular events could"nbe excluded. Therefore, detecting and recognizing"ncalcification related to the heart on chest radiography"nand other imaging modalities such as fluoroscopy, CT"nand echocardiography may have important clinical"nimplications.

  1. 42 CFR 486.322 - Condition: Relationships with hospitals, critical access hospitals, and tissue banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...after cardiac death (if the OPO has a protocol for donation after cardiac death) and the requirements for hospitals at § 482.45 or § 485.643. The agreement must specify the meaning of the terms “timely referral” and “imminent death.”...

  2. Comparison of Maximum Vasoactive Inotropic Score and Low Cardiac Output Syndrome As Markers of Early Postoperative Outcomes After Neonatal Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Butts, Ryan J.; Scheurer, Mark A.; Atz, Andrew M.; Zyblewski, Sinai C.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Bradley, Scott M.; Graham, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) and maximum vasoactive inotropic score (VIS) have been used as surrogate markers for early postoperative outcomes in pediatric cardiac surgery. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between LCOS and maximum VIS with clinical outcomes in neonatal cardiac surgery. This was a secondary retrospective analysis of a prospective randomized trial, and the setting was a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit in a tertiary care children's hospit...

  3. Prevención primaria y secundaria de muerte súbita en un hospital de la Seguridad Social de Costa Rica: reporte del registro de pacientes con desfibrilador automático implantable, 2007-2011 / Primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death in a hospital of the social security system in Costa Rica: report from the registry of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, 2007-2011

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo, Arguedas-Jiménez; Oswaldo, Gutiérrez-Sotelo.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Justificación y objetivo: diversos estudios han demostrado la eficacia de los desfibriladores automáticos implantables en la prevención de la muerte súbita cardiaca. La aplicación de dicha evidencia debe ser evaluada mediante registros. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las principales carac [...] terísticas epidemiológicas y clínicas y las complicaciones de los pacientes a quienes se les implanta un desfibrilador automático implantable en un hospital de tercer nivel en Costa Rica. Métodos: estudio observacional de cohorte, retrospectivo, que incluyó la totalidad de pacientes a quienes se les implantó un desfibrilador automático implantable en el hospital “Dr. Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia” entre 2007 y 2011. Resultados: se incluyó 23 pacientes. La edad media fue de 55 ± 18 años. La cardiopatía isquémica fue la etiología más frecuente (10 pacientes). Veinte pacientes estaban en clase funcional I o II; la fracción de eyección media fue 0,38 ± 0,17. En los 18 pacientes el desfibrilador automático se implantó por prevención secundaria. Cinco pacientes presentaron una complicación temprana, todos ellos con dispositivos bicamerales: 2 hematomas menores, una disección del seno coronario, un desplazamiento del electrodo atrial derecho y un ictus cardioembólico. Hubo un total de 101 terapias (en 8 pacientes), de las cuales 94 fueron apropiadas (en 5 pacientes) y 7 inapropiadas (en 3 pacientes); dos de estos últimos habían tenido episodios previos de fibrilación atrial. Conclusión: este registro muestra que la mayoría de los implantes de desfibriladores automáticos se realizan por prevención secundaria, con una alta tasa de terapias adecuadas y una baja tasa de terapias inadecuadas y de complicaciones; además, permite evaluar las indicaciones y las complicaciones asociadas con esta terapia. Abstract in english Aim: Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in the prevention of sudden cardiac death. The validation of this evidence has to be assessed through various registries. The objective of this study was to describe the main epidemiological and clinical c [...] haracteristics of patients who were referred to a tertiary hospital in Costa Rica to be treated with a cardioverter-defibrillators implantable; as well as the associated problems and complications. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study, which included all patients who were treated with a cardioverter-defibrillator implantable in the “Dr. Rafael A. Calderón Guardia” hospital between 2007 and 2011. Results: Twenty three patients were included. The mean age was 55 ± 18 years. Ischemic heart disease was the most frequent etiology (10 patients). Twenty patients had functional class I or II and the mean ejection fraction was 0.38 ± 0.17. In 18 patients, the cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted for secondary prevention. Five patients had an early complication; all of them had dual-chamber devices: 2 minor hematomas, 1 coronary sinus dissection, 1 right atrial lead displacement, and 1 cardio embolic stroke. From a total of 101 therapies (in 8 patients), 94 were appropriate (in 5 patients) and 7 were inappropriate (in 3 patients); 2 of the latter 3 patients had a history of atrial fibrillation episodes. Conclusion: This registry shows that the majority of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators implantations are performed as a secondary prevention, with a high rate of adequate therapies and a low rate of inadequate ones. The registry allowed an assessment of the indications and complications of this device therapy.

  4. Prevención primaria y secundaria de muerte súbita en un hospital de la Seguridad Social de Costa Rica: reporte del registro de pacientes con desfibrilador automático implantable, 2007-2011 Primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death in a hospital of the social security system in Costa Rica: report from the registry of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, 2007-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Arguedas-Jiménez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Justificación y objetivo: diversos estudios han demostrado la eficacia de los desfibriladores automáticos implantables en la prevención de la muerte súbita cardiaca. La aplicación de dicha evidencia debe ser evaluada mediante registros. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las principales características epidemiológicas y clínicas y las complicaciones de los pacientes a quienes se les implanta un desfibrilador automático implantable en un hospital de tercer nivel en Costa Rica. Métodos: estudio observacional de cohorte, retrospectivo, que incluyó la totalidad de pacientes a quienes se les implantó un desfibrilador automático implantable en el hospital “Dr. Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia” entre 2007 y 2011. Resultados: se incluyó 23 pacientes. La edad media fue de 55 ± 18 años. La cardiopatía isquémica fue la etiología más frecuente (10 pacientes. Veinte pacientes estaban en clase funcional I o II; la fracción de eyección media fue 0,38 ± 0,17. En los 18 pacientes el desfibrilador automático se implantó por prevención secundaria. Cinco pacientes presentaron una complicación temprana, todos ellos con dispositivos bicamerales: 2 hematomas menores, una disección del seno coronario, un desplazamiento del electrodo atrial derecho y un ictus cardioembólico. Hubo un total de 101 terapias (en 8 pacientes, de las cuales 94 fueron apropiadas (en 5 pacientes y 7 inapropiadas (en 3 pacientes; dos de estos últimos habían tenido episodios previos de fibrilación atrial. Conclusión: este registro muestra que la mayoría de los implantes de desfibriladores automáticos se realizan por prevención secundaria, con una alta tasa de terapias adecuadas y una baja tasa de terapias inadecuadas y de complicaciones; además, permite evaluar las indicaciones y las complicaciones asociadas con esta terapia.Aim: Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in the prevention of sudden cardiac death. The validation of this evidence has to be assessed through various registries. The objective of this study was to describe the main epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who were referred to a tertiary hospital in Costa Rica to be treated with a cardioverter-defibrillators implantable; as well as the associated problems and complications. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study, which included all patients who were treated with a cardioverter-defibrillator implantable in the “Dr. Rafael A. Calderón Guardia” hospital between 2007 and 2011. Results: Twenty three patients were included. The mean age was 55 ± 18 years. Ischemic heart disease was the most frequent etiology (10 patients. Twenty patients had functional class I or II and the mean ejection fraction was 0.38 ± 0.17. In 18 patients, the cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted for secondary prevention. Five patients had an early complication; all of them had dual-chamber devices: 2 minor hematomas, 1 coronary sinus dissection, 1 right atrial lead displacement, and 1 cardio embolic stroke. From a total of 101 therapies (in 8 patients, 94 were appropriate (in 5 patients and 7 were inappropriate (in 3 patients; 2 of the latter 3 patients had a history of atrial fibrillation episodes. Conclusion: This registry shows that the majority of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators implantations are performed as a secondary prevention, with a high rate of adequate therapies and a low rate of inadequate ones. The registry allowed an assessment of the indications and complications of this device therapy.

  5. Cardiac Syndrome X

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What causes cardiac syndrome X? There are many theories about what causes cardiac syndrome X. Some doctors ... disease. How is cardiac syndrome X treated? A number of medicines can help relieve the angina pain ...

  6. Compare Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014 Leapfrog Hospital Survey Results Now Available Thank you for visiting the Leapfrog Hospital Survey Results Website. These results are based on surveys submitted by hospitals across the country that have demonstrated a commitment ...

  7. Ventilatory targets after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherasan, Y; Vargas, M; Brunetti, I; Pelosi, P

    2015-01-01

    The mortality of postcardiac arrest patients has gradually reduced in years but it still is as high as 50%, despite advancements in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, i.e. revascularization and therapeutic moderate hypothermia. However, recent evidence suggests that other therapeutic interventions aimed to minimize progressive deterioration of the brain and other organs function might be helpful to reduce in-hospital mortality and improve neurologic outcome as well as quality of life after cardiac arrest. In this article, we discuss the role of ventilator management on the prognosis after cardiac arrest. We performed a meta-analysis showing that in adult patients not only hypoxia but also hyperoxia was associated with higher in-hospital mortality, while hypercapnia and hypocapnia worse neurologic outcome. In pediatric patients, hypoxia and hyperoxia were not associated with higher in-hospital mortality, while hypocapnia and hypercabia with higher in-hospital mortality worse neurologic outcome. We propose a general bundle for ventilator treatment after cardiac arrest, including: 1) therapeutic hypothermia for 12-24 hours; 2) mean arterial pressure ?65-75 mmHg; 3) PaO2 between 60-200 mmHg and PCO2 between 30 and 50 mmHg; 4) protective MV with tidal volume of 6-8 mL/kg and positive end expiratory pressure of between 5-10 cmH2O; 5) monitoring of respiratory mechanics, extravascular lung water, hemodynamics, non-invasive transcranial Doppler and intracranial pressure monitoring; and 6) others supportive care, i.e. blood sugar and seizures control. PMID:24642487

  8. Introduction: Staying Out of Court

    OpenAIRE

    Swaaningen, R.

    2008-01-01

    The ways court procedures can be avoided is a classical theme in socio-legal studies and criminology. The preface to a book published on that theme by the Erasmus School of Law in 1988, on the occasion of its 25th anniversary, covers the then dominant view very well: ‘They [people who advocate out of court settlements, RvS] consider the judge as an ultimum remedium. And that is how it often should be’. Topics covered in that jubilee volume ranged from arbitration and administrative re...

  9. A patient dose survey in a cardiac angiographic suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A very large set of patient dose survey data. containing 3,564 individual procedures, has been collected in the cardiac angiographic suite in a large teaching hospital. Every procedure for a period of three years has been logged by the radiographer assisting the cardiologist. A diamentor was permanently attached to the tube housing with a read out device located at the control panel. A removable hafnium (Hf) filter (50 ?m) was also available and was used when possible for 'thin' patients in order to reduce patient skin entrance dose. The survey included cardiac angiography and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty procedures. Exposure-area product values were used to estimate effective dose and skin entrance doses for the various types of procedures for conditions where the Hf filter was in and out of the x-ray beam. The large data set has enabled us to illustrate statistical parameters of the data, including relationships between weight, height, sex, use of the Hf filter and dose-area product

  10. Critical appraisal of cardiac implantable electronic devices: complications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padeletti L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Luigi Padeletti1, Giosuè Mascioli2, Alessandro Paoletti Perini1, Gino Grifoni1, Laura Perrotta1, Procolo Marchese3, Luca Bontempi3, Antonio Curnis31Istituto di Clinica Medica e Cardiologia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italia; 2Elettrofisiologia, Istituto Humanitas Gavazzeni, Bergamo, Italia; 3Elettrofisiologia, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItaliaAbstract: Population aging and broader indications for the implant of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs are the main reasons for the continuous increase in the use of pacemakers (PMs, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs and devices for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-P, CRT-D. The growing burden of comorbidities in CIED patients, the greater complexity of the devices, and the increased duration of procedures have led to an augmented risk of infections, which is out of proportion to the increase in implantation rate. CIED infections are an ominous condition, which often implies the necessity of hospitalization and carries an augmented risk of in-hospital death. Their clinical presentation may be either at pocket or at endocardial level, but they can also manifest themselves with lone bacteremia. The management of these infections requires the complete removal of the device and subsequent, specific, antibiotic therapy. CIED failures are monitored by competent public authorities, that require physicians to alert them to any failures, and that suggest the opportune strategies for their management. Although the replacement of all potentially affected devices is often suggested, common practice indicates the replacement of only a minority of devices, as close follow-up of the patients involved may be a safer strategy. Implantation of a PM or an ICD may cause problems in the patients' psychosocial adaptation and quality of life, and may contribute to the development of affective disorders. Clinicians are usually unaware of the psychosocial impact of implanted PMs and ICDs. The main difference between PM and ICD patients is the latter's dramatic experience of receiving a shock. Technological improvements and new clinical evidences may help reduce the total burden of shocks. A specific supporting team, providing psychosocial help, may contribute to improving patient quality of life.Keywords: pacemaker, cardiac cardioverter-defibrillator, cardiac implantable electronic devices, infection, recall, quality of life 

  11. Cardiac pacemaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of a cardiac pacemaker is described which is characterized by particularly small dimensions, small weight and long life duration. The weight is under 100g, the specific weight under 1.7. Mass inertia forces which occur through acceleration and retardation processes, thus remain below the threshold values, above which one would have to reckon with considerable damaging of the surrounding body tissue. The maintaining of small size and slight weight is achieved by using an oscillator on COSMOS basis, where by considerably lower energy consumption, amongst others the lifetimes of the batteries used - a lithium anode with thionyl chloride electrolyte - is extended to over 5 years. The reliability can be increased by the use of 2 or more batteries. The designed dimension are 20x60x60 mm3. (ORU/LH)

  12. Origins of Cardiac Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Zeisberg, Elisabeth M.; Kalluri, Raghu

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac fibroblasts play a critical role in maintenance of normal cardiac function. They are indispensable for damage control and tissue remodeling on myocardial injury and principal mediators of pathological cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. Despite their manyfold functions, cardiac fibroblasts remain poorly characterized in molecular terms. Evidence is evolving that cardiac fibroblasts are a heterogeneous population and likely derive from various distinct tissue niches in health and disease....

  13. Primera experiencia en el uso de Cardioplejia sanguínea: estudio prospectivo de 200 casos sometidos a Cirugía Cardíaca en el Hospital México, San José, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A. Méndez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Este estudio reporta la primera experiencia del uso de cardioplejia sanguínea durante la cirugía cardíaca en el hospital México y expone la importancia de su uso en cirugía cardíaca. Material y Métodos: Se estudiaron prospectivamente 200 pacientes consecutivos programados a varios procedimientos quirúrgicos cardíacos con el uso de cardioplejia sanguínea en un período comprendido entre setiembre de 1999 y febrero del 2002. Resultados: Estos 200 casos consistieron de 122 hombres y 78 mujeres con una edad promedio de 57.48 años ( rango, 26 a 28 años . 71 pacientes salieron del arresto cardíaco con ritmo espontáneo. Doce pacientes fallecieron y 30 casos presentaron complicaciones en el postoperatorio: 9 pacientes presentaron infarto agudo al miocardio perioperatorio, 6 casos presentaron para cardiorrespiratorio, 12 tuvieron arritmias cardíacas, 3 pacientes presentaron insuficiencia cardíaca congestivo. Conclusiones: En esta experiencia preliminar, el uso de la cardioplejia sanguínea parece proveer una protección miocárdica segura y confiable durante la cirugía cardíaca, siendo un método ideal en casos de cirugías de elevado riesgo quirúrgico.lntroduction: This study reports the first experience in the use of sanguineous cardioplegia during cardiac surgery in the Mexico Hospital and exposes the important role that this procedure plays in this type of surgery. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out with 200 consecutive patients programmed for different cardiac surgical procedures with the use of sanguineous cardioplegia during the period of September 1999 to February 2002. Results: Of the 200 cases 122 were male and 78 females, all with average ages of 57.48 years. Seventy one patients carne out of cardiac arrest with spontaneous rhythm. Tweive patients died and 30 cases presentes post- surgícal complications: 9 patients presentes acute myocardium infarct, 6 cases presentes Respiratory cardiac arrest, 12 had cardiac arrhythmias and 3 patients presentes congestivo cardiac insufficiency. Conclusions: in this preliminary experience the use of sanguineous cardioplegia seems to provide a safe and refiable myocardium protection during cardiac surgery, making it an ideal method in high risk surgery.

  14. Modeling the Impact of Public Access Defibrillator Range on Public Location Cardiac Arrest Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiq, Auyon A; Brooks, Steven C.; Chan, Timothy C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Public access defibrillation with automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occurring in public. Increasing the effective range of AEDs may improve coverage for public location OHCAs. Objective To quantify the relationship between AED effective range and public location cardiac arrest coverage. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study using the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry database. We included all public-location, atraumatic, EMS-attended OHCAs in Toronto, Canada between Dec. 16, 2005 and July 15, 2010. We ran a mathematical model for AED placement that maximizes coverage of historical public OHCAs given pre-specified values of AED effective range and the number of locations to place AEDs. Locations of all non-residential buildings were obtained from the City of Toronto and used as candidate sites for AED placement. Coverage was evaluated for range values from 10 to 300 meters and number of AED locations from 10 to 200, both in increments of 10, for a total of 600 unique scenarios. Coverage from placing AEDs in all public buildings was also measured. Results There were 1,310 public location OHCAs during the study period, with 25,851 non-residential buildings identified as candidate sites for AED placement. Cardiac arrest coverage increased with AED effective range, with improvements in coverage diminishing at higher ranges. For example, for a deployment of 200 AED locations, increasing effective range from 100m to 200m covered an additional 15% of cardiac arrests, whereas increasing range further from 200m to 300m covered an additional 10%. Placing an AED in each of the 25,851 public buildings resulted in coverage of 50% and 95% under assumed effective ranges of 50m and 300m, respectively. Conclusion Increasing AED effective range can improve cardiac arrest coverage. Mathematical models can help evaluate the potential impact of initiatives which increase AED range. PMID:23201501

  15. Desigualdades entre pacientes hospitalizados por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais em localidade do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, 1986 Inequalities among patients hospitalized for cardiac and cerebral-vascular diseases in the City of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Stuardo Yazlle Rocha

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Valendo-se de um sistema de informações sobre hospitalizações no Município de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil foram estudadas as características clínico-epidemiológicas referidas dos pacientes internados, em 1986, por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais (DCVC. De 43.499 hospitalizações ocorridas naquele ano, 4.673 foram ocasionadas por doenças cardíacas e vasculares-cerebrais. Utilizando a fonte de financiamento da internação como indicador do estrato social ao qual pertence o paciente, foram compostos 4 grupos de estudo: particulares, "outros", previdenciários e "não pagantes"; estes grupos apresentaram diferenças significativas quanto a coeficiente de internações por DCVC, média e mediana de idade na hospitalização, perfil ocupacional, duração da internação, freqüência dos sub-grupos diagnósticos, coeficientes de mortalidade e a idade média e mediana nos casos de óbitos. Estas diferenças foram atribuídas às disparidades sociais no nível de vida e condições de trabalho dos grupos estudados o que determina diferenças no adoecer, ser assistido e no morrer.The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hospitalizations due to cardiac and cerebral-vascular diseases (CCVD - ICD 390 - 438, which occurred in 1986, were studied on the basis of data from an information system relating to medical care in the City of Ribeirão Preto, State of S. Paulo, Brazil. These causes accounted for 4,673 of the annual total of 43,449 hospital admissions. Using the sources of payment of the hospitalization as an indicator of the patients' social strata, the following four study groups were defined: private, social insurance, non-paying and "others". These groups showed significant differences in relation to the following variables: hospitalization rates due to CCVD, mean and median age at admission and time of death, occupation, average length of stay in the hospital, mortality rates and relative frequencies of specific sub-group diagnosis. These differences are attributed to inequalities in the standard of living and in the working conditions of the groups, which determine diverse patterns of disease, medical care and mortality.

  16. Cardiac surgery in a fixed-reimbursement environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, H E

    1996-02-01

    Hospital and physician services in Canada are funded by public (government) sources. This article will describe the practice of cardiac surgery in this setting. Federal legislation has prescribed the principles of accessibility, universality, comprehensiveness, portability, and public administration for essential healthcare services in Canada. Provincial and territorial governments are responsible for the provision of services, receiving federal tax and cash transfers that supplement provincial/territorial funds for hospital, physician, and community health services. Hospitals negotiate annually for global budgets. Physicians work as independent contractors in hospitals (and communities) and are usually paid as specified by fee-for-service contracts negotiated at intervals with governments. Cardiac surgical services have been planned conjointly with government. Forty-two centers in Canada serve a population of 28 million. All but three of these centers are located in tertiary teaching hospitals; all but one do more than 200 pumps annually. The rate of cardiac operations is 80 per 100,000 population. In Ontario, the Provincial Adult Cardiac Care Network makes recommendations to governments about the distribution of the 7,600 pumps annually (population, 11 million), rationalizing waiting lists based on an urgency rating scale. Patients requiring emergent/urgent operations are well served. The average waiting time for an elective cardiac operation is 10.5 weeks. The waiting list mortality is less than 0.5%. The Provincial Adult Cardiac Care Network also determines the placement of new programs and participates in creating hospital funding formulas developed from a combination of resource and acuity intensity weighting. Most surgeons hold full-time academic appointments but are funded largely by practice income. Surgical fees average $2,000 (Canada) per case. Overhead, including malpractice insurance, is approximately 45%. All Canadian patients enjoy reasonably timely access to good cardiac surgical care. Further constraints on physician compensation and (academic) hospital funding will compromise this balance. PMID:8572826

  17. Long term follow up of severely ill patients who underwent urgent cardiac transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Mulcahy, D.; Fitzgerald, M.; Wright, C.; Sparrow, J.; Pepper, J.; Yacoub, M.; Fox, K. M.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess long term survival (> 5 years) and quality of life in severely ill patients referred for urgent cardiac transplantation. SETTING--Tertiary referral centres: before transplantation at the National Heart Hospital (late 1984 to end 1986); after transplantation at Harefield Hospital. SUBJECTS--Eighteen patients (15 men; three women) who had required intensive support in hospital before cardiac transplantation and were alive at short term follow up. INTERVENTIONS--Intravenous ...

  18. Cardiac regeneration therapy: connections to cardiac physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Naofumi; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2011-12-01

    Without heart transplantation, a large number of patients with failing hearts worldwide face poor outcomes. By means of cardiomyocyte regeneration, cardiac regeneration therapy is emerging with great promise as a means for restoring loss of cardiac function. However, the limited success of clinical trials using bone marrow-derived cells and myoblasts with heterogeneous constituents, transplanted at a wide range of cell doses, has led to disagreement on the efficacy of cell therapy. It is therefore essential to reevaluate the evidence for the efficacy of cell-based cardiac regeneration therapy, focusing on targets, materials, and methodologies. Meanwhile, the revolutionary innovation of cardiac regeneration therapy is sorely needed to help the millions of people who suffer heart failure from acquired loss of cardiomyocytes. Cardiac regeneration has been used only in limited species or as a developing process in the rodent heart; now, the possibility of cardiomyocyte turnover in the human heart is being revisited. In the pursuit of this concept, the use of cardiac stem/progenitor stem cells in the cardiac niche must be focused to usher in a second era of cardiac regeneration therapy for the severely injured heart. In addition, tissue engineering and cellular reprogramming will advance the next era of treatment that will enable current cell-based therapy to progress to "real" cardiac regeneration therapy. Although many barriers remain, the prevention of refractory heart failure through cardiac regeneration is now becoming a realistic possibility. PMID:21963835

  19. Caring for adults with congenital cardiac disease: successes and challenges for 2007 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearani, Joseph A; Connolly, Heidi M; Martinez, Richard; Fontanet, Hector; Webb, Gary D

    2007-09-01

    Patients with congenital cardiac disease require lifelong medical care. Current challenges that face practitioners who care for adults with congenital heart disease include identifying the best location for procedures, which could be a children's hospital, an adult hospital, or a tertiary care facility; providing appropriate antenatal management of pregnant women with congenitally malformed hearts, and continuing this care in the peripartum period; and securing the infrastructure and expertise of the non-cardiac subspecialties, such as nephrology, hepatology, pulmonary medicine, and haematology. The objectives of this review are to outline the common problems that confront this population of patients and the medical community, to identify challenges encountered in establishing a programme for care of adults with congenitally malformed hearts, and to review the spectrum of disease and operations that have been identified in a high volume tertiary care centre for adult patients with congenital cardiac disease. Three chosen examples of the fundamental problems facing the practitioner and patient in the United States of America in 2007 are the neglected patient with congenital cardiac disease, weak infrastructure for adults with congenital cardiac disease, and family planning and management of pregnancy for patients with congenital cardiac disease. Patients with adult congenital cardiac disease often do not receive appropriate surveillance. Three fundamental reasons for this problem are, first, that most adults with congenitally malformed hearts have been lost to follow-up by specialists, and are either receiving community care or no care at all. Second, patients and their families have not been educated about their malformed hearts, what to expect, and how to protect their interests most effectively. Third, adult physicians have not been educated about the complexity of the adult with a congenitally malformed heart. This combination can be fatal for adults with complications related to their congenitally malformed heart, or its prior treatment. Two solutions would improve surveillance and care for the next generation of patients coming out of the care of paediatric cardiologists. The first would be to educate patients and their families during childhood and adolescence. They would learn the names of the diagnoses and treatments, the problems they need to anticipate and avoid, the importance of expert surveillance, career and family planning information, and appropriate self-management. The second solution would be to encourage an orderly transfer of patients from paediatric to adult practice, usually at about 18 years of age, and at the time of graduation from high school. Clinics for adults with congenital cardiac disease depend upon multidisciplinary collaboration with specialties in areas such as congenital cardiac imaging, diagnostic and interventional catheterization, congenital cardiac surgery and anaesthesia, heart failure, transplantation, electrophysiology, reproductive and high risk pregnancy services, genetics, pulmonary hypertension, hepatology, nephrology, haematology, and others. None of these services are easily available "off the rack", although with time, experience, and determination, these services can develop very well. Facilities with experienced personnel to provide competent care for adults with congenital cardiac disease are becoming increasingly available. Parents and patients should learn that these facilities exist, and be directed to one by their paediatric caregivers when the time comes for transition to adult care. With the steady increase in the number of adults with congenital heart disease, an ever increasing number of women with such disease are becoming pregnant. Services are not widely available to assess competently and plan a pregnancy for those with more complex disease. It is essential to have a close interplay between the obstetrician, the adult congenital cardiologist, the fetal medicine perinatologist, and neonatologist. In both a community based programme and a tertiary

  20. Pulmonary embolism as a cause of cardiac arrest: Hypothermia in post-resuscitation period (cooling therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikovi? Vuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary embolism as a possible cause of acute heart failure is a potentially fatal condition that can cause death in all age groups. Patients successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest have a high risk of increased mortality and their poor long­term outcome is often associated with severe neurological complications. Case Outline. This is a case report of a 67­year­old man after a successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR which was followed by therapeutic hypothermia (TH. The patient visited the dermatological outpatients’ department with clinical presentation of pain and swelling of the right leg, shortness of breath and chest pain. During examination the patient lost consciousness, stopped breathing and had cardiac arrest. ECG was done which registered asystole. We began CPR. After 59 minutes of resuscitation return of heartbeat was achieved. The patient was transported to the Emergency Department. On admission, after computerized tomography (CT of the chest confirmed massive pulmonary embolism (PE, the patient was administered thrombolytic therapy with Metalyse (tenecteplase and anti­coagulation therapy (heparin. After stabilization, therapeutic hypothermia was applied. Combination of EMCOOLSpad on the chest and abdomen and cold Ringer lactate 500 ml at 4°C was flushed. Temperature was decreased to 33°C and kept stabile for 24 hours. After eight days the patient was conscious with a minimal neurological deficit. Conclusion. As shown in this case report, and according to the rich experience elsewhere, cooling therapy after out­of­hospital cardiac arrest and successful CRP may be useful in preventing neurological complications.

  1. Predictors for outcome among cardiac arrest patients : the importance of initial cardiac arrest rhythm versus time to return of spontaneous circulation, a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibrandt, Ida; Norsted, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundIn the past decade, early treatment of cardiac arrest (CA) victims has been improved in several ways, leading to more optimistic over all prognoses. However, the global survival rate after out-of-hospital CA (OHCA) is still not more than 5-10%. With a better knowledge of the predictors for outcome among CA patients, we can improve the management of CA, in order to strengthen the leads in the chain of survival.MethodsA retrospective cohort study including 172 CA patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Odense University Hospital (OUH) in a three-year period was conducted. We determined the 90-day mortality and neurological outcome at discharge for CA patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH), in regard to determine the importance of the predictors for mortality and neurological outcome, with emphasize on combining initial rhythm and time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).ResultsThe overall mortality was 44% and a favorable neurological outcome was seen among 52%. Strong predictors for survival and favorable neurological outcome were ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) as initial rhythm, cardiac etiology and time to ROSC¿<¿20 minutes. Age¿<¿60 years was a predictor for survival only. Patients with the combination of VT/VF and ROSC¿<¿20 minutes had undeniably the best chance of both survival and a favorable neurological outcome.ConclusionsWe found significant predictors for both survival and neurological outcome, in which an initial rhythm of VT/VF and a cardiac etiology were the strongest.

  2. The economics of cardiac biomarker testing in suspected myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Steve; Thokala, Praveen

    2015-03-01

    Suspected myocardial infarction (MI) is a common reason for emergency hospital attendance and admission. Cardiac biomarker measurement is an essential element of diagnostic assessment of suspected MI. Although the cost of a routinely available biomarker may be small, the large patient population and consequences in terms of hospital admission and investigation mean that the economic impact of cardiac biomarker testing is substantial. Economic evaluation involves comparing the estimated costs and effectiveness (outcomes) of two or more interventions or care alternatives. This process creates some difficulties with respect to cardiac biomarkers. Estimating the effectiveness of cardiac biomarkers involves identifying how they help to improve health and how we can measure this improvement. Comparison to an appropriate alternative is also problematic. New biomarkers may be promoted on the basis of reducing hospital admission or length of stay, but hospital admission for low risk patients may incur significant costs while providing very little benefit, making it an inappropriate comparator. Finally, economic evaluation may conclude that a more sensitive biomarker strategy is more effective but, by detecting and treating more cases, is also more expensive. In these circumstances it is unclear whether we should use the more effective or the cheaper option. This article provides an introduction to health economics and addresses the specific issues relevant to cardiac biomarkers. It describes the key concepts relevant to economic evaluation of cardiac biomarkers in suspected MI and highlights key areas of uncertainty and controversy. PMID:25173750

  3. Cardiac myxosarcoma with thoracic spinal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Kikuchi, Chizuo; Takahashi, Yoshiki; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Satoshi

    2014-07-01

    Echocardiography revealed a left atrial tumor in a 59-year-old man with back pain that concurrently worsened with left foot drop and loss of the left ankle reflex soon after admission to our hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed an epidural tumor extending from Th5 with spinal cord compression. The patient was immediately treated by emergency Th4-5 laminectomy and epidural decompression. One month later, a cardiac tumor excised via the left atrial approach was histopathologically diagnosed as myxosarcoma, and the Th5 tumor was consistent with this finding. This is the first report to describe spinal metastasis of cardiac myxosarcoma. PMID:23677508

  4. Optimizing neurologic prognosis after cardiac arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Tirschwell, David

    2006-01-01

    Neurologic disability is a feared outcome of resuscitation from cardiac arrest. The study by Rech and colleagues in the previous issue of Critical Care describes the use of neuron-specific enolase to inform an early prognosis in patients who survived in-hospital cardiac arrest. In their study 'none of the patients had a DNR order and there was no limitation of life support.' As a result, 10% of patients remained in a vegetative state at 6 months, a higher percentage than in other recent studi...

