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Sample records for orthodontic bracket materials

  1. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified that resin composites and glass ionomer are the most studied and researched materials for this purpose. Resin-modified glass ionomer, with its biocompatibility, capacity of releasing fluoride and no need for acid etching on the tooth structure, has become increasingly popular among dentists. However, due to the esthetic and mechanical properties of light polymerizable resin composite, it continues to be one of the adhesives of choice in the bracket bonding technique and its use is widely disseminated.

  2. 21 CFR 872.5470 - Orthodontic plastic bracket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic plastic bracket. 872.5470 Section 872...Therapeutic Devices § 872.5470 Orthodontic plastic bracket. (a) Identification. An orthodontic plastic bracket is a plastic device...

  3. In vitro orthodontic bracket bonding to porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hity, R; Gustin, M-P; Bridel, N; Morgon, L; Grosgogeat, B

    2012-08-01

    This in vitro study investigated the influence of using different combinations of bracket, adhesive, and light-curing source on the tensile bond strength to porcelain and on failure patterns at debonding. Tensile tests were performed using: one ceramic bracket versus one metal bracket, two orthodontic composites; type bisphenol A-glycidyldimethacrylate and urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), and four light-curing units with the same range of emission spectrum but various light intensities: three light-emitting diode (LED) units and one halogen-based unit. One hundred and sixty porcelain samples were randomly divided into 16 equal groups. The porcelain surface was conditioned with 9 per cent hydrofluoric acid before silane application. The composite was photo-polymerized for 40 seconds. After storage in water at 37°C for 24 hours, the samples were subjected to tensile force until bond failure. Bond strength and bond failure mode were recorded; results were analysed (? = 0.05) using R language; linear model with constant variance for the bond strength and multinomial distribution for the failure mode. The bond strength in all groups was sufficient to withstand orthodontic treatment (>6 MPa). There was no statistical difference between the adhesives, but comparing bracket × light interaction, it was significantly higher with the ceramic bracket. No significant differences were seen between the metal bracket groups, but for the ceramic bracket, the results were significantly higher with the LED light. No fracture was observed in porcelain with the metal bracket but it occurred in 35 per cent of the ceramic bracket samples and the risk was higher when using UDMA composite and lower with LED high intensity light. PMID:21447780

  4. A quantitative AFM analysis of nano-scale surface roughness in various orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Ki-Ho; Park, Young-Guk; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2010-10-01

    In orthodontics, the surface roughnesses of orthodontic archwire and brackets affect the effectiveness of arch-guided tooth movement, corrosion behavior, and the aesthetics of orthodontic components. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements were used to provide quantitative information on the surface roughness of the orthodontic material. In this study, the changes in surface roughness of various orthodontic bracket slots before and after sliding movement of archwire in vitro and in vivo were observed through the utilization of AFM. Firstly, we characterized the surface of four types of brackets slots as follows: conventional stainless steel (Succes), conventional ceramic (Perfect), self-ligating stainless steel (Damon) and self-ligating ceramic (Clippy-C) brackets. Succes) and Damon brackets showed relatively smooth surfaces, while Perfect had the roughest surface among the four types of brackets used. Secondly, after in vitro sliding test with beta titanium wire in two conventional brackets (Succes and Perfect), there were significant increases in only stainless steel bracket, Succes. Thirdly, after clinical orthodontic treatment for a maximum of 2 years, the self-ligating stainless steel bracket, Damon, showed a significant increase in surface roughness. But self-ligating ceramic brackets, Clippy-C, represented less significant changes in roughness parameters than self-ligating stainless steel ones. Based on the results of the AFM measurements, it is suggested that the self-ligating ceramic bracket has great possibility to exhibit less friction and better biocompatibility than the other tested brackets. This implies that these bracket slots will aid in the effectiveness of arch-guided tooth movement. PMID:20646928

  5. Effect of bonding material, etching time and silane on the bond strength of metallic orthodontic brackets to ceramic

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Rosa, Costa; Américo Bortolazzo, Correr; Regina Maria, Puppin-Rontani; Silvia Amélia, Vedovello; Heloísa Cristina, Valdrighi; Lourenço, Correr-Sobrinho; Mário, Vedovello Filho.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar a resistência de união de bráquetes a cerâmica feldspática com diferentes tempos de condicionamento ácido, materiais de união, com ou sem aplicação do silano. Cilindros de cerâmica feldspática foram condicionados com ácido fluorídrico 10% por 20 ou 60 s. Para cada [...] tempo de condicionamento, metade dos cilindros recebeu duas camadas de silano. Bráquetes metálicos foram fixados aos cilindros utilizando Transbond XT (3M Unitek) ou Fuji Ortho LC (GC). A fotoativação foi realizada com tempo de exposição total de 40 s utilizando LED UltraLume 5. O ensaio de resistência ao cisalhamento foi realizado após 24 h de armazenagem. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância a três fatores e teste de Tukey (?=0,05). O Índice de Remanescente Adesivo (IRA) foi utilizado para avaliar a quantidade de adesivo remanescente na superfície cerâmica com magnificação de 8×. Os espécimes condicionados por 60 s apresentaram maior resistência de união comparado com 20 s. A aplicação do silano foi efetiva no aumento da resistência de união ao cisalhamento de bráquetes com a cerâmica para ambos os materiais. O Transbond XT mostrou resistência de união significativamente maior que Fuji Orth LC. O IRA mostrou predominância de escore 0 (ausência de resina na superfície cerâmica) para todos os grupos, com aumento de escores 1, 2 e 3 (aumento da presença de resina na superfície cerâmica) para o tempo de condicionamento de 60 s. Em conclusão, o tempo de condicionamento de 60 s, aplicação de silano e resina Transbond XT melhoraram significativamente a resistência de união ao cisalhamento de bráquetes a cerâmica feldspática. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of metallic orthodontic brackets to feldspathic ceramic with different etching times, bonding materials and with or without silane application. Cylinders of feldspathic ceramic were etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 or 60 s. For each [...] etching time, half of the cylinders received two layers of silane. Metallic brackets were bonded to the cylinders using Transbond XT (3M Unitek) or Fuji Ortho LC (GC). Light-activation was carried out with total exposure time of 40 s using UltraLume 5. Shear bond strength testing was performed after 24 h storage. Data were submitted to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to evaluate the amount of adhesive remaining on the ceramic surface at ×8 magnification. Specimens etched for 60 s had significantly higher bond strength compared with 20 s. The application of silane was efficient in increasing the shear bond strength between ceramic and both fixed materials. Transbond XT showed significantly higher (p

  6. Retrieval analysis of different orthodontic brackets: the applicability of electron microprobe techniques for determining material heterogeneities and corrosive potential

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandra Ioana, Holst; Stefan, Holst; Ursula, Hirschfelder; Volker Von, Seckendorff.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of micro-analytical methods with high spatial resolution to the characterization of the composition and corrosion behavior of two bracket systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The surfaces of six nickel-free brackets and six nickel [...] -containing brackets were examined for signs of corrosion and qualitative surface analysis using an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), prior to bonding to patient's tooth surfaces and four months after clinical use. The surfaces were characterized qualitatively by secondary electron (SE) images and back scattered electron (BSE) images in both compositional and topographical mode. Qualitative and quantitative wavelength-dispersive analyses were performed for different elements, and by utilizing qualitative analysis the relative concentration of selected elements was mapped two-dimensionally. The absolute concentration of the elements was determined in specially prepared brackets by quantitative analysis using pure element standards for calibration and calculating correction-factors (ZAF). RESULTS: Clear differences were observed between the different bracket types. The nickel-containing stainless steel brackets consist of two separate pieces joined by a brazing alloy. Compositional analysis revealed two different alloy compositions, and reaction zones on both sides of the brazing alloy. The nickel-free bracket was a single piece with only slight variation in element concentration, but had a significantly rougher surface. After clinical use, no corrosive phenomena were detectable with the methods applied. Traces of intraoral wear at the contact areas between the bracket slot and the arch wire were verified. CONCLUSION: Electron probe microanalysis is a valuable tool for the characterization of element distribution and quantitative analysis for corrosion studies.

  7. Effect of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation on orthodontic bracket bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikvar, Michael J.

    This study examined the effect of bracket manipulation in combination with delayed polymerization times on orthodontic bracket shear bond strength and degree of resin composite conversion. Orthodontics brackets were bonded to extracted third molars in a simulated oral environment after a set period of delayed polymerization time and bracket manipulation. After curing the bracket adhesive, each bracket underwent shear bond strength testing followed by micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis to measure the degree of conversion of the resin composite. Results demonstrated the shear bond strength and the degree of conversion of ceramic brackets did not vary over time. However, with stainless steel brackets there was a significant effect (p ? 0.05) of delay time on shear bond strength between the 0.5 min and 10 min bracket groups. In addition, stainless steel brackets showed significant differences related to degree of conversion over time between the 0.5 min and 5 min groups, in addition to the 0.5 min and 10 min groups. This investigation suggests that delaying bracket adhesive polymerization up to a period of 10 min then adjusting the orthodontic bracket may increase both shear bond strength and degree of conversion of stainless steel brackets while having no effect on ceramic brackets.

  8. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miti? Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A great number of techniques have been used for bonding orthodontic brackets to the tooth surfaces. Glass ionomer cements are frequently used material for this purpose. The aim of this study was to measure the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement Ortho Fuji LC and remained adhesive on the enamel surface after brackets debonding. Material and methods. A total of 40 extracted premolars for orthodontic reasons in different gender patients, 10-16 years old, were randomly divided into four groups. Using glass ionomer cement Ortho Fuji LC (Tokyo, Japan stainless steel brackets were bonded to the teeth with the average surface area of the bracket base of 14.7 mm2. The shear bond strengths were measured at a crosshead speed of 1 mm per minute, and the load applied at the time of fracture was recorded using electronic dynamometer. Remained adhesive on the enamel after bracket debonding was evaluated using the adhesive remnant index (ARI. Results. Shear bond strength had the highest value for the group where enamel was etched right before bonding bracket (9.14 MPa, than in the group 2 (7.43 MPa, while in the groups 1 (6.72 MPa and 3 (6.22 MPa, where etching was not performed, bond strength was lower. Conclusion. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement Ortho Fuji LC had higher values when the enamel was etched than without etching.

  9. Adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Biofilm Formation on Different Types of Orthodontic Brackets

    OpenAIRE

    William Papaioannou; Athanasios Panagopoulos; Haroula Koletsi-Kounari; Efterpi Kontou; Margarita Makou

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the interaction between Porphyromonas gingivalis and 3 different orthodontic brackets in vitro, focusing on the effect of an early salivary pellicle and other bacteria on the formation of biofilms. Material and Methods. Mono- and multi-species P. gingivalis biofilms were allowed to form in vitro, on 3 different bracket types (stainless steel, ceramic and plastic) with and without an early salivary pellicle. The brackets were anaerobically incubated for 3 days in Brain H...

  10. Physical and chemical properties of orthodontic brackets after 12 and 24 months: in situ study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernardo de Azevedo Bahia, MENDES; Ricardo Alberto Neto, FERREIRA; Matheus Melo, PITHON; Martinho Campolina Rebello, HORTA; Dauro Douglas, OLIVEIRA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this article was to assess how intraoral biodegradation influenced the surface characteristics and friction levels of metallic brackets used during 12 and 24 months of orthodontic treatment and also to compare the static friction generated in these brackets with four different [...] methods of the ligation of orthodontic wires. Material and Methods: Seventy premolar brackets as received from the manufacturer and 224 brackets that were used in previous orthodontic treatments were evaluated in this experiment. The surface morphology and the composition of the deposits found in the brackets were evaluated with rugosimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Friction was analyzed by applying tensile tests simulating sliding mechanics with a 0.019x0.025" steel wire. The static friction levels produced by the following ligation methods were evaluated: loosely attached steel ligature around all four bracket wings, steel ligature attached to only two wings, conventional elastomeric ligation around all 4 bracket wings, and non-conventional Slide® elastomeric ligature. Results: The results demonstrated the presence of biodegradation effects such as corrosion pits, plastic deformation, cracks, and material deposits. The main chemical elements found on these deposits were Carbon and Oxygen. The maximum friction produced by each ligation method changed according to the time of intraoral use. The steel ligature loosely attached to all four bracket wings produced the lowest friction levels in the new brackets. The conventional elastic ligatures generated the highest friction levels. The metallic brackets underwent significant degradation during orthodontic treatment, showing an increase in surface roughness and the deposit of chemical elements on the surface. Conclusion: The levels of static friction decreased with use. The non-conventional elastic ligatures were the best alternative to reduce friction.

  11. Effect of recycling process on metal ion release from orthodontic brackets at different periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariati M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Considering the application of recycled metallic brackets in orthodontic treatments and probably more resultant metal ion release, which can cause cytotoxic side effects, this study was set up to assess the effect of recycling process of orthodontic brackets on metal ion release."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, 80 Discovery direct bond brackets (Dentarum, Germany were divided into 2 groups, new and recycled brackets (n = 40, then each group was divided into two subgroups (one-week and 6-months subgroups (n=20. The specimens were maintained in buffered solution of NaNHNo3"n(pH=7 at 37°C in an incubator. After periods of one week and 6 months immersion, 0.5 mL of each solution was analyzed by spectrophotometry for the quantity of released Nickel (Ni, Chromium (Cr, and Cobalt (Co ions. The data were analyzed using two way ANOVA analysis."nResults: After one week, the quantity of Ni, Cr, and Co ions released from new brackets were 0.65, 1.4, and 0.75 (ppb, respectively. The values for recycled brackets were 142, 2.61, and, 1.43 (ppb. These findings indicated significant difference between two groups (P<0.001. After six months, the quantity of Ni, Cr, and Co ions released from new brackets were 1200, 3.4, and 2.4 (ppb and from recycled brackets were 2330, 6.9, and 10.8 (ppb, which showed significant difference between two groups (P<0.001."nConclusion: Application of recycled brackets in long fixed orthodontic treatments can lead to metal ion release, specifically Nickel. Thus, the use of recycled brackets in long orthodontic treatments is not recommended.

  12. Assessing near infrared optical properties of ceramic orthodontic brackets using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfeld, Darren M; Aparicio, Conrado; Jones, Robert S

    2014-04-01

    Secondary decay (caries) under ceramic orthodontic brackets remains a significant dental problem and near infrared cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) has the potential to detect underlying demineralization. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of crystalline structure and chemical composition of ceramic brackets on CP-OCT imaging. Four ceramic brackets types, which were divided into monocrystalline and polycrystalline, were examined using CP-OCT. The results of this study demonstrated that the crystallinity of the ceramic brackets affected the 1310 nm CP-OCT imaging with the greatest attenuation seen in polycrystalline alumina brackets. The alumina polycrystalline bracket materials had significantly higher attenuation and scattering than alumina monocrystalline brackets (p?bracket base morphology and composition affected NIR light attenuation. There was considerable attenuation in bracket bases that contained additive zirconium spheres (?30 µm) and this alteration was significantly greater than the jagged alumina crystallographic alterations found in the other bracket systems (p?ceramic brackets; however, further investigation into the optical effects of resin integration in the base portion of the brackets is warranted. PMID:24106170

  13. Adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Biofilm Formation on Different Types of Orthodontic Brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, William; Panagopoulos, Athanasios; Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Kontou, Efterpi; Makou, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the interaction between Porphyromonas gingivalis and 3 different orthodontic brackets in vitro, focusing on the effect of an early salivary pellicle and other bacteria on the formation of biofilms. Material and Methods. Mono- and multi-species P. gingivalis biofilms were allowed to form in vitro, on 3 different bracket types (stainless steel, ceramic and plastic) with and without an early salivary pellicle. The brackets were anaerobically incubated for 3 days in Brain Heart Infusion Broth to form biofilms. Bacteria were quantified by trypsin treatment and enumeration of the total viable counts of bacteria recovered. Results. Saliva was found to significantly affect (P biofilm formation of P. gingivalis, with higher numbers for the coated brackets. No significant effect was detected for the impact of the type of biofilm, although on stainless steel and plastic brackets there was a tendency for higher numbers of the pathogen in multi-species biofilms. Bracket material alone was not found to affect the number of bacteria. Conclusions. The salivary pellicle seems to facilitate the adhesion of P. gingivalis and biofilm formation on orthodontic brackets, while the material comprising the brackets does not significantly impact on the number of bacteria. PMID:22315606

  14. Effects of recycling and bonding agent application on bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Bahnasi, Faisal I.; Abd-rahman, Aida Na; Abu-hassan, Mohame I.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: 1) to assess different methods of recycling orthodontic brackets, 2) to evaluate Shear Bond Strength (SBS) of (a) new, (b) recycled and (c) repeated recycled stainless steel brackets (i) with and (ii) without bracket base primer. Study Design: A total of 180 extracted human premolar teeth and 180 premolar stainless steel brackets were used. One hundred teeth and 100 brackets were divided into five groups of 20-teeth each. Four methods of recycling orthodontic brackets were used...