  5. Cardiac arrest: first presentation of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewan, Sian-Lee; Moynihan, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl collapsed in cardiac arrest in a hospital car park. Investigations revealed a potassium level of 1.8. Following a 5-day intensive care unit admission she described behaviours consistent with restrictive-purging type anorexia nervosa, which had been concealed from her parents and health professionals. Long-term management has been difficult due to poor patient engagement. Further, recurrent episodes of hypokalaemia continue to feature. Here we explore the cardiac complications of anorexia nervosa and challenges with long-term management of this condition. PMID:24092611

  6. Norovirus - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluids ( dehydration ). Anyone can become infected with norovirus. Hospital patients who are very old, very young, or ... to understand an outbreak, such as in a hospital setting. This test is done by collecting a ...

  7. Usefulness of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in the prediction of cardiac events in patients with cardiomyopathy showing stabilization of symptoms or preserved cardiac function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not rare for patients with cardiomyopathy to be asymptomatic for long periods or to show improved cardiac function following various medical interventions. Conversely, cardiac events sometimes occur in those patients, requiring close observation. We assessed the usefulness of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy (MIBG) to predict the occurrence of cardiac events in patients with stable cardiomyopathy. The subjects comprised 74 outpatients with stable cardiomyopathy. MIBG was performed calculate the extent score, severity score, washout rate (WR), and heart-to-mediastinum ratio. At about the same time, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiography and the plasma brain natriuretic peptide were measured. The mean observation period extended for 741±437 days with an end point of cardiac events (cardiac death, heart failure requiring hospitalization, and arrhythmias requiring hospitalization). During the mean follow-up period, 15 cardiac events occurred. Results of multivariate analysis revealed that LVEF was the most powerful predictor of cardiac events (0.006, p<0.01). However, WR was the only significant predictor of hard events such as cardiac death (1.171, p<0.001) and cardiac events in the group of patients who preserved cardiac function with LVEF 0.4 or higher (1.079, p<0.05). Combined use of LVEF and WR is useful to predict the occurrence of cardiac events in patients with stable cardiomyopathy. (author)h stable cardiomyopathy. (author)

  8. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Dr. Stoner about the current state of cardiac disease here in the United States. So where are ... slide we'll also appreciate the volume of cardiac disease compared to other diseases. If you look at ...

  9. Cardiac Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this website will be limited. Search Help? Cardiac Risk Assessment Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal ... Common Questions | Related Pages What is a cardiac risk assessment? This is a group of tests and health ...

  10. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Luijkx, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with CMR. Chapter 2 describes our finding that left-right ratios are preserved across all sports categories, and that these ratios are similar to those found in non-athletic controls. The ratio of ve...

  11. Coping to Cardiac Surgery – preview note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Fernanda da Costa Linch

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a research project that has been developed at Santa Maria University Hospital (HUSM, aiming to identify the coping strategies that patients use when referred for Cardiac Surgery. The data will be collected in the cardiac pre-surgery period through a questionnaire, intending to characterize the participants; besides using the Coping Inventory instrument – Jalowiec – to identify the coping styles that the participants use against the stressors confront. From the coping process identification of the patients who were referred for cardiac surgery, it will be possible to analyze and base the professionals’ actions who deal with these patients, aiming to attend the emotional and physiological adaptation demands to the surgical process.

  12. Cardiac chest pain in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ay?enur Paç

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chest pain (CP is a common cause of referral to hospital, not always directly related with cardiac diseases (CD. We investigated the causes for cardiac CP in children.Methods: A hundred and twenty children, admitted consecutively to pediatric cardiology clinic with CP, were evaluated in two groups (5-12 and 13-16 age-group in a cross-sectional and a retrospective way. Chest X-ray, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were performed. In case of necessity, 24-hour Holter monitoring, exercise stress test, tilt-table test were performed, and hemogram, serum glucose, electrolytes were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test and risk ratio [(Odds-ratio (OR, (95% CI] in groups were evaluated. Results: Most children with CP were older. Cardiac diseases were established in 52 (42.5% patients. Cardiac diseases, which may cause CP (aortic stenosis, mitral valve prolapse, arrhythmias, etc. were found in 23.3% (n=28 of patients. Compared with the younger, the risk of structural CD was found to be 2.84 times higher (OR=2.84, 95%CI 1.24-6.48, p=0.011 and risk of arrhythmia was 3.53 times higher in the elder age group (OR=3.53, 95%CI 0.93-13.38, p=0.051. When all CD were evaluated, elder children were found to have 4.12 times more risk of having CD (OR=4.12, 95%CI 1.89-9.01, p<0.0001.Conclusion: Most children with CP were older than 12 years old. CDs were frequent and about half of them were thought to directly cause pain. So, further investigations according to standard algorithms are needed in the evaluation of children with CP. Other important result is the increased risk of CD found in elder children.

  13. Incidência de parada cardíaca durante anestesia, em hospital universitário de atendimento terciário: estudo prospectivo entre 1996 e 2002 / Cardiac arrest during anesthesia at a tertiary teaching hospital: prospective survey from 1996 to 2002 / Incidencia de parada cardíaca durante anestesia, en hospital universitario de servicio terciario: estudio prospectivo entre 1996 y 2002

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Gobbo, Braz; José Reinaldo Cerqueira, Braz; Norma Sueli Pinheiro, Módolo; Paulo do, Nascimento Júnior; Ana Paula, Shuhama; Laís Helena Camacho, Navarro.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A incidência e causas de parada cardíaca (PC) durante a anestesia variam e são difíceis de comparar diante dos diversos métodos usados nos estudos. A pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar todas as PC ocorridas no intra e pós-operatório, durante um período de sete anos, de 19 [...] 96 a 2002, em hospital de ensino de atendimento terciário para determinar incidência e causas da PC. MÉTODO: A incidência prospectiva de PC ocorrida durante a anestesia em 40.941 pacientes consecutivos foi identificada, utilizando-se um Banco de Dados. Todos os casos de PC e óbito foram revisados por uma Comissão, para determinar o fator desencadeante da PC ou óbito. A incidência de PC foi calculada em relação à idade, sexo, estado físico, segundo a classificação da ASA, tipo de atendimento, fatores desencadeantes, como alteração do estado físico do paciente e complicações cirúrgicas e anestésicas, tipo de anestesia e evolução para óbito. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram 138 PC (33,7:10.000), sendo a maioria em recém-nascidos, crianças até um ano e idosos, no sexo masculino (65,2%), em pacientes com estado físico ASA III ou superior, em atendimento de emergência e durante anestesia geral. Alterações do estado físico foram o principal fator de PC (23,9:10.000), seguidas de complicações cirúrgicas isoladamente (4,64:10.000) ou associadas a alterações do estado físico (2,44:10.000) e da anestesia isoladamente (1,71:10.000) ou associadas a alterações do estado físico (0,98:10.000). O risco de óbito relacionado à anestesia como fator principal ou contributivo foi igual para ambos (0,49:10.000). As principais causas da mortalidade associada à anestesia foram os problemas ventilatórios (45,4%), eventos relacionados à medicação empregada (27,3%), aspiração pulmonar (18,2%) e hidratação excessiva (9,1%). CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de PC durante a anestesia ainda continua elevada. A maioria das PC e óbitos associados à anestesia foi relacionada ao manuseio das vias aéreas e à administração de medicamentos e anestésicos. Abstract in spanish JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La incidencia y causas de parada cardíaca (PC) durante la anestesia varían y son difíciles de comparar delante de los diversos métodos usados en los estudios. El objetivo de la pesquisa fue de como estudiar todas las PC ocurridas en el intra y pos-operatorio, durante un pe [...] ríodo de siete años, de 1996 a 2002, en un hospital de enseñanza de servicio terciario para determinar incidencia y causas de la PC. MÉTODO: La incidencia prospectiva de PC ocurrida durante la anestesia en 40.941 pacientes consecutivos fue identificada, utilizándose un Banco de datos. Todos los casos de PC y fallecimiento fueron revisados por una Comisión, para determinar el factor desencadenante de la PC o fallecimiento. La incidencia de la PC fue calculada con relación a la edad, sexo, estado físico, según la clasificación de la ASA, tipo de servicio, factores desencadenantes, como alteración del estado físico del paciente y complicaciones quirúrgicas y anestésicas, tipo de anestesia y evolución para fallecimiento. RESULTADOS: Ocurrieron 138 PC (33,7:10.000), siendo la mayoría en recién nacidos, niños hasta un año de edad y ancianos, en el sexo masculino (65,2%), en pacientes con estado físico ASA III o superior, en servicio de emergencia y durante anestesia general. Alteraciones del estado físico fueron el principal factor de PC (23,9:10.000), seguidas de complicaciones quirúrgicas aisladamente (4,64:10.000) o asociadas a alteraciones del estado físico (2,44:10.000) y de la anestesia aisladamente (1,71:10.000) o asociadas a alteraciones del estado físico (0,98:10.000). El riesgo de fallecimiento relacionado a la anestesia como factor principal o contributivo fue igual para ambos (0,49:10.000). Las principales causas de la mortalidad asociada a la anestesia fueron los problemas ventilatorios (45,4%), eventos relacionados a la medicación usada (27,3%), aspiración pulmonar (18,2%) e hidrat

  14. Incidência de parada cardíaca durante anestesia, em hospital universitário de atendimento terciário: estudo prospectivo entre 1996 e 2002 Incidencia de parada cardíaca durante anestesia, en hospital universitario de servicio terciario: estudio prospectivo entre 1996 y 2002 Cardiac arrest during anesthesia at a tertiary teaching hospital: prospective survey from 1996 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Gobbo Braz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A incidência e causas de parada cardíaca (PC durante a anestesia variam e são difíceis de comparar diante dos diversos métodos usados nos estudos. A pesquisa teve como objetivo estudar todas as PC ocorridas no intra e pós-operatório, durante um período de sete anos, de 1996 a 2002, em hospital de ensino de atendimento terciário para determinar incidência e causas da PC. MÉTODO: A incidência prospectiva de PC ocorrida durante a anestesia em 40.941 pacientes consecutivos foi identificada, utilizando-se um Banco de Dados. Todos os casos de PC e óbito foram revisados por uma Comissão, para determinar o fator desencadeante da PC ou óbito. A incidência de PC foi calculada em relação à idade, sexo, estado físico, segundo a classificação da ASA, tipo de atendimento, fatores desencadeantes, como alteração do estado físico do paciente e complicações cirúrgicas e anestésicas, tipo de anestesia e evolução para óbito. RESULTADOS: Ocorreram 138 PC (33,7:10.000, sendo a maioria em recém-nascidos, crianças até um ano e idosos, no sexo masculino (65,2%, em pacientes com estado físico ASA III ou superior, em atendimento de emergência e durante anestesia geral. Alterações do estado físico foram o principal fator de PC (23,9:10.000, seguidas de complicações cirúrgicas isoladamente (4,64:10.000 ou associadas a alterações do estado físico (2,44:10.000 e da anestesia isoladamente (1,71:10.000 ou associadas a alterações do estado físico (0,98:10.000. O risco de óbito relacionado à anestesia como fator principal ou contributivo foi igual para ambos (0,49:10.000. As principais causas da mortalidade associada à anestesia foram os problemas ventilatórios (45,4%, eventos relacionados à medicação empregada (27,3%, aspiração pulmonar (18,2% e hidratação excessiva (9,1%. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência de PC durante a anestesia ainda continua elevada. A maioria das PC e óbitos associados à anestesia foi relacionada ao manuseio das vias aéreas e à administração de medicamentos e anestésicos.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La incidencia y causas de parada cardíaca (PC durante la anestesia varían y son difíciles de comparar delante de los diversos métodos usados en los estudios. El objetivo de la pesquisa fue de como estudiar todas las PC ocurridas en el intra y pos-operatorio, durante un período de siete años, de 1996 a 2002, en un hospital de enseñanza de servicio terciario para determinar incidencia y causas de la PC. MÉTODO: La incidencia prospectiva de PC ocurrida durante la anestesia en 40.941 pacientes consecutivos fue identificada, utilizándose un Banco de datos. Todos los casos de PC y fallecimiento fueron revisados por una Comisión, para determinar el factor desencadenante de la PC o fallecimiento. La incidencia de la PC fue calculada con relación a la edad, sexo, estado físico, según la clasificación de la ASA, tipo de servicio, factores desencadenantes, como alteración del estado físico del paciente y complicaciones quirúrgicas y anestésicas, tipo de anestesia y evolución para fallecimiento. RESULTADOS: Ocurrieron 138 PC (33,7:10.000, siendo la mayoría en recién nacidos, niños hasta un año de edad y ancianos, en el sexo masculino (65,2%, en pacientes con estado físico ASA III o superior, en servicio de emergencia y durante anestesia general. Alteraciones del estado físico fueron el principal factor de PC (23,9:10.000, seguidas de complicaciones quirúrgicas aisladamente (4,64:10.000 o asociadas a alteraciones del estado físico (2,44:10.000 y de la anestesia aisladamente (1,71:10.000 o asociadas a alteraciones del estado físico (0,98:10.000. El riesgo de fallecimiento relacionado a la anestesia como factor principal o contributivo fue igual para ambos (0,49:10.000. Las principales causas de la mortalidad asociada a la anestesia fueron los problemas ventilatorios (45,4%, eventos relacionados a la medicación usada (27,3%, aspiración pulmonar (18,2% e hidratación excesiva (9,1%. CONCLUSIONES: La incidencia de PC dur

  15. Primary cardiac osteosarcoma in a 42-year-old woman

    OpenAIRE

    Zou Jianyong; Wang Tao; Cai Lie; Su Chunhua; Lei Yiyan; Luo Honghe; Chen Zhenguang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We describe here a 42-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital with a pedunculated mass in her left atrium. She was diagnosed with a primary cardiac osteosarcoma with special immunohistochemical characteristics. Echocardiography and computed tomography can be used to differentiate cardiac osteosarcomas from routine intracardiac tumors. The patient was treated by surgical removal of the mass. Two years later, she has shown no evidence of disease recurrence. We discuss primary osteo...

  16. Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise and Self Care for Chronic Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Ades, Philip A.; Keteyian, Steven J.; Balady, Gary J.; Houston-miller, Nancy; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Mancini, Donna M.; Rich, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is highly prevalent in older individuals and a major cause of morbidity, mortality, hospitalizations and disability. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise training and CHF self-care counseling have each been shown to improve clinical status and clinical outcomes in CHF. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of CR exercise training alone (without counseling) have demonstrated consistent improvements in CHF symptoms in addition to reductions of cardiac mortality and ho...

  17. Early and Late Neurological Complications after Cardiac Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balkanay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The clinical use of cyclosporine as an immunosuppressant improved the recipient’s life span and revolutionized the field of cardiac transplantation. But most of the immunesuppressant drugs including cyclosporine may cause neurological and many other side effects. In this article we present three cases, from 58 patients, undergoing cardiac transplantation at our hospital from 1989 to 2008 in whom developed transient neurological complications.

  18. The role of psychological support in cardiac surgery: initial experience

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Casabona; Stefano del Ponte; Gian Luca Bardi; Giuseppe Punta; Francesco Parisi; Pier Giuseppe Forsennati; Guglielmo Mario Actis Dato; Edoardo Zingarelli; Roberto Flocco; Erika Bellini; Sabrina Ghersi; Fabrizio Sansone

    2011-01-01

    The scientific literature has pointed out several predictors of negative outcome after surgery such as pain and depression, negatively affecting the postoperative outcome in cardiac surgery. From January 2009 until June 2010, 15 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were enrolled. The patients were assessed by psychological evaluation either in the hospital stay either in the rehabilitation period with the aim of identifying their emotional condition (sentiments about the onset of the diseas...

  19. Donation after cardiac death: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Patty; Bair, Holly A; Gates, Liz; Janczyk, Randy J

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasingly positive outcome of organ transplantation as an accepted treatment of end-stage organ diseases, an average of 15 people die each day awaiting organ transplantation. According to the United Network for Organ Sharing, there are more than 90,000 people in the United States waiting for an organ transplant. In the United States, less than 1% of all deaths are attributed to brain death. A single brain-dead organ donor has the potential to save up to 8 individuals by donating organs and providing up to 50 people with tissue and cornea transplants. The reality is that the source of available brain-dead donors does not meet the needs of the growing waiting list. To help deal with the increasing demand for organs, donation after cardiac death has been reintroduced to families of patients with catastrophic brain injuries. Families have the right to be informed of all potential end-of-life options, including that of organ donation and the use of donation after cardiac death when appropriate. Hospitals and healthcare workers must be committed to provide the option of donation after cardiac death for both donor families and transplant recipients. The purpose of this article is to examine the process of implementing a donation after cardiac death policy in a 1,061-bed tertiary care hospital with level I trauma designation. PMID:17420653

  20. The effect of cardiac rehabilitation on anxiety and depression in patients undergoing cardiac bypass graft surgery in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Farkhondeh; Shoul Alireza; Janati Mansour; Kojuri Javad; Zare Najaf

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many patients experience anxiety and depression after cardiac bypass surgery. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation on anxiety and depression in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in southern Iran. Methods For this randomized controlled trial, 80 patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited and randomly assigned to case and control groups. Anxiety...

  1. A case of thyroid storm with cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakashima Y

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yutaka Nakashima,1 Tsuneaki Kenzaka,2 Masanobu Okayama,3 Eiji Kajii31Department for Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, 2Division of General Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Japan; 3Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, JapanAbstract: A 23-year-old man became unconscious while jogging. He immediately received basic life support from a bystander and was transported to our hospital. On arrival, his spontaneous circulation had returned from a state of ventricular fibrillation and pulseless electrical activity. Following admission, hyperthyroidism led to a suspicion of thyroid storm, which was then diagnosed as a possible cause of the cardiac arrest. Although hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac arrest including ventricular fibrillation is rare, it should be considered when diagnosing the cause of treatable cardiac arrest.Keywords: hyperthyroidism, ventricular fibrillation, treatable cardiac arrest, cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary arrest

  2. Provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology services in the London Strategic Health Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To review the provision of out-of-hours interventional radiology (IR) services in the London Strategic Health Authority (SHA). Materials and methods: All 29 acute hospitals in the London SHA were contacted between November 2008 and January 2009. A questionnaire based on the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) guidelines assessed the provision of out-of-hours IR services. An 'ad-hoc' service was defined as on-call provision where not all the radiologists could perform intervention: If IR was required out of hours, an interventionalist came in when off-duty or the patient was transferred. Results: Seventeen out of the 29 (59%) hospitals provided ad-hoc out-of-hours services, eight (28%) provided a 24-hour rota, and four (14%) provide no out-of-hours cover. No ad-hoc service had formal transfer arrangements to a centre providing a 24 h service. Only two hospitals providing a 24 h service had six radiologists on the rota. Conclusion: Strategic planning for out-of-hours IR across London is recommended. This is likely to be welcomed by the hospitals involved, allowing informal arrangements to be formalized, and collaboration to provide comprehensive regional networks, provided appropriate funding is made available. A national audit is recommended; it is unlikely these findings are unique to London.

  3. Cardiac tumours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Jonathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  4. Interference of Postoperative Pain on Women's daily Life after Early Discharge from Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Leegaard, Marit; Rustøen, Tone; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2009-01-01

    Women report more postoperative pain and problems performing domestic activities than men in the first month of recovery after cardiac surgery. The purpose of this article is to describe how women rate and describe pain interference with daily life after early discharge from cardiac surgery. A qualitative study was conducted in 2004-2005 with ten women recruited from a large Norwegian university hospital before discharge from their first elective cardiac surgery. Various aspects of the women...

  5. Predictors of Prolonged Stay in the Intensive Care Unit following Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Rokeia Eltheni; Konstantinos Giakoumidakis; Hero Brokalaki; Petros Galanis; Ioannis Nenekidis; George Fildissis

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of intensive care unit length of stay (ICU-LOS) could contribute to more efficient ICU resources' allocation and better planning of care among cardiac surgery patients. The aim of this study was to identify the preoperative and intraoperative predictors for prolonged cardiac surgery ICU-LOS. An observational cohort study was conducted among 150 consecutive patients, who were admitted to the cardiac surgery ICU of a tertiary hospital of Athens, Greece from September 2010 to Janu...

  6. Cardiac mitochondria and arrhythmias

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, David A.; O Rourke, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of sudden cardiac death throughout the world, the mechanisms that lead to ventricular arrhythmias are not fully understood. Over the last 20 years, a growing body of evidence indicates that cardiac mitochondria are involved in the genesis of arrhythmia. In this review, we have attempted to describe the role that mitochondria play in altering the heart's electrical function by introducing heterogeneity into the cardiac action potential. Specifically, we have focused o...

  7. Genoplivning med automatisk ekstern defibrillator på hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LØfgren, Bo; Wahlgreen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Early defibrillation is a determinant of survival in cardiac arrest. We report a Danish case of successful in-hospital resuscitation using an automated external defibrillator (AED). This case illustrates important aspects of implementation of in-hospital use of an AED, i.e. location of the AED, education of the staff, systematic registration and data collection and technical aspects of AED use. If in-hospital AED implementation is carefully executed, its use may provide a safe and effective way of obtaining early defibrillation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-26

  8. Cardiac stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leri, Annarosa; Rota, Marcello; Hosoda, Toru; Goichberg, Polina; Anversa, Piero

    2014-11-01

    The critical role that stem cell niches have in cardiac homeostasis and myocardial repair following injury is the focus of this review. Cardiac niches represent specialized microdomains where the quiescent and activated state of resident stem cells is regulated. Alterations in niche function with aging and cardiac diseases result in abnormal sites of cardiomyogenesis and inadequate myocyte formation. The relevance of Notch1 signaling, gap-junction formation, HIF-1? and metabolic state in the regulation of stem cell growth and differentiation within the cardiac niches are discussed. PMID:25267073

  9. Marketing cardiac CT programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jason

    2010-01-01

    There are two components of cardiac CT discussed in this article: coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).The distinctive advantages of each CT examination are outlined. In order to ensure a successful cardiac CT program, it is imperative that imaging facilities market their cardiac CT practices effectively in order to gain a competitive advantage in this valuable market share. If patients receive quality care by competent individuals, they are more likely to recommend the facility's cardiac CT program. Satisfied patients will also be more willing to come back for any further testing. PMID:22276376

  10. Out-of-Wedlock Pregnancy and Childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin A.; Caldwell, Steven B.

    Out-of-wedlock birth rates have not fallen much at all among teenagers. New analyses of existing data sets indicate that becoming an out-of-wedlock parent is a process with three stages: commencement of sexual activity; conception among the sexually active; and pregnancy outcome among those who conceive. Public policy variables such as AFDC…

  11. Cardiac imaging to investigate suspected cardiac pain in the post-treadmill era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Oliver E; Morgan-Hughes, Gareth; Bellenger, Nick G

    2014-10-01

    Symptomatic cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of hospital admissions in the UK; along with emergency attendances, over 100,000 patients are investigated using treadmill testing via rapid access chest pain clinics each year. With the introduction of new technologies, clinicians have a wide choice of investigations including nuclear perfusion scanning, dobutamine stress echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography and stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. These imaging modalities have their strengths and weaknesses, which depend not only on the pre-test likelihood of significant coronary artery disease but also the clinical characteristics of the patient. This article will review the differing imaging modalities, the patient experience, accuracy, prognostic data and future prospects for cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25301906

  12. Diagnosis of traumatic cardiac contusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac contusion following blunt chest trauma remains a diagnostic problem because of a lack of sensitive diagnostic tests. This study evaluated thallous chloride Tl 201 single-photon-emission computed tomography in a series of 48 patients following blunt chest trauma. Of the 48 patients, 23 had normal scans. None of these patients proved to have serious arrhythmias during three days of continuous monitoring. Of 25 patients with abnormal or ambiguous studies, five (20%) developed serious arrhythmias requiring therapy. Single-photon-emission computed tomography scanning thus was sensitive in indicating that group of patients at risk of serious arrhythmias, and may therefore prove to be a useful screening test to determine the need for hospitalization and arrhythmia monitoring following blunt chest trauma

  13. High Thoracic Epidural Analgesia in Cardiac Surgery : Part 1-High Thoracic Epidural Analgesia Improves Cardiac Performance in Cardiac Surgery Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Carl-Johan; Bhavsar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perioperative cardioprotective effect of high thoracic epidural analgesia (HTEA), primarily expressed as an effect on cardiac performance and hemodynamics in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A randomized, prospective study. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty low-to-moderate risk patients between the ages of 65 and 80 years scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery with or without aortic valve replacement. SETTING: A university hospital. INTERVENTION: Patients randomized to receive HTEA as a supplement to general anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Perioperative hemodynamic measurements, perioperative fluid balance, and postoperative release of cardiac enzymes were collected. The end-diastolic volume index (EDVI), the stroke volume index (overall 38 v 32 mL), the cardiac index (overall 2.35 v. 2.18 L/minute/m(2)), the central venous pressure, and central venous oxygenation were higher in the HTEA group. The mean arterial blood pressure was marginally lower in the HTEA group, whereas no difference was noted in the heart rate or peripheral saturation between the groups. No differences were found in the postoperative levels of troponin T and CK-MB between groups. NT-proBNP changed over time (p <0.001) and was lower in the HTEA group (p = 0.013), with maximal values of 291 ± 265 versus 326 ± 274. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of a higher stroke volume index and central venous oxygenation without an increase in heart rate or mean arterial pressure suggest that HTEA improves cardiac performance in elderly cardiac surgery patients.

  14. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation. PMID:14753323

  15. Pre-hospital treatment of STEMI patients. A scientific statement of the working group acute cardiac care of the European society of cardiology | Tratamiento prehospitalario de los pacientes con IAMCEST. Una declaración científica del Working Group Acute Cardiac Care de la European Society of Cardiology

    OpenAIRE

    Tubaro, M.; Danchin, N.; Goldstein, P.; Filippatos, G.; Hasin, Y.; Heras, M.; Jansky, P.; Norekval, Tm; Swahn, E.; Thygesen, K.; Vrints, C.; Zahger, D.; Arntz, Hr; Bellou, A.; La Coussaye, Je

    2012-01-01

    In ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) the pre-hospital phase is the most critical, as the administration of the most appropriate treatment in a timely manner is instrumental for mortality reduction. STEMI systems of care based on networks of medical institutions connected by an efficient emergency medical service are pivotal. The first steps are devoted to minimize the patient's delay in seeking care, rapidly dispatch a properly staffed and equipped ambulance to make the diagnosis on ...

  16. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ll see the implantation of an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator. The surgery will be performed by Dr. Hanscy Seide and ... the use of a cardiac defibrillator in open heart surgery and what is the risk to the phrenic ...

  17. The cardiac patient during Ramadan and Hajj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan; Ahmed, Waqar H; Al-Shaibi, Khaled F

    2014-10-01

    The holy month of Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam. During this month, fasting Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, and sex from dawn until sunset. Although the Quran exempts sick people from the duty of fasting, it is not uncommon for many heart disease patients to fast during Ramadan. Despite the fact that more than a billion Muslims worldwide fast during Ramadan, there is no clear consensus on its effects on cardiac disease. Some studies have shown that the effects of fasting on stable patients with cardiac disease are minimal and the majority of patients with stable cardiac illness can endure Ramadan fasting with no clinical deterioration. Fasting during Ramadan does not seem to increase hospitalizations for congestive heart failure. However, patients with decompensated heart failure or those requiring large doses of diuretics are strongly advised not to fast, particularly when Ramadan falls in summer. Patients with controlled hypertension can safely fast. However, patients with resistant hypertension should be advised not to fast until their blood pressure is reasonably controlled. Patients with recent myocardial infarction, unstable angina, recent cardiac intervention or cardiac surgery should avoid fasting. Physician advice should be individualized and patients are encouraged to seek medical advice before fasting in order to adjust their medications, if required. The performance of the Hajj pilgrimage is another pillar of Islam and is obligatory once in the lifetime for all adult Muslims who are in good health and can afford to undertake the journey. Hajj is a physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually demanding experience. Medical checkups one or two months before leaving for Hajj is warranted, especially for those with chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease. Patients with heart failure, uncontrolled hypertension, serious arrhythmias, unstable angina, recent myocardial infarction, or cardiac surgery should be considered unfit for undertaking the Hajj pilgrimage. PMID:25278723

  18. Mathematical cardiac electrophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Colli Franzone, Piero; Scacchi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the main mathematical and numerical models in computational electrocardiology, ranging from microscopic membrane models of cardiac ionic channels to macroscopic bidomain, monodomain, eikonal models and cardiac source representations. These advanced multiscale and nonlinear models describe the cardiac bioelectrical activity from the cell level to the body surface and are employed in both the direct and inverse problems of electrocardiology. The book also covers advanced numerical techniques needed to efficiently carry out large-scale cardiac simulations, including time and space discretizations, decoupling and operator splitting techniques, parallel finite element solvers. These techniques are employed in 3D cardiac simulations illustrating the excitation mechanisms, the anisotropic effects on excitation and repolarization wavefronts, the morphology of electrograms in normal and pathological tissue and some reentry phenomena. The overall aim of the book is to present rigorously the mathematica...

  19. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  20. Trombosis venosa mayor asociada a catéter de hipotermia terapéutica en un paciente con paro cardiorrespiratorio recuperado: comunicación de un caso y revisión de la literatura / Venous thrombosis secondary to catheter insertion for hypothermia after cardiac arrest: Report of one case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Retamal; Jean, Bachler; Ricardo, Mejía; Orlando, Concha; Max, Andresen.

    1201-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english To improve survival and reduce neurological injury, the use of mild hypothermia following cardiac arrest has been recommended. We report a 65 years old woman who presented an out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest. The patient was comatose following initial resuscitation and was [...] admitted into the ICU, where cooling was initiated using an intravascular catheter. After 48 hours, rewarming was initiated. Although no neurological impairment was observed, physical examination of the right inguinal area and echo-Doppler examination revealed an extensive catheter-related thrombophlebitis with right ileocaval vein occlusion., with high risk of masive and life threatening pulmonary embolism. We report a clinical case and review the literature to point out the need for a high index of diagnostic suspicion of deep venous thrombosis in these specific setting.

  1. Nationwide study of sudden cardiac death in persons aged 1-35 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this investigation was to study the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in persons aged 1-35 years in a nationwide setting (5.38 million people) by systematic evaluation of all deaths. Methods and results All deaths in persons aged 1-35 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included. Death certificates were read independently by two physicians. The National Patient Registry was used to retrieve information on prior medical history. All autopsy reports were read and the cause of death was revised based on autopsy findings. We identified 625 cases of sudden unexpected death (10% of all deaths), of which 156 (25%) were not autopsied. Of the 469 autopsied cases, 314 (67%) were SCD. The most common cardiac cause of death was ischaemic heart disease (13%); 29% of autopsied sudden unexpected death cases were unexplained. In 45% of SCD cases, the death was witnessed; 34% died during sleep; 89% were out-of-hospital deaths. Highest possible incidence rate of SCD in the young was 2.8 per 100 000 person-years including non-autopsied cases of sudden unexpected death. Excluding those, the incidence rate declined to 1.9 per 100 000 person-years. Conclusions A total of 7% of all deaths in the young can be attributed to SCD, when including non-autopsied cases (autopsy ratio 75%). The incidence rate of SCD in the young of 2.8 per 100 000 person-years is higher than previously reported.

  2. Pattern of cardiovascular diseases in pilgrims admitted in Al-Noor hospital Makkah during hajj 1429 H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of Hajj pilgrims is increasing every year, and has crossed the huge figure of 2 million. During Hajj period of 1428H (2007G), cardiac problems have been reported as one of the commonest causes of admissions in hospitals. However, the data regarding their Nationalities, age and gender is not available in the literature. This study was carried out to identify the cardiovascular diseases in Hajj pilgrims for the year 1429 H (2008G) classified on geographical, age and gender basis, and to suggest pre-Hajj measures for their home countries and their handling by concerned Ministry during Hajj. Methods: On retrospective basis, data of all patients belonging to different Nationalities of various regions of the world, their age and gender, was analysed, who were admitted in the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) and cardiology wards at Al- Noor Specialist Hospital Makkah, over a period of 15 days in Hajj season 1429H (2008G). Results: Out of 203 patients hospitalised, the majority (94%) were older, i.e., >45 years. The patients suffering from various cardiac diseases were in the following order: heart failure cases 67%; ischemic heart disease 21.7%; and valvular heart disease 11.3%. As an outcome of total admissions (hospitalisation), 84% patients were discharged in stable condition, 9% were discharged against medical advice, 4.5% were unable to perform Hajj and 2.5% patients died. Most common cardiac diseases were found in hospitalized patients for Hajj 1429 H, which belongsed patients for Hajj 1429 H, which belongs to different countries over the globe. It indicate loop holes in the health services of their home countries not verifying the physical fitness of their pilgrims before allowing them to proceed for Hajj. This study will also serve as a helping tool for the Ministry of Hajj in Saudi Arabia to take appropriate measures for demanding strictness for the physical fitness of Hajj pilgrims and anticipated health services for them. (author)

  3. Predictors of low cardiac output in decompensated severe heart failure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Eidi, Ochiai; Juliano Novaes, Cardoso; Kelly Regina Novaes, Vieira; Marcelo Villaça, Lima; Euler Cristovan Ochiai, Brancalhao; Antonio Carlos Pereira, Barretto.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of low cardiac output and mortality in decompensated heart failure. INTRODUCTION: Introduction: Patients with decompensated heart failure have a high mortality rate, especially those patients with low cardiac output. However, this clinical presentation is uncommon, [...] and its management is controversial. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 452 patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure with an ejection fraction of 60 years, and 64.6% were men. Low cardiac output was present in 281 (63%) patients on admission. Chagas disease was the cause of heart failure in 92 (20.4%) patients who had higher B type natriuretic peptide levels (1,978.38 vs. 1,697.64 pg/mL; P = 0.015). Predictors of low cardiac output were Chagas disease (RR: 3.655, P

  4. Beau's Lines After Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugelmann, Hallam M; Gaieski, David F

    2013-12-01

    A 34-year-old man with uncontrolled hypertension suffered a ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest from an obstructive left anterior descending artery occlusion. He was defibrillated more than 10 times before achieving return of spontaneous circulation. He was comatose after his arrest and was treated with therapeutic hypothermia, and a bare metal stent was placed in his obstructed coronary artery with restoration of excellent postobstruction blood flow. His postarrest course was complicated by cardiogenic shock; prolonged ventilator-dependent respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy; tracheobronchitis, with cultures positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); and an extended period of agitation and delirium. Thirty-four days after his arrest, his mental status started to improve rapidly. His delirium resolved, he became oriented and lucid, and he was able to be discharged to a rehabilitation facility on hospital day 41, with an excellent prognosis and close follow-up in primary care, cardiology, tracheostomy, and coumadin clinics. He returned to the emergency department 65 days later with the complaint of intermittent chest pain of 4 days' duration. Upon physical examination he was found to have Beau's lines on his fingernails. He was admitted to the hospital for a rule-out myocardial infarction workup, which was uneventful. He was discharged to home in good condition 2 days later. PMID:24834950

  5. Economic and biological costs of cardiac imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picano Eugenio

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical imaging market consists of several billion tests per year worldwide. Out of these, at least one third are cardiovascular procedures. Keeping in mind that each test represents a cost, often a risk, and a diagnostic hypothesis, we can agree that every unnecessary and unjustifiable test is one test too many. Small individual costs, risks, and wastes multiplied by billions of examinations per year represent an important population, society and environmental burden. Unfortunately, the appropriateness of cardiac imaging is extra-ordinarily low and there is little awareness in patients and physicians of differential costs, radiological doses, and long term risks of different imaging modalities. For a resting cardiac imaging test, being the average cost (not charges of an echocardiogram equal to 1 (as a cost comparator, the cost of a CT is 3.1x, of a SPECT 3.27x, of a Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance imaging 5.51x, of a PET 14.03x, and of a right and left heart catheterization 19.96x. For stress cardiac imaging, compared with the treadmill exercise test equal to 1 (as a cost comparator, the cost of stress echocardiography is 2.1x and of a stress SPECT scintigraphy is 5.7x. Biohazards and downstream long-term costs linked to radiation-induced oncogenesis should also be considered. The radiation exposure is absent in echo and magnetic resonance, and corresponds to 500 chest x rays for a sestamibi cardiac stress scan and to 1150 chest x rays for a thallium scan. The corresponding extra-risk in a lifetime of fatal cancer is 1 in 2000 exposed patients for a sestamibi stress and 1 in 1000 for a thallium scan. Increased awareness of economic, biologic, and environmental costs of cardiac imaging will hopefully lead to greater appropriateness, wisdom and prudence from both the prescriber and the practitioner. In this way, the sustainability of cardiac imaging will eventually improve.

  6. Lack of agreement between esophageal doppler cardiac output measurements and continuous pulse contour analysis during off-pump cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Groesdonk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Transesophageal echo-Doppler cardiac output as well as arterial pulse contour analyses cardiac output are increasingly used for cardiac output monitoring. No data are available whether both techniques may be used interchangeably in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Design: Prospective, observational study Setting: Operating rooms of a university affiliated hospital. Patients: 30 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.Interventions: NoneMeasurements: 900 paired cardiac output measurements were obtained by pulse contour analysis following transpulmonary thermodilution equilibration by the PiCCO system (PiCCO, Pulsion, Munich, Germany and by the HemoSonic esophageal doppler monitor (HemoSonic 100; Arrow International, Reading, PA. Measurements were performed within the first hour after induction of anesthesia. Results: Bland-Altman analysis of the complete data set showed a mean difference (bias of - 0.12 l/min (95% CI -0.06 to -0.18 with limits of agreement + 1.8 l/min to -1.6 l/min (upper 95% CI 1.78 to 1.98; lower 95% CI -1.74 to -1.54, the percentage error was + 37% to -44.5%. Transesophageal echo-Doppler cardiac output closely correlated (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001 with pulse-contour analyses cardiac output. Conclusions: Several studies have shown the accuracy of calibrated pulse contour cardiac output measurements in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Thus, the present data question the reliability of transesophageal echo-Doppler derived cardiac output measurements in this setting and may have implications for using transesophageal echo-Doppler during goal-directed hemodynamic optimization.

  7. A Case of Recurrent Cardiac Arrest and Light Chain Cardiac Amyloidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Light chain amyloidosis is a clonal plasma cell disorder characterized by monoclonal light chain deposition in body organs. The diagnostic challenge belies the variable, often elusive nature of amyloid disease presentation. Cardiac involvement in particular may be seen in up to 50% of cases, and is associated with poor prognosis. We present a case of light chain cardiac amyloidosis, with multi-system derangements, leading to recurrent cardiac arrest despite resuscitative efforts. Case Report: A 59-year-old man with a history of end-stage renal disease presented with the complaint of sudden onset of shortness of breath. Atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response was noted. While undergoing treatment, complications arose on 3 separate occasions at which time the patient experienced a precipitous fall in heart rate, cardiac arrest, and successful resuscitation. An echocardiogram was performed which revealed a 25% reduction in ejection fraction and new left ventricular septal thickening in comparison to an evaluation 3 months prior. Cardiac catheterization was unremarkable for coronary artery disease. Over the course of hospitalization, there was progressive muscle weakness. Nerve conduction studies were performed, revealing diffuse axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. The link between diffuse polyneuropathy, autonomic instability, persistent hypotension requiring intravenous vasoactive support, and recurrent asystole remained unclear. Amyloidosis workup with immunofixation electrophoresis revealed free kappa light chain excess. Before further workup, the patient went into asystole, unresponsive to resuscitative efforts. Post-mortem findings suggest cardiac arrest due to amyloidosis of the heart secondary to multiple myeloma. Of note, amyloid deposits were found focally in blood vessels of the kidney and peripheral nerves. Discussion: Early detection of cardiac involvement is crucial as illustrated above. Advanced echocardiographic techniques including speckle tracking plus strain imaging, may lead to earlier, amyloid-specific identification. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MRI has also been employed, with futility reserved for infiltrative cardiac disease states without renal insufficiency. Potentially, utilizing the above imaging studies, in association with cardiac biomarkers such as NT-pro BNP, may lead to the development of prognostication tools to identify patient's at high risk for death. Goal for early detection and institution of prognosis models are aimed at early implementation of treatment strategies including heart transplantation, high-dose chemotherapy, and autologous stem cell support. For patients with a myriad of symptoms and suspicion of amyloidosis, we encourage early lab and imaging studies, because any delay in diagnosis and initiation of treatment is inevitably too late.

  8. Nursing process for the patient submitted to cardiac cateterism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane B. Lourenci

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalization resulted from heart diseases creates a strong emotional charge on patients’ emotional structure, who feel in need of information about their pathology and requests professional assistance systematically, aiming the facing of the unknown, mainly related to the imagination of the gravity of their problem. This study resulted from the need of searching new knowledge that permit to direct the practice towards the coronary patients' care that need the accomplishment of diagnostic invasive procedure (Cardiac Catheterism. The general objective of this study is to elaborate the systematization of care to the hospitalized client submitted to Cardiac Catheterism, form their needs and discuss these needs through the critical analysis of the assistance models. This study has qualitative approach where the used techniques allowed the gathering of the elements that compound the patient's social representation against the Cardiac Catheterism, organized in three stages, that are: Pre analysis (contact with the material to be analyzed, Exploration (Transformation of rough data and Treatment (interference and interpretation of the results. This data was collected from August 2005 to October 2005, in the Cardiac Unity at Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital, in Rio de Janeiro. The collection of data begun after the approval by the Ethics Committee in Researches of Antonio Pedro Hospital. At the present project up to this moment we are performing the analysis of the results which at first, showed us that there was confirmation about what has been imagined in the field of feelings that come from the perspective of the accomplishment of the diagnostic invasive procedure (Cardiac Catheterism on hospitalized patients.

  9. A radioisotopic cardiac pacemaker using plutonium 238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the 27th of April 1970, at the Broussais Hospital in Paris, was realized the first implantation in the world of a cardiac pacemaker, fed by an isotopic battery using plutonium 238. For the time being, a little more than one thousand implantations have been carried out in the world using essentially the pacemaker developed by the Company Medronic in cooperation with Dr. Laurens, the Company Alcatel and C.E.A. The design and the operation of this apparatus are described. A clinical appraisal of the implantations carried out is made and the main problems raised in connection with this type of stimulation on both technical and administrative level are called forth. In conclusion the unnumerable advantages resulting for patients are stated. The results attained by the technique of isotopic cardiac pacemaker are underlined

  10. Increasing cardiac interventions among the aged.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J D

    2010-11-01

    Ireland\\'s over 65 year population is growing. As incidence of coronary events rises with age, there is a growing population of elderly patients with cardiac disease. The changing age profile of patients treated by a tertiary hospital\\'s Cardiology service was quantified using Hospital Inpatient Enquiry data. 53% of CCU admissions were aged > or = 65 years, with admissions aged > or = 85 years in 2008 four times greater than in 2002. Percentages of patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary interventions in 1997 aged > or = 70 years were 19% and 18% respectively. By 2007, these percentages had risen to 31% and 34% respectively--greatest increases were in the very elderly age categories. The proportion of ICD recipients aged > 70 years increased from 8% in 2003 to 25% by 2008. The proportion of elderly patients receiving advanced cardiac care is increasing. This trend will continue and has clear resource implications. Outcomes of interventions in the very old need further investigation, since the \\'old old\\' are under-represented in clinical trials.

  11. A survey of factors associated with the successful recognition of agonal breathing and cardiac arrest by 9-1-1 call takers: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasaboski Ann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac arrest victims most often collapse at home, where only a modest proportion receives life-saving bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. As many as 40% of all sudden cardiac arrest victims have agonal or abnormal breathing in the first minutes following cardiac arrest. 9-1-1 call takers may wrongly interpret agonal breathing as a sign of life, and not initiate telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions. Improving 9-1-1 call takers' ability to recognize agonal breathing as a sign of cardiac arrest could result in improved bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims. Methods/Design The overall goal of this study is to design and conduct a survey of 9-1-1 call takers in the province of Ontario to better understand the factors associated with the successful identification of cardiac arrest (including patients with agonal breathing over the phone, and subsequent administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions to callers. This study will be conducted in three phases using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In Phase One, we will conduct semi-structured qualitative interviews with a purposeful selection of 9-1-1 call takers from Ontario, and identify common themes and belief categories. In Phase Two, we will use the qualitative interview results to design and pilot a quantitative survey. In Phase Three, a final version of the quantitative survey will be administered via an electronic medium to all registered call takers in the province of Ontario. We will perform qualitative thematic analysis (Phase One and regression modelling (Phases Two and Three, to determine direct and indirect relationship of behavioural constructs with intentions to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions. Discussion The results of this study will provide valuable insight into the factors associated with the successful recognition of agonal breathing and cardiac arrest by 9-1-1 call takers. This will guide future interventional studies, which may include continuing education and protocol changes, in order to help increase the number of callers appropriately receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions, and save the lives of more cardiac arrest victims. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00848588

  12. Hospitality Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…

  13. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slide, you're looking at discharges from the hospital for cardiovascular disease, you'll see that although ... at the top bar, represents admissions to the hospital for cardiovascular disease compared to many other causes ...

  14. Indium extraction out of sulfate zinc solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of operation of Chelyabinsk electrolyte zinc works in improvement of indium extraction technology out of sulfate zinc solutions of zinc production is generalized. Descriptions of tripolyphosphate, sorption and extraction technologies for indium extraction are presented. It is shown that indium extraction scheme using binary di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid extractant and trialkylamine that has been put into operation with usage of high-molecular synthetic C7-C9 acids as diluent, has several advantages comparing with precipitation and sorption technologies. This technology allowed rising indium extraction out of Waelz-oxide by 8-10 % to decrease substantially operation expenses and almost by two times cut required personnel

  15. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator February 19, 2009 Halifax Health Medical Center, Daytona Beach, FL Welcome to Halifax Health Daytona Beach, Florida. Over the next hour you' ...

  16. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator February 19, 2009 Halifax Health Medical Center, Daytona Beach, FL Welcome to Halifax Health ... Webcast screen, and open the door to informed medical care. Welcome and thank you for joining us ...

  17. Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Wayne J.; Benton, Mary Kay; Parekh, Dhaval R.

    2011-01-01

    The problems encountered in the management of pregnant patients with valvular, congenital and ischaemic heart disease are described with the help of illustrative cases. The increased incidence of cardiac dysrhythmias in pregnancy is also discussed.

  18. [Drugs for cardiac arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves; David, Jean-Stéphane; Dubien, Pierre-Yves

    2008-06-01

    After publication of the 2005 international recommendations on resuscitation, a French panel of experts on cardiac arrest published guidelines adapted to French practice. Despite the absence of placebo-controlled trials, adrenaline remains the standard vasopressor for cardiac arrest, at a dose of 1 mg about every 4 minutes. Amiodarone has replaced lidocaine in treatment of refractory ventricular fibrillation.No other drug is indicated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation,except for particular causes of cardiac arrest. Fibrinolysis should be considered only for cardiac arrest due to pulmonary embolism. Isotonic saline solution is recommended for infusions, and routine administration of sodium bicarbonate is not recommended. Intravenous access is necessary, but when unavailable rapidly,intraosseous is preferred to endotracheal delivery in adults and children PMID:18434074

  19. Cardiac Tumors; Tumeurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2004-04-01

    Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)

  20. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the next slide we'll also appreciate the volume of cardiac disease compared to other diseases. If ... blessing of the Lord. And we make a cut around three centimeters and we going to go ...

  1. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran?elovi? Aleksandra ?.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death in an athlete is rare and tragic event. An athlete's death draws high public attention given that athletes are considered the healthiest category of society. The vast majority of sudden cardiac death in young athletes is due to congenital cardiac malformations such as hypertrophie cardiomyopathy and various coronary artery anomalies. In athletes over age 35, the usual cause of sudden cardiac death is coronary artery disease. With each tragic death of a young athlete, there is a question why this tragedy has not been prevented. The American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association recommend that a pre-participation exam should include a complete cardiovascular history and physical examination.

  2. Human cardiac stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bearzi, Claudia; Rota, Marcello; Hosoda, Toru; Tillmanns, Jochen; Nascimbene, Angelo; Angelis, Antonella; Yasuzawa-amano, Saori; Trofimova, Irina; Siggins, Robert W.; Lecapitaine, Nicole; Cascapera, Stefano; Beltrami, Antonio P.; D Alessandro, David A.; Zias, Elias; Quaini, Federico

    2007-01-01

    The identification of cardiac progenitor cells in mammals raises the possibility that the human heart contains a population of stem cells capable of generating cardiomyocytes and coronary vessels. The characterization of human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) would have important clinical implications for the management of the failing heart. We have established the conditions for the isolation and expansion of c-kit-positive hCSCs from small samples of myocardium. Additionally, we have tested wheth...

  3. Engineered cardiac tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Rohin K.; Chiu, Loraine L. Y.; Reis, Lewis A.; Radisic, Milica

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering offers the promise of creating functional tissue replacements for use in the failing heart or for in vitro drug screening. The last decade has seen a great deal of progress in this field with new advances in interdisciplinary areas such as developmental biology, genetic engineering, biomaterials, polymer science, bioreactor engineering, and stem cell biology. We review here a selection of the most recent advances in cardiac tissue engineering, including the classica...

  4. Functional cardiac tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Liau, Brian; Zhang, Donghui; Bursac, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Heart attack remains the leading cause of death in both men and women worldwide. Stem cell-based therapies, including the use of engineered cardiac tissues, have the potential to treat the massive cell loss and pathological remodeling resulting from heart attack. Specifically, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells are a promising source for generation of therapeutically relevant numbers of functional cardiomyocytes and engineering of cardiac tissues in vitro. This review will describe ...

  5. Cardiac imaging in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book approaches adult cardiac disease from the correlative imaging perspective. It includes chest X-rays and angiographs, 2-dimensional echocardiograms with explanatory diagrams for clarity, plus details on digital radiology, nuclear medicine techniques, CT and MRI. It also covers the normal heart, valvular heart disease, myocardial disease, pericardial disease, bacterial endocarditis, aortic aneurysm, cardiac tumors, and congenital heart disease of the adult. It points out those aspects where one imaging technique has significant superiority

  6. Awareness in cardiac anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Serfontein, Leon

    2010-02-01

    Cardiac surgery represents a sub-group of patients at significantly increased risk of intraoperative awareness. Relatively few recent publications have targeted the topic of awareness in this group. The aim of this review is to identify areas of awareness research that may equally be extrapolated to cardiac anesthesia in the attempt to increase understanding of the nature and significance of this scenario and how to reduce it.

  7. Emergency Open Cardiac Massage via Subxyphoid Approach in Ruptured Type A Aortic Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Lin Lin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Patient sustained cardiac tamponade caused by rupture of type A aortic dissection may result in sudden death. Pericardiocentesis is a lifesaving procedure; nevertheless, blood may occlude the catheter and fail to relieve the pressure. However, open-chest cardiac massage in resuscitation has been studied in animal models by some medical centers and laboratories with inspiring results. We report a 58-year-old woman who was transferred from a local hospital with the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade caused by ruptured type A aortic dissection. Pulseless electrical activity followed by cardiac arrest occurred thereafter. Successful resuscitation in the emergency department was achieved using open cardiac massage through the sub-xyphoid region by opening a pericardial window. Therefore, in unstable patients with cardiac tamponade due to aortic dissection, this resuscitative procedure is feasible, safe and efficient.

  8. Engineered human cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutziger, Kareen L; Murry, Charles E

    2011-03-01

    The human heart is the first organ to develop during embryogenesis and is arguably the most essential organ for life. However, after birth, the heart has very little capacity to repair malformations such as congenital heart defects or to regenerate after an injury such as myocardial infarction. Cardiac tissue engineering addresses the need for a therapeutic biologic implant to restore cardiac structure and muscle mass. This review highlights current research in cardiac tissue engineering that uses human cardiomyocytes derived from embryonic stem cells. Other human cell sources are discussed because future human therapies will benefit from novel techniques using human-induced pluripotent stem cells and cardiomyocytes derived from direct reprogramming of somatic cells. Furthermore, this review examines the main approaches to creating engineered cardiac tissue with synthetic scaffolds, natural scaffolds, or no exogenous scaffold (i.e., "scaffold free"). The choice of scaffold and cells ultimately depends on the goals of the therapy, so the review considers how congenital heart defects define the design parameters for cardiac tissue engineering needed for surgical repair in pediatric cardiac patients. PMID:21293854

  9. UK pulls out of plans for ILC

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2007-01-01

    "A funding crisis at one of the UK's leading research councils has forced the country to pull out of plans for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) says in a report published today that it does not see "a practicable path towards the realization of this facility as currently conceived on a reasonable timescale". (1 page)

  10. France, Germany drop out of ITER race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The list of countries willing to host a multi-billion dollar fusion facility got much shorter when France and Germany effectively took themselves out of the competition, making Japan the odd-on favorite as the site for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) if it is built. This article describes the history and the possible future for the ITER

  11. Establishing a clinical cardiac MRI service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After several years of research development cardiovascular MRI has evolved into a widely accepted clinical tool. It offers important diagnostic and prognostic information for a variety of clinical indications, which include ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, valvular dysfunction and congenital heart disorders. It is a safe non-invasive technique that employs a variety of imaging sequences optimized for temporal or spatial resolution, tissue-specific contrast, flow quantification or angiography. Cardiac MRI offers specific advantages over conventional imaging techniques for a significant number of patients. The demand for cardiac MRI studies from cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiologists and other referrers is likely to continue to rise with pressure for more widespread local service provision. Setting up a cardiac MRI service requires careful consideration regarding funding issues and how it will be integrated with existing service provision. The purchase of cardiac phased array coils, monitoring equipment and software upgrades must also be considered, as well as the training needs of those involved. The choice of appropriate imaging protocols will be guided by operator experience, clinical indication and equipment capability, and is likely to evolve as the service develops. Post-processing and offline analysis form a significant part of the time taken to report studies and an efficient method of providing quantitative reports is an important requirement. Collaboports is an important requirement. Collaboration between radiologists and cardiologists is needed to develop a successful service and multi-disciplinary meetings are key component of this. This review will explore these issues from our perspective of a new clinical cardiac MRI service operating over its first year in a teaching hospital imaging department

  12. Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Increases Cardiac Output, Bradyarrhythmias, and Parasympathetic Tone in Aged Heart Failure–Prone Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carll, Alex P.; Lust, Robert M.; Hazari, Mehdi S.; Perez, Christina M.; Krantz, Quentin Todd; King, Charly J.; Winsett, Darrell W.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Costa, Daniel L.; Farraj, Aimen K.

    2012-01-01

    Acute air pollutant inhalation is linked to adverse cardiac events and death, and hospitalizations for heart failure. Diesel engine exhaust (DE) is a major air pollutant suspected to exacerbate preexisting cardiac conditions, in part, through autonomic and electrophysiologic disturbance of normal cardiac function. To explore this putative mechanism, we examined cardiophysiologic responses to DE inhalation in a model of aged heart failure–prone rats without signs or symptoms of overt heart f...

  13. Cardiac resynchronization therapy. Indications and contraindications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acena, Marta; Regoli, François; Auricchio, Angelo

    2012-09-01

    Progress in medical therapy wouldn't be possible without the contribution of the scientific community. Several randomized controlled trials have led to our current guidelines. Specifically, COMPANION and CARE-HF trials involved a turning point for cardiac resynchronization therapy, which became well recognized for the treatment of heart failure patients with QRS?120ms, ejection fraction?35%, and sinus rhythm to reduce hospitalizations and all-cause mortality. New indications were then established for atrial fibrillation, pacemaker-dependent, and mildly symptomatic patients, but new challenges should be addressed, namely reducing complication and nonresponder rates. To achieve this, further studies and new implant techniques are under investigation. PMID:22795365

  14. Virtual Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provided and maintained by the University of Iowa Health Care, the Virtual Hospital is designed as a "medical reference and health promotion tool for health care providers and patients." To that end, the site offers current and authoritative medical information for patients and professional and pedagogical information for health care providers. The former includes patient educational briefs browseable by organ system or by a topical list, a collection of peer-reviewed and annotated Web resources, an internal search engine, and archives of a column offering medical advice to middle-aged users. Resources in the health care provider section include several digital libraries aimed at certain specialties (Pediatrics, Pediatric Radiology, Family Medicine, and Medical Student); multimedia textbooks and teaching files grouped by organ system; lectures and publications; and clinical practice guidelines. Additional resources at the site include links to the Virtual Children's and Virtual Naval Hospitals, an internal search engine, and online continuing education courses.

  15. Serum neuron-specific enolase as predictor of outcome in comatose cardiac arrest survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Daubin, Ce?dric; Quentin, Charlotte; Allouche, Ste?phane; Etard, Olivier; Gaillard, Cathy; Seguin, Ame?lie; Valette, Xavier; Parienti, Jean-jacques; Prevost, Fabrice; Ramakers, Michel; Terzi, Nicolas; Charbonneau, Pierre; Du Cheyron, Damien

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The prediction of neurological outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest has major ethical and socioeconomic implications. The purpose of this study was to assess the capability of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a biomarker of hypoxic brain damage, to predict death or vegetative state in comatose cardiac-arrest survivors. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in one university hospital and one general hospital Intensive Care Unit (I...

  16. Serum neuron-specific enolase as predictor of outcome in comatose cardiac-arrest survivors: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Prevost Fabrice; Parienti Jean-Jacques; Valette Xavier; Seguin Amélie; Gaillard Cathy; Etard Olivier; Allouche Stéphane; Quentin Charlotte; Daubin Cédric; Ramakers Michel; Terzi Nicolas; Charbonneau Pierre; du Cheyron Damien

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The prediction of neurological outcome in comatose patients after cardiac arrest has major ethical and socioeconomic implications. The purpose of this study was to assess the capability of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a biomarker of hypoxic brain damage, to predict death or vegetative state in comatose cardiac-arrest survivors. Methods We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in one university hospital and one general hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU)...

  17. Preoperative Anxiety as a Predictor of Mortality and Major Morbidity in Patients >70 Years of Age Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Judson B.; Alexander, Karen P.; Morin, Jean-franc?ois; Langlois, Yves; Noiseux, Nicolas; Perrault, Louis P.; Smolderen, Kim; Arnold, Suzanne V.; Eisenberg, Mark J.; Pilote, Louise; Monette, Johanne; Bergman, Howard; Smith, Peter K.; Afilalo, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between patient-reported anxiety and post-cardiac surgery mortality and major morbidity. Frailty ABC'S was a prospective multicenter cohort study of elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass surgery and/or valve repair or replacement) at 4 tertiary care hospitals between 2008 and 2009. Patients were evaluated a mean of 2 days preoperatively with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a validated questionnaire assessing d...