  15. Elemental composition of brazing alloys in metallic orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinelis, Spiros; Annousaki, Olga; Eliades, Theodore; Makou, Margarita

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the elemental composition of the brazing alloy of representative orthodontic brackets. The brackets examined were Gemini (3M, Unitec, Monrovia, Calif), MicroLoc (GAC, Bohemia, NY), OptiMESHxrt (Ormco, Glendora, Calif), and Ultratrim (Dentarum, Ispringen, Germany). Four metallic brackets for each brand were embedded in epoxy resin and after metallographic grinding and polishing were cleaned in a water ultrasonic bath. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDS) were used to assess the quantitative composition of the brazing alloy. Four EDS spectra were collected for each brazing alloy, and the mean value and standard deviation for the concentration of each element were calculated. The elemental composition of the brazing alloys was determined as follows (percent weight): Gemini: Ni = 83.98 +/- 1.02, Si = 6.46 +/- 0.37, Fe = 5.90 +/- 0.93, Cr = 3.52 +/- 0.34; MicroLoc: Ag = 42.82 +/- 0.18, Au = 32.14 +/- 0.65, Cu = 24.53 +/- 0.26, Mg = 1.12 +/- 0.33; OptiMESHxrt: Au = 67.79 +/- 0.97, Fe = 15.69 +/- 0.29, Ni = 13.01 +/- 0.93, Cr = 4.01 +/- 0.35; Ultratrim: Ag = 87.97 +/- 0.33, Cu = 10.51 +/- 0.45, Mg = 1.29 +/- 0.63, Zn = 1.13 +/- 0.24. The findings of this study showed that different brazing materials were used for the different brands, and thus different performances are expected during intraoral exposure; potential effects on the biological properties also are discussed. PMID:15264653

  16. A method for producing controlled fluoride release from an orthodontic bracket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Hobson, Ross S; Bai, Yuxing; Yan, Zhuoqun; Carrick, Thomas E; McCabe, John F

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture and test, in vitro, a novel modification to provide fluoride-releasing orthodontic brackets. Thirty-two orthodontic brackets were drilled to produce a recess (approximately 1.3 mm in diameter and 0.7 mm in depth) at the centre of the bracket base. Four materials, with and without the addition of sodium fluoride, a glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem micro), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC; GC Fuji Ortho LC), a zinc phosphate (Zinc Cement Improved), and a resin (Transbond XT) were used to fill the recess in the bracket base. Fluoride release was measured daily during the first week and then weekly for 10 weeks. An ion chromatograph with suppressed conductivity was used for free fluoride ion determination. Statistical analysis to determine the amount of flouride release was undertaken using analysis of variance and Tukey's test. During the first 2 weeks, the resin group, with the addition of 38 per cent sodium fluoride added, released significantly more free fluoride (P fluoride release markedly decreased. After 5 weeks, the RMGIC group, with 15 per cent added sodium fluoride, had significantly higher (P fluoride release than the other groups. The findings demonstrated that an appropriate fluoridated material can be used as a fluoride-releasing reservoir in a modified orthodontic bracket to enable it to release fluoride over the period of fixed appliance treatment. PMID:17804428

  17. CO2 laser debonding of a ceramic bracket bonded with orthodontic adhesive containing thermal expansion microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ayano; Namura, Yasuhiro; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2015-02-01

    We have been studying an easy bracket debonding method using heating of an orthodontic adhesive containing thermal expansion microcapsules. However, heating with a high-temperature heater brings obvious risks of burns around the oral cavity. Thus, we examined safer and more effective bracket debonding methods. The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine the reduction in debonding strength and the time taken using a bracket bonded with an orthodontic adhesive containing thermal expansion microcapsules and a CO2 laser as the heating method while maintaining safety. Ceramic brackets were bonded to bovine permanent mandibular incisors using bonding materials containing various microcapsule contents (0, 30, and 40 wt%), and the bond strengths were measured after laser irradiation for 4, 5, and 6 s and compared with nonlaser-treated groups. Subsequently, the temperature in the pulp chamber during laser irradiation was measured. After laser irradiation for 5 or 6 s, the bond strengths of the adhesive containing 40 wt% microcapsules were significantly decreased to ?0.40?-?0.48-fold (4.6-5.5 MPa) compared with the nonlaser groups. The mean temperature rise of the pulp chamber was 4.3 °C with laser irradiation for 6 s, which was less than that required to induce pulp damage. Based on these results, we conclude that the combined use of a CO2 laser and an orthodontic adhesive containing thermal expansion microcapsules can be effective and safe for debonding ceramic brackets with less enamel damage or tooth pain. PMID:24220847

  18. The use of easily debondable orthodontic adhesives with ceramic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Chiyako; Namura, Yasuhiro; Tsuruoka, Takashi; Hama, Tomohiko; Kaji, Kaori; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally produced an easily debondable orthodontic adhesive (EDA) containing heat-expandable microcapsules. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the best debondable condition when EDA was used for ceramic brackets. Shear bond strengths were measured before and after heating and were compared statistically. Temperatures of the bracket base and pulp wall were also examined during heating. Bond strengths of EDA containing 30 wt% and 40 wt% heat-expandable microcapsules were 13.4 and 12.9 MPa, respectively and decreased significantly to 3.8 and 3.7 MPa, respectively, after heating. The temperature of the pulp wall increased 1.8-3.6°C after heating, less than that required to induce pulp damage. Based on the results, we conclude that heating for 8 s during debonding of ceramic brackets bonded using EDA containing 40 wt% heat-expandable microcapsules is the most effective and safest method for the enamel and pulp. PMID:21946484

  19. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded with Nano-filled Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad Akhoundi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic brackets bonded with two types of nano-composites in comparison to a conventional orthodontic composite. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human first premolars were randomly divided into 3 groups each containing 20 teeth. In group I, a conventional orthodontic composite (Transbond XT was used to bond the brackets, while two nano-composites (Filtek TM Supreme XT and AELITE Aesthetic Enamel were used in groups II and III respectively. The teeth were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, thermocycled in distilled water and debonded with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The adhesive remnant index (ARI was also evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Results: AELITE Aesthetic Enamel nano-composite revealed a SBS value of 8.44±2.09 MPa, which was higher than Transbond XT (6.91± 2.13 and Filtek TM Supreme XT (6.04± 2.01. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between groups II and III (P 0.05. Evaluation of ARI showed that Transbond XT left fewer adhesive remains on teeth after debonding. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the aforementioned nano-composites can be successfully used for bonding orthodontic brackets.

  20. The use of single step adhesives in bonding orthodontic brackets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Von Wald

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that the new single-step adhesive systems used in operative dentistry and can bond to both enamel and dentin, require a shorter application time while maintaining adequate bond strength. In orthodontics, several repetitions of the bonding procedure are necessary, therefore, adhesive systems requiring less time for application are of particular interest. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of incorporating single step adhesives to a traditional bonding system, on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Sixty recently extracted human teeth were divided into three equal groups. Group I (control: brackets were bonded with the Transbond XT adhesive system (3M/Unitek following the manufacturer's instructions; Group II: Single Bond (3M adhesive was applied to the tooth surface and Transbond XT adhesive paste was used to bond the brackets; Group III: Optibond Solo (Kerr Co. adhesive was applied to the enamel surface and Transbond XT adhesive was used to bond the brackets. Teeth were stored in deionized water at 37oC for 24 hours. A Zwick Universal Testing Machine was used to measure shear bond strength. The shear bond strengths for the three groups tested were; Group ?: 11.8+4.6 Mpa; Group ??: 12.5+3.9 Mpa; and Group ???: 9.7+4.3 Mpa. Analysis of Variance (F=2.37 indicated that there were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the bond strengths among the three groups. In conclusion, the use of single step adhesives to replace the sealant did not significantly affect the shear bond strength of the adhesive system.

  1. Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of RMGI and Composite Resin for Orthodontic Bracket Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaei, Soghra; Davari, Abdolrahim; Goldani Moghadam, Mahjobeh; Kamaei, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) and composite resin for bonding metal and ceramic brackets. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were divided into 4 groups (n=22). In groups 1 and 2, 22 metal and ceramic brackets were bonded using composite resin (Transbond XT), respectively. Twenty-two metal and ceramic brackets in groups 3 and 4, respectively were bonded using RMGI (Fuji Ortho LC, Japan). After photo polymerization, the teeth were stored in water and thermocycled (500 cycles between 5° and 55°). The SBS value of each sample was determined using a Universal Testing Machine. The amount of residual adhesive remaining on each tooth was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analyses were done using two-way ANOVA. Results: RMGI bonded brackets had significantly lower SBS value compared to composite resin bonded groups. No statistically significant difference was observed between metal and ceramic brackets bonded with either the RMGI or composite resin. The comparison of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores between the groups indicated that the bracket failure mode was significantly different among groups (Porthodontic bonding purposes; however the provided SBS is still within the clinically acceptable range. PMID:25628663

  2. Rebonding of unused brackets with different orthodontic adhesives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emigdio Enrique Orellana, Jimenez; Sérgio Paulo, Hilgenberg; Márcia Cristina, Rastelli; Gibson Luiz, Pilatti; Bruno, Orellana; Ulisses, Coelho.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare in vitro shear bond strength (SBS) of different orthodontic adhesives in bonding and repeatedly rebonding metal brackets, and to evaluate the bond failure site with the adhesive remnant index (ARI). METHODS: Specimens consisted of 90 extracted human first premolars, randomly di [...] vided into three groups (n=30). The adhesives Alpha Plast (AP), ConciseTM (CO) and TransbondTM XT (TB) were used in each group. Three SBS tests were performed, i.e., one at T0 (initial) and the other two at T1 and T2 (first and second rebondings, respectively), observing a 24-hour interval. The tests were performed in a Shimadzu AG-I (10kN) SBS testing machine, at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: SBS data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test and Bonferroni test (p

  3. Relative friction minimization in fixed orthodontic bracket appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, V

    1996-04-01

    The biomechanical and mathematical analysis of friction on an arch wire/bracket combination and the wire supports has demonstrated that there is an optimal relationship, i.e. minimal friction forces, between the bracket width and the distance between the adjacent brackets on the neighboring teeth. With this optimal situation, less force will develop for a given deflection of the arch wire. This, in turn, will lead to fewer frictional effects when the friction forces are assumed to be proportional to the concentrated perpendicular forces on the arch wire. As long as the contacting surface can be regarded as a point, Coulomb's law of friction can be applied in its simplest form. Relative friction minimization can thereby be qualitatively and quantitatively obtained by linear theory for any specified angulation, wire properties and coefficients of friction. Literature stating that narrow brackets will lead to less friction for specified angulation cannot be confirmed according to the presented analysis. The other extreme statement 'Use the widest bracket possible' also cannot be used in principle. Since the analysis shows a mathematical relationship between most of the relevant design variables of an arch wire/bracket combination and the magnitude of friction forces, empirical results can be sorted and ranked by their physical figures instead of by statistical distribution. In addition, it is possible to make recommendations about the appropriate bracket sizes for various cases. The dependences of the coefficients of friction themselves on material, surface roughness, lubrication, etc. are not investigated here. These factors are also very relevant, especially in reduction of the absolute magnitude of frictional forces, but this problem is left to tribologists. PMID:8964778

  4. The Effect of Different Soft Drinks on the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Omid Khoda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is proved that acidic soft drinks that are commonly used, have an adverse effect on dental structures, and may deteriorate oral heath of our patients and orthodontic appliances. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of yoghurt drink with other soft drinks on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.Materials and Methods: Seventy-five first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes were selected and standard twin metal brackets were bonded on the center of buccal surface with No-Mix composite. The teeth were thermocycled for 625 cycles and randomly divided into five groups of artificial saliva, carbonated yoghurt drink with lactic acid base, non-carbonated yoghurt drink with lactic acid base, 7 up with citric acid base and Pepsi with phosphoric acid base. In all groups, the teeth were immersed in liquid for five-minute sessions three times with equal intervening intervals for 3 months. SBS was measured by a universal testing machine with a speed of 0.5mm/min. Data was analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA.Results: The results showed that mean values for the shear bond strength of carbonated yoghurt drinks, non-carbonated yoghurt drinks, 7up and Pepsi groups were 12.98(+_2.95, 13.26(+_4.00, 16.11(+_4.89, 14.73(+_5.10, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups (P-value= 0.238Conclusion: Soft drinks used in this study did not decrease the bond strength of the brackets bonded with this specific type of composite.

  5. Bond strength of ceramic brackets bonded to enamel with amorphous calcium phosphate-containing orthodontic composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Ustdal, Ayca; Nur, Metin; Catalbas, Bulent

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and failure modes of a conventional resin-based composite with a recently developed amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-containing orthodontic composite system. Forty freshly extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into two equal groups. Conventional composite (group 1; Transbond-XT; 3M Unitek) and ACP-containing orthodontic composite (group 2; Aegis-Ortho; Harry J. Bosworth Co.) were used for bonding ceramic orthodontic brackets. The SBS of these brackets were measured and recorded in megapascals (MPa). Adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined after bracket failure. Data were analysed with a Student's t-test for two independent variables and Pearson's chi-square tests. Statistical analysis showed that the bond strength of group 1 (mean: 36.7 +/- 6.8 MPa) was significantly higher than group 2 (mean: 24.2 +/- 5.4 MPa; P ceramic orthodontic brackets due to the lower SBS values compared with conventional composite. The ACP-containing composite is recommended for use in clinical orthodontic practice in order to achieve lower decalcification scores under ceramic orthodontic brackets. PMID:20080960

  6. A scanning electron microscopic investigation of ceramic orthodontic brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic brackets were introduced to overcome the esthetic disadvantages of stainless steel brackets. The clinical impression of these brackets is very favorable. However, the sliding mechanics used in the Straightwire (A Company, San Diego, CA, USA) system appear to produce slower tooth movements with ceramic compared to stainless steel brackets. To determine whether this was due to any obvious mechanical problem in the bracket slot, Transcend (Unitek Corporation/3M, Monrovia, CA, USA) ceramic brackets were examined by a scanning electron microscope and compared to stainless steel brackets.Consistently, large surface defects were found in the ceramic bracket slots that were not present in the metal bracket slots. These irregularities could obviously hinder the sliding mechanics of the bracket slot-archwire system and create a greater demand on anchorage. Conversely, the fitting surface of the Transcend ceramic bracket showed extremely smooth surface characteristics, and it would seem advisable for the manufacturers to incorporate this surface within the bracket slot. (author)

  7. Effect of fluoride on tooth erosion around orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erika Machado, Caldeira; Tatiana Kelly da Silva, Fidalgo; Paula, Passalini; Mariana, Marquezan; Lucianne Cople, Maia; Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves, Nojima.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito do flúor na prevenção da erosão do esmalte circunjacente a braquetes ortodônticos sob desafio erosivo. Braquetes edgewise foram colados com resina TransbondTM XT na superfície vestibular de 40 incisivos bovinos. Os dentes foram divididos em 4 grupos [...] (n = 10): G1: Saliva remineralizadora; G2: Desafio erosivo; G3: Grupo experimental submetido à aplicação tópica de flúor gel neutro (NaF a 2%) antes do desafio erosivo; G4: Grupo experimental submetido à três aplicações diárias de dentifrício fluoretado (1500 ppmF PFM) durante o desafio erosivo. Após 14 dias de desafio erosivo, foi realizado exame visual e táctil por dois examinadores calibrados e treinados (Kappa = 0,867). Os escores utilizados foram: 0 = Esmalte hígido, 1 = Esmalte desmineralizado sem cavidade, 2 = Esmalte desmineralizado com cavidade, 3 = Esmalte remineralizado sem cavidade, 4 = Esmalte remineralizado com cavidade. Foram utilizados os testes de Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney para determinar os níveis de erosão, estabelecendo um intervalo de confiança de 95% (p Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride in prevention of tooth erosion around orthodontic brackets under erosive challenge. Edgewise brackets were bonded with TransbondTM XT composite on vestibular surface of 40 bovine incisors. The teeth were assigned to 4 groups (n=10): [...] G1: Remineralizing saliva; G2: Erosive challenge; G3: Experimental group submitted to topical application of neutral fluoride gel (2% NaF) before erosive challenge; G4: Experimental group submitted to three daily applications of fluoride dentifrice (PFM 1500 ppmF) during erosive challenge. After 14 days of erosive challenge, direct visual and tactile examination were performed by two calibrated and trained examiners (Kappa = 0.867). The following scores were used: 0 = Intact enamel, 1 = Demineralized enamel without cavity, 2 = Demineralized enamel with cavity, 3 = Remineralized enamel without cavity, 4 = Remineralized enamel with cavity. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were applied to determine erosion levels, establishing a confidence interval of 95% (p

  8. Customized brackets and archwires for lingual orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Dirk; Rummel, Volker; Thalheim, Andrea; Simon, Jean-Stefane; Wiechmann, Lital

    2003-11-01

    After 20 months of clinical testing and more than 600 bonded arches, brief interim conclusions can be drawn on treatment with a new lingual bracket system, one that differs fundamentally from conventional appliances in both design and manufacture. The demand for maximum individuality is met by using state-of-the-art computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology to fuse the 2 normally separate processes of bracket fabrication and bracket positioning. Both the brackets and the pertinent archwires are customized. Additional advantages of the system include direct and thus simplified rebonding in the event of bracket loss, more precise finishing, and enhanced patient comfort. PMID:14614428

  9. Hypersensitivity reactions to orthodontic materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippos N. Synodinos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most allergic reactions that may be observed during orthodontic treatment are manifestations of hypersensitivity to potentially allergenic factors of orthodontic materials. These factors basically include the latex material of disposable elastic surgical gloves and of most elastic orthodontic materials and the nickel contained in the alloys of metal orthodontic appliances. Allergic hypersensitivity reactions may involve extra- and intra-oral clinical signs usually including localized manifestations, at the site of contact with the allergen, such as erythema, edema, itching of the skin or oral mucosa and more rarely systemic manifestations, such as generalized rash and dyspnea, whereas in extreme situations aphylactic reaction may be observed. In any case, when taking the patient’s medical history, it is necessary to record in detail all previous allergic episodes of any type. Where considered necessary, the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to specific materials is documented by the allergiologist following specialized dermatological or hematological tests. Although the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to orthodontic materials is not common in routine clinical practice, in cases where an allergic reaction is observed, the prompt diagnosis is of utmost importance, and it should be followed by the immediate interruption of exposure to the allergen along with the substitution of any suspected /potent allergens or/and modification of treatment planning. The aim of this review is to describe, on the basis of modern literature, the latest evidence-based scientific data concerning etiology, diagnosis and treatment of allergic reactions to materials most frequently used during orthodontic treatment.

  10. Electron microscopy analysis of different orthodontic brackets and their adhesion to the tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocan, Delia Ioana; Stanciu, Drago?; Popescu, Manuela Anca; Miculescu, Florin; Plotog, Ioan; V?rzaru, Gauden?iu; Ciocan, Lucian Toma

    2014-01-01

    This study proposed to evaluate the surface morphology of different types of orthodontic brackets and the characteristics of their adhesion to the tooth enamel. There have been taken into study six metallic, five ceramic and one polymeric bracket from different brands (Ormco, Lancer, Leone, Damon, 3M, Ultradent, American Orthodontics, Rocky Mountain). The surface base of the each bracket it have been ESEM analyzed using scanning electron microscope Phillips XL-30 ESEM. There have been investigated several parameters that have a potential influence of the bracket-bonding agent interface joint: chemical composition, roughness, surface morphology and wideness. After ESEM analysis, the same metallic and ceramic brackets have been afterwards collated on extracted teeth and subjected to mechanical tests. After the mechanical testing, the samples were once again ESEM investigated. All fractures occurred in the area of the adhesive system, recording adhesive fractures of the tooth-composite resin and composite-bracket, cohesive fractures and both. The metallic brackets surfaces that are optima for a good adhesion is that of a mesh sand blasted and acid etched. From the esthetic brackets, the ceramic ones are superior to polymeric ones regarding bonding to teeth. PMID:25178330

  11. Shear bond strength of precoated orthodontic brackets: an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Hassan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ali H HassanDepartment of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the shear bond strength of precoated orthodontic brackets bonded with self-etching primer relative to that of noncoated conventionally-bonded brackets at two different time intervals.Methods: Twenty-one subjects were selected for randomized split-mouth bonding of two types of brackets to the maxillary arch. Half of the teeth had precoated brackets bonded using selfetching adhesive, and the other half had regular brackets bonded using Transbond XT adhesive. Nitinol wires were tied to the upper arch and were left until the time of debonding. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: one debonded after one hour and the other debonded two weeks after the initial wire placement. The shear bond strength was directly recorded from the patients’ mouths using an in vivo debonding device.Results: There were no significant differences in shear bond strength between the precoated and conventional groups or within each group at different time intervals. There were significant differences between anterior and posterior teeth in both the precoated and conventional groups. Conclusion: Pre-coated brackets bonded with self-etching adhesive have the same bonding strength as the conventionally bonded brackets.Keywords: shear bond, bonding, orthodontics, precoated, brackets, self-etching adhesive

  12. Orthodontic brackets in high field MR imaging: experimental evaluation of magnetic field interactions at 3.0 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate static magnetic field interactions for 32 commonly used orthodontic brackets in a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Materials and methods: 32 orthodontic brackets consisting of a steel alloy (n=27), a cobalt-chromium alloy (n=2), ceramic (n=1), ceramic with a steel slot (n=1), and titanium (n=1) from 13 different manufacturers were tested for magnetic field interactions in a static magnetic field at 3.0 T (Gyroscan Intera 3.0 T, Philips Medical Systems, Best, Netherlands). The magnetic deflection force FZ [mN] was evaluated by determining the deflection angle ?[ ] using the established deflection angle test according to the ASTM guidelines. The magnetic-field-induced rotational force Frot or torque was qualitatively determined using a 5-point grading scale (0: no torque; +4: very strong torque). Results: In 18 of the 32 brackets, the deflection angle ? was found to be > 45 and the translational force exceeded the gravitational force FG on the particular bracket (FZ: 1.2-45.7 mN). The translational force FZ was found to be up to 68.5 times greater than the gravitational force FG (FZ/FG: 1.4-68.5). The rotational force Frot was correspondingly high (+3/+4) for those brackets. For the remaining 14 objects, the deflection angles were < 45 and the torque measurements ranged from 0 to +2. The static magnetic field did not affect the titaniumgnetic field did not affect the titanium bracket and the ceramic bracket. No measurable translational and rotational forces were found. (orig.)

  13. Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação da liberação iônica in vitro Biodegradation of orthodontic brackets: in vitro ion release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Schmidt Dolci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar, in vitro, a biodegradação de aparelhos ortodônticos simulados constituídos de braquetes e fios de aço inoxidável. METODOLOGIA: a amostra foi dividida em 2 grupos, de acordo com a marca dos braquetes usados: grupo A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303; e grupo B - LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L. Os corpos-de-prova permaneceram incubados em solução salina (0,05% a 36ºC, sob agitação por um período de até 60 dias. A análise da liberação iônica foi realizada por meio de espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. O peso em massa dos braquetes também foi medido antes e após o experimento. RESULTADOS: os resultados indicaram que o grupo A apresentou maior liberação de íons ferro, níquel e cromo do que o grupo B. Além disso, os braquetes do grupo A também mostraram perda de massa, considerada outro indicativo de corrosão. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que, nas condições deste experimento, os braquetes do grupo A apresentaram maior biodegradação que os acessórios do grupo B, o que pode estar associado à liga metálica e/ou ao processo de fabricação dos mesmos.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the biodegradation of simulated orthodontic appliances consisting of stainless steel brackets and wires. MATERIALS AND METHODOS: The sample was divided in 2 groups, according to brackets brand: group A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/ Unitek (AISI 303; and group B - LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L. The specimens (simulated orthodontic appliances were incubated in saline solution (0.05%, in shake, at 36ºC, for 60 days. The ion release was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The weight of brackets was also measured before and after the test. RESULTS: The results indicated that group A released more ions iron, nickel and chromium than group B. Moreover, the brackets in group A also presented weight loss, which is considered an indicator of corrosion. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that, under the present study conditions, the brackets from group A presented a higher biodegradation than group’s B brackets, what could be associated to composition and manufacturing process of these brackets.

  14. Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação da liberação iônica in vitro / Biodegradation of orthodontic brackets: in vitro ion release

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel Schmidt, Dolci; Luciane Macedo de, Menezes; Rodrigo Matos de, Souza; Berenice Anina, Dedavid.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar, in vitro, a biodegradação de aparelhos ortodônticos simulados constituídos de braquetes e fios de aço inoxidável. METODOLOGIA: a amostra foi dividida em 2 grupos, de acordo com a marca dos braquetes usados: grupo A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303); e grupo B - LG Edgewise Standar [...] d, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). Os corpos-de-prova permaneceram incubados em solução salina (0,05%) a 36ºC, sob agitação por um período de até 60 dias. A análise da liberação iônica foi realizada por meio de espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. O peso em massa dos braquetes também foi medido antes e após o experimento. RESULTADOS: os resultados indicaram que o grupo A apresentou maior liberação de íons ferro, níquel e cromo do que o grupo B. Além disso, os braquetes do grupo A também mostraram perda de massa, considerada outro indicativo de corrosão. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que, nas condições deste experimento, os braquetes do grupo A apresentaram maior biodegradação que os acessórios do grupo B, o que pode estar associado à liga metálica e/ou ao processo de fabricação dos mesmos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the biodegradation of simulated orthodontic appliances consisting of stainless steel brackets and wires. MATERIALS AND METHODOS: The sample was divided in 2 groups, according to brackets brand: group A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/ Unitek (AISI 303) [...] ; and group B - LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). The specimens (simulated orthodontic appliances) were incubated in saline solution (0.05%), in shake, at 36ºC, for 60 days. The ion release was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The weight of brackets was also measured before and after the test. RESULTS: The results indicated that group A released more ions iron, nickel and chromium than group B. Moreover, the brackets in group A also presented weight loss, which is considered an indicator of corrosion. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that, under the present study conditions, the brackets from group A presented a higher biodegradation than group’s B brackets, what could be associated to composition and manufacturing process of these brackets.

  15. Metallurgical characterization of orthodontic brackets produced by Metal Injection Molding (MIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinelis, Spiros; Annousaki, Olga; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bonding base surface morphology, alloy type, microstructure, and hardness of four types of orthodontic brackets produced by Metal Injection Molding technology (Discovery, Extremo, Freedom, and Topic). The bonding base morphology of the brackets was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Brackets from each manufacturer were embedded in epoxy resin, and after metallographic grinding, polishing and coating were analyzed by x-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) microanalysis to assess their elemental composition. Then, the brackets were subjected to metallographic etching to reveal their metallurgical structure. The same specimen surfaces were repolished and used for Vickers microhardness measurements. The results were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test at the 0.05 level of significance. The findings of SEM observations showed a great variability in the base morphology design among the brackets tested. The x-ray EDS analysis demonstrated that each bracket was manufactured from different ferrous or Co-based alloys. Metallographic analysis showed the presence of a large grain size for the Discovery, Freedom, and Topic brackets and a much finer grain size for the Extremo bracket. Vickers hardness showed great variations among the brackets (Topic: 287 +/- 16, Freedom: 248 +/- 13, Discovery: 214 +/- 12, and Extremo: 154 +/- 9). The results of this study showed that there are significant differences in the base morphology, composition, microstructure, and microhardness among the brackets tested, which may anticipate significant clinical implications. PMID:16448250

  16. Frictional and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon-coated orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Nakagaki, Susumu; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on frictional and mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets. DLC films were deposited on stainless steel brackets using the plasma-based ion implantation/deposition (PBIID) method under two different atmospheric conditions. As-received metal brackets served as the control. Two sizes of stainless steel archwires, 0.018 inch diameter and 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions, were used for measuring static and kinetic friction by drawing the archwires through the bracket slots, using a mechanical testing machine (n = 10). The DLC-coated brackets were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Values of hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing (n = 10). Friction forces were compared by one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffé test. The hardness and elastic modulus of the brackets were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. SEM photomicrographs showed DLC layers on the bracket surfaces with thickness of approximately 5-7 ?m. DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 2 showed significantly less static frictional force for the stainless steel wire with 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions than as-received brackets and DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 1, although both DLC-coated brackets showed significantly less kinetic frictional force than as-received brackets. The hardness of the DLC layers was much higher than that of the as-received bracket surfaces. In conclusion, the surfaces of metal brackets can be successfully modified by the PBIID method to create a DLC layer, and the DLC-coating process significantly reduces frictional forces. PMID:21934113

  17. Effect of elastomeric ligatures on frictional forces between the archwire and orthodontic bracket

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávia Ramos, Venâncio; Sílvia Amélia Scudeler, Vedovello; Carlos Alberto Malanconi, Tubel; Viviane Veroni, Degan; Adriana Simone, Lucato; Letícia Nery, Lealdim.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the frictional force between the archwire and orthodontic bracket generated by elastomeric ligatures with polymer coating (Super slick, TP Orthodontics) and conventional ligatures (Morelli) using two types of insertion techniques. METHODS: Forty elastomeric ligatures, 20 with polyme [...] r coating and 20 conventional, were evaluated. Each type of ligature was separated into two groups (n=10), according to the insertion mode: conventional or crossed (from mesial to distal region crossed in front). To analyze friction, 40 5-cm-long segments of stainless steel orthodontic archwire 0.019" x 0.025" (Morelli) and Edgewise brackets (slot 0.022" x 0.028"; Morelli) were used. Each set (bracket, wire and elastic) was submitted to frictional testing in a universal test machine (Instron 4411) at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Each bracket was moved 5 mm on the wire, with maximum friction and mean friction being recorded by software. Three readouts were taken for each bracket. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p

  18. Effects of Two Soft Drinks on Shear Bond Strength and Adhesive Remnant Index of Orthodontic Metal Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Soodabeh Sadat; Eslami Amirabadi, Gholamreza; Sajadi, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Bond failure of brackets during orthodontic treatment is a common problem; which results in treatment interference, increased treatment time and prolonged clinical time for rebonding of failed brackets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Coca-Cola and a non-alcoholic beer on the shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of orthodontic metal brackets in vitro. Materials and Methods: Eighty intact human premolars were divided into two experimental groups of Coca-Cola and non-alcoholic beer (Istak), and a control group of artificial saliva. Over a period of thirty days, the test groups were immersed in the respective soft drinks for 5 minutes, twice a day. For the remainder of the time, they were kept in artificial saliva at 37°C. The control group was stored in artificial saliva during the experiment. All samples were subjected to shearing forces using Universal Testing Machine. ARI was determined with a stereomicroscope at ×12 magnification. The data of shear bond strength were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s Post-Hoc test and the data of ARI scores were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: No significant difference was observed in ARIs of the three groups (P? 0.552). The shear bond strength of Coke group was significantly lower than that of the two other groups (P? 0.035); but there was no significant difference between the shear bond strength of Istak and the control group (P? 0.999). Conclusion: Coca-Cola decreased the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. PMID:25584049

  19. [Effect of thermoelectrochemical recycling treatment on direct orthodontic brackets: morphological and dimensional S.E.M. analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laino, A; Sangiovanni, R; Manfredi, C; Michelotti, A; Valletta, R

    1988-12-01

    The AA, analyze the effects of recycling treatment of orthodontic stainless direct brackets. The ESMA method has been utilized, by BIG JANE E3762. A morphological and dimensional analysis has been done, before and after recycling, by SEM. PMID:3079107

  20. Bond strength of orthodontic brackets using different light and self-curing cements

    OpenAIRE

    Toledano Pe?rez, Manuel; Osorio Ruiz, Raquel; Osorio Ruiz, Estrella; Romeo, Alejandro; Higuera, Blanca La; Garci?a-godoy, Franklin

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets directly bonded to extracted human premolar teeth. Fifty teeth were randomly divided into five groups: (1) System One (chemically cured composite resin), (2) Light Bond (light-cured composite resin), (3) Vivaglass Cem (self-curing glass ionomer cement), (4) Fuji Ortho LC (light-cured glass ionomer cement) used after 37% orthophosphoric acid–etching of enamel (5) Fuji Ortho LC without ort...

  1. Gingival response in orthodontic patients: Comparative study between self-ligating and conventional brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandra A, Folco; Sandra C, Benítez-Rogé; Marina, Iglesias; Diana, Calabrese; Cristina, Pelizardi; Alcira, Rosa; Marisa I, Brusca; Pedro, Hecht; María E, Mateu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los brackets ortodoncicos contribuyen al acumulo de placa bacteriana en las superficies dentarias, debido a que dificultan la higiene oral. A diferencia de los brackets convencionales, los brackets autoligables no requieren elementos adicionales para sujetar los arcos, lo cual favoreceria la higiene [...] dentaria. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar la respuesta gingival en pacientes ortodoncicos, utilizando brackets autoligables y brackets convencionales. Se estudiaron 22 pacientes, entre 16 y 30 anos, divididos en dos grupos: A, tratado con brackets autoligables, Sistema Damon) y B, tratado con brackets convencionales, Tecnica de Roth. Durante el tratamiento, se evaluaron los Indices de Placa (IP), Indice Gingival (IG) y Profundidad de Sondaje (PS) y se tomaron muestras subgingivales de las piezas 14/24 para su observacion microbiologica. En la evaluacion estadistica no se encontraron diferencias estadisticamente significativa entre los grupos A y B; p>0.05 (de los rangos con signo) y ni en los IP, IG y PS en los diferentes tiempos evaluados (Analisis de varianza de Friedman), sin embargo se observa un aumento en los indices a los 14 dias, sobre todo en autoligables. Los microorganismos se presentaron en cantidad y calidad compatible con salud el dia 0, 28 y 56; a partir del dia 14 predomina microbiota compatible con gingivitis para ambos grupos. En las muestras estudiadas el tratamiento ortodoncicos produce incremento de placa bacteriana y respuesta gingival inflamatoria, pero con terapia basica adecuada puede mantenerse la salud gingivo-lperiodontal. Los brackets autoligables y los o convencionales, produjeron respuesta gingival similar. Abstract in english Orthodontic brackets contribute to the accumulation of bacterial plaque on tooth surfaces because they hinder oral hygiene. In contrast to conventional brackets, self-ligating brackets do not require additional parts to support the arches, thus improving dental hygiene. The aim of this study was to [...] compare the gingival response in orthodontic patients wearing self-ligating or conventional brackets. A sample of 22 patients aged 16 to 30 years was divided into two groups: Group A, treated with selfligating brackets (Damon system) and Group B, treated with conventional brackets (Roth technique). The following were assessed during the treatment: Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and Probing Depth (PD), and sub-gingival samples were taken from teeth 14/24 for microbiological observation. No statistically significant difference was found between Groups A and B; p>0.05 (sign-ranked) or between PI, GI and PD at the different times (Friedman's Analysis of Variance), even though the indices were found to increase at 14 days, particularly for self-ligating brackets. The quantity and quality of microorganisms present were compatible with health on days 0, 28 and 56. As from day 14 there is a predominance of microbiota compatible with gingivitis in both groups. In the samples studied, orthodontic treatment increases bacterial plaque and inflammatory gingival response, but gingival-periodontal health can be maintained with adequate basic therapy. Self-ligating and conventional brackets produced similar gingival response.

  2. Enamel Surface Roughness after Debonding of Orthodontic Brackets and Various Clean-Up Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Ahrari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate enamel roughness after adhesive removal using different burs and an Er:YAG laser.Materials and Methods: The buccal surfaces of forty human premolars were sealed by two layers of nail varnish, except for a circular area of 3 mm in diameter on the middle third. The enamel surfaces were initially subjected to profilometry analysis and four parameters of surface irregularity (Ra, Rq, Rt and Rz were recorded. Following bracket bonding and debonding, adhesive remnants were removed by tungsten carbide burs in low- or high- speed handpieces (group 1 and 2, respectively, an ultrafine diamond bur (group 3 or an Er:YAG laser (250 mJ, long pulse, 4 Hz (group 4, and surface roughness parameters were measured again. Then, the buccal surfaces were polished and the third profilometry measurements were performed.Results: The specimens that were cleaned with a low speed tungsten carbide bur showed no significant difference in surface irregularity between the different treatment stages (p>0.05. Surface roughness increased significantly after clean-up with the diamond bur and the Er:YAG laser (p<0.01. In comparison between groups, adhesive removal with tungsten carbide burs at slow- or high-speed handpieces produced the lowest, while enamel clean-up with the Er:YAG laser caused the highest values of roughness measurements (P<0.05.Conclusion: Under the study conditions, application of the ultrafine diamond bur or the Er:YAG laser caused irreversible enamel damage on tooth surface, and thus these methods could not be recommended for removing adhesive remnants after debonding of orthodontic brackets.