  18. Pattern of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinwusi PO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Patience Olayinka Akinwusi,1,2 Akinwumi Oluwole Komolafe,3 Olanrewaju Olayinka Olayemi,2 Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi41Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, 2Department of Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, 3Department of Morbid Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching, Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Osun State, 4Department of Community Medicine, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, NigeriaBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine the etiology and epidemiologic characteristics of sudden death at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, South West Nigeria.Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of all cases of natural unexpected death, either occurring out of hospital or less than 24 hours after admission to LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, over a nine-year period from January 2003 to December 2011. Data were generated from information in the case notes and autopsy reports for these cases.Results: Sudden death accounted for 29 (4.0% of 718 adult medical deaths and 1.0% of all adult medical admissions. Out-of-hospital deaths occurred in 72.4% of cases. The mean age of the patients was 46.8 ± 11.5 (range 25–74 years. The male to female ratio was 6.25:1. Cardiovascular disease were the most common cause of death (51.7%, followed by respiratory disease (20.7%, pulmonary thromboembolism (10.4%, central nervous system disease (13.8%, gastrointestinal disorders (13.8%, severe chemical/drug poisoning (13.8%, and combined cardiovascular and central nervous system disease (13.8%. Hypertension-related causes were responsible for 14/29 (48.3% of the sudden deaths. Hypertensive heart disease accounted for 86.7% of the cardiovascular deaths, hypertensive heart failure accounted for 73.3%, whilst all heart failure cases accounted for 80.0%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 69.2% of the patients with hypertensive heart disease. Moderate to severe atheromatous changes occurred in the aorta in 38.5% of patients aged ?50 years. No case of myocardial infarction was found.Conclusion: Hypertensive heart disease and hypertension-related disorders are the most common causes of sudden death in South West Nigeria, so effective public health strategies should be channeled towards prevention, detection, and treatment of hypertension.Keywords: sudden cardiac death, hypertensive heart disease, hypertensive heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, atheromatous changes

  19. Hospital Ethics Committees in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Szyma?ska, Beata

    2014-11-12

    According to UNESCO guidelines, one of the four forms of bioethics committees in medicine are the Hospital Ethics Committees (HECs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the above guidelines are implemented in real practice. There were 111 hospitals selected out of 176 Polish clinical hospitals and hospitals accredited by Center of Monitoring Quality in Health System. The study was conducted by the survey method. There were 56 (50 %) hospitals that responded to the survey. The number of HECs members fluctuated between 3 and 16 members, where usually 5 (22 % of HECs) members were part of the board committee. The composition of the HECs for professions other than physicians was diverse and non-standardized (nurses-in 86 % of HECs, clergy-42 %, lawyers-38 %, psychologists-28 %, hospital management-23 %, rehab staff-7 %, patient representatives-3 %, ethicists-2 %). Only 55 % of HECs had a professional set of standards. 98 % of HECs had specific tasks. 62 % of HECs were asked for their expertise, and 55 % prepared <6.88 % of the opinions were related to interpersonal relations between hospital personnel, patients and their families with emphasis on the interactions between superiors and their inferiors or hospital staff and patients and their families. Only 12 % of the opinions were reported by the respondents as related to ethical dilemmas. In conclusion, few Polish hospitals have HECs, and the structure, services and workload are not always adequate. To ensure a reliable operation of HECs requires the development of relevant legislation, standard operating procedures and well trained members. PMID:25388547

  20. Exercises in anatomy: cardiac isomerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne E; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the patients with the most complex cardiac malformations are those with so-called visceral heterotaxy. At present, it remains a fact that most investigators segregate these patients on the basis of their splenic anatomy, describing syndromes of so-called asplenia and polysplenia. It has also been known for quite some time, nonetheless, that the morphology of the tracheobronchial tree is usually isomeric in the setting of heterotaxy. And it has been shown that the isomerism found in terms of bronchial arrangement correlates in a better fashion with the cardiac anatomy than does the presence of multiple spleens, or the absence of any splenic tissue. In this exercise in anatomy, we use hearts from the Idriss archive of Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to demonstrate the isomeric features found in the hearts obtained from patients known to have had heterotaxy. We first demonstrate the normal arrangements, showing how it is the extent of the pectinate muscles in the atrial appendages relative to the atrioventricular junctions that distinguishes between morphologically right and left atrial chambers. We also show the asymmetry of the normal bronchial tree, and the relationships of the first bronchial branches to the pulmonary arteries supplying the lower lobes of the lungs. We then demonstrate that diagnosis of multiple spleens requires the finding of splenic tissue on either side of the dorsal mesogastrium. Turning to hearts obtained from patients with heterotaxy, we illustrate isomeric right and left atrial appendages. We emphasize that it is only the appendages that are universally isomeric, but point out that other features support the notion of cardiac isomerism. We then show that description also requires a full account of veno-atrial connections, since these can seemingly be mirror-imaged when the arrangement within the heart is one of isomerism of the atrial appendages. We show how failure to recognize the presence of such isomeric appendages can lead to spurious diagnoses of discordant atrioventricular connections. Overall, we show that the finding of isomeric atrial appendages, guided by the finding of bronchial isomerism, is but the prelude to full segmental sequential analysis. PMID:25547620

  1. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the cardiac patient: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, C; Stone, N L

    1995-02-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard procedure for the surgical management of cholelithiasis. Compared with open cholecystectomy, this procedure offers shorter hospital stays, shorter recovery time, better cosmetic results, and an overall reduction in health care cost for the patient. As the number of cardiac patients having elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy increases, it is important for the postanesthesia nurse to understand the postoperative assessment and nursing interventions these patients require. Congestive heart failure and acute pulmonary edema are two potential complications resulting from insufflation of the abdomen and intraoperative fluids. This case study of a cardiac patient undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy demonstrates important postanesthesia assessment parameters. PMID:7707246

  2. Cardiac perforation and tamponade induced by external cardiac massage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S C; Liao, W B; Bullard, M J; Tsai, K T; Chiang, C W

    1997-09-01

    A 76-year-old woman suffered from sudden loss of consciousness while sitting in a chair. She was sent to a local hospital and found to be in shock. After a brief period of external cardiac massage, she was transferred to our hospital. In our emergency department she was lethargic with cool, clammy extremities. Her blood pressure dropped from 113/53 mmHg on arrival to 72/42 mmHg 2 hours later. Echocardiography showed massive pericardial effusion, fair left ventricular contractility and no abnormal segmental motion. The echocardiographic appearance suggested fibrin-like substance in the pericardial space, which was felt to indicate the presence of blood. Enhanced chest computerized tomography showed extravasation of contrast medium from the right ventricular outflow tract. At surgery, a small perforation was found at the infundibular area of the right ventricle, and a total of 500 mL of blood had accumulated in the pericardial space. She was discharged 7 days postoperatively, having made an uneventful recovery. External cardiac massage may cause cardiac disruption, and this should be considered in patients who have secondary hemodynamic instability following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:9397617

  3. Fungi causing dying out of heather seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the fungi causing dying out of one-yearold heather seedlings. Observations were carried out on: 'Amethyst', 'Annemarie', 'Colette', 'Perestroika' and 'Reini'. The shoots revealing necrotic symptoms were plated on PDA medium. 25 species of fungi were isolated. Among them Pestalotia sydowiana, Alternaria alternata, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Leptosphaeria coniothyrium and Epicoccum purpurascens were dominant, while Mammaria echinobotryoides, Phoma leveillei, Kaissleriella subalpina, Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora cinnamomi occurred less frequently.

  4. Stochastic interacting particle systems out of equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Bertini, L.; Sole, A.; Gabrielli, D.; Jona--lasinio, G.; Landim, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to some stochastic models of lattice gases out of equilibrium and a discussion of results of various kinds obtained in recent years. Although these models are different in their microscopic features, a unified picture is emerging at the macroscopic level, applicable, in our view, to real phenomena where diffusion is the dominating physical mechanism. We rely mainly on an approach developed by the authors based on the study of dynamical lar...

  5. Neuraxial Modulation for Refractory Ventricular Arrhythmias: Value of Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia and Surgical Left Cardiac Sympathetic Denervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Tara; Vaseghi, Marmar; Michowitz, Yoav; Sankhla, Vineet; Shah, Mandar; Swapna, Nalla; Boyle, Noel G.; Mahajan, Aman; Narasimhan, Calambur; Lokhandwala, Yash; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2010-01-01

    Background Reducing sympathetic output to the heart from the neuraxis can protect against ventricular arrhythmias. The purpose of this study was to assess the value of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) and left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD) in the management of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with structural heart disease (SHD). Methods and Results Clinical data of 14 patients (age 25-75 years, 54.2±16.6 yrs,(mean±SD) 13 males) who underwent TEA, LCSD, or both, to control ventricular tachycardia (VT) refractory to medical therapy and catheter ablation were reviewed.12 patients were in VT storm and 2 patients experienced recurrent VT despite maximal medical therapy and catheter ablation procedures. Total number of therapies per patient prior to either procedure ranged from 5 to 202 (median of 24, 25th and 75th percentile of 5 and 56). Eight patients underwent TEA and 9 patients underwent LCSD (3 patients had both procedures). No major procedural complications occurred. After initiation of TEA, 6 patients had a large (?80%) decrease in VT burden. Post LCSD, 3 patients had no further VT, 2 patients had recurrent VT which either resolved within 24 hours or responded to catheter ablation, and 4 patients continued to have recurrent VT. Nine out of 14 patients survived to hospital discharge (1 TEA alone, 3 TEA/LCSD combined, 4 LCSD alone), one of whom underwent an urgent cardiac transplantation (TEA alone). Conclusion Initiation of TEA and LCSD in patients with refractory VT was associated with a subsequent decrease in arrhythmia burden in 6 out of 8 (75%- CI 51% to 91%) and 5 out of 9 (56%- CI 34% to 75%) patients, respectively. These data suggest that TEA and LCSD may be effective additions to the management of refractory ventricular arrhythmias in SHD when other treatment modalities have failed and/or may serve as a bridge to more definitive therapy. PMID:20479150

  6. Cardiac arrest due to lymphocytic colitis : a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Kristian; Kelsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: We present a case of cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia caused by lymphocytic colitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old Caucasian man presented four months prior to a cardiac arrest with watery diarrhea and was diagnosed with lymphocytic colitis. Our patient experienced a witnessed cardiac arrest at his general practitioner's surgery. Two physicians and the emergency medical services resuscitated our patient for one hour and four minutes before arriving at our university hospital. Our patient was defibrillated 16 times due to the recurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. An arterial blood sample revealed a potassium level of 2.0mmol/L (reference range: 3.5 to 4.6mmol/L) and pH 6.86 (reference range: pH 7.37 to 7.45). As the potassium level was corrected, the propensity for ventricular tachyarrhythmias ceased. Our patient recovered from his cardiac arrest without any neurological deficit. Further tests and examinations revealed no other reason for the cardiac arrest. CONCLUSION: Diarrhea can cause life-threatening situations due to the excretion of potassium, ultimately causing cardiac arrest due to hypokalemia. Physicians treating patients with severe diarrhea should consider monitoring their electrolyte levels.

  7. Cardiac asthma in elderly patients: incidence, clinical presentation and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Patrick

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac asthma is common, but has been poorly investigated. The objective was to compare the characteristics and outcome of cardiac asthma with that of classical congestive heart failure (CHF in elderly patients. Methods Prospective study in an 1,800-bed teaching hospital. Results Two hundred and twelve consecutive patients aged ? 65 years presenting with dyspnea due to CHF (mean age of 82 ± 8 years were included. Findings of cardiac echocardiography and natriuretic peptides levels were used to confirm CHF. Cardiac asthma patients were defined as a patient with CHF and wheezing reported by attending physician upon admission to the emergency department. The CHF group (n = 137 and the cardiac asthma group (n = 75, differed for tobacco use (34% vs. 59%, p 2 (47 ± 15 vs. 41 ± 11 mmHg, p Conclusion Patients with cardiac asthma represented one third of CHF in elderly patients. They were more hypercapnic and experienced more distal airway obstruction. However, outcomes were similar.

  8. 8. Maternal cardiac complications in women with cardiac disease in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Sheela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to identify the risk factors for maternal cardiac complications and for adverse neonatal outcome in women with heart disease in pregnancy. Prospective observational study was carried out at a tertiary referral hospital in South India. Data was collected from 144 women going through 146 pregnancies and delivered after 24 weeks of gestation, over a period of 7 years. Logistic regression analysis was done to identify the risk factors for maternal and the neonatal complications. Principal etiology of the lesion was Rheumatic in 67%, Congenital in 26% and peripartum cardiomyopathy in 5%. Maternal mortality was 2% (3 women and maternal cardiac complications occurred in 27%. NYHA class III/IV at booking, pulmonary arterial hypertension and myocardial dysfunction were the risk factors for maternal cardiac complications during pregnancy. NYHA class III/IV, gestational age >20 weeks at booking and associated hypertension during present pregnancy were the risk factors for adverse neonatal outcome. RHD remains an important cause for maternal as well as perinatal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. NYHA class III/IV, myocardial dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension are the risk factors for maternal cardiac complications.

  9. Cardiac radiology: centenary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Albert; Higgins, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    During the past century, cardiac imaging technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of acquired and congenital heart disease. Many important contributions to the field of cardiac imaging were initially reported in Radiology. The field developed from the early stages of cardiac imaging, including the use of coronary x-ray angiography and roentgen kymography, to nowadays the widely used echocardiographic, nuclear medicine, cardiac computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) applications. It is surprising how many of these techniques were not recognized for their potential during their early inception. Some techniques were described in the literature but required many years to enter the clinical arena and presently continue to expand in terms of clinical application. The application of various CT and MR contrast agents for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is a case in point, as the utility of contrast agents continues to expand the noninvasive characterization of myocardium. The history of cardiac imaging has included a continuous process of advances in our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, along with advances in imaging technology that continue to the present day. PMID:25340434

  10. Initial Efficacy of a Cardiac Rehabilitation Transition Program: Cardiac TRUST

    OpenAIRE

    Dolansky, Mary A.; Zullo, Melissa; Boxer, Rebecca; Moore, Shirley M.

    2011-01-01

    Patients recovering from cardiac events are increasingly using postacute care, such as home health care and skilled nursing facility services. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the initial efficacy, feasibility, and safety of a specially designed postacute care transitional rehabilitation intervention for cardiac patients. Cardiac Transitional Rehabilitation Using Self- Management Techniques (Cardiac TRUST) is a family-focused intervention that includes progressive low-intensity wal...

  11. Cardiac risk assessment before carotid endarterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative cardiac assessment is an essential step to identify the patients at risk, optimize any dysfunction, anticipate perioperative and postoperative problems and plan special management. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has become one of the most commonly performed vascular procedures in Western countries. The awareness of the potential beneficial role and hazards of CEA is not proportionate to the magnitude of this problem in our countries, not only among patients, but also among the medical disciplines. This report is a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of coronary artery diseases among 442 patients who were referred to the Division of Vascular Surgery at the King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia with suspicion of carotid artery disease. Eighty-two patients proved to have significant carotid artery stenosis and had thorough preoperative cardiac assessment by senior cardiologist. All cases had clinical assessment and ECG, 66 cases had echocardiogram examination, 44 had Dipyridamole Thallium-scan and 12 had coronary angiogram. Sixty-eight patients underwent 76 carotid endarterectomy. Four of them had MI and only one case died during preoperative period. This study shows that cardiac screening studies have a potential role in the candidates for carotid surgery in influencing the decision to operate and intensify of perioperative monitoring and care. We believe that the teamwork should involve vascular surgeons, cardiologist and anesthetist tr surgeons, cardiologist and anesthetist to manage such critical patients properly. (author)

  12. Reoperation for bleeding in cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Katrine Lawaetz; Rauer, Line Juul

    2012-01-01

    At Odense University Hospital (OUH), 5-9% of all unselected cardiac surgical patients undergo reoperation due to excessive bleeding. The reoperated patients have an approximately three times greater mortality than non-reoperated. To reduce the rate of reoperations and mortality due to postoperative bleeding, we aim to identify risk factors that predict reoperation. A total of 1452 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery using extracorporeal circulation (ECC) between November 2005 and December 2008 at OUH were analysed. Statistical tests were used to identify risk factors for reoperation. We performed a case-note review on propensity-matched patients to assess the outcome of reoperation for bleeding regarding morbidity and mortality. In total, 101 patients (7.0%) underwent surgical re-exploration due to excessive postoperative bleeding. Significant risk factors for reoperation for bleeding after cardiac surgery was low ejection fraction, high EuroSCORE, procedures other than isolated CABG, elongated time on ECC, low body mass index, diabetes mellitus and preoperatively elevated s-creatinine. Reoperated patients significantly had a greater increase in postoperative s-creatinine and higher mortality. Surviving reoperated patients significantly had a lower EuroSCORE and a shorter time on ECC compared with non-survivors. The average time to re-exploration was 155 min longer for non-survivors when compared with survivors.

  13. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in clinical practice

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Dias, Barranhas; Alair Augusto S. M. D. dos, Santos; Otavio R., Coelho-Filho; Edson, Marchiori; Carlos Eduardo, Rochitte; Marcelo Souto, Nacif.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in english Objective To evaluate and describe indications, mainly diagnoses and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings observed in clinical practice. Materials and Methods Retrospective and descriptive study of cardiac magnetic resonance performed at a private hospital and clinic in the city of Niterói [...] , RJ, Brazil, in the period from May 2007 to April 2011. Results The sample included a total of 1000 studies performed in patients with a mean age of 53.7 ± 16.2 years and predominance for male gender (57.2%). The majority of indications were related to assessment of myocardial perfusion at rest and under pharmacological stress (507/1000; 51%), with positive results in 36.2% of them. Suspected myocarditis was the second most frequent indication (140/1000; 14%), with positive results in 63.4% of cases. These two indications were followed by study of arrhythmias (116/1000; 12%), myocardial viability (69/1000; 7%) and evaluation of cardiomyopathies (47/1000; 5%). In a subanalysis, it was possible to identify that most patients were assessed on an outpatient basis (58.42%). Conclusion Cardiac magnetic resonance has been routinely performed in clinical practice, either on an outpatient or emergency/inpatient basis, and myocardial ischemia represented the main indication, followed by investigation of myocarditis, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and myocardial viability.

  14. Cardiac diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cardiac imaging includes determination of the size and structure of the cardiac chambers, valves, great vessels and the coronary arteries, chamber and valvular function, myocardial perfusion, viability and metabolism. Material and methods: Chest roentgenography, angiography, echocardiography and nuclear imaging are commonly used but computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also offer a promising potential. Results: Coronary angiography is the gold standard in assessing coronary anatomy. Fast CT technologies such as electron-beam and multi-row-CT are promising non-invasive imaging modalities in the assessment of coronary artery disease. With intravascular ultrasound early stages of coronary atherosclerosis can be detected. For the assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability as well as cardiac function, scintigraphic methods are widely accepted. However, MRI methods have also reached a high degree of accuracy. Evaluation of chamber and valvular function is, due to its wide availability, the field of echocardiography. (orig.)

  15. Sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriachan, Vikas P; Sumner, Glen L; Mitchell, L Brent

    2015-04-01

    Sudden death accounts for 300,000-400,000 deaths annually in the United States. Most sudden deaths are cardiac, and most sudden cardiac deaths are related to arrhythmias secondary to structural heart disease or primary electrical abnormalities of the heart. The most common structural disease leading to sudden death is ischemic heart disease. Nonischemic cardiomyopathy and other structural abnormalities such as arrhythmogenic ventricular dysplasia and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may also be causative. Patients without structural disease have a primary electrical abnormality, such as long-QT syndrome or Brugada syndrome. Severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction is the main marker for sudden death in patients with ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy. In other conditions, other markers for structural heart disease and electrical abnormalities need to be considered. It is seen that ?-blocker therapy is associated with a reduction in sudden cardiac death across a broad range of disorders. Nevertheless, the implantable cardioverter defibrillator remains the most effective treatment strategy in selected patients. PMID:25813838

  16. Depression among hospitalized and non-hospitalized gonadal cancer patients in tertiary care public hospitals in karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Tahira; Zadeh, Zainab Fotowwat

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed at determining the differences in the levels of depression between hospitalized and non-hospitalized Gonadal cancer patients in tertiary care public hospitals in Karachi. The present study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre and Civil Hospital, Karachi, from July to October 2009. One hundred adult patients diagnosed with Gonadal cancer volunteered for the study. Cases with any other co-morbidity were excluded. Urdu version of Siddiqui Shah Depression Scale (SSDS) was administered. Purposive and snowball sampling methods were used for data collection. The ages of participants in the sample ranged from 20 to 27 years with the mean age of 23.85 years. The participants belonged to the lower and middle classes. Out of the 30 hospitalized gonadal cancer patients 40% were moderately depressed and 60% were severely depressed, whereas out of 70 non-hospitalized gonadal cancer patients 74.3% were mildly depressed, 24.3% were moderately depressed and only 1.4% were severely depressed, which clearly indicated that the depression level of hospitalized gonadal cancer patients was high as compared to non-hospitalized gonadal cancer patients. PMID:25772968

  17. Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Stars Spring up Out of the Darkness This artist's animation illustrates the universe's early years, from its explosive formation to its dark ages to its first stars and mini-galaxies. Scientists using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found patches of infrared light splattered across the sky that might be the collective glow of clumps of the universe's first objects. Astronomers do not know if these first objects were stars or 'quasars,' which are black holes voraciously consuming surrounding gas. The movie begins with a flash of color that represents the birth of the universe, an explosion called the Big Bang that occurred about 13.7 billion years ago. A period of darkness ensues, where gas begins to clump together. The universe's first stars are then shown springing up out of the gas clumps, flooding the universe with light, an event that probably happened about a few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Though these first stars formed out of gas alone, their deaths seeded the universe with the dusty heavy chemical elements that helped create future generations of stars. The first stars, called Population III stars (our star is a Population I star), were much bigger and brighter than any in our nearby universe, with masses about 1,000 times that of our sun. They grouped together into mini-galaxies, which then merged to form galaxies like our own mature Milky Way galaxy. The first quasars, not shown here, ultimately became the centers of powerful galaxies that are more common in the distant universe.

  18. Ethical Issues in Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kavarana, Minoo N.; Sade, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    While ethical behavior has always been part of cardiac surgical practice, ethical deliberation has only recently become an important component of cardiac surgical practice. Issues such as informed consent, conflict of interest, and professional self-regulation, among many others, have increasingly attracted the attention of cardiac surgeons. This review covers several broad topics of interest to cardiac surgeons and cardiologists, and treats several other topics more briefly. There is much un...

  19. Conceptual lay-out of small launcher

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Claire

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this diploma thesis is to perform a conceptual lay-out of a small launcher. Re- quirements have been defined in order to realize this first preliminary study and design of a small launcher. In that frame, a MATLAB code has been written in order to simulate the rocket tra- jectories. An optimization program on launcher staging has been written as well. To validate this code, the VEGA and Ariane 5 launchers have been used. Then from studies on existing launchers, simulations ha...

  20. Out-of-Plane Cmos Compatible Magnetometers

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorba, M El; Sobieski, S; Raskin, J -P

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional MEMS magnetometers with use of residual stresses in thin multilayers cantilevers are presented. Half-loop cantilevers based on Lorentz-force deflection convert magnetic flux in changes, thanks to piezoresistive transducers mounted in Wheatstone bridge. Magnetic field in the order of 10 Gauss was measured with a sensitivity of 0.015 mV/Gauss. A Finite Element Model of the device has been developed with Ansys for static and dynamic simulations. Novel out-of-plane ferromagnetic nickel plate magnetometer is also presented.

  1. Ways out of the environmental crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book documents the interdisciplinary papers held at a meeting on 'Ways out of the environmental crisis' in November 1985. Guided by the principle of concrete responsibilities emphasis was on the following subjects: Time presses - definition and consequences of the awareness of an imminent environmental catastrophe; air pollution and water pollution recapitulated; economic strategies for the benefit of pollution abatement; ethical and theological aspects; acceptable environmental policies - prospects and perspectives. The papers reflect the relation between the environment, the present generation, posterity, gross national producns and energy consumption, and present a number of scientifically founded alternative strategies. (HSCH) With 16 figs., 1 tab

  2. "Out of the box" professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    At a recent AAPT meeting, I was part of a conversation about professional development that focused on conferences. We discussed the current meeting structure used by AAPT and some alternative formats. This discussion added greatly to my own understanding of new ways for teachers to receive their professional development. This conversation also began my friendship with Kelly O'Shea, a physics teacher from New York. She is also a blogger (check her out at https://kellyoshea.wordpress.com) and an innovative educator. Through my relationship with Kelly, I have grown in my own knowledge of two "out of the box" ways teachers are getting their professional development.

  3. A survey of attitudes and factors associated with successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR knowledge transfer in an older population most likely to witness cardiac arrest: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely exceed 5%. While bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR can increase survival for cardiac arrest victims by up to four times, bystander CPR rates remain low in Canada (15%. Most cardiac arrest victims are men in their sixties, they usually collapse in their own home (85% and the event is witnessed 50% of the time. These statistics would appear to support a strategy of targeted CPR training for an older population that is most likely to witness a cardiac arrest event. However, interest in CPR training appears to decrease with advancing age. Behaviour surrounding CPR training and performance has never been studied using well validated behavioural theories. Methods/Design The overall goal of this study is to conduct a survey to better understand the behavioural factors influencing CPR training and performance in men and women 55 years of age and older. The study will proceed in three phases. In phase one, semi-structured qualitative interviews will be conducted and recorded to identify common categories and themes regarding seeking CPR training and providing CPR to a cardiac arrest victim. The themes identified in the first phase will be used in phase two to develop, pilot-test, and refine a survey instrument based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour. In the third phase of the project, the final survey will be administered to a sample of the study population over the telephone. Analyses will include measures of sampling bias, reliability of the measures, construct validity, as well as multiple regression analyses to identify constructs and beliefs most salient to seniors' decisions about whether to attend CPR classes or perform CPR on a cardiac arrest victim. Discussion The results of this survey will provide valuable insight into factors influencing the interest in CPR training and performance among a targeted group of individuals most susceptible to witnessing a victim in cardiac arrest. The findings can then be applied to the design of trials of various interventions designed to promote attendance at CPR classes and improve CPR performance. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00665288

  4. Data analysis in cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Miguel; Pedrón-Torecilla, Jorge; Hernández, Ismael; Liberos, Alejandro; Climent, Andreu M; Guillem, María S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are an increasingly present in developed countries and represent a major health and economic burden. The occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias is closely linked to the electrical function of the heart. Consequently, the analysis of the electrical signal generated by the heart tissue, either recorded invasively or noninvasively, provides valuable information for the study of cardiac arrhythmias. In this chapter, novel cardiac signal analysis techniques that allow the study and diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias are described, with emphasis on cardiac mapping which allows for spatiotemporal analysis of cardiac signals.Cardiac mapping can serve as a diagnostic tool by recording cardiac signals either in close contact to the heart tissue or noninvasively from the body surface, and allows the identification of cardiac sites responsible of the development or maintenance of arrhythmias. Cardiac mapping can also be used for research in cardiac arrhythmias in order to understand their mechanisms. For this purpose, both synthetic signals generated by computer simulations and animal experimental models allow for more controlled physiological conditions and complete access to the organ. PMID:25417089

  5. Cardiac Toxicity of Azole Antifungals

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, John D.; Stover, Kayla R.; Jerry Farley; William Daley; Kyle, Patrick B.; Jon Hosler

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac toxicity is an uncommon side effect of anti-fungal therapy. Until the recent reports of itraconazole (ITZ) associated cardiac failure, amphotericin was the antifungal most frequently reported with arrhythmias. We evaluated the cardiac effect of azole antifungals, specifically ITZ, and possible mechanisms of toxicity. Ex vivo live-heart studies were performed utilizing Sprague Dawley rats. Short exposure (

  6. Comparison of Benefits from Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy between Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy and Patients with Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Alenabi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT is an effective treatment for patients with moderate to severe heart failure. However, 20-30% of patients remain non-responders to CRT. We sought to identify which patients benefit the most from CRT in regard to the etiology of heart failure. Methods: Eighty-three consecutive patients (62 men who had a biventricular pacemaker inserted at Tehran Heart Center between May 2004 and March 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. The inclusion criteria were comprised of New York Heart Association (NYHA class III or IV, left ventricular ejection fraction120ms. After 6 months, response was defined as being alive, no hospitalization for cardiac decompensation, and an improvement in NYHA class>1 grade. Results: After 6 months, 60 patients out of the 83 patients were responders. Amongst the 83 patients, 48 had ischemic cardiomyopathy and 35 had non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. A cross-tabulation of response versus etiology showed no significant difference between ischemic versus non-ischemic cardiomyopathy with regard to response to CRT (P=0.322. Conclusion: According to our study, there was no difference in response to CRT between ischemic versus non-ischemic cardiomyopathy at six months’ follow-up.

  7. Burden of out-of-pocket expenditure for road traffic injuries in urban India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar G.; Dilip T; Dandona Lalit; Dandona Rakhi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTI) are an increasing public health problem in India where out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures on health are among the highest in the world. We estimated the OOP expenses for RTI in a large city in India. Methods Information on medical and non-medical expenditure was documented for RTI cases of all ages that reported alive or dead to the emergency departments of two public hospitals and a large private hospital in Hyderabad. Differential risk of catast...

  8. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by cardiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Koregol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancies, complicated by cardiac disease in a developing country. Material and Method: A retrospective analysis was carried out in 110 pregnancies in women with cardiac disease from January 1995 to December 2006 at a tertiary care centre in India. Results: Rheumatic heart disease with isolated mitral stenosis (n=49 was the predominant cardiac problem. 9 Patients (8.18% had undergone surgical correction prior to pregnancy. Cardiac complications were noted in 20 (18.18% patients, out of which 12 had pulmonary oedema. Maternal mortality was noted in 4 patients (3.6%, 3 of which were due to pulmonary oedema. The incidence of small for gestational age was noted in 48 (46.3% patients, still birth was noted in seven (6.8% babies and neonatal death was noted in three patients (2.9%. Conclusions: Rheumatic heart disease was the predominant cardiac problem in pregnancy. Maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality are strongly correlated with maternal cardiac functional classification.

  9. Fast-Track Cardiac Anaesthesia at a Tertiary Care Cardiac Centre in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeju Nath Pokhrel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the evolution of anesthesia and surgical procedures, fast track cardiac anaesthesia has gained an increased interest, mainly based on the possibility of reducing health costs without compromising patient care and has been implemented at a tertiary care cardiac centre in Nepal. Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the status of fast track cardiac anaesthesia after open heart procedures and suitability of existing anaesthetic technique for fast-track extubation. Methods: After standard anaesthesia and surgical technique, we retrospectively reviewed the duration of mechanical ventilation, length of Intensive Care Unit stay, reintubation, and incidence of inhospital mortality in consecutive adult patients undergoing open heart surgery during six months period. Results: The median time of the extubation was six hours, median days of the ICU stay was three days. Five cases were reintubated because of the respiratory failure which is about 1.8% out of 277 cases. Seven patients (2.5% died of sepsis and low cardiac output syndrome. Conclusions: Fast track anaesthesia is suitable with applied anesthetic technique in our centre. However there exists relatively small risk of re-intubation (1.8%.

  10. Pharmacologic prophylaxis for atrial fibrillation following cardiac surgery: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Baikoussis Nikolaos G; Rogkakou Christina; Apostolakis Efstratios; Koniari Ioanna; Dougenis Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia occurring after cardiac surgery. Its incidence varies depending on type of surgery. Postoperative AF may cause hemodynamic deterioration, predispose to stroke and increase mortality. Effective treatment for prophylaxis of postoperative AF is vital as reduces hospitalization and overall morbidity. Beta - blockers, have been proved to prevent effectively atrial fibrillation following cardiac surgery and should be routinely used if ...

  11. Psychometric properties of the cardiac depression scale in patients with coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kiropoulos Litza A; Meredith Ian; Tonkin Andrew; Clarke David; Antonis Paul; Plunkett Julie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This study examined the psychometric properties of the Cardiac Depression Scale (CDS) in a sample of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. Methods A total of 152 patients were diagnosed with coronary heart disease and were administered the CDS along with the Beck Depression Inventory- 2 (BDI-2) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) 3.5-months after cardiac hospitalization. Results The CDS’s factorial composition in the current sample was similar to that observed ...

  12. The illness feeling in the preoperative of cardiac surgery - a phenomenological study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Helena Silva Souza; Maria de Fátima Mantovani; Liliana Maria Labronici

    2006-01-01

    This is a qualitative research with a phenomenological approach research had as an objective to learn the feelings and perceptions of the illness which is in preoperative cardiac surgery. This work, performed in the Hospital de Clinicas of the Parana Federal University, with 11 persons in preoperative for cardiac surgery, during March and April of 2004. The speeches analyses resulting two thematic units: Scared bodies – A reality to be transcendental and The hope to be a newly body. The fir...