  3. Effects of modifying the bonding protocol on the shear bond strength of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Thais Maria Friere; Janson, Guilherme; Somensi, Joyce; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Sathler, Renata; Henriques, Jose Fernando Castanha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro shear bond strength and failure site of metallic and ceramic orthodontic brackets with modified bonding protocols. Sixty bovine mandibular incisors with similar anatomy were selected and divided into six groups (n = 10). In the first protocol, metallic and ceramic brackets were bonded according to the manufacturers' directions (controls); in the second protocol, the step of photocuring with the primer agent was eliminated; and in the third protocol, the primer agent was applied on the tooth and on the bracket base, followed by application of the composite adhesive on the bracket base, with one-step photocure. The same orthodontic adhesive was used for all groups. Shear bond strengths were measured and adhesive remnant index scores (ARI) were determined after bracket failure. The results demonstrated similar shear bond strengths in the protocols but presented significantly greater values for the metallic groups (two-way ANOVA, P ceramic brackets had significantly greater ARI scores compared to the metallic brackets. Based on these results, the manufacturer's bonding protocol can be modified to save clinical time without compromising adhesion of the brackets. PMID:22313980

  4. Comparison of frictional resistance between self-ligating and conventional brackets tied with elastomeric and metal ligature in orthodontic archwires

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Vieira, Leite; Murilo Baena, Lopes; Alcides, Gonini Júnior; Marcio Rodrigues de, Almeida; Sandra Kiss, Moura; Renato Rodrigues de, Almeida.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: comparar a resistência ao atrito entre braquetes autoligáveis e braquetes convencionais, variando o tipo de fio. MÉTODOS: foram usados braquetes incisivos Abzil Kirium Capelozza e Easy Clip. Uma ligadura elastomérica ou um fio ligável de 0,010" foi usado para ligação do fio no braque [...] te Abzil. Três tipos de ligas de fio ortodôntico foram avaliadas: fio de NiTi de 0,016"; fio de NiTi de 0,016" x 0,022"; e fio de aço de 0,019" x 0,025". Dez observações foram feitas para cada combinação "braquete-fio-inclinação". Os braquetes foram montados em um aparelho especial, posicionados a 90° em relação ao fio, e testados em duas inclinações. O teste de atrito foi realizado na máquina universal de ensaios, a 5mm/min e com 10mm de deslocamento. As médias (em MPa) foram submetidas aos testes ANOVA e de Tukey, a 5% de significância. As superfícies dos fios e dos braquetes foram observadas no MEV. RESULTADOS: o braquete com amarrilhos metálicos (16,48 ± 8,31MPa) apresentou médias mais altas que o braquete com ligaduras elastoméricas (4,29 ± 2,16MPa) e o braquete autoligável (1,66 ± 1,57) (p 0,05). Nenhuma diferença estatística (p > 0,05) foi encontrada entre inclinações de zero (7,76 ± 8,46) e cinco (7,19 ± 7,93) graus. Concluão: o atrito foi influenciado pelo tipo de braquete e sistemas de ligaduras. Diferentes aspectos morfológicos foram observados para os braquetes e fios estudados. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the frictional resistance between self-ligating and conventional brackets tied to different types of wire. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Abzil Kirium Capelozza (Pattern I) and Easy Clip (Roth prescription) incisor brackets were used. An elastomeric ligature or a ligating wire 0. [...] 10-in was used to ligate the wire to the Abzil bracket. Three types of orthodontic archwire alloys were assessed: 0.016-in NiTi wire, 0.016 x 0.021-in NiTi wire and 0.019 x 0.025-in steel wire. Ten observations were carried out for each bracket-archwire angulation combination. Brackets were mounted in a special appliance, positioned at 90 degrees in relation to the wire and tested in two angulations. Frictional test was performed in a Universal Testing Machine at 5 mm/min and 10 mm of displacement. The means (MPa) were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test set at 5% of significance. The surfaces of wires and brackets were observed at SEM. RESULTS: Steel-tied brackets (16.48 ± 8.31) showed higher means of frictional resistance than elastomeric-tied brackets (4.29 ± 2.16 ) and self-ligating brackets (1.66 ± 1.57) (P 0.05). No statistical differences (P > 0.05) were found between zero (7.76 ± 8.46) and five-degree (7.19 ± 7.93) angulations. CONCLUSIONS: Friction was influenced not only by the type of bracket, but also by the ligating systems. Different morphological aspects were observed for the brackets and wires studied

  5. Microleakage under Orthodontic Metal Brackets Bonded with Three Different Bonding Techniques with/without Thermocycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berahman Sabzevari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of beneath the orthodontic brackets bonded with 3 different bonding techniques and evaluate the effect of thermocycling. Methods: One hundred and twenty premolars were randomly divided into 6 groups, received the following treatment: group 1: 37% phosphoric acid gel+Unite primer+Unite adhesive, group 2: 37% phosphoric acid gel+ Transbond XT primer+Transbond XT adhesive, group 3: Transbond plus Self Etching Primer (TSEP+Transbond XT adhesive. Groups 4, 5, and 6 were similar to groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Evaluation of microleakage was done following to thermocycling test. After bonding, the specimens were sealed with nail varnish except for 1 mm around the brackets and then stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine. The specimens were sectioned at buccolingual direction in 2 parallel planes and evaluated under a stereomicroscope to determine the amount of microleakage at bracket-adhesive and adhesive-enamel interfaces from gingival and occlusal margins. Results: Microleakage was observed in all groups, and increased significantly after thermocycling at some interfaces of Unite adhesive group and conventional etching+Transbond XT adhesive group, but the increase was not significant in any interface of TSEP group. With or without thermocycling, TSEP displayed more microleakage than other groups. In most groups, microleakage at gingival margin was significantly higher than occlusal margin. Conclusion: Thermocycling and type of bonding technique significantly affect the amount of microleakage.

  6. Friction between different wire bracket combinations in artificial saliva: an in vitro evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Kelly da Silva Fidalgo; Matheus Melo Pithon; José Vinicius Bolognesi Maciel; Ana Maria Bolognese

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective this work was to assess the friction coefficient between brackets and wires of different materials under conditions simulating the oral environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stainless steel (SS) and titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA) wires of 0.019x0.025-in diameter (American Orthodontics) and polycarbonate bracket (American Orthodontics), ceramic bracket (American Orthodontics), and metal bracket (3M Unitek) with slots of 0.022x0.030-in were used. The friction coefficient ...

  7. Comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontics brackets on composite resin restorations with different surface treatments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Antonio, Ribeiro; Ariane Vicente de, Morais; Daniel Paludo, Brunetto; Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, Ruellas; Monica Tirre Souza de, Araujo.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: frequentemente, os pacientes ortodônticos apresentam restaurações de resina composta; no entanto, existem poucos estudos que avaliam a melhor forma de colagem ortodôntica nessa situação. OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a força adesiva de braquetes ortodônticos em re [...] staurações resinosas com tratamento de superfície. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 51 incisivos inferiores bovinos divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. No grupo controle (GC), os braquetes foram colados em esmalte dentário; nos grupos experimentais com tratamento (GCT) e sem tratamento (GST), os braquetes foram colados em restauração de resina previamente realizada, diferenciando-se pelo tratamento de superfície com broca diamantada. Os dentes foram incluídos em tubos de PVC com resina acrílica autopolimerizável. O ensaio de cisalhamento foi executado em máquina universal de ensaios Emic. Os grupos foram submetidos à ANOVA com pós-teste de Tukey para verificação da diferença estatística entre os grupos (? = 0,05). RESULTADOS: GC (6,62MPa) e GCT (6,82MPa) apresentaram resultados semelhantes, enquanto o GST (5,07MPa) obteve resultados estatisticamente menores (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic patients frequently present composite resin restorations, however there are few studies that evaluate the best way for orthodontic bonding in this situation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to evaluate the bond strength of orthodontic brackets in resin restoration [...] s with surface treatment. METHODS: Fifty one bovine lower incisors were randomly divided into three groups. On the control group (CG) the brackets were bonded to dental enamel; on experimental groups, brackets were bonded to resin restoration with diamond drill treatment (EGT) and with no treatment (EGN). The teeth were placed in PVC tubes with autopolymerized acrylic resin. The shear test was performed in EMIC universal testing machine. The groups were submitted to ANOVA analysis of variance with Tukey post test to verify the statistical difference between groups (? = 0.05). RESULTS: CG (6.62 MPa) and EGT (6.82 MPa) groups presented similar results, while EGN (5.07 MPa) obtained statistically lower results (p

  8. Comparison of friction produced by two types of orthodontic bracket protectors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Steyner de Lima, Mendonça; Otávio José, Praxedes Neto; Patricia Teixeira de, Oliveira; Patricia Bittencourt Dutra dos, Santos; Fábio Henrique de Sá Leitão, Pinheiro.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: o aparelho ortodôntico fixo é considerado um fator causador de traumas na mucosa bucal. Com o intuito de controlar o desconforto no tecido mole, diversos ortodontistas recomendam a utilização de uma pequena quantidade de cera utilidade sobre os braquetes como forma de proteção. Esse es [...] tudo teve como objetivo avaliar, in vitro, o atrito gerado por dois tipos de protetores de braquetes (protetor de acetato e de resina - PPA e PRT) durante os estágios iniciais do tratamento ortodôntico. MÉTODOS: o atrito gerado pelos protetores no fio ortodôntico foi avaliado em unidades de teste de modelos experimentais. Esses modelos foram ligados a uma máquina de ensaios mecânicos que simulava o alinhamento do canino superior. A comparação intergrupos foi realizada pela ANOVA, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: a fricção apresentada pelo grupo PRT foi estatisticamente maior do que a do grupo controle ao nível de 6mm. Para o atrito máximo, a média do grupo PRT foi estatisticamente maior do que a dos grupos controle e PPA. CONCLUSÃO: o protetor de acetato demonstrou não interferir no atrito entre o fio e a ranhura do braquete ortodôntico. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Fixed orthodontic appliances have been regarded as a common causative factor of oral lesions. To manage soft tissue discomfort, most orthodontists recommend using a small amount of utility wax over the brackets in order to alleviate trauma. This in vitro study aimed at evaluating fri [...] ction generated by two types of bracket protectors (customized acetate protector [CAP] and temporary resin protector [TRP]) during the initial stages of orthodontic treatment. METHODS: An experimental model (test unit) was used to assess friction. In order to measure the friction produced in each test, the model was attached to a mechanical testing machine which simulated maxillary canines alignment. Intergroup comparison was carried out by one-way ANOVA with level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: The friction presented by the TRP group was statistically higher than that of the control group at 6 mm. It was also higher than in the control and CAP groups in terms of maximum friction. CONCLUSION: The customized acetate protector (CAP) demonstrated not to interfere in friction between the wire and the orthodontic bracket slot.

  9. Shear-bond-strength of orthodontic brackets to aged nano-hybrid compositeresin surfaces using different surface preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtas, Hatice Kubra; Akin, Mehmet; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different surface preparation methods on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic metal brackets to aged nano-hybrid resin composite surfaces in vitro. A total of 100 restorative composite resin discs, 6 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were obtained and treated with an ageing procedure. After ageing, the samples were randomly divided as follows according to surface preparation methods: (1)Control, (2)37% phosphoric acid gel, (3)Sandblasting, (4)Diamond bur, (5)Air-flow and 20 central incisor teeth were used for the control etched group. SBS test were applied on bonded metal brackets to all samples. SBS values and residual adhesives were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference (pbonding orthodontic metal brackets to nano-hybrid composite resin surfaces. PMID:25748463

  10. The effect of using a new experimental self-etch primer/adhesive on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Bishara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional adhesive systems use three different agents, an enamel conditioner, a primer solution, and an adhesive resin during the bonding of orthodontic brackets to enamel. A unique characteristic of some new bonding systems in operative dentistry, is that they combine the conditioning and priming agents into a single application. Combining conditioning and priming saves time and should be more cost-effective to the clinician and indirectly to the patient. AIM: To assess and compare the effects of using two self-etch primers including an experimental one, on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. DESIGN: In vitro study. SETTING: College of Dentistry, University of Iowa. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The brackets were bonded to extracted human teeth according to one of three protocols; Group I (Control: Teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid. After applying the sealant, the brackets were bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, California, USA and light cured for 20 seconds. Group II: A self-etch acidic primer (ESPE Dental AG, Seefeld, Germany was placed on the enamel for 15 seconds and gently evaporated with air as suggested by the manufacturer. The brackets were then bonded with Transbond XT as in the first group. Group III: A new experimental self-etch primer EXL# 547 (3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, was rubbed on the enamel for 10 seconds and left to stand for 20 seconds before it was air-dried and then light cured for 10 seconds. The brackets were then bonded as in groups I and II RESULTS: The present in vitro findings indicated that the shear bond strengths of the three groups were significantly different (P=0.018. Duncan multiple range tests indicated that Prompt L-Pop had a significantly lower (mean = 7.1 ± 4.4 MPa shear bond strength than both the new EXL# 547 self- etch primer (mean = 9.7 ± 3.7 MPa or phosphoric acid and the conventional adhesive system ( mean = 10.4 ± 2.8 MPa. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicated that the newly introduced self-etch primers, containing both the enamel etchant and primer have the potential to be successfully used in bonding orthodontic brackets.

  11. Waterline disinfectant effect on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Samir E; Soliman, Manal; Ajlouni, Raed; Laffoon, John; Warren, John J

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of an iodine compound for disinfecting the waterlines in dental units has an effect on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to enamel. Forty molar teeth were divided randomly into two groups- group 1 control: twenty teeth were etched for 15 seconds with 35% phosphoric acid, washed with a distilled water spray for 10 seconds, stored in distilled water for 5 minutes, dried to a chalky white appearance, and the sealant applied to the etched surface; group 2 experimental: twenty teeth were etched for 15 seconds with 35% phosphoric acid and washed for 10 seconds with water containing iodine. The teeth were stored for five minutes in the iodinated water, dried to a chalky white appearance, and the sealant applied to the etched surface as in the control group. Precoated brackets were placed on all the teeth and light cured for 20 seconds. All teeth were debonded within 30 minutes from the initial time of bonding. The t-test results (t = 1.74) indicated that there were no significant (P = .09) differences in the shear bond strengths of the teeth that were washed and immersed in the iodine solution and the control group in which distilled water was used. The mean shear bond strengths for the two groups were 6.5 +/- 3.5 MPa and 4.7 +/- 3.1 MPa, respectively. PMID:16448251

  12. Assessment of the dimensions and surface characteristics of orthodontic wires and bracket slots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel Schmidt, Dolci; Ana Maria, Spohr; Eduardo Rigon, Zimmer; Ernani Menezes, Marchioro.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo é avaliar as dimensões e as características superficiais de fios retangulares e slots de braquetes de diferentes marcas comerciais. MÉTODOS: trinta braquetes metálicos (0,022" x 0,028" e 0,022" x 0,030") foram divididos em três grupos: Grupo DYN/3M = Dyna-Lock, 3M/U [...] nitek, aço inoxidável (AI); Grupo STD/MO = Slim Morelli (AI); e Grupo NiFree/MO = Slim Morelli (Ni-Free). Já os fios retangulares (0,019" x 0,025"), de aço inoxidável, foram divididos em 2 grupos: Grupo MO = Morelli; Grupo 3M = 3M/Unitek. As mensurações dos slots dos braquetes e dos fios foram realizadas por dois métodos: (a) microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), e (b) projeção de perfil. A análise da topografia superficial foi realizada qualitativamente, baseada em imagens microscópicas (MEV) e/ou por meio de um rugosímetro. Os resultados quantitativos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA) com o teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensions and surface characteristics of orthodontic wires and bracket slots of different commercial brands. METHODS: Thirty metallic brackets (0.022 x 0.028-in and 0.022 x 0.030-in) were divided in three groups: DYN/3M group = Dyna-Lock, 3M/ [...] Unitek (stainless steel, or SS); STD/MO group = Slim Morelli (SS); and Ni-Free/MO group = Slim Morelli (Ni-Free). The stainless steel wires (0.019 x 0.025in) were divided into two groups: MO group = Morelli; and 3M group = 3M/Unitek. The bracket and wire measurements were done by two methods: (a) Surface Electron Microscopy (SEM), and (b) Profile projection. The surface analysis was done qualitatively, based on SEM images and/or by a rugosimeter. The quantitative results were analyzed by ANOVA with Tukey's test (p

  13. Are Bonding Agents being Effective on the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to the Composite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Farzanegan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the clinical problems in orthodontics is the bonding of brackets tocomposite restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bondstrength of brackets bonded to composite restorations using Excite. Methods:Forty brackets were bonded to composite surfaces, which were embedded inacrylic resin. One of the following four protocols was employed for surfacepreparation of the composite: group 1 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, group2 roughening with a diamond bur plus 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds, group3 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds and the applying Excite®, group4 roughening with diamond bur plus 37% phosphoric acid for 60 seconds andapplying Excite®. Maxillary central brackets were bonded onto thecomposite prepared samples with Transbond XT. Shear Bond Strength (SBS wasmeasured by a universal testing machine. The ANOVA and Tukey test was utilizedfor data analysis. Results: There was a significant difference betweenthe four groups (P

  14. Effect of surface treatment with sandblasting and Er,Cr:YSGG laser on bonding of stainless steel orthodontic brackets to silver amalgam

    OpenAIRE

    Oskoee, Parnian A.; Kachoei, Mojgan; Rikhtegaran, Sahand; Fathalizadeh, Farzaneh; Navimipour, Elmira J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Satisfactory bonding of orthodontic attachments to amalgam is a challenge for orthodontists. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets to silver amalgam treated with sandblasting and Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Study Design: Fifty-four amalgam discs were prepared, polished and divided into three groups: In group 1 (the control group) the premolar brackets were bonded using Panavia F resin cement without any surface trea...

  15. Effect of fluoride solutions on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela da Rocha, Leódido; Hianna Oliveira, Fernandes; Mateus Rodrigues, Tonetto; Cristina Dupim, Presoto; Matheus Coêlho, Bandéca; Leily Macedo, Firoozmand.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar in vitro a resistência adesiva de bráquetes após o pré-tratamento do esmalte com diferentes soluções fluoretadas. Foram utilizados 48 incisivos bovinos hígidos recém-extraídos que foram aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos experimentais (n=12). CG (controle): [...] sem tratamento; FN: aplicação de flúor neutro por 4 min; FFA: aplicação de flúor fosfato acidulado (FFA) a 1,23% por 4 min; e VFS: aplicação de verniz de fluoreto de sódio a 5% por 6 h. Após o tratamento dos grupos, foi realizada a profilaxia do esmalte e os bráquetes foram fixados utilizando o compósito Transbond XT (3M), seguindo as especificações do fabricante. A resistência adesiva foi verificada através do teste de cisalhamento, realizado na Máquina de Ensaio Universal DL-2000 24 h após a fixação dos bráquetes. As superfícies dos dentes foram analisadas para verificação do índice de adesivo remanescente (IAR). Por meio dos testes estatísticos ANOVA e Tukey (?=5%), observou-se diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos estudados (p0,05). A análise dos escores do IAR revelou que grande parte das falhas ocorreram na interface esmalte-resina. Conclui-se que o tratamento do esmalte com FFA 1,23% e VFS a 5%, previamente à fixação de bráquetes ortodônticos, reduziu os valores de resistência adesiva ao cisalhamento Abstract in english The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets after pre-treatment with different fluoride solutions. This study used 48 freshly extracted sound bovine incisors that were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups (n=12). CG: (control) without treatment; NF: 4 min [...] application of neutral fluoride; APF: application of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) for 4 min; and SFV: application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish for 6 h. For each group, after surface treatment, prophylaxis of enamel and bracket bonding with Transbond XT composite resin (3M) were performed following the manufacturer's specifications. The shear bond strength was performed with a universal testing machine 24 h after fixing the brackets. The tooth surfaces were analyzed to verify the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). There was statistically significant difference among the groups (p0.05). The analysis of ARI scores revealed that most failures occurred at the enamel-resin interface. It may be concluded that the pre-treatment of enamel with 1.23% APF and 5% SFV prior to fixing orthodontic brackets reduces shear bond strength values.