  13. Avaliação do conhecimento geral de médicos emergencistas de hospitais de Salvador - Bahia sobre o atendimento de vítimas com parada cardiorrespiratória Assessment of the general knowledge of emergency physicians from the hospitals of the city of Salvador (Brazil on the care of cardiac arrest patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Menezes Filgueiras Filho

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a proporção de médicos emergencistas com habilitação em cursos de imersão (SAVC - Suporte Avançado de Vida em Cardiologia e SAVT - Suporte Avançado de Vida no Trauma, relacionando variáveis: idade, sexo, especialidade médica, titulação e tipo de hospital com o grau de conhecimento teórico no atendimento de vítimas de parada cardiorrespiratória. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados de forma consecutiva, de novembro/2003 a julho/2004, os emergencistas de hospitais públicos e privados da cidade de Salvador - Bahia, que voluntariamente aceitaram participar do estudo. Esses responderam a um questionário construído de informações das variáveis de interesse: perfil do profissional, realização ou não dos cursos de imersão SAVC e SAVT, avaliação cognitiva com 22 questões objetivas sobre ressuscitação cardiopulmonar. Calculou-se para cada participante um valor de acertos indicado como variável escore. Esse questionário foi validado a partir do resultado do escore dos instrutores do curso SAVC em Salvador - BA. RESULTADOS: Dos 305 médicos que responderam ao questionário, 83 (27,2% haviam realizado o curso SAVC, tendo como média da variável escore o valor de 14,9+3,0, comparada com os 215 médicos (70,5% que não o haviam feito e cuja média foi de 10,5+3,5 (p=0,0001. A média do escore dos 65 cardiologistas (21,5% foi de 14,1+3,3, comparada com os 238 médicos (78,5% que eram de outras especialidades, com média de 9,7+3,7(p=0,0001. Não foi identificada diferença da média do escore entre os médicos que haviam ou não realizado o curso SAVT (p=0,67. CONCLUSÃO: Na amostra avaliada, o conhecimento teórico sobre ressucitação cárdio-pulmonar (RCP foi superior naqueles profissionais que realizaram o SAVC, diferente do que ocorreu naqueles que realizaram o SAVT. Os especialistas em Cardiologia que realizaram o SAVC demonstraram um conhecimento teórico superior, sobre o atendimento de vítimas de parada cárdio-respiratória (PCR, quando comparado com as demais especialidades avaliadas em conjunto - Clínica Médica, Cirurgia e Ortopedia.OBJECTIVE: To identify the proportion of emergency physicians certified in immersion courses (ACLS - Advanced Cardiac Life Support and ATLS - Advanced Trauma Life Support correlating the variables of age, gender, medical specialty, academic title, and type of hospital with the level of theoretical knowledge on the care of Cardiac Arrest (CA victims. METHODS: Emergency physicians from public and private hospitals of the city of Salvador, State of Bahia - Brazil, were consecutively evaluated from November, 2003 to July, 2004. They volunteered to participate in the study, and responded to a questionnaire consisting of information on the following variables of interest: professional profile, participation or not in ACLS and ATLS immersion courses, and cognitive assessment with 22 objective questions on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR. A score of correct answers was calculated for each participant, and then designated as score variable. This questionnaire was validated based on the result of the score obtained by ACLS course instructors in Salvador, BA. RESULTS: Of the 305 physicians who responded to the questionnaire, 83 (27.2% had attended the ACLS course and had a mean score variable of 14.9+3.0 compared with the 215 physicians (70.5% who had not attended the course and whose mean was 10.5+ 3.5 (p=0.0001. The mean score of the 65 cardiologists (21.5% was 14.1+3.3 compared with the mean of 9.7+3.7(p=0.0001 of the 238 physicians (78.5% from other specialties. No difference was observed in the mean scores between physicians who had attended the ATLS course or not (p=0.67. CONCLUSION: In the sample studied, theoretical knowledge on CPR was higher among physicians who had attended the ACLS course, as opposed to those who had attended the ATLS course. Cardiologists who had attended the ACLS demonstrated a higher theoretical knowledge on the care of CA patients when compared to physicians from other specialties taken as whole - Internal

  14. Avaliação do conhecimento geral de médicos emergencistas de hospitais de Salvador - Bahia sobre o atendimento de vítimas com parada cardiorrespiratória / Assessment of the general knowledge of emergency physicians from the hospitals of the city of Salvador (Brazil) on the care of cardiac arrest patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nivaldo Menezes, Filgueiras Filho; Antônio Carlos, Bandeira; Thales, Delmondes; Adriano, Oliveira; Alberto Soares, Lima Junior; Vinicius, Cruz; Fábio, Vilas-Boas; Álvaro, Rabelo Junior.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar a proporção de médicos emergencistas com habilitação em cursos de imersão (SAVC - Suporte Avançado de Vida em Cardiologia e SAVT - Suporte Avançado de Vida no Trauma), relacionando variáveis: idade, sexo, especialidade médica, titulação e tipo de hospital com o grau de conhecim [...] ento teórico no atendimento de vítimas de parada cardiorrespiratória. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados de forma consecutiva, de novembro/2003 a julho/2004, os emergencistas de hospitais públicos e privados da cidade de Salvador - Bahia, que voluntariamente aceitaram participar do estudo. Esses responderam a um questionário construído de informações das variáveis de interesse: perfil do profissional, realização ou não dos cursos de imersão SAVC e SAVT, avaliação cognitiva com 22 questões objetivas sobre ressuscitação cardiopulmonar. Calculou-se para cada participante um valor de acertos indicado como variável escore. Esse questionário foi validado a partir do resultado do escore dos instrutores do curso SAVC em Salvador - BA. RESULTADOS: Dos 305 médicos que responderam ao questionário, 83 (27,2%) haviam realizado o curso SAVC, tendo como média da variável escore o valor de 14,9+3,0, comparada com os 215 médicos (70,5%) que não o haviam feito e cuja média foi de 10,5+3,5 (p=0,0001). A média do escore dos 65 cardiologistas (21,5%) foi de 14,1+3,3, comparada com os 238 médicos (78,5%) que eram de outras especialidades, com média de 9,7+3,7(p=0,0001). Não foi identificada diferença da média do escore entre os médicos que haviam ou não realizado o curso SAVT (p=0,67). CONCLUSÃO: Na amostra avaliada, o conhecimento teórico sobre ressucitação cárdio-pulmonar (RCP) foi superior naqueles profissionais que realizaram o SAVC, diferente do que ocorreu naqueles que realizaram o SAVT. Os especialistas em Cardiologia que realizaram o SAVC demonstraram um conhecimento teórico superior, sobre o atendimento de vítimas de parada cárdio-respiratória (PCR), quando comparado com as demais especialidades avaliadas em conjunto - Clínica Médica, Cirurgia e Ortopedia. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify the proportion of emergency physicians certified in immersion courses (ACLS - Advanced Cardiac Life Support and ATLS - Advanced Trauma Life Support) correlating the variables of age, gender, medical specialty, academic title, and type of hospital with the level of theoretical [...] knowledge on the care of Cardiac Arrest (CA) victims. METHODS: Emergency physicians from public and private hospitals of the city of Salvador, State of Bahia - Brazil, were consecutively evaluated from November, 2003 to July, 2004. They volunteered to participate in the study, and responded to a questionnaire consisting of information on the following variables of interest: professional profile, participation or not in ACLS and ATLS immersion courses, and cognitive assessment with 22 objective questions on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). A score of correct answers was calculated for each participant, and then designated as score variable. This questionnaire was validated based on the result of the score obtained by ACLS course instructors in Salvador, BA. RESULTS: Of the 305 physicians who responded to the questionnaire, 83 (27.2%) had attended the ACLS course and had a mean score variable of 14.9+3.0 compared with the 215 physicians (70.5%) who had not attended the course and whose mean was 10.5+ 3.5 (p=0.0001). The mean score of the 65 cardiologists (21.5%) was 14.1+3.3 compared with the mean of 9.7+3.7(p=0.0001) of the 238 physicians (78.5%) from other specialties. No difference was observed in the mean scores between physicians who had attended the ATLS course or not (p=0.67). CONCLUSION: In the sample studied, theoretical knowledge on CPR was higher among physicians who had attended the ACLS course, as opposed to those who had attended the ATLS course. Cardiologists who had attended the ACLS demonstrated a higher theoretical knowledge on the care of CA patients when compared to physi

  15. Nonexercise cardiac stress testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many patients who require evaluation for coronary artery disease are unable to undergo exercise stress testing because of physiologic or psychological limitations. Drs Vacek and Baldwin describe three alternative methods for assessment of cardiac function in these patients, all of which have high levels of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. 23 references

  16. Nonexercise cardiac stress testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacek, J.L.; Baldwin, T. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

    1989-09-15

    Many patients who require evaluation for coronary artery disease are unable to undergo exercise stress testing because of physiologic or psychological limitations. Drs Vacek and Baldwin describe three alternative methods for assessment of cardiac function in these patients, all of which have high levels of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. 23 references.

  17. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to allow a person to live a normal life and eventually will die of heart failure. That's the second way of dying. And the third way of dying is sudden cardiac death. This is the proverbial person that was stepping ...

  18. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for sudden cardiac death and who is a candidate to have this type of defibrillator implanted? There is a lot of study. We have Dr. Arthur Moss who’s done the mass companion study in MADIT II around 2001-2002. When they present patient with ...

  19. Economic networks in and out of equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Squartini, Tiziano

    2013-01-01

    Economic and financial networks play a crucial role in various important processes, including economic integration, globalization, and financial crises. Of particular interest is understanding whether the temporal evolution of a real economic network is in a (quasi-)stationary equilibrium, i.e. characterized by smooth structural changes rather than abrupt transitions. Smooth changes in quasi-equilibrium networks can be generally controlled for, and largely predicted, via an appropriate rescaling of structural quantities, while this is generally not possible for abrupt transitions in non-stationary networks. Here we study whether real economic networks are in or out of equilibrium by checking their consistency with quasi-equilibrium maximum-entropy ensembles of graphs. As illustrative examples, we consider the International Trade Network (ITN) and the Dutch Interbank Network (DIN). We show that, despite the globalization process, the ITN is an almost perfect example of quasi-equilibrium network, while the DIN ...

  20. Out of Context: Thinking Cultural Studies Diasporically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Farred

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay on cultural studies and the African Diaspora argues for a rethinking of cultural studies in two critical ways: firstly, that cultural studies, from its founding institutional and conceptual moment, cannot but be thought diasporically; and, secondly, that cultural studies be thought ‘out of’, or, against, context—that is, cultural studies is most revealing in its political and literary articulation when it is not read, as many of its advocates claim, contextually. This essay offers a broad critique of cultural studies and the (African diaspora but derives its most cogent and creative argument from its ability to read together the work of two diasporic authors, deracinated South African and Australian writers, J. M. Coetzee and David Malouf.

  1. Trends in Out-of-Hospital Births in the United States, 1990-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ordering Information Printed Publications Birth, Death, Marriage and Divorce Certificates Government Printing Office Bookstore How to Order from the National Technical Information Service Data and Statistics FastStats MMWR QuickStats Print page Download page: PDF [ ...

  2. Basic life-support kit in an out-of-hospital emergency

    OpenAIRE

    Lederer, Wolfgang; Rieger, Michael; Kroesen, Gunnar; Wiedermann, Franz J.

    2009-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy suffered a skull fracture and severe brain injury while attending a skiing event. A physician, equipped with his private emergency kit accomplished placement of a venous access line enabling administration of analgesic and sedating medication with ketamine and midazolam. When the helicopter emergency medical service arrived on the scene the patient’s peripheral circulation had decreased to such an extent that further attempts to place a second peripheral venous line were i...

  3. Determinants of the relationship between cost and survival time after elective adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K M

    2014-05-01

    Cardiac surgery is increasingly performed on elderly patients with multiple comorbid conditions, but the determinants of the relationship between cost and survival time after cardiac surgery for patients with a serious cardiac condition remain uncertain. Using the long-term outcome data of a cohort study on adult cardiac surgical patients, the relationship between cost and survival time after cardiac surgery from a hospital service perspective was determined. The total cost for each patient was estimated by the costs of the surgical procedures, intra-aortic balloon pump utilisation, operating theatre utilisation, blood products, intensive care unit stay and cumulative hospital stay up to a median follow-up time of 30 months. Of the 2131 patients considered in this study, a total cost >A$100,000 per life-year after cardiac surgery was observed only in 171 patients (8.0%, 95% confidence interval 6.9 to 9.3%). Age, Charlson Comorbidity Index and EuroSCORE were all related to the cost per life-year after cardiac surgery, but EuroSCORE (odds ratio 1.26 per score increment, 95% confidence interval 1.18 to 1.35, P=0.001) was, by far, the most important determinant and explained 32% of the variability in cost per life-year after cardiac surgery. Patients with a high EuroSCORE were associated with a substantially longer length of intensive care unit stay and cumulative hospital stay, as well as a shorter survival time after cardiac surgery compared to patients with a lower EuroSCORE. Of all the subgroups of patients examined, only patients with a EuroSCORE >5 were consistently associated with a cost >A$100,000 per life-year (cost per life-year $183,148, 95% confidence interval 125, 394 to 240, 902). PMID:24794468

  4. Cardiac amyloidosis detection with pyrophosphate-99mTc scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: Amyloidosis is a rare disease, characterized by extracellular deposition of insoluble amyloid fibrils in organs and tissues. It may affect virtually any system, preferably heart, kidneys and liver. The cardiac involvement produces a spectrum of clinical features, usually with progressive dysfunction. Early diagnosis is important for institution of appropriate therapy. Case report: Male patient, 75 years old, with diagnosed congestive heart failure functional class III and Mobitz II second-degree atrial-ventricular block, was hospitalized for implantation of definitive cardiac pacemaker. Patient mentioned history of worsening effort dyspnoea over a one-month period, progressing to minimum effort, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea and paroxysms of dry cough, and swelling of lower limbs. Echocardiography showed diffuse hypertrophy of left ventricle (LV), with systolic dysfunction due to diffuse hypokinesia and hyperrefringent aspect in the septum. It was questioned a cardiac infiltrating process. Cardiac amyloidosis was considered as a diagnostic hypothesis. The patient underwent a pyrophosphate-99mTc scintigraphy, which showed abnormal tracer uptake in the heart projection, with diffuse pattern on the left ventricle walls, compatible with the clinical suspicion cardiac amyloidosis, which was later confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy. Discussion: In this case report, the patient had clinical and other auxiliary examinations, suchcal and other auxiliary examinations, such as electrocardiography and Doppler echocardiography, compatible with cardiac amyloidosis, which led to implementation with pyrophosphate-99mTc scintigraphy and later endomyocardial biopsy. Cardiac amyloidosis occurs in about half the cases of primary amyloidosis (AL) and is rare in secondary amyloidosis (AA). Its clinical presentation is polymorphic and it can be classified into four distinctive types: restrictive cardiomyopathy, systolic dysfunction, postural hypotension and conduction disorders. Cardiac amyloidosis is often under diagnosed due to unspecific and varied signs and symptoms. The diagnosis is confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy, an invasive procedure with inherent risks to this technique. Pyrophosphate-99mTc scintigraphy is a simple, non-invasive, low cost, with good sensitivity method for detection of cardiac amyloidosis. The scintigraphy pattern observed in cardiac amyloidosis cases is abnormal diffuse tracer uptake in both heart ventricles. Planar and/or tomographic imaging may be performed. It is considered a highly sensitive test, with low rates of false-negative results despite the existing little literature. Therefore the scintigraphy can be useful to select patients for biopsy. Conclusion: Scintigraphy can be of great assistance in cardiac amyloidosis, despite its low specificity. Due to its high sensibility, it can be a useful test to early discriminate patients who should undergo biopsy, allowing treatment optimization. (author)

  5. The Homeless Mentally Ill: No Longer Out of Sight and Out of Mind. Human Resources Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Andrea; Craig, Rebecca T.

    1985-01-01

    The increasing presence of the mentally ill among the nation's homeless is the topic of this report. The problems presented by deinstitutionalization are discussed, including: (1) the homeless mentally ill as a disruptive element of society; (2) mentally ill persons who shuttle between the hospital and the community; (3) young chronic patients who…

  6. Hydrogels for Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Guan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tissue regeneration is an integrated process involving both cells and supporting matrix. Cardiomyocytes and stem cells are utilized to regenerate cardiac tissue. Hydrogels, because of their tissue-like properties, have been used as supporting matrices to deliver cells into infarcted cardiac muscle. Bioactive and biocompatible hydrogels mimicking biochemical and biomechanical microenvironments in native tissue are needed for successful cardiac tissue regeneration. These hydrogels not only retain cells in the infarcted area, but also provide support for restoring myocardial wall stress and cell survival and functioning. Many hydrogels, including natural polymer hydrogels, synthetic polymer hydrogels, and natural/synthetic hybrid hydrogels are employed for cardiac tissue engineering. In this review, types of hydrogels used for cardiac tissue engineering are briefly introduced. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Furthermore, strategies for cardiac regeneration using hydrogels are reviewed.

  7. Sudden cardiac arrest – How can we improve results of resuscitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Wellens, Hein J.

    2012-01-01

    Death from heart disease has continued to diminish during the last two decades, but still half of those deaths are sudden, often occurring unexpectedly outside hospital, claiming at least 250.000 lives in Europe each year. What can we do to prevent this from happening and how can we successfully resuscitate the victim?When an arrhythmic sudden death occurs outside the hospital, the only chance for survival is recognition of the situation by a witness, the start of cardiac massage and a call t...

  8. Cardiac risk in the treatment of breast cancer: assessment and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valachis A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonis Valachis,1 Cecilia Nilsson2 1Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Uppsala University, Eskilstuna, Sweden; 2Center for Clinical Research, Västmanlands County Hospital, Västerås, Sweden Abstract: As the number of long-term breast cancer survivors has increased, the side effects of adjuvant cancer therapy, such as cardiac toxicity, remain clinically important. Although the cardiac toxicity due to anthracyclines, radiotherapy, or trastuzumab is well-documented, several issues need to be clarified and are the subjects of extensive ongoing clinical research. This review summarizes the incidence of cardiac toxicity due to breast cancer adjuvant therapy and highlights the current trends in early detection and management of cardiac toxicities. Keywords: adjuvant, anthracyclines, cardiac toxicity, radiotherapy, trastuzumab

  9. Acute kidney injury in septua- and octogenarians after cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid Christof; Haneya Assad; Puehler Thomas; Ried Michael; Diez Claudius

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background An increasing number of septua- and octogenarians undergo cardiac surgery. Acute kidney injury (AKI) still is a frequent complication after surgery. We examined the incidence of AKI and its impact on 30-day mortality. Methods A retrospective study between 01/2006 and 08/2009 with 299 octogenarians, who were matched for gender and surgical procedure to 299 septuagenarians at a university hospital. Primary endpoint was AKI after surgery as proposed by the RIFLE definition (R...

  10. Analysis of QRS Detection Algorithm for Cardiac Abnormalities – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Harikumar, R.; Shivappriya, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates and compares a set ofefficient techniques to extract and select striking features from theECG data applicable in automatic cardiac beat classification.Each method was applied to a pre-selected data segment from theMIT-BIH (Massachusetts Institute of Technology / Beth IsrelHospital) database. The classification and optimization ofdifferent heart beat methods were performed based upon theextracted features (morphological and statistical feature). Themorphological features...

  11. Reality TV positions heart center as cardiac care leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, T

    2001-01-01

    Saint Thomas Heart Institute, Nashville, Tenn., has a long history of successful cardiac care. More than 200,000 patients have been treated at Saint Thomas. Earlier this year the hospital launched a new branding campaign that features former patients who have bonded with the institution. These former patients were provided MiniDV video cameras to record their stories. The campaign has attracted considerable attention, including newspaper and TV news coverage. PMID:11374127

  12. Fast-tracking in pediatric cardiac surgery - The current standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittnacht Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast-tracking in cardiac surgery refers to the concept of early extubation, mobilization and hospital discharge in an effort to reduce costs and perioperative morbidity. With careful patient selection, fast-tracking can be performed in many patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD. In order to accomplish this safely, a multidisciplinary coordinated approach is necessary. This manuscript reviews currently used anesthetic techniques, patient selection, and available information about the safety and patient outcome associated with this approach.

  13. Cardiac fusion and complex congenital cardiac defects in thoracopagus twins: diagnostic value of cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Jun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Hye-Sung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Most thoracopagus twins present with cardiac fusion and associated congenital cardiac defects, and assessment of this anatomy is of critical importance in determining patient care and outcome. Cardiac CT with electrocardiographic triggering provides an accurate and quick morphological assessment of both intracardiac and extracardiac structures in newborns, making it the best imaging modality to assess thoracopagus twins during the neonatal period. In this case report, we highlight the diagnostic value of cardiac CT in thoracopagus twins with an interatrial channel and complex congenital cardiac defects. (orig.)

  14. Depression, not anxiety, is independently associated with 5-year hospitalizations and mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Hoogwegt, Madelein T

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether depression and anxiety are independently associated with 5-year cardiac-related hospitalizations and all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD).

  15. Where do out-of-hours calls to a consultant microbiologist come from?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Humphreys, H

    2009-08-01

    There is little in the literature about out-of-hours calls to medical microbiologists. The calls taken by a consultant medical microbiologist over a five-year period in an Irish tertiary referral hospital were reviewed. Excluding calls on weekend mornings and significant evening positive blood cultures, the mean annual number of calls on a one-in-four rota was 89 (range 70-111). Over 90% of calls were received before midnight and 51% were from specialist registrars. Medical specialties, neurosurgery and intensive care were the most common departments seeking advice. Two-thirds of calls related to the management of an individual patient, but advice on infection prevention and control is increasingly requested. Calls out-of-hours are not insignificant but little is known about how these vary between hospitals and what contribution they make to patient care.

  16. Spatiotemporal representation of cardiac vectorcardiogram (VCG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hui

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vectorcardiogram (VCG signals monitor both spatial and temporal cardiac electrical activities along three orthogonal planes of the body. However, the absence of spatiotemporal resolution in conventional VCG representations is a major impediment for medical interpretation and clinical usage of VCG. This is especially so because time-domain features of 12-lead ECG, instead of both spatial and temporal characteristics of VCG, are widely used for the automatic assessment of cardiac pathological patterns. Materials and methods We present a novel representation approach that captures critical spatiotemporal heart dynamics by displaying the real time motion of VCG cardiac vectors in a 3D space. Such a dynamic display can also be realized with only one lead ECG signal (e.g., ambulatory ECG through an alternative lag-reconstructed ECG representation from nonlinear dynamics principles. Furthermore, the trajectories are color coded with additional dynamical properties of space-time VCG signals, e.g., the curvature, speed, octant and phase angles to enhance the information visibility. Results In this investigation, spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is used to characterize various spatiotemporal pathological patterns for healthy control (HC, myocardial infarction (MI, atrial fibrillation (AF and bundle branch block (BBB. The proposed color coding scheme revealed that the spatial locations of the peak of T waves are in the Octant 6 for the majority (i.e., 74 out of 80 of healthy recordings in the PhysioNet PTB database. In contrast, the peak of T waves from 31.79% (117/368 of MI subjects are found to remain in Octant 6 and the rest (68.21% spread over all other octants. The spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is shown to capture the same important heart characteristics as the 12-lead ECG plots and more. Conclusions Spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is shown to facilitate the characterization of space-time cardiac pathological patterns and enhance the automatic assessment of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Opium decreases the age at myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death : a long- and short-term outcome evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Talaei, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Opium dependence is a recognized individual and public health threat, but little is known about its association with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or sudden cardiac death (SCD). METHODS: In a cross-sectional study followed by a one-year matched longitudinal cohort, all 569 men hospitalized with AMI in all Cardiac Care Units (CCU) of Isfahan, Iran, were recruited in a six-month period. In addition, 123 out-of-hospital deaths were included that were diagnosed as SCD at the same duration. Among those discharged alive, 126 opium dependents were matched with 126 nondependents (mostly nonusers) according to age and smoking status, and were followed for one year. Opium dependence was measured using the ICD10 criteria and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) questionnaire. The method was validated by morphine blood levels. Biochemical measurements, blood pressure, blood cell counts, anthropometrics, and ejection fraction were measured at baseline and repeated at the end of follow-up. RESULTS: There were 118 (17.1%) patients with an average of 17.4 ± 10.4 years of abuse who met the criteria for opium dependency. Opium dependence decreased the age at event by 3.6 (95% CI: 1.2 - 6.0) years and was independent of smoking (P = 0.003). In terms of cardiovascular risk factors such as ejection fraction, in addition to post-AMI mortality and morbidity, no significant associations were noted at baseline or after one year of follow-up. The odds ratio of sustained smoking after AMI was 1.92 (95% CI: 1.04 - 3.52) in opium dependents (P = 0.033). CONCLUSION: Despite public opinion, opium did not improve cardiovascular risk factors, or post-AMI mortality and morbidity. Conversely, there were irrefutable findings regarding the detrimental effects of opium dependence.

  18. Temperature of systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, J-L; Richard, J; Guillou, H

    2008-07-28

    Two phenomenological approaches are currently used in the study of the vitreous state. One is based on the concept of fictive temperature introduced by Tool [J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 34, 199 (1945)] and recently revisited by Nieuwenhuizen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5580 (1998)]. The other is based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes initiated by De Donder at the beginning of the last century [L'Affinite (Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1927)] and recently used by Moller et al. for a thorough study of the glass transition [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 094505 (2006)]. This latter approach leads to the possibility of describing the glass transition by means of the freezing-in of one or more order parameters connected to the internal structural degrees of freedom involved in the vitrification process. In this paper, the equivalence of the two preceding approaches is demonstrated, not only for glasses but in a very general way for any system undergoing an irreversible transformation. This equivalence allows the definition of an effective temperature for all systems departed from equilibrium generating a positive amount of entropy. In fact, the initial fictive temperature concept of Tool leads to the generalization of the notion of temperature for systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium, for which glasses are just particular cases. PMID:18681661

  19. Menstrual bleeding after cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, Vibeke Elisabeth; Larsen, Signe Holm

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether open-heart surgery with the use of extracorporeal circulation has an impact on menstrual bleeding. METHODS: The menstrual bleeding pattern was registered in fertile women undergoing open-heart surgery in 2010-12. Haematocrit and 24-h postoperative bleeding were compared with those of men undergoing cardiac surgery. RESULTS: Women (n = 22), with mean age of 36 (range 17-60) years, were operated on and hospitalized for 4-5 postoperative days. The mean preoperative haematocrit was 40% (range 32-60%), and mean haematocrit at discharge was 32% (range 26-37%). Mean postoperative bleeding in the first 24 h was 312 (range 50-1442) ml. They underwent surgery for atrial septal defect (n = 5), composite graft/David procedure (n = 4), pulmonary or aortic valve replacement (n = 6), myxoma (n = 2), mitral valvuloplasty (n = 2), ascending aortic aneurysm (n = 1), aortic coarctation (n = 1) and total cavopulmonary connection (n = 1). Unplanned menstrual bleeding (lasting 2-5 days) was detected in 13 (60%) patients. Of them, 4 were 1-7 days early, 4 were 8-14 days early, 3 were 1-7 days late and 2 had menstruation despite having had menstrual bleeding within the last 2 weeks. None had unusually large or long-lasting menstrual bleeding. Ten women took oral contraceptives, 8 of whom had unexpected menstrual bleeding during admission. Men (n = 22), with a mean age of 35 (range 17-54) years, had mean bleeding of 331 (range 160-796) ml postoperatively, which was not statistically significantly different from the women's. The mean preoperative haematocrit was 40% (range 29-49%) among men, while haematocrit at discharge was 32% (28-41), not significantly different from that seen in the female subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Menstrual bleeding patterns are disturbed by open-heart surgery in the majority of fertile women. Nevertheless, the unexpected menstrual bleeding is neither particularly long-lasting nor of large quantity, and the postoperative surgical bleeding is unaffected. We recommend that information about menstrual cycle disturbances related to cardiac surgery be provided, but no special precautions be taken, when operating on women of fertile age.

  20. Predictors of low cardiac output in decompensated severe heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eidi Ochiai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of low cardiac output and mortality in decompensated heart failure. INTRODUCTION: Introduction: Patients with decompensated heart failure have a high mortality rate, especially those patients with low cardiac output. However, this clinical presentation is uncommon, and its management is controversial. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 452 patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure with an ejection fraction of 60 years, and 64.6% were men. Low cardiac output was present in 281 (63% patients on admission. Chagas disease was the cause of heart failure in 92 (20.4% patients who had higher B type natriuretic peptide levels (1,978.38 vs. 1,697.64 pg/mL; P = 0.015. Predictors of low cardiac output were Chagas disease (RR: 3.655, P<0.001, lower ejection fraction (RR: 2.414, P<0.001, hyponatremia (RR: 1.618, P = 0.036, and renal dysfunction (RR: 1.916, P = 0.007. Elderly patients were inversely associated with low cardiac output (RR: 0.436, P = 0.001. Predictors of mortality were Chagas disease (RR: 2.286, P<0.001, ischemic etiology (RR: 1.449, P = 0.035, and low cardiac output (RR: 1.419, P = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: In severe decompensated heart failure, predictors of low cardiac output are Chagas disease, lower ejection fraction, hyponatremia, and renal dysfunction. Additionally, Chagas disease patients have higher B type natriuretic peptide levels and a worse prognosis independent of lower ejection fraction.

  1. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that occurs during a hospital stay. This type of pneumonia can be very ... many different germs. Pneumonia that starts in the hospital tends to be more serious than other lung ...

  2. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other diseases. If you look at the top bar, represents admissions to the hospital for cardiovascular disease ... And if you look at the very bottom bar, you'll see neoplasms, that’s cancer. So we ...

  3. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doesn't come to the hospital, then we end up with part of the muscle dying. And ... they could see, you were turning, rotating the end, you were in fact rotating the whole shaft ...

  4. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have here, you'll notice that deaths from cardiovascular disease have been declining over the last decade ... re looking at discharges from the hospital for cardiovascular disease, you'll see that although it may ...

  5. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that they were boasting about getting with the drug-eluding stents. And we had a cardiology meeting ... even to this day, we use far fewer drug-eluding stents than many hospitals because of the ...