  16. Comparative in vitro study of the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with restorative and orthodontic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Isber

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with different restorative systems and compare it with that afforded by an established orthodontic bonding system. Seventy human bicuspids were used, divided into five different groups with 14 teeth each. Whereas a specific orthodontic bonding resin (TransbondTM XT was used in the control group, the restorative systems Charisma, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum and Z100 were used in the other four groups. Seven days after bonding the brackets to the samples, shear forces were applied under pressure in a universal testing machine. The data collected was evaluated using the ANOVA test and, when a difference was identified, the Tukey test was applied. A 5% level of significance was adopted. The mean results of the shear bond strength tests were as follows: Group 1 (Charisma, 14.98 MPa; Group 2 (Tetric Ceram, 15.16 MPa; Group 3 (TPH, 17.70 MPa; Group 4 (Z100, 13.91 MPa; and Group 5 or control group (TransbondTM XT, 17.15 MPa. No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. It was concluded that all tested resins have sufficient bond strength to be recommended for bonding orthodontic brackets.

  17. Comparative in vitro study of the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with restorative and orthodontic resins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hassan, Isber; Aldrieli Regina, Ambrosio; Paulo Eduardo Guedes, Carvalho; Karyna Martins do, Valle-Corotti; Danilo Furquim, Siqueira.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with different restorative systems and compare it with that afforded by an established orthodontic bonding system. Seventy human bicuspids were used, divided into five different groups with 14 teeth each. Whereas a spec [...] ific orthodontic bonding resin (TransbondTM XT) was used in the control group, the restorative systems Charisma, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum and Z100 were used in the other four groups. Seven days after bonding the brackets to the samples, shear forces were applied under pressure in a universal testing machine. The data collected was evaluated using the ANOVA test and, when a difference was identified, the Tukey test was applied. A 5% level of significance was adopted. The mean results of the shear bond strength tests were as follows: Group 1 (Charisma), 14.98 MPa; Group 2 (Tetric Ceram), 15.16 MPa; Group 3 (TPH), 17.70 MPa; Group 4 (Z100), 13.91 MPa; and Group 5 or control group (TransbondTM XT), 17.15 MPa. No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. It was concluded that all tested resins have sufficient bond strength to be recommended for bonding orthodontic brackets.

  18. Microhardness of Enamel Adjacent to Orthodontic Brackets After CO2 Laser Irradiation and Fluoride Application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Pucci, Stangler; Fabio Lourenco, Romano; Mariana Umekita, Shirozaki; Rodrigo, Galo; Alessandra Marques Correa, Afonso; Maria Cristina, Borsatto; Mirian Aiko Nakane, Matsumoto.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a eficácia do laser de CO2, associado ou não à aplicação de flúor na microdureza superficial do esmalte dentário adjacente a bráquetes ortodônticos. Foram selecionados 15 molares humanos, dos quais 30 fragmentos de esmalte com 4 mm2 foram obtidos. Os fragmentos foram incluídos em [...] tubos de PVC, contendo resina acrílica, preparados usando lixas d'água e discos de feltro e alumina. Bráquetes ortodônticos cortados ao meio foram colados no esmalte e 3 leituras de microdureza foram realizadas na superfície adjacente: inicial, após desafio cariogênico e final. Os espécimes foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=10): Grupo C - Controle, Grupo L - irradiado com laser de CO2 e Grupo FL - aplicação tópica de flúor e irradiação com laser de CO2. Após leitura inicial, os espécimes foram colocados em solução desmineralizadora por 32 h e a segunda leitura foi realizada para verificar se desmineralização foi uniforme em todos os grupos. Após os tratamentos, os espécimes foram submetidos a ciclagem DES-RE durante 8 dias seguida da leitura da microdureza superficial final. Os dados foram analisdos estatisticamente utilizando ANOVA e o teste de Duncan (?=0,05). Na mensuração final o grupo FL obteve maior valor de microdureza que os grupos C e L (p Abstract in english This study evaluated the effectiveness of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser combined or not with fluoride application on the surface microhardness of enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Fifteen human molars were selected from which 30 enamel fragments measuring 4 mm2 were obtained. The fragments were [...] embedded in PCV tubes with acrylic resin and prepared using water abrasive paper, felt disks and alumina. Orthodontic brackets cut in half were bonded to enamel and 3 microhardness readings were performed on the adjacent surface, as follows: initial, after cariogenic challenge and final. The specimens were divided into the following 3 groups (n=10): Group C: control, Group L: irradiated with CO2 laser, and Group FL: topical fluoride application and CO2 laser irradiation. After initial reading, the specimens were placed in a demineralizing solution for 32 h and the second reading was to verify if demineralization was uniform in all groups. After the treatments, the specimens were submitted to DES-RE cycling for 8 days followed by final surface microhardness reading. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Duncan test (?=0.05). At the final measurement Group FL obtained higher microhardness value than Groups C and L (p

  19. Bacterial adhesion forces and biofilm prevention on orthodontic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Li

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation cause a variety of serious problems during orthodontic treatment, such as enamel demineralization and soft tissue inflammation. Understanding bacterial adhesion forces to orthodontic materials is an important challenge in both clinical and fundamental orthodontics and allows for the development of preventive measures. The thesis investigated the adhesion forces of oral bacterial strains to orthodontic materials using atomic force microscopy (AFM). This...

  20. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded using halogen light and light-emitting diode at different debond times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Di Nicoló

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the photoactivation effects of QTH (Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen and LED (Light-Emitting Diode on the SBS (Shear Bond Strength of orthodontic brackets at different debond times. Seventy-two bovine lower incisors were randomly divided into two groups according to the photoactivation system used (QTH or LED. The enamel surfaces were conditioned with Transbond self-etching primer, and APC (Adhesive Pre-Coated brackets were used in all specimens. Group I was cured with QTH for 20 s and Group II with LED for 10 s. Both groups were subdivided according to the different experimental times after bonding (immediately, 24 h and 7 days. The specimens were tested for SBS and the enamel surfaces were analyzed according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI. The statistical analysis included the Tukey's test to evaluate the main effects of photoactivation and debond time on SBS. The Chi-square test was used to compare the ARI values found for each group, and no statistically significant difference was observed. The debond time of 7 days for QTH photoactivation showed statistically greater values of SBS when compared to the immediate and 24 h periods. There was no statistically significant difference between the QTH and LED groups immediately and after the 24 h period. In conclusion, bonding orthodontic brackets with LED photoactivation for 10 s is suggested because it requires a reduced clinical chair time.

  1. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded using halogen light and light-emitting diode at different debond times

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rebeca, Di Nicoló; Maria Amelia Maximo de, Araujo; Levy Anderson César, Alves; Rodrigo Othavio de Assunção e, Souza; Daniel Maranha da, Rocha.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the photoactivation effects of QTH (Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen) and LED (Light-Emitting Diode) on the SBS (Shear Bond Strength) of orthodontic brackets at different debond times. Seventy-two bovine lower incisors were randomly divided into two groups accord [...] ing to the photoactivation system used (QTH or LED). The enamel surfaces were conditioned with Transbond self-etching primer, and APC (Adhesive Pre-Coated) brackets were used in all specimens. Group I was cured with QTH for 20 s and Group II with LED for 10 s. Both groups were subdivided according to the different experimental times after bonding (immediately, 24 h and 7 days). The specimens were tested for SBS and the enamel surfaces were analyzed according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). The statistical analysis included the Tukey's test to evaluate the main effects of photoactivation and debond time on SBS. The Chi-square test was used to compare the ARI values found for each group, and no statistically significant difference was observed. The debond time of 7 days for QTH photoactivation showed statistically greater values of SBS when compared to the immediate and 24 h periods. There was no statistically significant difference between the QTH and LED groups immediately and after the 24 h period. In conclusion, bonding orthodontic brackets with LED photoactivation for 10 s is suggested because it requires a reduced clinical chair time.

  2. Evaluation of the effects of CO2 laser on debonding of orthodontics porcelain brackets vs. the conventional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehranchi, Azita; Fekrazad, Reza; Zafar, Morvarid; Eslami, Behnam; Kalhori, Katayoun A M; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2011-09-01

    Debonding of ceramic brackets due to their high bond strength and low fracture toughness is one of the clinician's complications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a laser on shear bond strength, site of debonding, and ARI index during debonding of ceramic brackets and then compare it to the conventional method used for this procedure. Thirty polycrystalline alumina (G & H Series, Germany) brackets were bonded to 30 intact extracted first and second maxillary premolars and stored in a 1% thymol solution. A chemically cured orthodontic composite resin (No-mix, Unitek, USA) was used for bonding the brackets to the enamel surface on all teeth. All brackets were positioned 4 mm from the incisal edge of the teeth with an orthodontic bracket-positioning device. Then the teeth with bonded brackets were embedded in auto-polymerized polymethylmethacrylate (2.2.3 cm) blocks using a special device to make their slots horizontally parallel. These 30 teeth were then divided into two subgroups: control or no-lased (n = 15) and super pulse CO(2) laser (n = 15). To characterize the peak of SBS in two groups, we used an Instron machine while its blade was moving at a constant speed of 1 mm/min. For evaluating the site of debonding and the adhesive remnant index (ARI index), a light microscope and the Photoshop program were used. Means and standard deviations of the SBS in two subgroups shows that in the control group, the teeth have definitely higher values in comparison to the experimental group. The results of the two groups drew no substantial differences with respect to the surface of debonding, which was mostly within the adhesive. However, observing the results of ARI presented a significant distinction between the control and experimental group. This index denoted that the debonding site in the control group was closer to the enamel adhesive interface and, consequently, the rate of enamel damage in this group would be greater. The present study shows that a CO(2) laser has the potential to replace the conventional method for debonding ceramic brackets due to less debonding force and more adhesive remnant index on the tooth surface. PMID:20725757

  3. Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura Analysis of biodegradation of orthodontic brackets using scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Macedo de Menezes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, as alterações químicas e estruturais de braquetes metálicos submetidos a um processo de biodegradação in vitro. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a marca comercial dos acessórios - Grupo A = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303 e Grupo B = LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L. Os corpos de prova, aparelhos ortodônticos simulados, permaneceram imersos em solução salina (0,05% por um período de 60 dias, a 37ºC, sob agitação. As alterações decorrentes da exposição dos acessórios à solução salina foram investigadas através da observação com microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV e análise da composição química (EDX, realizadas antes e após o período de imersão (T0 e T5, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: em T5, houve formação de produtos de corrosão sobre a superfície dos braquetes, especialmente no Grupo A, além disso, houve alterações na composição da liga metálica dos braquetes de ambos os grupos, sendo que, no Grupo A, houve redução dos íons ferro e cromo e, no Grupo B, redução de íons cromo. CONCLUSÃO: os acessórios do Grupo A apresentaram-se menos resistentes à biodegradação in vitro, o que poderia estar associado ao tipo de aço utilizado em sua fabricação (AISI 303.OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze, with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the chemical and structural changes in metal brackets subjected to an in vitro biodegradation process. METHODS: The sample was divided into three groups according to brackets commercial brand names, i.e., Group A = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303 and Group B = LG standard edgewise, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L. The specimens were simulated orthodontic appliances, which remained immersed in saline solution (0.05% for a period of 60 days at 37°C under agitation. The changes resulting from exposure of the brackets to the saline solution were investigated by microscopic observation (SEM and chemical composition analysis (EDX, performed before and after the immersion period (T0 and T5, respectively. RESULTS: The results showed, at T5, the formation of products of corrosion on the surface of the brackets, especially in Group A. In addition, there were changes in the composition of the bracket alloy in both groups, whereas in group A there was a reduction in iron and chromium ions, and in Group B a reduction in chromium ions. CONCLUSIONS: The brackets in Group A were less resistant to in vitro biodegradation, which might be associated with the type of steel used by the manufacturer (AISI 303.

  4. Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura / Analysis of biodegradation of orthodontic brackets using scanning electron microscopy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciane Macedo de, Menezes; Rodrigo Matos de, Souza; Gabriel Schmidt, Dolci; Berenice Anina, Dedavid.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, as alterações químicas e estruturais de braquetes metálicos submetidos a um processo de biodegradação in vitro. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a marca comercial dos acessórios - Grupo A = Dyna-Lock, 3 [...] M/Unitek (AISI 303) e Grupo B = LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). Os corpos de prova, aparelhos ortodônticos simulados, permaneceram imersos em solução salina (0,05%) por um período de 60 dias, a 37ºC, sob agitação. As alterações decorrentes da exposição dos acessórios à solução salina foram investigadas através da observação com microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV) e análise da composição química (EDX), realizadas antes e após o período de imersão (T0 e T5, respectivamente). RESULTADOS: em T5, houve formação de produtos de corrosão sobre a superfície dos braquetes, especialmente no Grupo A, além disso, houve alterações na composição da liga metálica dos braquetes de ambos os grupos, sendo que, no Grupo A, houve redução dos íons ferro e cromo e, no Grupo B, redução de íons cromo. CONCLUSÃO: os acessórios do Grupo A apresentaram-se menos resistentes à biodegradação in vitro, o que poderia estar associado ao tipo de aço utilizado em sua fabricação (AISI 303). Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze, with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the chemical and structural changes in metal brackets subjected to an in vitro biodegradation process. METHODS: The sample was divided into three groups according to brackets commercial brand na [...] mes, i.e., Group A = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303) and Group B = LG standard edgewise, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). The specimens were simulated orthodontic appliances, which remained immersed in saline solution (0.05%) for a period of 60 days at 37°C under agitation. The changes resulting from exposure of the brackets to the saline solution were investigated by microscopic observation (SEM) and chemical composition analysis (EDX), performed before and after the immersion period (T0 and T5, respectively). RESULTS: The results showed, at T5, the formation of products of corrosion on the surface of the brackets, especially in Group A. In addition, there were changes in the composition of the bracket alloy in both groups, whereas in group A there was a reduction in iron and chromium ions, and in Group B a reduction in chromium ions. CONCLUSIONS: The brackets in Group A were less resistant to in vitro biodegradation, which might be associated with the type of steel used by the manufacturer (AISI 303).

  5. Reconditioning of ceramic orthodontic brackets with an Er,Cr:YSGG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrari, Farzaneh; Fekrazad, Reza; Kalhori, Katayoun A M; Ramtin, Mahshid

    2013-01-01

    It is now known that erbium lasers are effective in composite removal, but there is minimal information about their efficacy on recycling of ceramic brackets. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the percentage of remaining adhesive on the base and the shear bond strength of debonded ceramic brackets after being reconditioned by an Er,Cr:YSGG (erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet) laser. Thirty premolars were divided into three groups, then bonded with mechanical retention ceramic brackets according to the bracket base conditions: (1) new brackets; (2) debonded brackets cleaned of adhesive with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 3.5 W; and (3) debonded brackets cleaned of adhesive with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 4 W. Before bonding, the percentage of remaining adhesive on the bases of reconditioned brackets was calculated by using stereomicroscopic images through an image processing software. The brackets were then tested in shear mode in a universal testing machine and the adhesive remnant index scores were determined. The percentage of remaining adhesive on the bases of brackets that were cleaned by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser at 4 W (3.1 %) was significantly lower than that of the 3.5-W laser group (5.9 %) (p = 0.03). No significant difference was found in bond strengths between the new and the reconditioned brackets (p = 0.19). The frequency of bond failure at the enamel-adhesive interface was lower in the laser-reconditioned brackets when compared to the new brackets. The application of Er,Cr:YSGG laser was efficient in removing adhesive from bases of debonded ceramic brackets because it produced comparable bond strengths to new brackets while reducing the risk of enamel damage during debonding. PMID:22585379

  6. A comparative study on time efficiency management of self ligating brackets with conventional ligating brackets on orthodontic subjects in North Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita B. Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-Ligating brackets were originally designed with the intention to reduce the time needed to change wires compared with the use of wire ligatures. However, the advent of elastomeric ligatures meant that this perceived advantage was diminished. Objective: To compare aligning efficiency, rate of retraction and torque expression of Self Ligating bracket (SLB system with Conventional Pre adjusted Edgewise bracket (CLB system. Materials and Methods: Twelve patients were selected and divided into two groups treated with self ligating brackets (SLB, n=6 and conventional ligating brackets (CLB, n=6. The brackets used were 0.22 slot McLaughlin Bennet Trevesi (MBT prescription. Aligning was evaluated with 0.14 Niti followed by 19X25 Heat Activated Ni Ti and then 19X25 stainless steel wires for retraction within 4 months. The rate of retraction was evaluated per month and torque loss after space closure was also estimated. Results: Alignment Efficiency shows significant changes with SLB compared to CLB and also save more than 30% of chair side time during wire adjustments while rate of en masse retraction in SLB shows statistically non significance as compared to CLB system. In case of upper incisor changes when compared between two groups showed less torque loss in SLB than CLB although which was statistically no significant but % difference show SLB have better improvement result than CLB.

  7. Influence of surface treatment on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ione Helena Vieira Portella, Brunharo; Daniel Jogaib, Fernandes; Mauro Sayão de, Miranda; Flavia, Artese.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: foram avaliadas as forças de cisalhamento após colagem de braquetes ortodônticos em superfícies resinosas microparticuladas ou micro-híbridas, após diferentes tratamentos de superfície. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 280 corpos de prova, divididos em grupos de 10 elementos cada, sendo 140 pre [...] enchidos com resina microparticulada Durafill e 140 com resina micro-híbrida Charisma. Os tratamentos de superfície envolveram: ácido fosfórico, ácido fluorídrico, jato de bicarbonato de sódio, jato de óxido de alumínio, pedra e broca. A silanagem foi utilizada em metade dos grupos. O cisalhamento foi realizado com a máquina universal de testes EMIC DL 10000 MF, com célula de 10kg e velocidade de 0,5mm/min. As comparações entre as forças de cisalhamento foram obtidas por meio da análise de variância, e o grau de interação entre os tipos de compósito e o preparo de superfície foram obtidos por meio de uma regressão multivariada. RESULTADOS: as médias e desvios-padrão foram: jato de bicarbonato = 11,27 ± 2,78; broca = 9,26 ± 3,01; pedra = 7,95 ± 3,67; jato de óxido de alumínio = 7,04 ± 3,21; ácido fosfórico = 5,82 ± 1,90; ácido fluorídrico = 4,54 ± 2,87; e sem preparo = 2,75 ± 1,49. Um acréscimo de 1,94MPa foi obtido com o uso do compósito Charisma. A silanagem reduziu em 0,68MPa as médias do compósito Charisma, e aumentou o Durafill com uso do jato de bicarbonato (0,83), broca (0,98) e pedra (0,46). CONCLUSÃO: os preparos com jato de bicarbonato, broca e pedra obtiveram médias de forças apropriadas para colagem. O compósito Charisma apresentou forças de maior intensidade que as da resina Durafill. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to micro-hybrid and micro-particulate resins under different surface treatment methods was assessed. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty test samples were divided into 28 groups (n = 10), where 140 specimens were filled with Durafill m [...] icro-particulate resin and 140 with Charisma composite. In 140 samples, a coupling agent (silane) was applied. The surface treatment methods were: Phosphoric and hydrofluoric acid etching, sodium bicarbonate and aluminum oxide blasting, stone and burs. A Universal Instron Machine was used to apply an occlusal shear force directly to the resin composite bracket surface at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The means were compared using analysis of variance and multivariate regression to assess the interaction between composites and surface treatment methods. RESULTS: Means and standard deviations for the groups were: Sodium bicarbonate jet 11.27±2.78; burs 9.26±3.01; stone 7.95±3.67; aluminum oxide blasting 7.04±3.21; phosphoric acid 5.82±1.90; hydrofluoric acid 4.54±2.87, and without treatment 2.75±1.49. An increase of 1.94 MPa in shear bond strength was seen in Charisma groups. Silane agent application reduced the Charisma shear bond strength by 0.68 Mpa, but increased Durafill means for bicarbonate blasting (0.83), burs (0.98) and stone drilling (0.46). CONCLUSION: The sodium bicarbonate blasting, burs and stone drilling methods produced adequate shear bond strength and may be suitable for clinical use. The Charisma micro hybrid resin composite showed higher shear bond means than Durafill micro particle composite.