  6. [Cardiac syndrome in opisthorchiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, G G

    2004-01-01

    According to the intensity and duration of invasion, superinvasion opisthorchiasis in laboratory animals and human beings involves all cardiac layers; the myocardium is mostly damaged. In its early phase, vascular inflammation of the microcirculatory bed, dystrophy, necrosis of striated muscle fibers progressing to diffuse cardiosclerosis result from abnormal immunological processes; due to reflex exposures (Botkin's syndrome), there may be persistent cardialgias that may progress to the clinical manifestations of chronic ischemic heart disease. Unpredictable dissipative clusters of metabolic Opistorchis may predispose to different forms of myocarditis progressing to focal and diffuse cardiosclerosis. In these cases, the death of patients with superinvasion opisthorchiasis results from acute or chronic heart failure. Dehelmintization in these patients fails to eliminate myocardial changes (cardiosclerosis) that further determine the clinical presentation of cardiac pathology. PMID:15484976

  7. Benign cardiac tumours: cardiac CT and MRI imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Primary benign cardiac tumours are rarely found in clinical practice and are generally evaluated with echocardiography. However, with the increasing usage of helical multislice CT, the initial detection and evaluation of these masses may be made by the radiologist during routine daily practice for other indications. The echocardiographic, CT and cardiac MRI appearances of various benign cardiac tumours and masses are described and illustrated in this review

  8. Polymer translocation out of planar confinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymer translocation in three dimensions out of planar confinements is studied in this paper. Three membranes are located at z = -h, z = 0 and z h1. These membranes are impenetrable, except for the middle one at z = 0, which has a narrow pore. A polymer with length N is initially sandwiched between the membranes placed at z = -h and z = 0 and translocates through this pore. We consider strong confinement (small h), where the polymer is essentially reduced to a two-dimensional polymer, with a radius of gyration scaling as Rg(2D)?N?2D; here, ?2D = 0.75 is the Flory exponent in two dimensions. The polymer performs Rouse dynamics. On the basis of theoretical analysis and high-precision simulation data, we show that in the unbiased case h = h1, the dwell time ?d scales as N2+?2D, in perfect agreement with our previously published theoretical framework. For h1=?, the situation is equivalent to field-driven translocation in two dimensions. We show that in this case ?d scales as N2?2D, in agreement with several existing numerical results in the literature. This result violates the earlier reported lower bound N1+? for ?d for field-driven translocation. We argue, on the basis of energy conservation, that the actual lower bound for ?d is N2?d is N2? and not N1+?. Polymer translocation in such theoretically motivated geometries thus resolves some of the most fundamental issues that have been the subject of much heated debate in recent times

  9. Creatinine clearance versus serum creatinine as a risk factor in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frerichs Inez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal impairment is one of the predictors of mortality in cardiac surgery. Usually a binarized value of serum creatinine is used to assess the renal function in risk models. Creatinine clearance can be easily estimated by the Cockcroft and Gault equation from serum creatinine, gender, age and body weight. In this work we examine whether this estimation of the glomerular filtration rate can advantageously replace the serum creatinine in the EuroSCORE preoperative risk assessment. Methods In a group of 8138 patients out of a total of 11878 patients, who underwent cardiac surgery in our hospital between January 1996 and July 2002, the 18 standard EuroSCORE parameters could retrospectively be determined and logistic regression analysis performed. In all patients scored, creatinine clearance was calculated according to Cockcroft and Gault. The relationship between the predicted and observed 30-days mortality was evaluated in systematically selected intervals of creatinine clearance and significance values computed by employing Monte Carlo methods. Afterwards, risk scoring was performed using a continuous or a categorical value of creatinine clearance instead of serum creatinine. The predictive ability of several risk score models and the individual contribution of their predictor variables were studied using ROC curve analysis. Results The comparison between the expected and observed 30-days mortalities, which were determined in different intervals of creatinine clearance, revealed the best threshold value of 55 ml/min. A significantly higher 30-days mortality was observed below this threshold and vice versa (both with p Conclusion The renal function is an important determinant of mortality in heart surgery. This risk factor is not well captured in the standard EuroSCORE risk evaluation system. Our study shows that creatinine clearance, calculated according to the Cockcroft and Gault equation, should be applied to estimate the preoperative renal function instead of serum creatinine. This predictor variable replacement gains a significant improvement in the predictive accuracy of the scoring model.

  10. Inherited cardiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Charron

    2012-01-01

    Major advances have been achieved over the two last decades in the field of genetic cardiovascular diseases, not only through increased recognition and understanding of underlying molecular defects but also through rapid translation of knowledge into clinical practice. Genetic counseling and organization of cardiac family screening has become part of the medical management of these diseases, and these should be performed systematically unless an acquired cause has been diagnosed...

  11. Hepato-cardiac disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fouad, Yasser Mahrous; Yehia, Reem

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationship between the liver and the heart is important for both hepatologists and cardiologists. Hepato-cardiac diseases can be classified into heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions affecting the heart and the liver at the same time. Differential diagnoses of liver injury are extremely important in a cardiologist’s clinical practice calling for collaboration between cardiologists and hepatologists due to the many o...

  12. NHS to close residential hospitals for people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Sally

    2015-02-18

    Many residential hospitals for people with learning disabilities will be shut over the next two years as part of a government pledge to move people out of these settings following the Winterbourne View abuse scandal. PMID:25690200

  13. Tissue-engineered cardiac constructs for cardiac repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Shigeru; Roth, Matthias; Saito, Atsuhiro; Sawa, Yoshiki; Kostin, Sawa

    2011-01-01

    Several recent basic research studies have described surgical methods for cardiac repair using tissue cardiomyoplasty. This review summarizes recent advances in cardiac repair using bioengineered tissue from the viewpoint of the cardiac surgeon. We conclude that the results of many basic and preclinical studies indicate that bioengineered tissue can be adapted to conventional surgical techniques. However, no clinical studies have yet proved bioengineered tissue is effective as a treatment for human heart failure. Today's cardiac surgeons can look forward to the advent of new techniques to benefit patients who respond poorly to existing treatment for heart failure. PMID:21172551

  14. Cardiac tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILICA RADISIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick,compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3 can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of perfluorocarbons, or with electrical stimulation (continuous application of biphasic pulses, 2 ms, 5 V, 1 Hz. Tissue constructs cultured without perfusion or electrical stimulation served as controls. Medium perfusion and addition of perfluorocarbons resulted in compact, thick constructs containing physiologic density of viable, electromechanically coupled cells, in contrast to control constructs which had only a ~100 mm thick peripheral region with functionally connected cells. Electrical stimulation of cultured constructs resulted in markedly improved contractile properties, increased amounts of cardiac proteins, and remarkably well developed ultrastructure (similar to that of native heart as compared to non-stimulated controls. We discuss here the state of the art of cardiac tissue engineering, in light of the biomimetic approach that reproduces in vitro some of the conditions present during normal tissue development.

  15. Cardiac morbidity risk and depression and anxiety : a disorder, symptom and trait analysis among cardiac surgery patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tully, Phillip J; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine depression and anxiety disorders and their characteristic symptoms (anhedonia/low positive affect and anxious arousal, respectively), along with measures of state negative affect (NA) and Type D personality, in relation to cardiac surgery related morbidity. Patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n=158; 20.9% female; 11.4% concomitant valve surgery; age M=64.7, SD=10.6) underwent the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview to determine current affective disorders. Patients also completed the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire and a measure of Type D personality traits. Postoperative cardiac morbidity was confirmed after surgery during the index hospitalization and included stroke,renal failure, ventilation>24 h, deep sternal wound infection, reoperation, arrhythmia and 30-day mortality at any location (n=59, 37.3% of total). After adjustment for age, recent myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertension, urgency of surgery and time spent on cardiopulmonary bypass generalized anxiety disorder was associated with cardiac morbidity (odds ratio [OR]=3.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-9.67, p=0.03). Adjusted analysis of personality traits revealed the NA component of Type D personality was associated with cardiac morbidity (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14, p=0.03). The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire subscales were not associated with increased morbidity risk. Affective disorders, affective phenotypes, and personality traits were differentially associated with post-cardiac surgery morbidity outcomes independent of cardiac surgery morbidity risk factors. Concurrent investigation of depression and anxiety with respect to cardiac outcomes warrants further research.

  16. Impact of pulmonary hypertension on cardiac surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tinic?

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a frequent condition in patients with congenital heart diseases and left ventricle diseases. Preoperative PH causes higher mortality rate after heart surgery and adverse cardiac events. METHODS: We performed a prospective study which included 159 patients with preoperative PH that had undergone cardiac surgery between November 2008 and November 2011 in the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases of Ia?i. 28 patients had class 1.4.4 pulmonary artery hypertension (due to congenital cardiac shunts and 131 patients had class 2 PH (due to left heart diseases. The preoperative echocardiography included: assessment of the left ventricular volume and ejection fraction, systolic pressure in the pulmonary artery; right ventricular end-diastolic diameter; right atrium area indexed for body surface area; pulmonary acceleration/ejection time ratio; TAPSE; determination of the severity of the associated tricuspid regurgitation; pericardial fluid presence. The primary endpoint was perioperative mortality; the secondary endpoints included: pericardial, pleural, hepatic or renal complications; the need for a new surgical procedure; postoperative mechanical ventilation > 24 hours; intensive care unit length of stay; postoperative inotropic support duration; the need for intra-aortic balloon pump; the need for pulmonary vasodilator drugs. RESULTS: The mortality rate was 2.51% and was statistically associated with NYHA IV preoperative class, the pulmonary acceleration/ejection time ratio, TAPSE, the presence of pericardial fluid, the indexed area of the right atrium and the concomitant CABG. Severe pulmonary hypertension(sPAP > 60 mmHg is associated with significant mortality rate increase, longer hospitalization in the intensive care unit, mechanical ventilation over 24 hours, lengthy inotropic support and renal, hepatic and pericardial complications. Residual PH and perioperative right ventricle dysfunction are common clinical entities after cardiac surgery, with important prognostic implications. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary hypertension and right ventricle dysfunction are strong negative prognostic factor for cardiac surgery. The surgical procedure should be done in the early stages of pulmonary hypertension. Echocardiography is an useful, simple and reproducible tool, able to classify the operative risk.

  17. Quality of life of cardiac patients eligible for implantation of cardiac pacemakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izelina Helena de Freitas Antônio, Thatiara Lima Barroso, Agueda Maria Ruiz Zimmer Cavalcante, Luciano Ramos de Lima

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the quality of life (QL of cardiac patients eligible for implantation of a pacemaker (PM in a cardiac hospital in the inland cities of Goiás States. Method: a cohort study, prospective, longitudinal quantitative approach. Purposeful sample applied to 25 patients who underwent implantation in the first half of 2009. The instrument used was the Short Form Healthy Survey (SF-36. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 15.0. The study was approved by the Ethics in Research of the University Center of Annapolis, protocol number 183/2008. Results: Chagas was the most frequent indication for implantation (68%, time of diagnosis of 1 to 25 years (56%, and 13 patients were undergoing treatment and 64% of patients with 1 insertion of pacemaker (PM, without changing so far. The major areas of life scores were Social Aspects (M=72,7, and the minor ones were Functional Capacity (M=31,6, demonstrating that QL is compromised because most of the areas did not exceed the average 50. There was no significance between age and QOL (p>0,05. Conclusion: we conclude that cardiac patients have significant negative impact on QL.

  18. Indeterminacy of Spatiotemporal Cardiac Alternans

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration (at the cellular level) or in ECG morphology (at the whole heart level), is a marker of ventricular fibrillation, a fatal heart rhythm that kills hundreds of thousands of people in the US each year. Investigating cardiac alternans may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias and eventually better algorithms for the prediction and prevention of such dreadful diseases. In paced cardiac tissue, alternans develops under increasingly shorter pacing period. Existing experimental and theoretical studies adopt the assumption that alternans in homogeneous cardiac tissue is exclusively determined by the pacing period. In contrast, we find that, when calcium-driven alternans develops in cardiac fibers, it may take different spatiotemporal patterns depending on the pacing history. Because there coexist multiple alternans solutions for a given pacing period, the alternans pattern on a fiber becomes unpredictable. Usin...

  19. Nuclear imaging for cardiac amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Walter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Longhi, Simone; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lorenzini, Massimiliano; Hazenberg, Bouke P C; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Histological analysis of endomyocardial tissue is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis, but has its limitations. Accordingly, there is a need for non-invasive modalities to diagnose cardiac amyloidosis. Echocardiography and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging can show characteristics which may not be very specific for cardiac amyloid. Nuclear medicine has gained a precise role in this context: several imaging modalities have become available for the diagnosis and prognostic stratification of cardiac amyloidosis during the last two decades. The different classes of radiopharmaceuticals have the potential to bind different constituents of the amyloidotic infiltrates, with some relevant differences among the various aetiologic types of amyloidosis and the different organs and tissues involved. This review focuses on the background of the commonly used modalities, their present clinical applications, and future clinical perspectives in imaging patients with (suspected) cardiac amyloidosis. The main focus is on conventional nuclear medicine (bone scintigraphy, cardiac sympathetic innervation) and positron emission tomography. PMID:25424887

  20. An overview of cardiac morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Abdulla, Tariq; Summers, Ron; Houyel, Lucile

    2013-11-01

    Accurate knowledge of normal cardiac development is essential for properly understanding the morphogenesis of congenital cardiac malformations that represent the most common congenital anomaly in newborns. The heart is the first organ to function during embryonic development and is fully formed at 8 weeks of gestation. Recent studies stemming from molecular genetics have allowed specification of the role of cellular precursors in the field of heart development. In this article we review the different steps of heart development, focusing on the processes of alignment and septation. We also show, as often as possible, the links between abnormalities of cardiac development and the main congenital heart defects. The development of animal models has permitted the unraveling of many mechanisms that potentially lead to cardiac malformations. A next step towards a better knowledge of cardiac development could be multiscale cardiac modelling. PMID:24138816

  1. A knowledge translation collaborative to improve the use of therapeutic hypothermia in post-cardiac arrest patients: protocol for a stepped wedge randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wax Randy; Rubenfeld Gordon; Ferguson Niall; Dorian Paul; Needham Dale M; Brooks Steve C; Scales Damon C; Dainty Katie N; Zwarenstein Merrick; Thorpe Kevin; Morrison Laurie J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Advances in resuscitation science have dramatically improved survival rates following cardiac arrest. However, about 60% of adults that regain spontaneous circulation die before leaving the hospital. Recently it has been shown that inducing hypothermia in cardiac arrest survivors immediately following their arrival in hospital can dramatically improve both overall survival and neurological outcomes. Despite the strong evidence for its efficacy and the apparent simplicity o...

  2. Challenges in Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vunjak-novakovic, Gordana; Tandon, Nina; Godier, Amandine; Maidhof, Robert; Marsano, Anna; Martens, Timothy P.; Radisic, Milica

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac tissue engineering aims to create functional tissue constructs that can reestablish the structure and function of injured myocardium. Engineered constructs can also serve as high-fidelity models for studies of cardiac development and disease. In a general case, the biological potential of the cell—the actual “tissue engineer”—is mobilized by providing highly controllable three-dimensional environments that can mediate cell differentiation and functional assembly. For cardiac r...

  3. Review Article of Cardiac Amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Purattanamal, Jittiporn

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac amyloidosis is a term that means the deposit of abnormal proteins in the myocardium leading to global thickening of the heart walls. The clinical character is that of infiltrative cardiomyopathy. AL amyloidosis is the most common type that involves cardiac failure. Cardiac amyloid precedes clinical congestive heart failure, especially right-sided heart failure. Laboratory investigations have identified the amyloid fibril proteins deposited in the organ tissues. Immunofixation tests ar...

  4. Cardiac effects of prolonged exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Sahle?n, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Long-distance running is growing in popularity. While moderate exercise unquestionably gives major health benefits, the effects of extreme physical exhaustion on cardiac function have been studied less. It has previously been observed that elevated cardiac biomarkers may be observed after exercise, the significance of which is not known. We aimed to study the cardiac impact of the 30-km endurance race Lidingöloppet using biomarkers N-terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (...

  5. Predicting defibrillation success in sudden cardiac arrest patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozabadi, Reza; Nakagawa, Michael; Helfenbein, Eric D; Babaeizadeh, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and its link to survival is still emphasized, there has been recent debate about the balance between CPR and defibrillation, particularly for long response times. Defibrillation shocks for ventricular fibrillation (VF) of recently perfused hearts have high success for the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), but hearts with depleted adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stores have low recovery rates. Since quality CPR has been shown to both slow the degradation process and restore cardiac viability, a measurement of patient condition to optimize the timing of defibrillation shocks may improve outcomes compared to time-based protocols. Researchers have proposed numerous predictive features of VF and shockable ventricular tachycardia (VT) which can be computed from the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal to distinguish between the rhythms which convert to spontaneous circulation and those which do not. We looked at the shock-success prediction performance of thirteen of these features on a single evaluation database including the recordings from 116 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients which were collected for a separate study using defibrillators in ambulances and medical centers in 4 European regions and the US between March 2002 and September 2004. A total of 469 shocks preceded by VF or shockable VT rhythm episodes were identified in the recordings. Based on the experts' annotation for the post-shock rhythm, the shocks were categorized to result in either pulsatile (ROSC) or non-pulsatile (no-ROSC) rhythm. The features were calculated on a 4-second ECG segment prior to the shock delivery. These features examined were: Mean Amplitude, Average Peak-Peak Amplitude, Amplitude Range, Amplitude Spectrum Analysis (AMSA), Peak Frequency, Centroid Frequency, Spectral Flatness Measure (SFM), Energy, Max Power, Centroid Power, Power Spectrum Analysis (PSA), Mean Slope, and Median Slope. Statistical hypothesis tests (two-tailed t-test and Wilcoxon with 5% significance level) were applied to determine if the means and medians of these features were significantly different between the ROSC and no-ROSC groups. The ROC curve was computed for each feature, and Area Under the Curve (AUC) was calculated. Specificity (Sp) with Sensitivity (Se) held at 90% as well as Se with Sp held at 90% was also computed. All features showed statistically different mean and median values between the ROSC and no-ROSC groups with all p-values less than 0.0001. The AUC was >76% for all features. For Sp = 90%, the Se range was 33-45%; for Se = 90%, the Sp range was 49-63%. The features showed good shock-success prediction performance. We believe that a defibrillator employing a clinical decision tool based on these features has the potential to improve overall survival from cardiac arrest. PMID:23871657

  6. Compassionate extubation for a peaceful death in the setting of a community hospital: a case-series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok VC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Victor C Kok1,2 1Division of Palliative Medicine and Hospice Palliative Care Team, Kuang Tien General Hospital, 2Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University Taiwan, Taichung, Taiwan Background: The use of compassionate extubation (CE to alleviate suffering by terminating mechanical ventilation and withdrawing the endotracheal tube requires professional adherence and efficiency. The Hospice Palliative Care Act, amended on January 9, 2013, legalizes the CE procedure in Taiwan. Methods: From September 20, 2013 to September 2, 2014, the hospice palliative care team at a community hospital received 20 consultations for CE. Eight cases were excluded because of non-qualification. Following approval from the Ethics Committee, the medical records of the remaining 12 patients were reviewed and grouped by the underlying disease: A, “terminal-stage cancer”; B, “non-cancer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest”; and C, “non-cancer organ failure”. Time to extubation using a cut-off at 48 hours was assessed. Results: The mean ages of patients (standard deviation in groups A, B, and C were 66.3 (14.9 years, 72 (19.1 years, and 80.3 (4.0 years, respectively. The mean number of days of intubation at consultation were 6.8 (4.9, 7.3 (4.9, and 179.3 (271.6, respectively. The mean total doses of opioids (as morphine-equivalent dose in the 24 hours preceding CE were 76 (87.5 mg, 3.3 (5.8 mg, and 43.3 (15.3 mg. The median times from extubation (range to death were 97 (0.2–245 hours, 0.3 (0.2–0.4 hours, and 6.1 (3.6–71.8 hours. Compared to those requiring <48-hour preparatory time, patients requiring >48 hours to the moment of CE were younger (62.8 years vs 75.5 years, required a mean time of 122 hours (vs 30 hours to CE (P=0.004, had shorter length of stay (33.3 days vs 77.8 days, required specialist social worker intervention in 75% of cases (vs 37.5%, and had a median duration of intubation of 11.5 days (vs 5.5 days. Conclusion: CE was carried out according to protocol, and the median time from extubation to death varies determined by the underlying disease which was 0.3 hour in patients admitted after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and 97 hours in patients with advanced cancer. Keywords: compassionate extubation, palliative extubation, good death, hospice care, quality of death

  7. Diagnostic imaging of cardiac hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As imaging techniques for cardiac hypertrophy, the ultrasonic dimension gauze technique, echocardiography, ventriculography and the RI technique including emission RI tomography were outlined. (Chiba, N.)

  8. Radiological evaluation of coronary artery-cardiac chamber shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary artery-cardiac chamber shunts were observed in 84 cases out of consecutive 1,126 cases in which coronary angiography was performed. This ''coronary artery-cardiac chamber shunt'' has no draining vein and contrast material directly escapes into the cardiac chamber, which is different from the so-called ''coronary arterio-venous fistula''. The angiographic features of coronary artery-cardiac chamber shunt were classified into three types; Type I (57 cases): Endocardium is diffusely opacified on distole, and contrast material escapes into the cardiac chamber on systole. Type II (13 cases): A small localized direct coronary artery-cardiac chamber shunt. Type III (20 cases): Contrast material escapes into the cardiac chamber in the area of mural thrombus of the left atrium or left ventricle. It is speculated that type I shunt is due to persistent arterio-sinusoidal vessel, and type II shunt is due to persistent arterio-luminal vessel. Type I and II shunts were observed in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with high incidence (42.4 %). In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the degree of shunts was not correlated with the degree of the ventricular wall thickening. These shunts were not also correlated with the presence or absence of myocardial squeezing. These facts suggest that the shunts may be due to the abnormality of the microcirculation of the myocardium. Type III shunt was observed in the mural thrombus in the left ventricle (7 cases), left atrial thrombus (12 cases) andases), left atrial thrombus (12 cases) and verruca of the mitral valve (1 case). Angiographic features of these shunts are described, and their pathophysiological significance is discussed. (author)

  9. Strong tranthyretin immunostaining, potential pitfall in cardiac amyloid typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoskar, Anjali A.; Efebera, Yvonne; Hasan, Ayesha; Brodsky, Sergey; Nadasdy, Gyongyi; Dogan, Ahmet; Nadasdy, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    Although systemic amyloidosis commonly presents with renal disease, cardiac involvement usually determines the patient's prognosis. Cardiac involvement is seen in AL and transthyretin amyloidosis. Distinguishing between these is critical because prognosis and treatment differ. Our study demonstrates the unreliability of transthyretin immunostaining in subtyping cardiac amyloid. Between January 2003 and August 2010, we retrieved 229 native endomyocardial biopsies, 24 had amyloid. Immunohistochemistry for kappa, lambda, transthyretin and serum amyloid A protein were performed on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded sections. Staining was graded as weak (trace to 1+); or strong (2 to 3+). Mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomic typing of microdissected amyloid material was performed on selected cases. Fifteen of the patients had monoclonal gammopathy/plasma cell dyscrasia with cardiac amyloid. Eight of them (53%) showed strong transthyretin staining in the cardiac amyloid deposits. MS was performed in five out of these eight biopsies, and all five revealed AL type amyloid. Two of these five AL amyloid biopsies did not even have concomitant strong staining for the appropriate light chain. Among the 15 cases with plasma cell dyscrasia, only seven biopsies showed strong staining for the corresponding monoclonal light chain. Strong false positive immunostaining for transthyretin in cardiac amyloid is a potential pitfall, augmented by the frequent lack of staining for immunoglobulin light chains. Therefore, the presence of amyloid in the cardiac biopsy should prompt a search for plasma cell dyscrasia irrespective of transthyretin staining. Confirmation with MS should be sought particularly if there is any discrepancy between kappa/lambda staining and serum immunofixation results. PMID:21945954

  10. Cardiac troponin-T and CK-MB (mass) levels in cardiac and non cardiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, G. Chinnapu; Kusumanjali, G.; Sharada, A. H. R.; Rao, Pragna

    2004-01-01

    Serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and CKMB (mass) were analysed in three groups of patients. The first group (n=32) were patients with acute coronary syndromes including myocardial infarction. The second group (n=35)were patients with hypertension. The third group (n=24) were patients who had succumbed to non cardiac diseases. In all 3 groups, cardiac troponin T was elevated when compared with controls (p

  11. Cardiac arrest secondary to propafenone overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Polat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Propafenone is a group 1C antiarrhythmic agent. Serious side effects such as cardiac arrest may occur when excessive intake. A sixteen year-old female was admitted to emergency department with nausea, vomiting, and altered mental status. Wide QRS tachycardia and subsequent ventricular fibrillation occurred following gastric lavage in the patient who confesses that she had taken excessive amount (4500mg propafenone of drug for the purpose of suicide. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation for ten minutes the patient was intubated because of blurred consciousness and shallow breathing. Transtoracic echocardiography didn’t show any pathology. First degree AV block and widened QRS complexes determined in her electrocardiograph (ECG after resuscitation. These pathological changes in the ECG and clinical status of the patient improved completely in the following days and she was discharged from hospital without any sequelae.

  12. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurusz, Mark; Zwischenberger, Joseph B

    2002-07-01

    Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support systems (PCPS) are compact, battery-powered, portable heart-lung machines that can be implemented rapidly in any area of the hospital using thin-walled cannulae inserted via the femoral vessels. PCPS provides temporary circulatory support by actively aspirating blood from the patient's venous system using a centrifugal pump and hollow fiber membrane oxygenator for gas exchange. A review of clinical reports has delineated several indications for emergent applications, with the most frequent being cardiac arrest (CA) or cardiogenic shock (CS). Survival is more likely in patients with CS (40%) compared to CA (21%). Implementation of PCPS after unwitnessed CA or cardiopulmonary resuscitation > 30 min yields a patient survival rate of membrane oxygenation or a ventricular assist device is recommended. PMID:12139384

  13. Geriatric cardiac surgery: chronology vs. biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, Michael; B Edelman, J James; Forrest, Paul; Ng, Martin; Wilson, Michael K; Fraser, John; Bannon, Paul G; Vallely, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Cardiac surgery is increasingly performed in elderly patients, and whilst the incidence of common risk factors associated with poorer outcome increases with age, recent studies suggest that outcomes in this population may be better than is widely appreciated. As such, in this review we have examined the current evidence for common cardiac surgical procedures in patients aged over 70 years. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the elderly has similar early safety to percutaneous intervention, though repeat revascularisation is lower. Totally avoiding instrumentation of the ascending aorta with off-pump techniques may also reduce the incidence of neurological injury. Aortic valve replacement (AVR) significantly improves quality of life and provides excellent short- and long-term outcomes. Combined AVR and CABG carries higher risk but late survival is still excellent. Mini-sternotomy AVR in the elderly can provide comparable survival to full-sternotomy AVR. More accurate risk stratification systems are needed to appropriately select patients for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Mitral valve repair is superior to replacement in the elderly, although choosing the most effective method is important for achieving maximal quality of life. Minimally-invasive mitral valve surgery in the elderly has similar postoperative outcomes to sternotomy-based surgery, but reduces hospital length of stay and return to activity. In operative candidates, surgical repair is superior to percutaneous repair. Current evidence indicates that advanced age alone is not a predictor of mortality or morbidity in cardiac surgery. Thus surgery should not be overlooked or denied to the elderly solely on the basis of their "chronological age", without considering the patient's true "biological age". PMID:24851829

  14. Hospital marketing revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature. PMID:10283019

  15. Lifestyle after Cardiac Rehabilitation: Did the Message Come across, and Was It Feasible? An Analysis of Patients’ Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Veje Knudsen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle following heart disease is considered important to prevent and reduce cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, cardiac rehabilitation is focused on potential lifestyle changes. Further insight into patients’ perspective on lifestyle after cardiac rehabilitation is needed as changing habits following heart disease is a complex matter. The objective of this study was to explore the characteristics of lifestyle after cardiac rehabilitation. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with qualitative interviews was performed in 20 patients six months after completing a hospital-based cardiac rehabilitation programme in 2012 at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. The patients were diagnosed with ischemic heart disease, heart failure or left heart valve disease. The interviews were analysed using the interpretation theory by Ricoeur. The variation in reactions to cardiac rehabilitation were: 1 considering prior lifestyle to be appropriate, maybe with minor adjustments; 2 acknowledging the need for incorporating lifestyle changes; and 3 reconciling or feeling guilt when being unable to manage changes. Participation in the cardiac rehabilitation programme was a positive experience, but it had minor influence on long-term adherence to recommended lifestyle. The important thing in establishing new routines was whether they aroused interest, and whether the experience of changes was perceived as necessary and manageable. In future cardiac rehabilitation, focusing on patients’ interests and supporting them in incorporating recommendations into their everyday life might be essential following heart disease, also after ending cardiac rehabilitation.

  16. Investigation of an inflammatory viral disease HBV in cardiac patients through polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farina Saher

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study 100 cardiac patients were randomly selected from the cardiology ward, Allied Hospital Faisalabad, Pakistan. All the selected cases were analysed for different parameters like Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HbsAg, Bilirubin, Alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase. Out of total 16% patients were lying in the age of 21-30 year, 25% in the age of 31-40 year, 35% in the age of 41-50 year, 19% in the age of 51-60 years and 5% patients in the age of 61-70 years. No subject was found positive in age group 21-30 years patients. 35% patients have higher value of SGPT while, other 26% were with higher value of SGOT. Rest of the 32 and 24% have higher ALP and Bilirubin levels, respectively. Assay profile revealed that ALP level was increased with increasing age, body mass index, Creactive protein, diabetes, smoking, sex, serum uric acid, lead, cadmium, hypercholesterolemia, lesion of liver and cardiovascular disease. The serum of the eight HbsAg positive cases were tested for the presence of HBV through PCR and no sample was found positive. At the end of the study, PCR amplified samples were run on 1.5% agarose gel to confirm the case.

  17. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be shocked out of ventricular fibrillation at 10 -- 11 joules. And then we test it at the ... the heart. This is when we deliver the 11 joules, the amount of energy we deliver into ...

  18. Rabdomiosarcoma cardíaco / Cardiac Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Genaro A, Vilcarromero Arbulú.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los tumores cardíacos primarios son una patología de baja prevalencia a nivel mundial, con predominio de los tumores benignos. Los malignos, mucho más infrecuentes, son de alta mortalidad y poca supervivencia a pesar de tratamiento quirúrgico o quimioterápico. Son de diagnóstico clínico impreciso, p [...] ero se cuenta con herramientas diagnósticas muy confiables. En esta presentación se describe el caso de una paciente sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular y sin antecedentes familiares de importancia, que solicitó atención médica por disnea a esfuerzos moderados como único síntoma, por lo que se le realizaron estudios por imágenes que revelaron una masa en la aurícula izquierda. Se efectuaron la resección quirúrgica de la masa tumoral y su posterior estudio, en el que se arribó al diagnóstico de rabdomiosarcoma cardíaco. Posteriormente se indicó quimioterapia, con la intención de mejora en la supervivencia. Asimismo, se realiza una revisión de la bibliografía en el diagnóstico y el manejo de los tumores cardíacos primarios malignos. Abstract in english The prevalence of primary cardiac tumors is low worldwide, with a predominance of benign tumors. Malignant tumors, even more rare, present high mortality and low survival rates despite surgery or chemotherapy. Its clinical diagnosis is inaccurate, but there are very reliable diagnostic tools. This r [...] eport describes the case of a patient with no cardiovascular risk factors or significant family history, who asked for medical care due to dyspnea on moderate exertion as the only symptom. She was performed imaging studies, which revealed a mass in the left atrium. Surgical resection and analysis of the tumor were performed, concluding that its diagnosis was cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma. Chemotherapy was indicated in order to improve survival. Also, a review of the literature was made for the diagnosis and management of malignant primary cardiac tumors.

  19. Radiopharmaceuticals for cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of new radiopharmaceuticals have been developed to increase the diagnostic utility of nuclear medicine in cardiac diseases. The radiochemistry and dosimetry of and clinical experience with these new agents are summarized, and are compared with more widely used methods for assessing myocardial perfusion (thallium-201 scintigraphy) and ventricular function (technetium-99m radioangiography). Emerging techniques for the evaluation of myocardial necrosis and metabolism are also presented, with emphasis on the use of radiolabeled antimyosin antibody and fatty acid analogue imaging in ischemic heart disease

  20. Mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac performance depends on a fine balance between the work the heart has to perform to satisfy the needs of the body and the energy that it is able to produce. Thus, energy production by oxidative metabolism, the main energy source of the cardiac muscle, has to be strictly regulated to adapt to cardiac work. Mitochondrial biogenesis is the mechanism responsible for mitochondrial component synthesis and assembly. This process controls mitochondrial content and thus correlates with energy production that, in turn, sustains cardiac contractility. Mitochondrial biogenesis should be finely controlled to match cardiac growth and cardiac work. When the heart is subjected to an increase in work in response to physiological and pathological challenges, it adapts by increasing its mass and expressing a new genetic program. In response to physiological stimuli such as endurance training, mitochondrial biogenesis seems to follow a program involving increased cardiac mass. But in the context of pathological hypertrophy, the modifications of this mechanism remain unclear. What appears clear is that mitochondrial biogenesis is altered in heart failure, and the imbalance between cardiac work demand and energy production represents a major factor in the development of heart failure. PMID:19307701

  1. Out of Sight, Out of Mind—On Guy Schofield’s “Sleepers”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Allen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Video. Computational “3D models” don’t actually model any thing. They are assumed imitative, but in contemporary production, these are vectorized thought- objects, prototypes of notions and design ideals. The photographic image on the other hand, as a pipeline of indexical pixels, is the apogee of our attempts to describe and represent the world outside. 65,536 levels of red, green and blue, rendered into and out of the real world of electrons, photons and “live-action.”