  8. Orthodontic materials research and applications: part 2. Current status and projected future developments in materials and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliades, Theodore

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this 2-part opinion article was to project the developments expected to occur in the next few years in orthodontic materials research and applications. Part 1 reviewed developments in bonding to enamel. Part 2 looks at other orthodontic materials applications and explores emerging research strategies for probing the biological properties of materials. In the field of metallic brackets, expansion of the use of titanium alloys with improved hardness and nickel-free steels with better corrosion resistance and increased hardness is expected. Manufacturing techniques might be modified to include laser-welding methods and metal injection molding. Esthetic bracket research will involve the synthesis of high-crystallinity biomedical polymers with increased hardness and stiffness, decreased water sorption, and improved resistance to degradation. New plastic brackets might incorportate ceramic wings. Fiber-reinforced composite archwires, currently experimental, could soon be commercially available, and long-term applications of shape-memory plastics might become viable. Advancements in elastomeric materials will result in polymers with reduced relaxation, broader use of fluoride-releasing elastomers with decreased relaxation, and large-scale film coating of elastomers to decrease reactivity, water sorption, and degradation. Finally, biocompatibility assessments will incorporate testing of potential endocrinological action. New polymer formulations might be tested in adhesive and plastic bracket manufacturing, based on benzoic ring-free monomers to avoid the adverse effects of the estrogenic molecule bisphenol-A. PMID:17276868

  9. Comparison of the shear bond strengths of conventional mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Prado Torres Lugato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare in vitro the shear bond strength between metallic brackets (Abzil with conventional mesh bases and metallic brackets with bases industrially sandblasted with aluminum oxide using three adhesive systems, in order to assess the influence of sandblasting on adhesiveness and to compare 3 different bonding systems. Two hundred and forty bovine incisors were used and randomly divided into 6 groups (40 teeth in each group, according to the bracket base and to the bonding system. The brackets were direct-bonded in bovine teeth with 3 adhesive systems: System A - conventional TransbondTM XT (3M - Unitek; System B - TransbondTM Plus Self Etching Primer + TransbondTM XT (3M - Unitek and System C - Fuji ORTHO LC resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement in capsules (GC Corp.. Shear bond strength tests were performed 24 hours after bonding, in a DL-3000 universal testing machine (EMIC, using a load cell of 200 kgf and a speed of 1 mm/min. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and showed no significant difference between conventional and sandblasted bracket bases. However, comparison between the bonding systems presented significantly different results. System A (14.92 MPa and system C (13.24 MPa presented statistically greater shear bond strength when compared to system B (10.66 MPa. There was no statistically significant difference between system A and system C.

  10. Notching of orthodontic bonding resin to facilitate ceramic bracket debond--an ex vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmour, C J; McCabe, J F; Gordon, P H

    1998-11-01

    This ex vivo study assessed the potential of introducing a notch in the bond layer, as a means of facilitating the removal of ceramic brackets. Sixty extracted premolar teeth were divided into three groups of 20 teeth and bonded with Intrigue brackets using Concise chemically-cured adhesive. The bonding technique was modified with groups 1 and 2 by introducing a notch in the bond layer. Group 1 was notched from the gingival aspect, group 2 from the occlusal, and group 3 served as a control. The brackets were removed by applying a shear load from the gingival aspect using an Instron universal testing machine. The mean force to debond was calculated for each group. The results showed that introducing a notch significantly reduced the mean and maximal debond forces. This was confirmed with Weibull analysis with the notched specimens having a higher probability of failure at any force. In addition, ceramic bracket fracture was eliminated. Notching the bonding resin may be helpful in facilitating the removal of ceramic brackets. PMID:9884780

  11. Report: Discussion on the development of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket and its antibacterial property and biocompatibility in orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ronghe; Zhang, Weiwei; Bai, Xueyan; Song, Xiaotong; Wang, Chunyan; Gao, Xinxin; Tian, Xubiao; Liu, Fengzhen

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to explore the antibacterial property of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket for the common bacteria in oral cavity, and discuss its biocompatibility. Micro morphology in the surface of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket was detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and surface roughness of ordinary mental bracket, nano TiO2 coating bracket and nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket were measured. First, antibacterial property of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket on the common bacteria in oral cavity was studied by sticking membrane method. Secondly, bonding strength of nano TiO2 coating and nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket in groups were detected by scratching test. The result showed that, the synthetic nano Ag/TiO2 coating was nanogranular films with rigorous organizational structure, presenting as smooth and clean surface, and antibacterial rate of nano Ag/TiO2 coating for the common bacteria in oral cavity for 20 min was more than 79% in the dark. All the findings suggested that, nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket not only has antibacterial effect but also has good biocompatibility, therefore, it can satisfy the clinical request of orthodontic treatment. PMID:25796158

  12. Avaliação da superfície da porcelana após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos Porcelain surface evaluation after debonding of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Moreira Mattos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tempo de condicionamento ácido em superfície de porcelana e o estado desta após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizadas 20 amostras de porcelana feldspática para esmalte (Duceram-LFC divididas em 2 grupos de acordo com o tempo de condicionamento com ácido fluorídico 10% (15 segundos e 1 minuto. Após o ataque ácido, foi aplicado silano (3M Scotchbond, adesivo resinoso (Optibond Solo Plus e resina (Fill Magic nestas superfícies. A descolagem foi realizada através de força de cisalhamento numa máquina universal de ensaios (DL 500 - EMIC calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/minuto. O índice do adesivo remanescente (ARI nas superfícies cerâmicas e o estado destas após a remoção dos braquetes foram avaliados através de fotos digitais. RESULTADOS: no grupo 15 segundos, a força de adesão média foi de 3,63MPa, significantemente inferior à do grupo 1 minuto, que foi de 7,18MPa (pAIM: the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acid conditioning time in porcelain surface and its characteristics after debonding of orthodontic brackets. METHODS: twenty samples of feldspathic porcelain for enamel (Duceram-LFC were divided in 2 groups according with the amount of time of acid conditioning with hydrofluoric acid 10% (15 seconds and 1 minute. After acid etching, it was applied silane (3M Scotchbond, adhesive (Optibond Solo Plus and resin (Fill Magic in these surfaces. The debonding was done with shear strength through a universal testing machine (DL 500 - EMIC calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5mm/minute. The adhesive remnant index (ARI in the porcelain surfaces and their characteristics after removal of the brackets were evaluated through digital pictures. RESULTS: in the 15 seconds group, the mean bond strength was 3.63Mpa, significantly lower than the 1 minute group, that was 7.18Mpa (p<0.0001. All fractures during debonding were cohesive in the composite resin layer (70% or bond between the bracket and the resin (30%. In relation to the ARI analysis, the Chi-square test showed no statistically significant difference between both groups. CONCLUSION: conditioning with hydrofluoric acid 10% for 1 minute, followed by the application of silane, adhesive and resin was considered the best porcelain preparation method before orthodontic bonding.

  13. Avaliação in vitro da liberação de níquel por braquetes metálicos / In vitro nickel release from metallic orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Lara, Sória; Luciane, Menezes; Berenice, Dedavid; Marçal, Pires; Susana, Rizzatto; Luiz Cesar da, Costa Filho.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O aço inoxidável austenítico é utilizado para confecção de dispositivos ortodônticos e contém cerca de 8-10% de níquel em sua composição, metal este responsável por reações alérgicas de hipersensibilidade. Acredita-se que a liberação de níquel dos dispositivos metálicos pode provocar dermatites de c [...] ontato em pacientes suscetíveis. Este estudo laboratorial avaliou a influência de três variáveis na liberação de níquel: 1) o tipo de liga do braquete; 2) o tipo de solução de imersão e 3) o esforço mecânico nas canaletas dos braquetes de aço inoxidável austenítico. Foram avaliados seis grupos experimentais e dois grupos controles. As amostras foram imersas em tubos de ensaio contendo saliva artificial ou solução salina, sendo mantidas sob agitação e temperatura constante (37ºC). A quantidade de níquel presente nas soluções foi avaliada com espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica (Varian - Spectra A55) em dois momentos: após uma semana e após duas semanas. Os resultados revelaram que os braquetes de aço inoxidável com baixo teor de níquel apresentaram menor liberação deste elemento. Foi possível constatar que o tipo de solução alterou o padrão de liberação de níquel pelos dispositivos avaliados. O esforço mecânico aplicado sobre os braquetes de aço inoxidável austenítico não alterou a quantidade de níquel liberada. Abstract in english Austenitic stainless steel is frequently used to fabricate orthodontic appliances, which contains 8-10% of nickel. Such metal is responsible for hypersensitivity allergic reactions. Thus, nickel release of orthodontic appliances may be responsible for contact dermatitis in sensitive patients. This s [...] tudy assessed the influence of three variables in nickel release of metal brackets: 1) type of metal alloy; 2) type of solution used for immersion; and 3) mechanical stress. Six experimental and two control groups were assessed. The specimens were immersed in saline solution or artificial saliva, maintained in constant agitation in controlled temperature environment (37ºC). Nickel present in solutions was measured with atomic spectroscopy (Varian-Spectra A55) in two moments: after one and after two weeks. The results showed that brackets made of low nickel contend alloy released less nickel than standard ones. It was possible to notice that the type of solution alters the pattern of nickel release. Mechanical stress applied in the slots of standard brackets did not influence nickel release.

  14. Corrosion Inhibitory Ability of Ocimum Sanctum Linn (Tulsi Rinse on Ion Release from Orthodontic Brack-ets in Some Mouthwashes: An Invitro Study

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    Roopal Patel, Sheron Bhanat, Dolly Patel, Bhadra Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the oral environment, orthodontic appliances are exposed to potentially damaging physical and chemical agents which may cause metallic corrosion. Corrosion will occur continuously in mouth, due to release of irons with abrasion by food, liquids etc. The purpose of this study was to measure the amount of metal ion release from orthodontic brackets when kept in different mouthwashes and effect of tulsi rinse on ion release when combined with different mouthwashes. Methods: Three hundred and twenty stainless steel brackets (0.022” were divided randomly into 8 equal groups and immersed in Mouthwash-A and, Mouthwash-B and mouthwash-C and distilled deionized water. These mouthwashes and distilled deionized water were all sepa-rately mixed with tulsi rinse and incubated at 37°C for 45 days. Nickel, Chromium, iron, copper and manganese released from the orthodontic brackets were measured with an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. Results: Ion release in deionized water was higher (p<0.05 than in the 3 mouthwashes. Higher ion release was also found with Mouthwash-B compared with other 2 mouthwashes. There is no difference (p>0.05 in nickel, chromium, iron and copper ion release in the Mouthwash-A and Mouthwash-C. Tulsi rinse showed significant reduction (p<0.05 in all ion release in 3 mouthwashes used along with distilled deionzed water group. Conclusion: If ion release is concerned, Mouthwash-C mixed with tulsi rinse might be better option than Mouthwash-A as well as Mouthwash-B for orthodontic patients with stainless steel brackets.

  15. Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?

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    Alessandra Motta Streva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following commercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines, was measured by an operator using an optical microscope coupled to a computer. The values were compared to those established by the MBT prescription. RESULTS: The results showed that for the maxillary canine brackets, only the Morelli torque (-3.33º presented statistically significant difference from the proposed values (-7º. For the mandibular canines, American Orthodontics (-6.34º and Ortho Organizers (-6.25º presented statistically significant differences from the standards (-6º. Comparing the brands, Morelli presented statistically significant differences in comparison with all the other brands for maxillary canine brackets. For the mandibular canine brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the brands. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant variations in torque values of some of the brackets assessed, which would clinically compromise the buccolingual positioning of the tooth at the end of orthodontic treatment.

  16. Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra Motta, Streva; Flávio Augusto, Cotrim-Ferreira; Daniela Gamba, Garib; Paulo Eduardo Guedes, Carvalho.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following comm [...] ercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines, was measured by an operator using an optical microscope coupled to a computer. The values were compared to those established by the MBT prescription. RESULTS: The results showed that for the maxillary canine brackets, only the Morelli torque (-3.33º) presented statistically significant difference from the proposed values (-7º). For the mandibular canines, American Orthodontics (-6.34º) and Ortho Organizers (-6.25º) presented statistically significant differences from the standards (-6º). Comparing the brands, Morelli presented statistically significant differences in comparison with all the other brands for maxillary canine brackets. For the mandibular canine brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the brands. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant variations in torque values of some of the brackets assessed, which would clinically compromise the buccolingual positioning of the tooth at the end of orthodontic treatment.

  17. Conforto e fonação com a nova geração de bráquetes ortodônticos linguais individualizados Comfort and phonation with new generation of individualized lingual orthodontics brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Marotta Araújo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: recentemente o número de pacientes desejando um tratamento ortodôntico e estético ao mesmo tempo aumentou consideravelmente. A técnica lingual oferece a opção mais estética de tratamento ortodôntico, pois os bráquetes ficam invisíveis colados na superfície lingual dos dentes e os lábios não ficam protuberantes. Apesar da grande vantagem estética, essa terapia possui desvantagens como restrição no conforto oral, na fala, na higiene, irritações na língua, restrição no espaço da língua e dificuldades na alimentação. Para amenizar essas desvantagens uma nova geração de bráquetes linguais otimizados ao máximo através da individualização das bases dos bráquetes, da posição de colagem e dos fios utilizados no tratamento ortodôntico foi desenvolvida recentemente. OBJETIVO: realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura para verificar a adaptação do paciente a diferentes dispositivos ortodônticos linguais e a influência desses dispositivos no conforto e na fala, principalmente. CONCLUSÃO: atualmente a literatura suporta que os bráquetes linguais de última geração individualizados por computador proporcionam maior conforto e facilidade na fonação quando comparados aos bráquetes tradicionais da técnica lingual. No entanto, o sucesso na terapia requer orientações detalhadas sobre o potencial de restrição do conforto oral, articulação de palavras, mastigação e higiene oral, independente do sistema de bráquetes a ser utilizado.BACKGROUND: the number of patients desiring an orthodontic and esthetic treatment at the same time recently increased considerably. The lingual technique offers the most aesthetic orthodontic treatment option because the brackets are invisible on the lingual surface of the teeth and the lips are not protruding. Despite the aesthetic advantage, this therapy has disadvantages such as restriction in oral comfort, in speech, in oral hygiene, injuries in the tongue and difficulties for eating. To improve these disadvantages, a new generation of lingual brackets optimized to the maximum through the individualization of the bases, the position of the bracket and wires used in orthodontic treatment have been recently developed. PURPOSE: to make a systematically review of literature to verify the patient's adaptation to different lingual orthodontic devices and the influence of these appliance in comfort and speech, as well. CONCLUSION: the literature currently supports that the latest generation of lingual individualized brackets provides greater comfort and speech easiness when compared to the traditional lingual technique brackets. However, success in therapy requires detailed guidelines on the potential for restriction of the oral comfort, word articulation, chewing and oral hygiene, regardless of the bracket system to be used.

  18. Conforto e fonação com a nova geração de bráquetes ortodônticos linguais individualizados / Comfort and phonation with new generation of individualized lingual orthodontics brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Marotta, Araújo; Fernanda de Oliveira e, Silva; Weber José da Silva, Ursi; Eduardo César, Werneck.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: recentemente o número de pacientes desejando um tratamento ortodôntico e estético ao mesmo tempo aumentou consideravelmente. A técnica lingual oferece a opção mais estética de tratamento ortodôntico, pois os bráquetes ficam invisíveis colados na superfície lingual dos dentes e os lábios não fi [...] cam protuberantes. Apesar da grande vantagem estética, essa terapia possui desvantagens como restrição no conforto oral, na fala, na higiene, irritações na língua, restrição no espaço da língua e dificuldades na alimentação. Para amenizar essas desvantagens uma nova geração de bráquetes linguais otimizados ao máximo através da individualização das bases dos bráquetes, da posição de colagem e dos fios utilizados no tratamento ortodôntico foi desenvolvida recentemente. OBJETIVO: realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura para verificar a adaptação do paciente a diferentes dispositivos ortodônticos linguais e a influência desses dispositivos no conforto e na fala, principalmente. CONCLUSÃO: atualmente a literatura suporta que os bráquetes linguais de última geração individualizados por computador proporcionam maior conforto e facilidade na fonação quando comparados aos bráquetes tradicionais da técnica lingual. No entanto, o sucesso na terapia requer orientações detalhadas sobre o potencial de restrição do conforto oral, articulação de palavras, mastigação e higiene oral, independente do sistema de bráquetes a ser utilizado. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: the number of patients desiring an orthodontic and esthetic treatment at the same time recently increased considerably. The lingual technique offers the most aesthetic orthodontic treatment option because the brackets are invisible on the lingual surface of the teeth and the lips are not [...] protruding. Despite the aesthetic advantage, this therapy has disadvantages such as restriction in oral comfort, in speech, in oral hygiene, injuries in the tongue and difficulties for eating. To improve these disadvantages, a new generation of lingual brackets optimized to the maximum through the individualization of the bases, the position of the bracket and wires used in orthodontic treatment have been recently developed. PURPOSE: to make a systematically review of literature to verify the patient's adaptation to different lingual orthodontic devices and the influence of these appliance in comfort and speech, as well. CONCLUSION: the literature currently supports that the latest generation of lingual individualized brackets provides greater comfort and speech easiness when compared to the traditional lingual technique brackets. However, success in therapy requires detailed guidelines on the potential for restriction of the oral comfort, word articulation, chewing and oral hygiene, regardless of the bracket system to be used.