  2. Hemodynamics and vasopressor support in therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest : prognostic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Inducing therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) can be challenging due to its impact on central hemodynamics and vasopressors are frequently used to maintain adequate organ perfusion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between level of vasopressor support and mortality. METHODS: In a 6-year period, 310 comatose OHCA patients treated with TH were included. Temperature, hemodynamic parameters and level of vasopressors were registered from admission to 24h after rewarming. Level of vasopressor support was assessed by the cardiovascular sub-score of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). The population was stratified by use of dopamine as first line intervention (D-group) or use of dopamine+norepinephrine/epinephrine (DA-group). Primary endpoint was 30-day mortality and secondary endpoint was in-hospital cause of death. RESULTS: Patients in the DA-group carried a 49% all-cause 30-day mortality rate compared to 23% in the D-group, plog-rank<0.0001, corresponding to an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 2.0 (95% CI: 1.3-3.0), p=0.001). The DA-group had an increased 30-day mortality due to neurological injury (HR=1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.7), p=0.02). Cause of death was anoxic brain injury in 78%, cardiovascular failure in 18% and multi-organ failure in 4%. The hemodynamic changes of TH reversed at normothermia, although the requirement for vasopressor support (cardiovascular SOFA?3) persisted in 80% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: In survivors after OHCA treated with TH the induced hemodynamic changes reversed after normothermia, while the need for vasopressor support persisted. Patients requiring addition of norepinephrine/epinephrine on top of dopamine had an increased 30-day all-cause mortality, as well as death from neurological injury.

  3. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have here, you'll notice that deaths from cardiovascular disease have been declining over the last decade or ... re looking at discharges from the hospital for cardiovascular disease, you'll see that although it may have ...

  4. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that in the big Seattle study when the response was less than four minutes, they get the patient in the hospital even though less than 10 percent going to survive. Is rate -- this is of men. A lot of heart ...

  5. Cardiac chamber scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two methods of cardiac chamber scintiscanning, i.e. 'first pass' and 'ECG-triggered' examinations, are explained and compared. Two tables indicate the most significant radiation doses of the applied radio tracers, i.e. 99m-Tc-pertechnetate and 99m-Tc-HSA, to which a patient is exposed. These averaged values are calculated from various data given in specialised literature. On the basis of data given in literature, an effective half-life of approximately 5 hours in the intravascular space was calculated for the erythrocytes labelled with technetium 99m. On this basis, the radiation doses for the patients due to 99m-Tc-labelled erythrocytes are estimated. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods applied for cardiac chamber scintiscanning are put into contrast and compared with the advantages and disadvantages of the quantitative X-ray cardiography of the left heart. The still existing problems connected with the assessment of ECG-triggered images are discussed in detail. The author performed investigations of his own, which concerned the above-mentioned problems. (orig./MG)

  6. Pregnancy and cardiac disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Elliott; K, Sliwa; , R Burton.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical disorders in pregnancy are one of the top five causes of maternal mortality in South Africa (SA), cardiac disease (CD) being the main contributor to this group. In developed countries, surgically corrected congenital heart disease (CHD) comprises the greater proportion of maternal deaths fro [...] m CD. In SA and other developing countries, acquired heart disease such as rheumatic heart disease and cardiomyopathies are the major causes, although CHD remains significantly represented. Both congenital and acquired cardiac lesions may present for the first time during pregnancy. CD may also occur for the first time during or after pregnancy, e.g. peripartum cardiomyopathy. The risk to both the mother and the fetus increases exponentially with the complexity of the underlying disease. Generally, the ability to tolerate a pregnancy is related to: (i) the haemodynamic significance of any lesion; (ii) the functional class - New York Heart Association classes III and IV have poorer outcomes; (iii) the presence of cyanosis; and (iv) the presence of pulmonary hypertension. While the ideal time to assess these factors is before conception, women frequently present when already pregnant. This review discusses risk assessment and management of CD in pregnant women and the role of a combined cardiology and obstetric clinic.

  7. A Case of Survival after Cardiac Arrest and 3½ Hours of Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Derek M.; Bassett, Scott T.; Gregoric, Igor D.; Kar, Biswajit

    2014-01-01

    Although survival rates after cardiac arrest remain low, new techniques are improving patients' outcomes. We present the case of a 40-year-old man who survived a cardiac arrest that lasted approximately 3½ hours. Resuscitation was performed with strict adherence to American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Advanced Cardiac Life Support guidelines until bedside extracorporeal membrane oxygenation could be placed. A hypothermia protocol was initiated immediately afterwards. The patient had a full neurologic recovery and was bridged from dual ventricular assist devices to a total artificial heart. On hospital day 160, he underwent orthotopic heart and cadaveric kidney transplantation. On day 179, he was discharged from the hospital in ambulatory condition. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case in which a patient survived with good neurologic outcomes after a resuscitation that lasted as long as 3½ hours. Documented cases of resuscitation with good recovery after prolonged arrest give hope for improved overall outcomes in the future. PMID:24808789

  8. The paediatric cardiac centre for Africa--proceedings of the March 2012 symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsley, Robin H; Edwin, Frank; Entsua-Mensah, Kow

    2013-04-01

    The Pediatric Cardiac Centre for Africa (PCCA) was opened by national patron Mr Nelson Mandela on November 7, 2003. In 2008, the Centre's international pediatric cardiac symposium was introduced as a learning forum for pediatric cardiac surgeons and cardiologists in the continent. The symposium has consistently grown in attendance and attracted distinguished leaders in the field. The 2012 symposium featured Dr. Thomas Spray of Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Dr. David Barron of Birmingham Children's Hospital, and Dr. John Brown of Indiana University School of Medicine as guest speakers. Experience of the Fontan procedure, the small aortic root, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, transposition of the great arteries, and interrupted aortic arch were the highlights of the symposium. In the "African Corner," centers in South Africa, Ghana, and Angola presented work done from across the African continent. PMID:23799732

  9. Surgical experience with cardiac myxomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac myxomas are the most common benign intracardiac tumours. We studied the clinical presentation of cardiac myxomas and the morbidity, mortality and recurrence rate following surgery at our institution over a 6 year period. This historical longitudinal study was performed at department of Cardiac Surgery, Armed forces Institute of Cardiology and National Institute of Heart Diseases Rawalpindi, Pakistan between January 2002 and March 2008 a total number of 8506 cardiac operations were performed. Of these 34 patients (19 males, 15 females) underwent complete excision of primary or recurrent intracardiac myxomas. Pre-operative diagnosis was established by echocardiography. All patients underwent operation soon after the diagnosis of a myxoma was made. Complete tumour excision followed by close inspection and copious saline irrigation of the cardiac chambers was done in each case. Of the 32 patients who survived the surgery, 29 patients were followed up at regular intervals for recurrence. The mean follow-up period was 34 months. Cardiac myxomas constituted 0.40% of the total cardiac operations at our institution. They most commonly occurred in the fourth decade. The commonest location was the left atrium (LA) (79%) followed by the right atrium (RA) (14%). Only one patient had myxoma in the right ventricle (RV). Patients with LA myxoma simulated mitral stenosis clinically whereas patients with RA and RV myxomas presented with features of right heart failure. A smalle features of right heart failure. A smaller percentage presented with embolic and constitutional symptoms. There were two early deaths. One recurrence was noted at 27 months after surgery. No late deaths were observed in the study. Cardiac myxomas form a very small percentage of the cardiac cases. A high index of suspicion is essential for diagnosis. Echocardiography is the ideal diagnostic tool as also for follow-up. Immediate surgical treatment is indicated in all patients. Cardiac myxomas can be excised with a low rate of mortality and morbidity. (author)

  10. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Peripheral Blood of Cardiac Catheterization Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheir Korraa1, Tawfik M.S.1, Mohamed Maher 2 and Amr Zaher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rejuvenation capacity among cardiac catheterization technicians occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Subjects and methods: The individual annual collective dose information was measured by thermoluminscent personal dosimeters (TLD for those technicians and found to be ranging between 2.16 and 8.44 mSv/y. Venous blood samples were obtained from 30 cardiac catheterization technicians exposed to X-ray during fluoroscopy procedures at the National Heart Institute in Embaba. The control group involved 25 persons not exposed to ionizing radiation and not working in hospitals in addition to 20 persons not exposed to ionizing radiation and working in hospitals. Blood samples were assayed for total and differential blood counts, micronucleus formation (FMN plasma stromal derived growth factor-1? (SDF-1 ? and cell phenotype of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, whose surface markers were identified as the CD34, CD133 and kinase domain receptors (KDR. Results: SDF-1? (2650± 270 vs. 2170 ± 430 pg/ml and FMN (19.9 ± 5.5 vs. 2.8 ± 1.4/1000 cells were significantly higher among cardiac catheterization staff compared to those of the controls respectively. Similarly, EPCs: CD34 (53 ± 3.9 vs. 48 ± 8.5/105 mononuclear cells, CD133 (62.4 ± 4.8 vs. 54.2 ± 10.6 /105 mononuclear cells KDR (52.7 ± 10.6 vs.43.5± 8.2 /105 mononuclear cells were also significantly higher among cardiac catheterization staff compared to the values of controls respectively. Smoking seemed to have a positive effect on the FMN and SDF-1 but had a negative effect on EPCs. It was found that among cardiac catheterization staff, the numbers of circulating progenitor cells had increased and accordingly there was an increased capacity for tissue repair. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present work shows that occupational exposure to radiation, well within permissible levels, leaves a genetic mark on the somatic DNA of the cardiac catheterization technician. On the other hand, exposure of workers to ionizing radiation stimulates regenerative processes as indicated by the increase in EPCs numbers and SDF-1 levels. This regenerative process is decreased by smoking as evidenced by increased levels of SDF-1 and decreased numbers of EPCs. The technicians who work in cardiac catheterization laboratories should therefore carefully follow radiation protection procedures and should minimize radiation exposure to avoid possible genotoxic effects.

  11. Burden of out-of-pocket expenditure for road traffic injuries in urban India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTI are an increasing public health problem in India where out-of-pocket (OOP expenditures on health are among the highest in the world. We estimated the OOP expenses for RTI in a large city in India. Methods Information on medical and non-medical expenditure was documented for RTI cases of all ages that reported alive or dead to the emergency departments of two public hospitals and a large private hospital in Hyderabad. Differential risk of catastrophic OOP total expenditure (COPE-T and medical expenditure (COPE-M, and distress financing was assessed for 723 RTI cases that arrived alive at the study hospitals with multiple logistic regression. Catastrophic expenditure was defined as expenditure?>?25% of the RTI patient’s annual household income. Variation in intensity of COPE-M in RTI was assessed using multiple classification analysis (MCA. Results The median OOP medical and non-medical expenditure was USD 169 and USD 163, respectively. The prevalence of COPE-M and COPE-T was 21.9% (95% CI 18.8-24.9 and 46% (95% CI 42–49.3, respectively. Only 22% had access to medical insurance. Being admitted to a private hospital (OR 5.2, 95% CI 2.7–9.9 and not having access to insurance (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.9–7.6 were significantly associated with risk of having COPE – M. Similar results were seen for COPE - T. MCA analysis showed that the burden of OOP medical expenditure was mainly associated with in-patient days in hospital (Eta =0.191. Prevalence of distress financing was 69% (95% CI 65.5-72.3 with it being significantly higher for those reporting to the public hospitals (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.7-4.6, those belonging to the lowest per capita annual household income quartile (OR 7.0, 95% CI 3.7-13.3, and for those without insurance access (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.0-5.7. Conclusions This paper has outlined the high burden of out-of-pocket medical and total expenditure associated with RTI in India. These data reinforce the need for implementing more effective financial protection mechanisms in India against the high out-of-pocket expenditure incurred on RTI.

  12. Factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in German coronary heart disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Colin R; Barth Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression and anxiety in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) are associated with a poorer prognosis. Therefore the screening for psychological distress is strongly recommended in cardiac rehabilitation. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used screening tool that has demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity for mental disorders. Methods We assessed mental distress in in-patient cardiac rehabilitation in Germany. The factor structure of...

  13. A survey of the radiographic cassettes disinfection of university hospitals in seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to prevent nosocomial infection in patients through contact of radiographic cassettes. Data were collected from radiographers working in 29 university hospitals in Seoul in February and March 2001. Radiographic cassettes were disinfected daily in 5 hospitals, weekly in 4 hospitals, monthly in 5 hospitals, bimonthly in 1 hospital and once every three months in another hospital. 12 other hospitals do not practice regular disinfections of radiographic cassettes. Gauze soaked in disinfectant solution is used in 7 hospitals while 11 hospitals used cotton and cloth soaked in disinfectant solution to clean the radiographic cassettes. 26 hospitals used 99% alcohol based disinfectant solutions while 3 hospitals used 75% alcohol based disinfectant, 26 hospitals use of intercourse cassettes outpatients and in patients. In 26 hospitals, all patients shared the same set of radiographic cassettes used in the hospitals, or in 26 hospitals, separate sets of radiographic cassettes are used for outpatients and inpatients. Separate sets of cassettes are used for ICU and inpatients in 6 others hospitals. 23 hospitals used the same sets of radiographic cassettes for all their patients. radiographic cassettes are cleaned in wash area in the study room of the radiographic department in 17 hospitals. 12 other hospitals do not have designated cleaning areas for the cassettes. All radiographers practiced hands washing with soap. All 29 hospitals surveyed have infecsoap. All 29 hospitals surveyed have infection control committee. However, only 9 out of the 29 hospitals surveyed provided Infection · disinfections control education to radiographers. Only 3 hospitals have radiographers sitting in the infection control committee. Infection management education is conducted in 63 hospitals annually, twice a year in 1 hospital and once every 3 months in 2 hospitals

  14. Acute kidney injury in septua- and octogenarians after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Christof

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of septua- and octogenarians undergo cardiac surgery. Acute kidney injury (AKI still is a frequent complication after surgery. We examined the incidence of AKI and its impact on 30-day mortality. Methods A retrospective study between 01/2006 and 08/2009 with 299 octogenarians, who were matched for gender and surgical procedure to 299 septuagenarians at a university hospital. Primary endpoint was AKI after surgery as proposed by the RIFLE definition (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage kidney disease. Secondary endpoint was 30-day mortality. Perioperative mortality was predicted with the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE. Results Octogenarians significantly had a mean higher logistic EuroSCORE compared to septuagenarians (13.2% versus 8.5%; p -1 × 1.73 m-2. In contrast, septuagenarians showed a slightly higher median body mass index (28 kg × m-2 versus 26 kg × m-2 and were more frequently active smoker at time of surgery (6.4% versus 1.6%, p The RIFLE classification provided accurate risk assessment for 30-day mortality and fair discriminatory power. Conclusions The RIFLE criteria allow identifying patients with AKI after cardiac surgery. The high incidence of AKI in septua- and octogenarians after cardiac surgery should prompt the use of RIFLE criteria to identify patients at risk and should stimulate institutional measures that target AKI as a quality improvement initiative for patients at advanced age.

  15. PERICARDIAL TUBERCULOSIS COMPLICATED WITH CARDIAC TAMPONADE (IN SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora-Andosilla Mario

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the tuberculous pericarditis (TP is a potentially lethal complication of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Occasionally it could come to advance stages and to produce cardiac tamponade. Case report: a case report of a 39-year-old male patient, drug-dependent and HIV carrier with irregular treatment is presented. Attended in the Hospital Universitario del Caribe in Cartagena. Colombia. The patient consulted for respiratory and cardiovascular symptomatology, by which it was initially considered the heart failure and pneumonia. Subsequently the clinical symptomatology suggestive of cardiac tamponade were installed and confirmed by thoracic radiography and echocardiogram. And the tamponade was treated with puncture and pericardial window. The diagnosis of TP was confirmed by the pericardial biopsy and treated with antituberculous drugs with adequate improvement. Conclusions: the TP is chronic symptomatology that could lead to an acute phase, of high mortality, as it is the cardiac tamponade. The elevated clinical suspicion, the images, the laboratory and the histopathology allow to confirm them and the opportune intervention reduces the morbidity and mortality. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2014;5(2:329-335. KEYWORDS Tuberculous pericarditis, Pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade.

  16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Penetrating Cardiac Injury One Year after Thoracic Stab Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Soltani

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In any patient with a history of penetrating thoracic trauma, cardiac injury must be kept in mind. Here, we describe a 36 years-old female referred to this hospital with severe chest pain and hypotension. After primary evaluation and suggestion of AMI, streptokinase was started for the patient and because of deterioration of vital signs, cardiac surgery consultation was requested. After performing urgent echocardiography, massive pericardial tamponade was detected. Visualization of a knife blade on C.X.R and past medical history of thoracic stab injury led to a diagnosis of delayed cardiac tamponade and urgent sternotomy was performed. The blade that had penetrated the right ventricular chamber was extracted. Six days after operation, patient was discharged without any problem. This case study suggests the importance of high suspicion to cardiac injury in any patient with chest pain and a history of chest trauma.

  17. Out-of-plane photon compensation for 3-D SPECT image reconstruction with generalized matrix inverses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computationally efficient 3-D image reconstruction method which compensates for detected out-of-plane photons has been developed for SPECT image reconstruction with generalized matrix inverses (GMI). Fully 3-D image reconstruction is approximated by a series of coupled 2-D image reconstructions for projection data acquired with parallel hole collimators, significantly reducing computer memory requirements. In this method, projection data are compensated for detected scattered photons using dual energy window scatter subtraction (Step 1). An initial source activity estimate in each transverse plane is then made using line source response functions in the system matrix (Step 2). With these activity estimates the contributions of out-of-plane unscattered photons are modeled and subtracted from the projection data, and an updated source activity estimate is computed (Step 3). For noise-free projection data from a Monte Carlo simulated myocardial perfusion study, lesion contrast increases and activity spillover from the myocardium into the adjacent cardiac blood pool is reduced. For projection data with Poisson noise, activity estimates from Step 3 are inferior to those from Step 2. One reason is that the relative noise level of the projection data is substantially increased by subtracting the estimated out-of-plane contribution. The Step 3 activity estimation is also sensitive to the source activity distribution used for out-of-plane unscattered photon compensation. Thoplane unscattered photon compensation. Though the out-of-plane compensation technique of Step 3 provides some benefit for noise-free projection data, this study suggests that it may not be well-suited for practical application to count-limited clinical SPECT studies

  18. Using Out-of-Level Items in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hua; Lin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-level testing refers to the practice of assessing a student with a test that is intended for students at a higher or lower grade level. Although the appropriateness of out-of-level testing for accountability purposes has been questioned by educators and policymakers, incorporating out-of-level items in formative assessments for accurate…

  19. The state of diagnosis of ischemic heart disease by low-invasive methods using CT and MRI in our hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, cardiac examination of computed tomography (cardiac CT) using multidetector row CT (MDCT) has become a useful method for diagnosing coronary stenosis and plaques. On the other hand, cardiac examination of magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac MRI) has become an important modality for diagnosing cardiac function, myocardial dynamics and ischemia. Our hospital does not have equipments of conventional coronary angiography and scintigram, and so we attempt to diagnose ischemic heart disease (IHD) by low-invasive examinations using MDCT and MRI. We performed evaluation of coronary stenosis and coronary plaques by CT coronary angiography (CTCA) using 16 or 64 row CT in 348 patients (176 men and 172 women; mean age 67.6±10.5 years). We also performed evaluation of left ventricular wall function, myocardial ischemia, myocardial viability, and coronary stenosis by one-stop-shop study using MRI of 1.5 tesla in 67 patients (31 men and 36 women; mean age 70.0±11.6 years). In this study, we reported the states of cardiac CT and cardiac MRI in our hospital, and studied how to use both examinations properly for diagnosis of IHD. We expect that cardiac CT and cardiac MRI will be both established low-invasive examinations of screening for diagnosing IHD in future. (author)

  20. Hospital demand for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, M A; Jensen, G A

    1990-01-01

    This article develops a derived demand for physicians that is general enough to encompass physician control, simple profit maximization and hospital utility maximization models of the hospital. The analysis focuses on three special aspects of physician affiliations: the price of adding a physician to the staff is unobserved; the physician holds appointments at multiple hospitals, and physicians are not homogeneous. Using 1983 American Hospital Association data, a system of specialty-specific demand equations is estimated. The results are consistent with the model and suggest that physicians should be concerned about reduced access to hospitals, particularly as the stock of hospitals declines. PMID:10104050

  1. Survival after prolonged resuscitation with 99 defibrillations due to Torsade De Pointes cardiac electrical storm: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen Anne; Aarhus Dag; Eek Christian; Nakstad Anders; Haugaa Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A 48-year-old previously healthy woman suffered witnessed cardiac arrest in hospital. She achieved return of spontaneous circulation and was transferred to the intensive care unit. During the following 3 hours, she suffered a cardiac electrical storm with 98 episodes of Torsade de Pointes ventricular tachycardia rapidly degenerating to ventricular fibrillation. She was converted with a total of 99 defibrillations. There was no response to the use of any recommended anti arrhythmic dr...

  2. Hospitable Classrooms: Biblical Hospitality and Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to a Christian hermeneutic of special education by suggesting the biblical concept of hospitality as a necessary characteristic of classroom and school environments in which students with disabilities and other marginalized students can be effectively incorporated into the body of the classroom. Christian hospitality, seen…

  3. Multithreaded cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase-correlated CT, as it is used for cardiac imaging, is the most popular and the most important but also the most demanding special CT application in the clinical routine, today. Basically, it fulfills the four-dimensional imaging task of depicting a quasiperiodically moving object at any desired motion phase with significantly reduced motion artifacts. Although image quality with phase-correlated reconstruction is far better than with standard reconstruction, there are motion artifacts remaining and improvements of temporal resolution are required. As a well-known alternative to simply decreasing rotation time, we consider a spiral cone-beam CT scanner that has G x-ray guns and detectors mounted. We call this a multisource or a multithreaded CT scanner. Aiming for improved temporal resolution the relative temporal resolution ?, which measures the fraction of a motion period that enters the image, is studied as a function of the motion rate (heart rate) and the degree of scan overlap (pitch value) for various configurations. The parameters to optimize are the number of threads G and the interthread parameters ?? and ?z, which are the angular and the longitudinal separation between adjacent threads, respectively. To demonstrate the improvements approximate image reconstruction of multithreaded raw data is performed by using a generalization of the extended parallel back projection cone-beam reconstruction algorithm [Med. Phys. 31(6), 1623-1641 (2004)] to the cass. 31(6), 1623-1641 (2004)] to the case of multithreaded CT. Reconstructions of a simulated cardiac motion phantom and of simulated semi-antropomorphic phantoms are presented for two and three threads and compared to the single-threaded case to demonstrate the potential of multithreaded cardiac CT. Patient data were acquired using a clinical double-threaded CT scanner to validate the theoretical results. The optimum angle ?? between the tubes is 90 deg.for a double-threaded system, and for triple-threaded scanners it is 60 deg.or 120 deg.. In all cases, ?z=0 results as an optimum, which means that the threads should be mounted in the same transversal plane. However, the dependency of the temporal resolution on ?z is very weak and a longitudinal separation ?z?0 would not deteriorate image quality. The mean temporal resolution achievable with an optimized multithreaded CT scanner is a factor of G better than the mean temporal resolution obtained with a single-threaded scanner. The standard reconstructions showed decreased cone-beam artifacts with multithreaded CT compared to the single-threaded case. Our phase-correlated reconstructions demonstrate that temporal resolution is significantly improved with multithreaded CT. The clinical patient data confirm our results

  4. Cardiac function in acute hypothyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaghue, K.; Hales, I.; Allwright, S.; Cooper, R.; Edwards, A.; Grant, S.; Morrow, A.; Wilmshurst, E.

    1985-10-01

    It has been established that chronic hypothyroidism may affect cardiac function by several mechanisms. It is not known how long the patient has to be hypothyroid for cardiac involvement to develop. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of a short period of hypothyroidism (10 days) on cardiac function. Nine patients who had had total thyroidectomy, had received ablative radioiodine for thyroid cancer and were euthyroid on replacement therapy were studied while both euthyroid and hypothyroid. Cardiac assessment was performed by X-ray, ECG, echocardiography and gated blood-pool scans. After 10 days of hypothyroidisms, the left-ventricular ejection fraction failed to rise after exercise in 4 of the 9 patients studied, which was significant. No significant changes in cardiac size or function at rest were detected. This functional abnormality in the absence of any demonstrable change in cardiac size and the absence of pericardial effussion with normal basal function suggest that short periods of hypothyroidism may reduce cardiac reserve, mostly because of alterations in metabolic function.

  5. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority. PMID:23424818

  6. Caquexia cardíaca / Cardiac cachexia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Miján; Elvira, Martín; Beatriz de, Mateo.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La insuficiencia cardíaca de carácter crónico (ICC), en especial si afecta al corazón derecho, ocasiona con frecuencia malnutrición. Si esta es grave y se unen otros componentes, puede producirse caquexia cardíaca. Esta se asocia a mayor morbilidad y menor supervivencia de los pacientes que la padec [...] en. Las causas de la caquexia cardíaca son diversas, en general asociadas a mantener balance energético negativo, surgiendo cada vez mayor evidencia que apoya un origen multifactorial de la misma. Entre otros, factores neurohormonales, inflamatorios, inmunológicos y metabólicos se superponen en el paciente con ICC, pudiendo producir afectación y deterioro de diversos órganos o sistemas, incluyendo la caquexia cardíaca. Esta puede definirse de diversos modos que, en general, concretan una reducción de peso en un tiempo definido o de estructuras corporales, ya que esta entidad afecta tanto a la masa magra o celular activa, como a los tejidos adiposo y óseo "osteoporosis. De todos ellos, el deterioro más acusado puede observarse en el tejido muscular esquelético, tanto a nivel estructural como funcional, no quedando exento el corazón de su afectación. Respecto del tratamiento, este debe basarse en la evidencia científica disponible. La valoración del estado nutricional de todo paciente con ICC es obligada, debiendo intervenir nutricionalmente ante MEP o riesgo de desarrollarla. En esta situación, mas si existe caquexia cardíaca, es necesaria una modificación de la dieta oral en energía y calidad de la misma, debiendo valorar la indicación de nutrición artificial específica complementaria o alternativa. Asimismo, cada vez adquiere mayor fuerza causal el papel beneficioso del ejercicio físico moderado, así como de la modulación por determinados fármacos de las alteraciones metabólicas e inflamatorias observadas en la caquexia cardíaca, que incluyen una respuesta favorable a nivel funcional y estructural del paciente con ICC. Abstract in english Chronic heart failure (CHF), especially affecting the right heart, frequently leads to malnutrition. If the latter is severe and is combined to other factors, it may lead to cardiac cachexia. This one is associated to increased mortality and lower survival of patients suffering from it. The causes o [...] f cardiac cachexia are diverse, generally associated to maintenance of a negative energy balance, with increasing evidence of its multifactorial origin. Neurohumoral, inflammatory, immunological, and metabolic factors, among others, are superimposed in the patient with CHF, leading to involvement and deterioration of several organs and systems, since this condition affects both lean (or active cellular) mass and adipose and bone tissue - osteoporosis. Among all, the most pronounced deterioration may be seen at skeletal muscle tissue, at both structural and functional levels, the heart not being spared. As for treatment, it should be based on available scientific evidence. Assessment of nutritional status of any patient with CHF is a must, with the requirement of nutritional intervention in case of malnutrition. In this situation, especially if accompanied by cardiac cachexia, it is required to modify energy intake and oral diet quality, and to consider the indication of specific complementary or alternative artificial nutrition. Besides, the causal relationship of the beneficial role of moderate physical exertion is increasing, as well as modulation of metabolic and inflammatory impairments observed in cardiac cachexia with several drugs, leading to a favorable functional and structural response in CHF patients.

  7. Physics of Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karma, Alain

    2013-04-01

    A normal heartbeat is orchestrated by the stable propagation of an excitation wave that produces an orderly contraction. In contrast, wave turbulence in the ventricles, clinically known as ventricular fibrillation (VF), stops the heart from pumping and is lethal without prompt defibrillation. I review experimental, computational, and theoretical studies that have shed light on complex dynamical phenomena linked to the initiation, maintenance, and control of wave turbulence. I first discuss advances made to understand the precursor state to a reentrant arrhythmia where the refractory period of cardiac tissue becomes spatiotemporally disordered; this is known as an arrhythmogenic tissue substrate. I describe observed patterns of transmembrane voltage and intracellular calcium signaling that can contribute to this substrate, and symmetry breaking instabilities to explain their formation. I then survey mechanisms of wave turbulence and discuss novel methods that exploit electrical pacing stimuli to control precursor patterns and low-energy pulsed electric fields to control turbulence.

  8. Hyponatremia and in-hospital mortality in patients admitted for heart failure (from the ATTEND registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoki; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Kajimoto, Katsuya; Munakata, Ryo; Minami, Yuichiro; Mizuno, Masayuki; Aokage, Toshiyuki; Asai, Kuniya; Sakata, Yasushi; Yumino, Dai; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Takano, Teruo

    2013-04-01

    Hyponatremia is known to be a poor prognostic factor in patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF), however not well studied in Japan. The aims of this study were to characterize hyponatremic hospitalized patients with HF and to clarify the relations between hyponatremia and detailed in-hospital outcomes in Japan. Among 4,837 hospitalized patients with HF enrolled in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Syndromes (ATTEND) registry, patient characteristics and in-hospital mortality in those with hyponatremia were examined. Hyponatremia (sodium <135 mEq/L) was observed in 11.6% of patients. Patients with hyponatremia were of similar age, included fewer men, and had a higher proportion of previous hospitalizations for HF compared to those with normonatremia. On admission, lower heart rates and blood pressures and higher brain natriuretic peptide levels were observed in patients with hyponatremia. During hospitalization, inotrope levels and mechanical device use were significantly higher in patients with hyponatremia. Rates of all-cause and cardiac death were significantly higher in patients with hyponatremia, 15.0% and 11.4%, respectively, compared to 5.3% and 3.6%, respectively, in those with normonatremia. In hyponatremic hospitalized patients with HF, cardiac death accounted for 76.2% of all-cause death. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that in Japan hyponatremia in patients hospitalized with HF is relatively common and is associated with a very high in-hospital mortality. PMID:23312128

  9. Rabdomioma cardíaco / Cardiac rhabdomyoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariela, Céspedes Almira; Judith, Suzarte Portal; Noel, Mansito González.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El rabdomioma es un tumor benigno cardíaco primario. Se describe un recién nacido de 4 días de edad, producto de parto eutócico a las 40 semanas de edad gestacional y buen peso al nacer, nacido vía transpelviana sin morbilidad perinatal, test de Apgar 9/9, que a las pocas horas de vida se le auscult [...] a soplo cardiaco de intensidad III/VI, sin otros signos clínicos. La evaluación ecocardiográfica reveló masa tumoral pediculada con características obstructivas del tractus de salida del ventrículo izquierdo, que genera gradiente a ese nivel de alrededor de 80 mmHg. Se realizó exéresis del tumor de base ancha, aspecto nacarado y superficie lisa a través de aortotomía oblicua, con circulación extracorpórea. El curso posoperatorio fue sin complicaciones. El paciente evoluciona sin residuos ni secuelas a los 12 meses de seguimiento. Abstract in english Rhabdomyoma is a primary cardiac benign tumor. This report described a 4 days-old newborn born to eutocic delivery at 40 weeks of gestational age and good birthweight. He was born through transpelvic route with no perinatal morbidity, Apgar test of 9/9, but few hours after birth, he was detected an [...] intensity II/IV cardiac murmur with no other clinical signs. The echocardiographic results showed pedicled tumor mass with obstructive characteristics of the outlet tract of the left ventricle, thus generating around 80 mmHg gradient at that level. This wide-base, pearly and flat surface tumor was excised by means of oblique aortotomy using extracorporeal circulation. The postoperative phase was uncomplicated. The patient recovers with neither residues nor sequelae after 12 months of follow/up.