  19. In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Pereira Saporeti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chromium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi. Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5 and four in saliva (pH 6.5 containing fluoride (2 g/l, all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metálicas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN. Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5 e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5 contendo flúor (2g/l, todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão.

  20. In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mônica Pereira, Saporeti; Enio Tonani, Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco, Sales.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metál [...] icas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN). Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5) e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5) contendo flúor (2g/l), todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chr [...] omium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four in saliva (pH 6.5) containing fluoride (2 g/l), all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.

  1. Influência da secção transversa de fios ortodônticos na fricção superficial de braquetes autoligados Influence of the cross-section of orthodontic wires on the surface friction of self-ligating brackets

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    Roberta Buzzoni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a força de atrito estático entre braquetes de aço inoxidável autoligados com sistema de fechamento resiliente e fios ortodônticos redondos e retangulares do mesmo material. MÉTODOS: empregaram-se 30 braquetes referentes aos caninos superiores divididos em 6 grupos formados por braquetes autoligados Smartclip, In-Ovation R e convencionais Gemini amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. A hipótese testada neste trabalho foi quanto à possibilidade dos braquetes autoligados ativos serem suscetíveis à elevação da força de atrito com o aumento e alteração da secção transversal dos fios ortodônticos. Os ensaios foram realizados com tração de 30s em fios de aço inoxidável 0,020" e 0,019"X0,025" na máquina de ensaios Emic DL 10000, com uma célula de carga de 20 newtons. Cada conjunto braquete/fio foi responsável pela geração de quatro corpos de prova, totalizando 120 leituras. As comparações entre as médias foram realizadas através da Análise de Variância (one way ANOVA com correções pelo coeficiente de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: os braquetes autoligados apresentaram maior força de atrito do que os braquetes convencionais amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. O grupo Smartclip foi o mais efetivo no controle do atrito (pOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the surface friction produced by self-ligating stainless steel brackets equipped with a resilient closure system and compare the friction generated during traction of round and rectangular orthodontic wires made from the same material. METHODS: Thirty maxillary canine brackets were divided into six groups comprising SmartClip and In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets, and conventional Gemini brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. This investigation tested the hypothesis that self-ligating brackets are susceptible to increases in friction that are commensurate with increases and changes in the cross-section of orthodontic wires. Traction was performed with the aid of thirty segments of 0.020" and 0.019" x 0.025" stainless steel wires in an EMIC DL 10000 testing machine with a 2N load cell. Each set of bracket/wire generated four samples, totaling 120 readings. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (one way ANOVA corrected with the Bonferroni coefficient. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The self-ligating brackets exhibited lower friction than conventional brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. The SmartClip group was the most effective in controlling friction (p <0.01. The hypothesis under test was confirmed to the extent that the traction performed with rectangular 0.019" x 0.025" cross-section wires resulted in higher friction forces than those observed in the 0.020" round wire groups (p<0.01. The SmartClip system was more effective even when the traction produced by rectangular wires was compared with the In-Ovation R brackets combined with round wires (p<0.01.

  2. Influence of CO2 (10.6 ?m) and Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the prevention of enamel caries around orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Priscila Yumi; Freitas, Patrícia Moreira; Marques, Márcia Martins; de Souza Almeida, Fernanda Campos; Botta, Sérgio Brossi; Moreira, Maria Stella Nunes Araújo

    2015-02-01

    One possible undesirable consequence of orthodontic therapy is the development of incipient caries lesions of enamel around brackets. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of CO2 (??=?10.6 ?m) and Nd:YAG (??=?1,064 nm) lasers associated or not with topical fluoride application on the prevention of caries lesions around brackets. Brackets were bonded to the enamel of 65 premolars. The experimental groups (n?=?13) were: G1-application of 1.23 % acidulated fluoride phosphate gel (AFP, control); G2-Nd:YAG laser irradiation (0.6 W, 84.9 J/cm(2), 10 Hz, 110 ?s, contact mode); G3-Nd:YAG laser irradiation associated with AFP; G4-CO2 laser irradiation (0.5 W, 28.6 J/cm(2), 50 Hz, 5 ?s, and 10 mm focal distance); and G5-CO2 laser irradiation associated with AFP. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence was used to assess enamel demineralization. The data were statistically compared (??=?5 %). The highest demineralization occurred in the Nd:YAG laser group (G2, 26.15 %?±?1.94). The demineralization of all other groups was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, CO2 laser alone was able to control enamel demineralization around brackets at the same level as that obtained with topical fluoride application. PMID:23812850

  3. Estudo comparativo de seis tipos de braquetes ortodônticos quanto à força de adesão / A comparative study of six types of orthodontic brackets with regard to bond strength

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo de Aquino, Fleischmann; Márcio Costa, Sobral; Gildo Coelho, Santos Júnior; Fernando, Habib.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: a realização de um diagnóstico acurado, assim como a correta seleção de materiais, especificamente dos braquetes, são requisitos importantes para o êxito da terapia ortodôntica. OBJETIVOS: investigar a influência de variados tipos de desenho da base de braquetes na força de adesão. METOD [...] OLOGIA: seis modelos foram avaliados mediante ensaio de cisalhamento - Discovery (Dentaurum) - metálico com retenções por laser e 13,12mm² de área da base; Monobloc (Morelli) - metálico em corpo único com protuberâncias e 10,22mm² de área; Edgewise Standard (Ortho Organizers) - metálico com base MIM (Metal Injection Molding) e 12,02mm² de área; Illusion Plus (Ortho Organizers) - porcelana com sulcos de retenção e 13,49mm² de área; Composite (Morelli) - policarbonato com protuberâncias para retenção mecânica e 14,68mm² de área; e Edgewise Standard (Morelli) - metálico com tela de retenção e 14,31mm² de área. Os braquetes foram colados em dentes bovinos (incisivos) com o sistema adesivo Fill Magic Ortodôntico (Vigodent), para a realização do teste. O ensaio foi executado em uma máquina de ensaios universal (EMIC), e a força de adesão foi computada, no momento da cisão, pelo software TESC, versão 3.01, medida em Newtons (N) e em Megapascal (Mpa). RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: não houve diferença estatística entre os braquetes testados, sendo que o grupo que apresentou a maior média de força de adesão foi o Discovery com 10,12Mpa. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: An accurate diagnosis as well as the correct selection of materials, brackets in particular, are important pre-requisites for success in orthodontic therapy. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of various brackets-base designs on bond strength. METHODS: Six models w [...] ere evaluated by a test of sheer bond strength: Discovery (Dentaurum) - metallic with laser grooves and 13.12mm² of base area; Monobloc (Morelli) - metallic one-piece with raised bumps and 10.22mm² of area; Edgewise Standard (Ortho Organizers) - metallic with MIM (Metal Injection Molding) and 12.02mm² of area; Illusion Plus (Ortho Organizers) - ceramic with retention ridges and 13.49mm² of area; Composite (Morelli) - polycarbonate with raised bumps for mechanical retention with 14.68mm² of area; and Edgewise Standard (Morelli) - metallic with single mesh and 14.31mm² of area. The brackets were bonded on bovine teeth with Fill Magic Ortodôntico (Vigodent) bond agent, for testing. The study was conduced in a universal test machine (EMIC), and the bond strength was recorded at the moment of split by TESC software, 3.01 version; it was calculated in newtons (N) and megapascal (Mpa). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: No statistical difference among tested brackets was found, and the group with the greatest average bond strength was Discovery with 10,12Mpa.

  4. Effect of self-etching primer/adhesive and conventional bonding on the shear bond strength in metallic and ceramic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Hydari, Mahboubeh; Shahrbaf, Shirin; Mirzakouchaki-boroujeni, Parvin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Bracket debonding from the tooth surface is a common problem in fixed orthodontics. The aims of the present study were to assess the bond strength and failure sites in two ways of bonding technique, with metallic and ceramic brackets. Material and Methods: One hundred premolars were assigned to 4 groups of 25 each: Group A, metallic brackets/ conventional procedure; Group B, metallic brackets/Transbond XT; Group C, ceramic brackets/conventional procedure; and Grou...

  5. Evaluation of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded on the tooth surface after internal bleaching / Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de briquettes ortodônticos colados na superfície dentária após clareamento interno

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadia de Souza, FERREIRA; Patrícia Campos Ferreira da, ROSA; Raffaela Di Iorio Jeronymo, FERREIRA; Marcia Carneiro, VALERA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Introdução : O apelo estético de pacientes que possuem dentes escurecidos é grande, pois atualmente os padrões estéticos se tornaram rigorosos e muitos pacientes antes ou durante o tratamento ortodôntico, realizam o procedimento de clareamento dental. Objetivo: Avaliar a adesão de braquetes or [...] todônticos em molares humanos que receberam clareamento interno. Material e método: Quarenta coroas de molares humanos foram divididas em quatro grupos, de acordo com o agente clareador utilizado: SP) perborato de sódio + água; SP) peróxido de carbamida; CP+SP) peróxido de carbamida + perborato de sódio; Cont) água (grupo controle). Os agentes clareadores colocados no interior das câmaras pulpares foram substituídos a cada 7 dias por 2 semanas, e a colagem dos braquetes foi efetuada após 30 dias do final do clareamento. O teste de resistência ao cisalhamento foi realizado em máquina de ensaios universal (Emic). Resultado: O teste estatístico ANOVA com nível de significância de 5% (p > 0,05), mostrou que não houve diferença estatística significante entre os grupos (p = 0,1214). Conclusão: Concluiu-se que os diferentes agentes clareadores estudados não interferem na resistência de adesão dos braquetes ao esmalte dentário e a colagem dos braquetes 30 dias após o clareamento interno é um procedimento seguro. Abstract in english Introduction: There is great demand for esthetic treatment by patients who have discolored teeth, because currently aesthetic standards have become stricter and many patients have tooth bleaching procedures performed before or during orthodontic treatment. Objective: To evaluate the bonding of [...] orthodontic brackets to human molars after internal tooth bleaching. Material and method: Forty molars were divided into four groups according to the bleaching agent used: PS) sodium perborate + water; PC) carbamide peroxide; PC + PS) carbamide peroxide + sodium perborate; Cont) water (control group). Bleaching agents placed inside the pulp chambers were replaced every 7 days for 2 weeks, and the brackets were bonded 30 days after the end of bleaching. The shear strength test was performed in a universal testing machine (Emic). Result: ANOVA with a significance level of 5% (p > 0.05), showed no statistically significant difference between groups (p = 0.1214). Conclusion: It was concluded that the different bleaching agents studied did not interfere with the bond strength of brackets to enamel and bonding the brackets 30 days after internal bleaching is a safe procedure.

  6. Clinical evaluation of the failure rates of metallic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio Lourenço, Romano; Américo Bortolazzo, Correr; Lourenço, Correr-Sobrinho; Maria Beatriz Borges de Araújo, Magnani; Antônio Carlos de Oliveira, Ruellas.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the bonding of metallic orthodontic brackets with different adhesive systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients (10.5-15.1 years old) who had sought corrective orthodontic treatment at a University Orthodontic Clinic were evaluated. Brack [...] ets were bonded from the right second premolar to the left second premolar in the upper and lower arches using: Orthodontic Concise, conventional Transbond XT, Transbond XT without primer, and Transbond XT associated with Transbond Plus Self-etching Primer (TPSEP). The 4 adhesive systems were used in all patients using a split-mouth design; each adhesive system was used in one quadrant of each dental arch, so that each group of 5 patients received the same bonding sequence. Initial archwires were inserted 1 week after bracket bonding. The number of bracket failures for each adhesive system was quantified over a 6-month period. RESULTS: The number of debonded brackets was: 8- Orthodontic Concise, 2- conventional Transbond XT, 9- Transbond XT without primer, and 1- Transbond XT + TPSEP. By using the Kaplan-Meier methods, statistically significant differences were found between the materials (p=0.0198), and the Logrank test identified these differences. Conventional Transbond XT and Transbond XT + TPSEP adhesive systems were statistically superior to Orthodontic Concise and Transbond XT without primer (p

  7. Friction between different wire bracket combinations in artificial saliva: an in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kelly da Silva Fidalgo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective this work was to assess the friction coefficient between brackets and wires of different materials under conditions simulating the oral environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stainless steel (SS and titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA wires of 0.019x0.025-in diameter (American Orthodontics and polycarbonate bracket (American Orthodontics, ceramic bracket (American Orthodontics, and metal bracket (3M Unitek with slots of 0.022x0.030-in were used. The friction coefficient was assessed by means of mechanical traction with the system immersed in artificial saliva. The mean roughness of both wire surface and bracket slots was evaluated by using a surface profilometer. RESULTS: The system using TMA wire and polycarbonate bracket had the highest roughness (p<0.05. SS wire with ceramic bracket had the highest friction coefficient, whereas the use of metallic bracket yielded the lowest (p<0.05. However, it was observed a statistically significant difference in the system using TMA wire and ceramic bracket compared to that using TMA wire and polycarbonate bracket (p=0.038. CONCLUSIONS: Ceramic brackets in association with SS wire should be judiciously used, since this system showed a high friction coefficient.

  8. [SIBSytem: innovation for bracket bonding?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Alexis

    2013-06-01

    The orthodontic bracket placement has known two major improvements these last fifty years: first with the ability of bonding brackets directly on the enamel (Newmann 1965); second with the indirect bonding procedure introduced by Silvermann and Cohen in 1972. If we put aside the technological evolutions of bonding materials (brackets and adhesives), few refinements have occurred regarding the protocols in this period of time. Furthermore, direct bonding procedure seems to be used by a majority of orthodontists despite the rapidity, accuracy and ergonomics promised by indirect bonding protocol. The main originality of the system detailed in this article is to bond orthodontic brackets in a virtually predetermined position with indirect bonding advantages but with the efficiency of direct bonding because the adhesive is applied directly on the bracket base without pre-bonding necessity. This innovation has been allowed by the use of up-to-date CFAO technology. The article first describes the two components of the SIBSystem (SIBClip and SIBTray) and details the manufacturing stages. The clinical use is then evoked as well as the cautions and limits of this innovative bonding system. PMID:23719248

  9. Friction between different wire bracket combinations in artificial saliva: an in vitro evaluation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana Kelly da Silva, Fidalgo; Matheus Melo, Pithon; José Vinicius Bolognesi, Maciel; Ana Maria, Bolognese.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective this work was to assess the friction coefficient between brackets and wires of different materials under conditions simulating the oral environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stainless steel (SS) and titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA) wires of 0.019x0.025-in diameter (American Orth [...] odontics) and polycarbonate bracket (American Orthodontics), ceramic bracket (American Orthodontics), and metal bracket (3M Unitek) with slots of 0.022x0.030-in were used. The friction coefficient was assessed by means of mechanical traction with the system immersed in artificial saliva. The mean roughness of both wire surface and bracket slots was evaluated by using a surface profilometer. RESULTS: The system using TMA wire and polycarbonate bracket had the highest roughness (p

  10. Hypersensitivity to conventional and to nickel-free orthodontic brackets / Hipersensibilidade a bráquetes ortodônticos convencionais e a bráquetes "nickel-free"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariele Cristina Garcia, Pantuzo; Elton Gonçalves, Zenóbio; Helenice de Andrade, Marigo; Madelon Aparecida Fernandes, Zenóbio.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade alergênica provocada pelos bráquetes ortodônticos, comparando a sensibilidade cutânea provocada pelos metais presentes nos bráquetes metálicos convencionais com a provocada por bráquetes com baixa concentração de níquel ("nickel-free"). A amostra [...] foi selecionada dos 400 pacientes em tratamento da clínica de Ortodontia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil), no período compreendido entre o início de 2002 e o final de 2003. A amostra consistiu de 58 pacientes (30 homens e 28 mulheres), com idades variando de 11 a 30 anos, os quais eram portadores de aparelho ortodôntico fixo Morelli® em ambos os arcos. Estes pacientes foram diagnosticados quanto à sensibilidade ao níquel, por meio da aplicação do "patch test" com sulfato de níquel a 5%. Em uma segunda fase, trinta dias após o "patch test", comparou-se a sensibilidade cutânea provocada pelos metais presentes nos bráquetes convencionais e nos "Nickel Free", por meio de um teste de sensibilidade cutânea utilizando-se dois tipos de corpos-de-provas, em formato de disco, com a mesma composição destes bráquetes. A área de eleição para realização deste teste foi a parte interna do antebraço, sendo aplicados vinte corpos-de-prova de cada experimento (referente a uma boca completa de bráquetes). Dos 58 pacientes avaliados, 16 deles foram sensíveis ao "patch test" com sulfato de níquel a 5%. Dentre estes 16 pacientes, 12 deles desenvolveram reação alérgica ao Experimento 1 (corpo-de-prova com níquel), enquanto que no Experimento 2 (corpo-de-prova "Niquel Free") apenas 5 pacientes apresentaram sensibilidade a esta amostra. O teste de McNemar revelou que os corpos-de-prova "nickel-free" provocaram menor reação alérgica quando comparados aos convencionais (p = 0.016). Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the allergenic potential of orthodontic brackets, comparing the cutaneous sensitivity provoked by metals present in conventional metallic brackets to that provoked by brackets with a low concentration of nickel, known as "nickel-free". A sample was selected from [...] 400 patients undergoing treatment in the orthodontic clinic of the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil), in the period from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2003. A cutaneous sensitivity patch test containing 5% nickel sulphate was used in 58 patients (30 males and 28 females), aged between 11 and 30, which were using fixed appliances with Morelli® brackets in both arches. In a second phase, 30 days later, a comparative test of cutaneous sensitivity was applied to the whole sample with two types of test specimens, in the form of a disc. Two alloys were tested: discs composed of the alloy used in the construction of conventional brackets and discs composed of a nickel-free alloy. The internal part of the forearm was chosen for testing, and 20 test specimens of each experiment (corresponding to the twenty brackets of a complete fixed appliance) were applied. Of the 58 patients evaluated, 16 patients were sensitive to the patch test with 5% nickel sulphate. Out of these 16 patients, 12 developed an allergic reaction to experiment 1 (test specimen with nickel), while in experiment 2, only 5 patients showed sensitivity to that sample. The McNemar test revealed that the nickel-free test specimens provoked less allergic reaction when compared with the conventional alloy (p = 0.016).