  10. Cardiac action potential imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 ?M. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  11. Nonlinear interpolation fractal classifier for multiple cardiac arrhythmias recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a method for cardiac arrhythmias recognition using the nonlinear interpolation fractal classifier. A typical electrocardiogram (ECG) consists of P-wave, QRS-complexes, and T-wave. Iterated function system (IFS) uses the nonlinear interpolation in the map and uses similarity maps to construct various data sequences including the fractal patterns of supraventricular ectopic beat, bundle branch ectopic beat, and ventricular ectopic beat. Grey relational analysis (GRA) is proposed to recognize normal heartbeat and cardiac arrhythmias. The nonlinear interpolation terms produce family functions with fractal dimension (FD), the so-called nonlinear interpolation function (NIF), and make fractal patterns more distinguishing between normal and ill subjects. The proposed QRS classifier is tested using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Beth Israel Hospital (MIT-BIH) arrhythmia database. Compared with other methods, the proposed hybrid methods demonstrate greater efficiency and higher accuracy in recognizing ECG signals.

  12. Nonlinear interpolation fractal classifier for multiple cardiac arrhythmias recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, C.-H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kao-Yuan University, No. 1821, Jhongshan Rd., Lujhu Township, Kaohsiung County 821, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: eechl53@cc.kyu.edu.tw; Du, Y.-C.; Chen Tainsong [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-30

    This paper proposes a method for cardiac arrhythmias recognition using the nonlinear interpolation fractal classifier. A typical electrocardiogram (ECG) consists of P-wave, QRS-complexes, and T-wave. Iterated function system (IFS) uses the nonlinear interpolation in the map and uses similarity maps to construct various data sequences including the fractal patterns of supraventricular ectopic beat, bundle branch ectopic beat, and ventricular ectopic beat. Grey relational analysis (GRA) is proposed to recognize normal heartbeat and cardiac arrhythmias. The nonlinear interpolation terms produce family functions with fractal dimension (FD), the so-called nonlinear interpolation function (NIF), and make fractal patterns more distinguishing between normal and ill subjects. The proposed QRS classifier is tested using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Beth Israel Hospital (MIT-BIH) arrhythmia database. Compared with other methods, the proposed hybrid methods demonstrate greater efficiency and higher accuracy in recognizing ECG signals.

  13. Central line infections - hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increase how long you are in the hospital. Your central line needs special care to prevent ... The hospital staff will use aseptic technique when a central line is put in your chest or arm. Aseptic ...

  14. At the Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Home › Learn › Stages › In Treatment At The Hospital November 10, 2009 In Treatment Following are a few articles to help deal with hospital related issues. General Hints More Specific Hints Preparing ...

  15. Sustaining pressure ulcer best practices in a high-volume cardiac care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rohini; McCutcheon, Stacey Paris; Tregarthen, Jenna Penelope; Denend, Lyn Thayer; Zenios, Stefanos A

    2014-08-01

    \\Narayana Hrudayalaya Cardiac Hospital (NHCH) in Bangalore, India (now known as the Narayana Institute of Cardiac Sciences), is one of the world's largest and busiest cardiac hospitals. In early 2009, NHCH experienced a sharp increase in the number of surgical procedures performed and a corresponding rise in hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. The hospital sought to reduce pressure ulcer prevalence by implementing a portfolio of quality improvement strategies. Baseline data showed that, over the five-month observation period, an average of 6% of all adult and pediatric surgical patients experienced a pressure ulcer while recovering in the NHCH intensive therapy unit (ITU). Phase 1 implementation efforts, which began in January 2010, focused on four areas: raising awareness, increasing education, improving documentation and communication, and implementing various preventive practices. Phase 2 implementation efforts, which began the following month, focused on changing operating room practices. The primary outcome measure was the weekly percentage of ITU patients with pressure ulcers. By July 2010, that percentage was reduced to zero; as of April 1, 2014, the hospital has maintained this result. Elements that contributed significantly to the program's success and sustainability include strong leadership, nurse and physician involvement, an emphasis on personal responsibility, improved documentation and communication, ongoing training and support, and a portfolio of low-tech changes to core workflows and behaviors. Many of these elements are applicable to U.S. acute care environments. PMID:25036664

  16. Interim Cardiac Replacement with a Mechanical Heart: Staged Cardiac Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, Cecil C.; Copeland, Jack G.; Cheng, Kevin; Austin, Jon; Levinson, Mark; Emery, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Lack of donor heart availability complicates the management of terminally ill patients who are candidates for cardiac replacement. The total artificial heart has been used as a bridge to transplantation in three patients with terminal cardiomyopathy. Acute allograft rejection and the lack of another donor heart prompted us to use the mechanical heart as a bridge to re-transplantation in a 33-year-old man. The cardiac prosthesis functioned well for 11 hours, when a second transplantation was p...

  17. Defining rural hospital markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Goody, B.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to examine the geographic scope of rural hospital markets. DATA SOURCES. The study uses 1988 Medicare patient discharge records (MedPAR) and hospital financial information (HCRIS) for all rural hospitals participating in the Medicare Program. STUDY DESIGN. Hospital-specific market areas are compared to county-based market areas using a series of geographic and socioeconomic-demographic dimensions as well as indicators of market competitiveness. The pote...

  18. Sydney Eye Hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, L.

    1982-01-01

    This year, 1982, marks the centenary of the Sydney Eye Hospital, originally the ophthalmic department of the old Sydney Infirmary, which was founded with the settlement of the Colony in 1788. Established in 1882, the hospital was transferred to its present site 60 years ago, and it still provides ward accommodation. After alternating periods of stagnation and progress the new hospital (stage 1) was completed in 1974, with modern clinic and research facilities. It is now the largest eye hospit...

  19. Pericardial hydatid cyst presenting with cardiac tamponade

    OpenAIRE

    Kosecik, Mustafa; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa; Yamak, Birol

    2006-01-01

    Cases of cardiac hydatid cyst disease are uncommon, occurring in approximately 0.5% to 2% of patients with hydatid disease. Most cardiac hydatid cysts are located in the left ventricle and interventricular septum. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 10-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to a ...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging applications to cardiac diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, P M; Terk, M R

    1996-01-01

    Applications of MRI to cardiac diagnosis have improved and expanded. Thus, while MRI was initially useful for demonstrating cardiac anatomy, congenital malformations, thrombi, and masses, current techniques can demonstrate cardiac function, including evaluation of valvular disease and cardiac shunts along with cardiac flow quantitation. Further refinements have led to the demonstration of coronary artery anatomy. In the future, a comprehensive cardiovascular evaluation may be available with MRI. PMID:8839991

  1. Prevalence and clinical significance of incidental cardiac findings in non-ECG-gated chest CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of incidental cardiac findings in non-ECG-gated chest CT. Non-ECG-gated chest CT examinations of 300 patients were retrospectively analyzed for incidental cardiac findings. Subsequently, these findings were evaluated for their clinical relevance by a cardiologist. A total of 107 out of 300 examined patients had 174 incidental cardiac findings including coronary calcification (90), aortic/mitral valve calcification (42), iatrogenic changes (23), pericardial effusion (6), dilatation of the heart (4), myocardial changes (3), thrombus in the left ventricle (2), constrictive pericarditis (2) and atrial myxoma (1). Of the cardiac findings 51% were described in the written report and in 53 out of the 107 patients the cardiac findings were unknown. Newly detected incidental findings from 8 patients were rated as clinically significant: pericardial effusion (4), constrictive pericarditis (1), thrombus in the left ventricle (1), atrial myxoma (1) and dilatation of the heart (1). Incidental cardiac findings are frequent in non-ECG-gated chest CT and may have a high clinical relevance. (orig.)

  2. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma (ATC) with Superior Vena Cava (SVC) Syndrome, Cardiac Tamponade and Pleural Effusion: An Unusual Clinical Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Hemant Kumar; Daga, Mradul Kumar; Jain, Shyama; Kumar, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome and cardiac tamponade are potentially life-threatening conditions that are not uncommon in the oncological setting but their occurrence together in a patient is infrequent. Herein, we present a case of 50-year-old male who presented with SVC syndrome and pleural effusion; developed recurrent cardiac tamponade in the hospital. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of left supraclavicular lymph node which appeared during hospital stay revealed high grade carcinoma and diagnosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was established by FNAC of thyroid nodule. Despite rarity, clinicians must be aware of such presentation of thyroid malignancy.

  3. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Kypson, A P

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were used, however, more recent robotic telemanipulation systems have been applied that allow for improved dexterity, enabling the surgeon to perform cardiac surgery from a distance not previously possible. In this rapidly evolving field, we review the recent history and clinical results of using robotics in cardiac surgery.

  4. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Kypson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were used, however, more recent robotic telemanipulation systems have been applied that allow for improved dexterity, enabling the surgeon to perform cardiac surgery from a distance not previously possible. In this rapidly evolving field, we review the recent history and clinical results of using robotics in cardiac surgery.

  5. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Brenna Farmer; Steven Wang; Rumore, Martha M.; Spencer Evan Lee

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV) metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV) injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed ST depressi...

  6. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kypson, Alan P.; Randolph Chitwood Jr, W.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were used, however...

  7. Asymptomatic cardiac ischemia pilot (ACIP).

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, C. R.; Bourassa, M. G.; Chaitman, B. R.; Geller, N. L.; Knatterud, G. L.; Pepine, C. J.; Pratt, C.; Sopko, G.

    1995-01-01

    This pilot study demonstrated that (1) patients with CAD and asymptomatic cardiac ischemia can be randomized to medical or revascularization strategies using a complex and demanding protocol, (2) asymptomatic cardiac ischemia can be suppressed in 40-50% of patients with clinically advanced coronary disease with relatively low to moderate doses of medication titrated over a period of 12 weeks (3). Revascularization was the most effective of the treatment strategies studied in reducing ischemia...

  8. Cellular Cardiomyoplasty and Cardiac Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Pendyala, Lakshmana; Goodchild, Traci; Gadesam, Radhika R.; Chen, Jack; Robinson, Keith; Chronos, Nicolas; Hou, Dongming

    2008-01-01

    Despite of vast improvements in treatment, myocardial infarction often leads to heart failure (HF) which remains the leading cause of death in developed countries. Other than heart transplantation, therapeutic options have a limited role in improving out comes in patients with severe HF. It is therefore no surprise that cardiac cell therapy has raised many hopes as a novel therapeutic approach aimed at cardiac myocyte replacement/regeneration termed “cellular cardiomyoplasty”. However, th...

  9. Cardiac effects of noncardiac neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.

    1984-11-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references.

  10. Measuring and explaining mortality in Dutch hospitals; The Hospital Standardized Mortality Rate between 2003 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Veen André

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indicators of hospital quality, such as hospital standardized mortality ratios (HSMR, have been used increasingly to assess and improve hospital quality. Our aim has been to describe and explain variation in new HSMRs for the Netherlands. Methods HSMRs were estimated using data from the complete population of discharged patients during 2003 to 2005. We used binary logistic regression to indirectly standardize for differences in case-mix. Out of a total of 101 hospitals 89 hospitals remained in our explanatory analysis. In this analysis we explored the association between HSMRs and determinants that can and cannot be influenced by hospitals. For this analysis we used a two-level hierarchical linear regression model to explain variation in yearly HSMRs. Results The average HSMR decreased yearly with more than eight percent. The highest HSMR was about twice as high as the lowest HSMR in all years. More than 2/3 of the variation stemmed from between-hospital variation. Year (-, local number of general practitioners (- and hospital type were significantly associated with the HSMR in all tested models. Conclusion HSMR scores vary substantially between hospitals, while rankings appear stable over time. We find no evidence that the HSMR cannot be used as an indicator to monitor and compare hospital quality. Because the standardization method is indirect, the comparisons are most relevant from a societal perspective but less so from an individual perspective. We find evidence of comparatively higher HSMRs in academic hospitals. This may result from (good quality high-risk procedures, low quality of care or inadequate case-mix correction.

  11. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac-derived peptide hormones were identified more than 25 years ago. An astonishing amount of clinical studies have established cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors as useful markers of heart disease. In contrast to the clinical applications, the biogenesis of cardiac peptides has only been elucidated during the last decade. The cellular synthesis including amino acid modifications and proteolytic cleavages has proven considerably more complex than initially perceived. Consequently, the elimination phase of the peptide products in circulation is not yet well characterized. An ongoing characterization of the molecular heterogeneity will help appreciate the biosynthetic capacity of the endocrine heart and could introduce new diagnostic possibilities. Notably, different biosynthetic products may not be equal markers of the same pathophysiological processes. An inefficient post-translational prohormone maturation will also affect the biology of the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. This review aims at summarizing the myocardial synthesis of natriuretic peptides focusing on B-type natriuretic peptide, where new data has disclosed cardiac myocytes as highly competent endocrine cells. The structurally related atrial natriuretic peptide will be mentioned where appropriate, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide will not be considered as a cardiac peptide of relevance in mammalian physiology.

  12. Dental considerations for cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasny, Jeffrey S; White, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Many patients requiring cardiac surgery possess poor oral health. The presence of decayed teeth, untreated dental abscesses, and periodontitis can all represent potentially potent causes of an odontogenic infection. Ultimately, such an infection can have catastrophic consequences if it occurs during or soon after certain cardiac procedures. Since an association exists between poor oral hygiene and various systemic diseases, many patients scheduled for cardiac procedures inherently possess poor oral hygiene and untreated dental infections. Inadequate patient education, financial constraints, and dental phobia all serve as barriers for patients receiving routine intraoral care. Consequently, patients may unknowingly present for cardiac surgery with undetected oral infections that can magnify the likelihood of an adverse outcome, leading to increased costs, morbidity, and possibly mortality. It is recommended to view oral health in the perspective of systemic health, specifically, recognizing the deleterious impact that an untreated odontogenic infection can have upon cardiac surgery. Therefore, considering scheduling constraints and the urgency of the operation, if time and resources permit, then it is suggested that patients who undergo elective cardiac surgery should be screened preoperatively to ensure that any oral infection is diagnosed and definitively treated. Such an investment can yield significant improvements in surgical outcome and overall patient health. PMID:18778297

  13. Cardiac MRI in suspected myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of ECG-gated breath-hold MRI in diagnosing acute myocardidits. Material and methods: Cardiac MRI was performed on 21 consecutive patients with suspected myocarditis. ECG-gated breath-hold T2-weighted images with fat suppression were acquired in 3 standard views. T1-weighted imaging (FLASH) was performed 10 min after IV administration of Gd-DTPA. Laboratory data included creatine kinase, troponin T and serological tests, ECG findings and echocardiography. Imaging findings were retrospectively compared to the discharge diagnoses. Signal alterations were semiquantitatively classified. Results: Acute myocarditis was diagnosed in 9 patients and cardiac sarcoidosis in 2 patients. Late enhancement was observed in 4 patients with acute myocarditis and in both patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. Semiquantitative evaluation revealed 9 true positive, 9 true negative, 1 false positive and 2 false negative results. Conclusion: Cardiac MRI has the potential to detect acute myocarditis and to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis. Late enhancement of Gd-DTPA can be found in both viral myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis. (orig.)

  14. Resonancia magnética cardíaca: aplicaciones clínicas Cardiac magnetic resonance: clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bastarrika

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad cardiovascular es la causa más frecuente de mortalidad en los países desarrollados y constituye un grave problema social, económico y sanitario. Aunque existen muy diversas técnicas útiles para diagnosticar las enfermedades cardíacas, con frecuencia es preciso realizar más de una prueba para llegar a un diagnóstico concreto. La resonancia magnética es una técnica inocua, bien tolerada y segura que actualmente se encuentra disponible en la mayoría de los centros hospitalarios. Esta técnica permite estudiar en una única exploración la anatomía del corazón y valorar de forma cualitativa, semicuantitativa y cuantitativa los parámetros de función cardíaca. Es útil para el estudio de las enfermedades valvulares, miocardiopatías y de la enfermedad pericárdica. Aporta información de la anatomía y función cardíaca y vascular en las cardiopatías congénitas complejas. Además, con la administración de contraste intravenoso, permite conocer la viabilidad miocárdica en la cardiopatía isquémica. Por tanto, la resonancia magnética cardíaca se perfila como una de las técnicas más prometedoras para el estudio de la patología cardíaca congénita y adquirida.Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of mortality in the developed countries and represents a serious social, economic and health problem. Although very diverse, useful techniques exist for diagnosing cardiac diseases, it is frequently necessary to ask for more than one test to reach a specific diagnosis. Magnetic resonance is a harmless, well tolerated and safe technique, which is currently available in the majority of hospitals. This technique makes it possible in a single exploration to study the anatomy of the heart and to make a qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of the parameters of cardiac function. It provides information of cardiac and vascular anatomy and function in complex congenital cardiopathies. Besides, with the administration of intravenous contrast, it enables knowledge to be gained of myocardial viability in ischaemic cardiopathy. Hence, cardiac magnetic resonance is emerging as one of the most promising techniques for the study of congenital and acquired cardiac pathology.

  15. The Effect of Compressor-Administered Defibrillation on Peri-shock Pauses in a Simulated Cardiac Arrest Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Glick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coordination of the tasks of performing chest compressions and defibrillation can lead to communication challenges that may prolong time spent off the chest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether defibrillation provided by the provider performing chest compressions led to a decrease in peri-shock pauses as compared to defibrillation administered by a second provider, in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled study measuring pauses in chest compressions for defibrillation in a simulated cardiac arrest model. We approached hospital providers with current CPR certification for participation between July, 2011 and October, 2011. Volunteers were randomized to control (facilitator-administered defibrillation or experimental (compressor-administered defibrillation groups. All participants completed one minute of chest compressions on a mannequin in a shockable rhythm prior to administration of defibrillation. We measured and compared pauses for defibrillation in both groups. Results: Out of 200 total participants, we analyzed data from 197 defibrillations. Compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower pre-shock hands-off time (0.57 s; 95% CI: 0.47-0.67 compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (1.49 s; 95% CI: 1.35-1.64. Furthermore, compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower peri-shock hands-off time (2.77 s; 95% CI: 2.58-2.95 compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (4.25 s; 95% CI: 4.08-4.43. Conclusion: Assigning the responsibility for shock delivery to the provider performing compressions encourages continuous compressions throughout the charging period and decreases total time spent off the chest. However, as this was a simulation-based study, clinical implementation is necessary to further evaluate these potential benefits. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:246–250.

  16. European cardiac resynchronization therapy survey II: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Kenneth; Normand, Camilla; Anker, Stefan D; Auricchio, Angelo; Lundqvist, Carina Blomström; Bogale, Nigussie; Cleland, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Gasparini, Maurizio; Gitt, Anselm; Hindricks, Gerhard; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Ponikowski, Piotr; Stellbrink, Christoph; Ruschitzka, Frank; Linde, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) Survey II is a 6 months snapshot survey initiated by two ESC Associations, the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Failure Association, which is designed to describe clinical practice regarding implantation of CRT devices in a broad sample of hospitals in 47 ESC member countries. The large volume of clinical and demographic data collected should reflect current patient selection, implantation, and follow-up practice and provide information relevant for assessing healthcare resource utilization in connection with CRT. The findings of this survey should permit representative benchmarking both nationally and internationally across Europe. PMID:25414481

  17. Positioning hospitals: a model for regional hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A C; Campbell, D P

    1993-01-01

    In an age of marketing warfare in the health care industry, hospitals need creative strategies to compete successfully. Lately, positioning concepts have been added to the health care marketer's arsenal of strategies. To blend theory with practice, the authors review basic positioning theory and present a framework for developing positioning strategies. They also evaluate the marketing strategies of a regional hospital to provide a case example. PMID:10126029

  18. Cardiac arrhythmia with premature ventricular contractures induced by interferon beta in a patient with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sobol

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an immune-mediated inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Interferon (IFN beta is an active ingredient of five out of twelve disease modifying treatments approved for MS. We report a case of IFN-beta-induced cardiac arrhythmia with premature ventricular contractures in a patient recently diagnosed with MS.

  19. [Noninvasive cardiac output determinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotin, V V; Sitnikov, A V; Il'in, S A; Ovezov, A M; Chernogaeva, N V

    2007-01-01

    The thermodilution determination of cardiac output (CO) by pulmonary arterial catheterization is considered to be the gold standard. However, a diversity of complications associated with the insertion and use of a catheter has made for the design of CO-measuring devices in a mini- or noninvasive mode. This prospective controlled study has been conducted to compare various CO determination techniques by the shape of the arterial curve (ART), as shown by the use of a transesophageal Doppler ultrasonic sensor (TEDUS) determining the blood flow velocity in the descending thoracic aorta by the Fick's backward equation with partial CO2 recirculation, by measuring thoracic bioimpedance (Tbio) by bolus thermodilution as the reference method (CO BT). In all the study examined, the mean CO values are lower than those in the reference method. In addition, there was a wide scatter of the CO values calculated by alternative methods. The mean difference and its standard deviation are 1.27 +/- 2.26 (ART); 0.87 +/- 1.57 (TEDUS); 1.01 +/- 1.46 (Fick); and 1.46 +/- 1.70 (Tbio). The errors of the methods, as compared to CO BT have the following values: APT, 27% (24-31% conference interval (CI)); TEDUS, 19% (17-21% CI); Fick, 20% (19-22%); Tbio, 25% (22-27%). By taking into account the findings, it should be stated that there is not any accurate mini- or noninvasive CO determination method that could completely substitute for the classical thermodilution technique. PMID:18051495

  20. Association between value-based purchasing score and hospital characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borah Bijan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicare hospital Value-based purchasing (VBP program that links Medicare payments to quality of care will become effective from 2013. It is unclear whether specific hospital characteristics are associated with a hospital’s VBP score, and consequently incentive payments. The objective of the study was to assess the association of hospital characteristics with (i the mean VBP score, and (ii specific percentiles of the VBP score distribution. The secondary objective was to quantify the associations of hospital characteristics with the VBP score components: clinical process of care (CPC score and patient satisfaction score. Methods Observational analysis that used data from three sources: Medicare Hospital Compare Database, American Hospital Association 2010 Annual Survey and Medicare Impact File. The final study sample included 2,491 U.S. acute care hospitals eligible for the VBP program. The association of hospital characteristics with the mean VBP score and specific VBP score percentiles were assessed by ordinary least square (OLS regression and quantile regression (QR, respectively. Results VBP score had substantial variations, with mean score of 30 and 60 in the first and fourth quartiles of the VBP score distribution. For-profit status (vs. non-profit, smaller bed size (vs. 100–199 beds, East South Central region (vs. New England region and the report of specific CPC measures (discharge instructions, timely provision of antibiotics and beta blockers, and serum glucose controls in cardiac surgery patients were positively associated with mean VBP scores (p Conclusions Although hospitals serving the poor and the elderly are more likely to score lower under the VBP program, the correlation appears small. Profit status, geographic regions, number and type of CPC measures reported explain the most variation among scores.

  1. Hospital diversification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    To determine the impact of health system restructuring on the levels of hospital diversification and operating ratio this article analyzed 94 teaching hospitals and 94 community hospitals during the period 2008-2013. The 47 teaching hospitals are matched with 47 other teaching hospitals experiencing the same financial market position in 2008, but with different levels of preference for risk and diversification in their strategic plan. Covariates in the analysis included levels of hospital competition and the degree of local government planning (for example, highly regulated in New York, in contrast to Texas). Moreover, 47 nonteaching community hospitals are matched with 47 other community hospitals in 2008, having varying manager preferences for service-line diversification and risk. Diversification and operating ratio are modeled in a two-stage least squares (TSLS) framework as jointly dependent. Institutional diversification is found to yield better financial position, and the better operating profits provide the firm the wherewithal to diversify. Some services are in a growth phase, like bariatric weight-loss surgery and sleep disorder clinics. Hospital managers' preferences for risk/return potential were considered. An institution life cycle hypothesis is advanced to explain hospital behavior: boom and bust, diversification, and divestiture, occasionally leading to closure or merger. PMID:25223156

  2. [Head nurse at Kabul military hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bec, Myriam; Serre, Vincent; Rondier, Philippe; De Montleau, Franck

    2014-09-01

    The French medical and surgical army hospital in Kabul supports coalition armed forces and delivers care to the local population. Technical and human managerial experience is essential for the position of head nurse whose role is central to the preparation of paramedical teams before deployment. Once deployed, working in an international environment, the head nurse has many missions to carry out, some routine while others, in a context of crisis are more out of the ordinary. PMID:25464634

  3. Indium-111-labelled antimyosin antibody imaging in a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aetiology of cardiac dysfunction caused by sarcoid granulomatous inflammation may be difficult to clarify, and the potential of imaging methods is limited. We report on a patient who present with acute biventricular decompensation. Pulmonary sarcoidosis was confirmed after hospitalization. Four weeks after the initiation of corticosteroid treatment, scintigraphy with indium-111-labelled antimyosin antibody Fab fragments (AMAB) revealed distinct activity accumulation in major parts of the left ventricular wall (heart-lung ratio: 1.6) 72 h following injection. There may by a role for AMAB scintigraphy in the early detection of cardiac sacroidosis. (orig.)

  4. Cardiac arrest with anaphylactic shock: a successful resuscitation using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-ping; Su, Xi; Liu, Chen-wei

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylactic shock is a serious allergic reaction, setting in rapidly, which may lead to life-threatening circulatory failure and necessitates aggressive support to ensure full recovery. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who developed cardiovascular collapse and cardiac arrest to iodine contrast media, occurring during coronary angiography. He was required temporary mechanical circulatory support with an venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system by failure of conventional therapy and intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation therapy. He had full recovery of cardiac function and released from the hospital 21 days after admission without a neurologic deficit. PMID:25088440

  5. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure patients with less severe left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Ofek Y; Mentz, Robert J; Zannad, Faiez; Gasparini, Maurizio; De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Holzmeister, Johannes; Lam, Carolyn S P; Pochet, Thierry; Vincent, Alphons; Linde, Cecilia

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy is beneficial in heart failure patients with LVEF ?35% and electrical dyssynchrony. However, its effects among patients with less severe LV dysfunction have not been established. Recent post-hoc analyses of landmark CRT trials suggest that CRT benefit may be present in patients with LVEF >35% and is associated with improvement in cardiac reverse remodelling, all-cause mortality, and need for heart failure hospitalizations. This review summarizes the currently available literature regarding the potential impact of CRT in patients with more modest reductions in LVEF. PMID:25469668

  6. Out-of-pocket medical expenses for inpatient care among beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Program in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Makoto; Stickley, Andrew; del Rosario, Rodolfo B; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The National Health Insurance Program (NHIP) in the Philippines is a social health insurance system partially subsidized by tax-based financing which offers benefits on a fee-for-service basis up to a fixed ceiling. This paper quantifies the extent to which beneficiaries of the NHIP incur out-of-pocket expenses for inpatient care, and examines the characteristics of beneficiaries making these payments and the hospitals in which these payments are typically made. METHODS Probit and ordinary least squares regression analyses were carried out on 94 531 insurance claims from Benguet province and Baguio city during the period 2007 to 2009. RESULTS Eighty-six per cent of claims involved an out-of-pocket payment. The median figure for out-of-pocket payments was Philippine Pesos (PHP) 3016 (US$67), with this figure varying widely [inter-quartile range (IQR): PHP 9393 (US$209)]. Thirteen per cent of claims involved very large out-of-pocket payments exceeding PHP 19 213 (US$428)-the equivalent of 10% of the average annual household income in the region. Membership type, disease severity, age and residential location of the patient, length of hospitalization, and ownership and level of the hospital were all significantly associated with making out-of-pocket payments and/or the size of these payments. CONCLUSION Although the current NHIP reduces the size of out-of-pocket payments, NHIP beneficiaries are not completely free from the risk of large out-of-pocket payments (as the size of these payments varies widely and can be extremely large), despite NHIP's attempts to mitigate this by setting different benefit ceilings based on the level of the hospital and the severity of the disease. To reduce these large out-of-pocket payments and to increase financial risk protection further, it is essential to ensure more investment for health from social health insurance and/or tax-based government funding as well as shifting the provider payment mechanism from a fee-for-service to a case-based payment method (which up until now has only been partially implemented). PMID:23048125

  7. Cardiac Catheter Reuse in An Era of Reform: Cost-Efficiency and Regulatory Policy in the Face of Scientific Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Solt, Christine G.

    1994-01-01

    Cardiac catheters have become an essential element of current cardiovascular practice with several hundred thousand used each year in both diagnostic and angioplasty procedures. Uke many other disposable devices they are also increasingly being reused as hospitals attempt to cut costs.' The general progression of device reuse seems to follow rather directly the rise in the expense of medical equipment and procedures. For example, in 1976, only 14% of United States' hospitals reported reusing ...

  8. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) predicts renal injury in acute decompensated cardiac failure: a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald Stephen; Arendts Glenn; Nagree Yusuf; Xu Xiao-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute Decompensated Cardiac Failure (ADCF) is frequently associated with deterioration in renal function. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is an early marker of kidney injury. We aimed to determine if NGAL measured at admission predicts in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI) in ADCF. Methods A prospective observational study measured NGAL and B-natriuretic peptide (BNP) from patients with ADCF presenting to two tertiary hospitals. Patients received standard...

  9. Acute-phase reactants after paediatric cardiac arrest. Procalcitonin as marker of immediate outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Alberto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Procalcitonin (PCT and C reactive protein (CRP have been used as infection parameters. PCT increase correlates with the infection's severity, course, and mortality. Post-cardiocirculatory arrest syndrome may be related to an early systemic inflammatory response, and may possibly be associated with an endotoxin tolerance. Our objective was to report the time profile of PCT and CRP levels after paediatric cardiac arrest and to assess if they could be use as markers of immediate survival. Materials and methods A retrospective observational study set in an eight-bed PICU of a university hospital was perf