  11. Hypersensitivity to conventional and to nickel-free orthodontic brackets Hipersensibilidade a bráquetes ortodônticos convencionais e a bráquetes "nickel-free"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Cristina Garcia Pantuzo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allergenic potential of orthodontic brackets, comparing the cutaneous sensitivity provoked by metals present in conventional metallic brackets to that provoked by brackets with a low concentration of nickel, known as "nickel-free". A sample was selected from 400 patients undergoing treatment in the orthodontic clinic of the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, in the period from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2003. A cutaneous sensitivity patch test containing 5% nickel sulphate was used in 58 patients (30 males and 28 females, aged between 11 and 30, which were using fixed appliances with Morelli® brackets in both arches. In a second phase, 30 days later, a comparative test of cutaneous sensitivity was applied to the whole sample with two types of test specimens, in the form of a disc. Two alloys were tested: discs composed of the alloy used in the construction of conventional brackets and discs composed of a nickel-free alloy. The internal part of the forearm was chosen for testing, and 20 test specimens of each experiment (corresponding to the twenty brackets of a complete fixed appliance were applied. Of the 58 patients evaluated, 16 patients were sensitive to the patch test with 5% nickel sulphate. Out of these 16 patients, 12 developed an allergic reaction to experiment 1 (test specimen with nickel, while in experiment 2, only 5 patients showed sensitivity to that sample. The McNemar test revealed that the nickel-free test specimens provoked less allergic reaction when compared with the conventional alloy (p = 0.016.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade alergênica provocada pelos bráquetes ortodônticos, comparando a sensibilidade cutânea provocada pelos metais presentes nos bráquetes metálicos convencionais com a provocada por bráquetes com baixa concentração de níquel ("nickel-free". A amostra foi selecionada dos 400 pacientes em tratamento da clínica de Ortodontia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil, no período compreendido entre o início de 2002 e o final de 2003. A amostra consistiu de 58 pacientes (30 homens e 28 mulheres, com idades variando de 11 a 30 anos, os quais eram portadores de aparelho ortodôntico fixo Morelli® em ambos os arcos. Estes pacientes foram diagnosticados quanto à sensibilidade ao níquel, por meio da aplicação do "patch test" com sulfato de níquel a 5%. Em uma segunda fase, trinta dias após o "patch test", comparou-se a sensibilidade cutânea provocada pelos metais presentes nos bráquetes convencionais e nos "Nickel Free", por meio de um teste de sensibilidade cutânea utilizando-se dois tipos de corpos-de-provas, em formato de disco, com a mesma composição destes bráquetes. A área de eleição para realização deste teste foi a parte interna do antebraço, sendo aplicados vinte corpos-de-prova de cada experimento (referente a uma boca completa de bráquetes. Dos 58 pacientes avaliados, 16 deles foram sensíveis ao "patch test" com sulfato de níquel a 5%. Dentre estes 16 pacientes, 12 deles desenvolveram reação alérgica ao Experimento 1 (corpo-de-prova com níquel, enquanto que no Experimento 2 (corpo-de-prova "Niquel Free" apenas 5 pacientes apresentaram sensibilidade a esta amostra. O teste de McNemar revelou que os corpos-de-prova "nickel-free" provocaram menor reação alérgica quando comparados aos convencionais (p = 0.016.

  12. Wear comparison of thermoplastic materials used for orthodontic retainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Gary D; Dunn, William J; Taloumis, Louis

    2003-09-01

    Clear thermoplastic retainers are an alternative to fixed lingual retainers and removable Hawley appliances. However, thermoplastic retainers have demonstrated poor wear resistance and durability after only a few months of use. In this study, a simulated wear device was used to compare the wear of different thermoplastic materials used for orthodontic retainers. Three thermoplastic products were evaluated: C+ (Raintree Essix, New Orleans, La),.040-in Invisacryl C (Great Lakes Orthodontics, Towanda, NY), and.040-in TR sheet material (Bay Dental Direct, Bay City, Mich). Twenty specimens were fabricated for each group. The specimens were vacuum thermoformed according to the manufacturers' recommendations and subjected to wear for 1000 cycles in a wear apparatus with steatite ceramic abraders. Depth of wear was determined by surface profilometry. The maximum peak-to-valley measurement was recorded for each specimen. Mean wear (SD) in microns was as follows: C+, 5.9 (2.4); Invisacryl C, 6.1 (2.6); and TR, 1.6 (0.9). One-way analysis of variance detected a significant difference between groups (P PETG), demonstrated greater resistance to wear than did the other 2 materials, which were softer, polypropylene-based thermoplastics. There was no evidence to suggest a difference in mean wear between the 2 polypropylene-based materials (P >.05). PMID:12970663

  13. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Regina Guerra, MONTEIRO; Licinio Esmeraldo da, SILVA; Carlos Nelson, ELIAS; Oswaldo de Vasconcellos, VILELLA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel) and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional) on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods: Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brack [...] ets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek) with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees) slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics) were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M). The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil). The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results: Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion: even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material.

  14. A bracket design proposal for the first molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scalon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The advent of bracket bonding simplified the assembly of orthodontic braces, besides giving more comfort to the patient and decreasing the risk of decalcification. However, there is no first molar bracket with accessory tube and hooks in the market, except for the convertible type.Objective:To present a patent for utility model of a bracket Roth prescription, Straight-Wire technique for first molar, in order to facilitate orthodontic treatment where there is a need for placing accessories in second molars.Material and methods:This patent consists of a molar bracket for bonding, which contains a retentive base for this, similar to the bracket used in the Edgewise technique,with fins for placing alastic or metal ligature,but containing pre-angles and torques as the tubes of the molar Straight-Wire technique with Roth prescription.It also includes an accessory tube for placing arches or cantilevers and hooks for placing elastics.Results and conclusion:With this bracket design proposal it is possible to obtain an accessory that facilitates the inclusion of the second molar in the assembly of the orthodontic brace without the use of bands.Moreover, this bracket has fins for placing ligatures,accessory tube for placing arches or cantilevers and hooks for placing elastics.

  15. Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura Analysis of biodegradation of orthodontic brackets using scanning electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Macedo de Menezes; Rodrigo Matos de Souza; Gabriel Schmidt Dolci; Berenice Anina Dedavid

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: analisar, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, as alterações químicas e estruturais de braquetes metálicos submetidos a um processo de biodegradação in vitro. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a marca comercial dos acessórios - Grupo A = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303) e Grupo B = LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). Os corpos de prova, aparelhos ortodônticos simulados, permaneceram imersos em solução salina (0,...

  16. A comparative experimental investigation of torque capabilities induced by conventional and active, passive self-ligating brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikogianni, Eleni N; Reimann, Susanne; Weber, Anna; Karp, Jakob; Bourauel, Christoph

    2014-11-19

    Summary INTRODUCTION : A proper selected bracket-archwire combination displays a determining factor in the efficacy of torque applied to a tooth at the final stages of an orthodontic treatment. The objective of the current study was to assess the torque capabilities of various bracket systems combined with diverse archwire materials and cross-sections. PMID:25414477

  17. Intraoral corrosion of self-ligating metallic brackets and archwires and the effect on friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tima, Lori Lynn

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the frictional coefficient was affected due to intraoral use. A secondary aim of this study was to determine whether or not there was a relationship between corrosion of orthodontic alloys and friction via scanning electron microscopic qualitative analysis. Orthodontic brackets and 0.019 x 0.025 inch stainless steel archwires were collected and divided into three groups of n=10: used bracket and used wires (UBUW), used brackets and new wires (UBNW), and new brackets and new wires (NBNW). New materials were as-received from the manufacturer, and used materials were clinically used bracket and wires collected from patients following orthodontic treatment. Archwires were pulled through bracket slots at a rate of 0.5mm/min while friction forces were measured. Following a cleaning process, the surface topography of the bracket slots was examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Based on a 1-factor MANOVA, there was no significant group effect (all p>0.05) on frictional forces. Partial eta squared values indicated that intraoral exposure had only a small effect on frictional forces (? 3%). Qualitative analysis of SEM images did not show an association between surface characteristics of the bracket slots and magnitude of frictional force. Results suggest that surface corrosion from intraoral use does not significantly affect friction at the bracket wire interface.

  18. Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação da liberação iônica in vitro Biodegradation of orthodontic brackets: in vitro ion release

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Schmidt Dolci; Luciane Macedo de Menezes; Rodrigo Matos de Souza; Berenice Anina Dedavid

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: avaliar, in vitro, a biodegradação de aparelhos ortodônticos simulados constituídos de braquetes e fios de aço inoxidável. METODOLOGIA: a amostra foi dividida em 2 grupos, de acordo com a marca dos braquetes usados: grupo A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303); e grupo B - LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). Os corpos-de-prova permaneceram incubados em solução salina (0,05%) a 36ºC, sob agitação por um período de até 60 dias. A análise da liberação ...

  19. Ultrastructural effect of self-ligating bracket materials on stainless steel and superelastic NiTi wire surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Samjin; Lee, Sunghoon; Cheong, Youjin; Park, Ki-Ho; Park, Hun-Kuk; Park, Young-Guk

    2012-08-01

    Frictional interactions between wires and brackets reduce the efficacy in orthodontic treatments. Self-ligating brackets (SLBs) are now more often used due to lower frictional forces when compared with conventional-ligating brackets. In this study, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to examine the microstructural effects of stainless steel and ceramic SLBs on the surface roughness of stainless steel and superelastic NiTi wires both after in vivo clinical orthodontic treatment as well as in in vitro three-point bending experiments. A combination of two wires-0.019 in. × 0.025 in. stainless steel wires and 0.016 in. superelastic NiTi wires-and two SLBs-both passive-type stainless steel SLBs and active-type ceramic SLBs-was applied for 4 months (bicuspid-extraction) in an in vivo setting and for 1 month in an in vitro setting (200 g loads). After the SLB treatments, all wires exhibited severe scratches secondary to frictional interactions with the brackets. When used with the stainless steel SLBs (Damon 3MX®), the surfaces of 0.019 in. × 0.025 in. stainless steel (P ceramic SLBs (Clippy-C®). Such results suggest that orthodontic treatments with stainless steel SLBs are more effective than with ceramic SLBs. PMID:22419658

  20. [The materials engineering characteristics of orthodontic nickel-titanium wires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, D; Bourauel, C; Thier, M

    1990-12-01

    Since their introduction in 1971 nickel-titanium wires have been widely used in orthodontics. Today, there is a multitude of new NiTi-alloys, whose properties are described. Beside the memory effect, these alloys have particular elastic properties, which can be characterized by a low modulus of elasticity, excellent springback, and pseudoelasticity (superelasticity). These properties are a consequence of the fact that depending on temperature and mechanical stress NiTi-alloys have two crystalline structures: martensite and austenite. The transition between these two phases, called martensitic transformation, is responsible for the memory effect, where a one way and a two way effect can be distinguished. For orthodontic applications pseudoelasticity is regarded as a highly favourable property. Pseudoelastic behavior is caused by stress induced martensite. Analysing the elastic properties of the available wires two categories can be distinguished: "work hardened martensite" and "pseudoelastic alloy". The biocompatibility of NiTi is sufficient, it can be used as an implant material. PMID:2286345

  1. Avaliação da influência dos tipos de tratamento superficial da porcelana glazeada na colagem de braquetes ortodônticos / Evaluation of the influence of porcelain conditioning techniques in orthodontic brackets bonding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila Belo, Falcão; Adriano Marques, Brito; Fernando Jorge Mendes, Ahid.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tipo de tratamento superficial da porcelana na resistência adesiva da colagem de braquetes ortodônticos e o modo de fratura após a descolagem. METODOLOGIA:foram confeccionados 80 corpos-de-prova de porcelana, divididos em quatro grupos [...] (n = 18) de acordo com os diferentes tratamentos de superfície: (G1) ponta diamantada; (G2) ponta diamantada e silano; (G3) ácido hidrofluorídrico e (G4) ácido hidrofluorídrico e silano. Após o preparo das superfícies, braquetes Edgewise (Morelli) foram colados com resina (Transbond XT, 3M) e submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento. Os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTADO: o grupo G1 apresentou uma média de resistência de 3,35, o G2 3,97, o G3 2,56 e o G4 3,10. CONCLUSÃO: constatou-se que não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na resistência adesiva do braquete entre os tipos de tratamentos estudados (p > 0,05) e os modos de fratura ocorreram, em sua grande maioria, na interface braquete/resina. Este estudo indica que todos os tipos de tratamentos apresentados são eficientes para a colagem. Abstract in english AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of various porcelain surface treatments on the strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain and the fracture mode after debonding. METHODS: Eighty samples of porcelain were randomly divided into four groups according to their surface p [...] reparation, as follows: (G1) diamond bur, (G2) diamond bur with silane, (G3) hydrofluoridic acid and (G4) hydrofluoridic acid with silane. After surface treatment the Edgewise brackets (Morelli) were bonded with resin (Transbond XT, 3M) and sheared off. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test were applied on the data. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in bond strength between the groups (p > 0.05) and the fracture mode in most of the porcelain occurred in the composite/bracket interface. The G1 had an resistance average of 3.35, G2 = 3.97, G3 = 2.56 and G4 = 3.10.

  2. Quantitative analysis of S. mutans and S. sobrinus cultivated independently and adhered to polished orthodontic composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Ulises Velazquez-Enriquez; Rogelio Jose Scougall-Vilchis; Rosalia Contreras-Bulnes; Jaime Flores-Estrada; Shinsuke Uematsu; Ryozo Yamaguchi

    2012-01-01

    In Orthodontics, fixed appliances placed in the oral cavity are colonized by microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the independent bacterial colonization of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in orthodontic composite resins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven orthodontic composite adhesives for bonding brackets were selected and classified into 14 groups; (GIm, GIs) Enlight, (GIIm, GIIs) Grengloo, (GIIIm, GIIIs) Kurasper F, (GIVm, GIVs) BeautyOrtho Bond, (GVm, G...

  3. Evaluation of stresses developed in different bracket-cement-enamel systems using finite element analysis with in vitro bond strength tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine the bond strength of different orthodontic bracket materials (ceramic, stainless steel, and titanium) as well as stresses developed in bracket-cement-enamel systems using finite element (FE) analysis. Methods One hundred and thirty-five extracted human caries-free upper central incisors were divided into three groups (n?=?45/group) according to the type of orthodontic bracket materials (stainless steel, ceramic, and titanium). Each group was further subdivided into three subgroups (n?=?15/group) according to the bond strength test loading mode (shear short side, shear long side, and tensile). After debonding, the fractured specimen was examined, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was determined. FE analysis models analyzed the stress distribution within the cement and enamel. Bond strengths were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test, and the ARI scores were analyzed using chi-square (?2) test. Results Shear loading at the short side of the bracket resulted in the highest bond strength and lowest maximum principal stress both on cement and enamel compared with the other loading modes (P?Ceramic brackets presented with higher bond strength and lower maximum principal stress than metallic brackets (P?brackets (?2?=?64.852, P?orthodontic brackets and the selection of orthodontic bracket materials affect the bond strength and stresses developed both on cement and enamel. PMID:24934213

  4. Resistência à remoção de braquetes ortodônticos sob ação de diferentes cargas contínuas Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using different static loading application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Giannini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: testar se existe alteração na resistência adesiva de dois cimentos utilizados na colagem de acessórios ortodônticos ao esmalte dentário bovino, sendo um de polimerização química (Concise ortodôntico e outro fotopolimerizável (Transbond XT, após a aplicação de cargas contínuas. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados para este estudo 80 dentes bovinos e 80 braquetes metálicos. O esmalte bovino foi condicionado com ácido fosfórico a 37% por 1 minuto e depois lavado e seco. A aplicação dos adesivos, manipulação e aplicação dos dois cimentos foram feitas de acordo com as instruções dos fabricantes. Após 24 horas, todos os braquetes foram submetidos a cargas contínuas de 30g, 70g e 120g, menos o grupo controle, que não recebeu carga alguma. Os espécimes ficaram imersos em água filtrada por 28 dias dentro de uma estufa a 37°C. Depois deste período, as amostras foram submetidas a testes de cisalhamento em uma Máquina de Ensaios Universal Kratos. Os resultados foram registrados e enviados para análise estatística. CONCLUSÕES: (1 o cimento Concise apresentou maior resistência à remoção que o cimento Transbond XT para todas as cargas utilizadas, (2 não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na resistência adesiva frente às três cargas utilizadas para os dois cimentos testados; (3 no momento da fratura, conforme ocorreu o aumento da carga, a porcentagem de fratura do esmalte diminuiu para o Concise, ao contrário do cimento Transbond XT, onde a porcentagem de fratura de esmalte se manteve constante com o aumento das cargas.AIM: The purpose of this study was to test differences on bond strength between auto-cured (Concise and light-cured (Transbond XT cements after static loading and shear test. METHODS: Eighty bovine teeth and metallic orthodontic brackets (Morelli Ortodontia Braquete Edgewise/Rickets were tested after static loads of 30, 70 and 120grs. Bovine enamel was conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid gel for one minute, rinsed and dried. Adhesives were applied and brackets were bonded according to manufacturer’s instructions. Cement thickness was standardized with the use of a heavier Gilmore needle. After 24 hours, half of the specimens were submitted to the static loads of 30, 70 and 120grs. Control group remained unloaded. Then, specimens were immersed in distilled water for 28 days at 37ºC. Afterwards, orthodontic brackets were attached to a loop wire and submitted to a shear force (Máquina de Ensaios Kratos Universal Kratos under a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min and load cell of 500Kgf. A two-way ANOVA test (alpha = 0.05 was used to detect significant interactions between cements and static loads. CONCLUSIONS: (1 The Concise cement showed more statistically significant bond strength values than the Transbond XT cement for all static loads; (2 No statistically significant differences were observed regarding static loads for all cements tested and (3 Higher static loads provided less enamel fracture in the Concise group after shear test, whereas in the Transbond XT the rate of enamel fracture remained unchanged regardless of previous load applied.

  5. Resistência à remoção de braquetes ortodônticos sob ação de diferentes cargas contínuas / Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using different static loading application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla, Giannini; Paulo Afonso Silveira, Francisconi.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: testar se existe alteração na resistência adesiva de dois cimentos utilizados na colagem de acessórios ortodônticos ao esmalte dentário bovino, sendo um de polimerização química (Concise ortodôntico) e outro fotopolimerizável (Transbond XT), após a aplicação de cargas contínuas. METODOLOGI [...] A: foram utilizados para este estudo 80 dentes bovinos e 80 braquetes metálicos. O esmalte bovino foi condicionado com ácido fosfórico a 37% por 1 minuto e depois lavado e seco. A aplicação dos adesivos, manipulação e aplicação dos dois cimentos foram feitas de acordo com as instruções dos fabricantes. Após 24 horas, todos os braquetes foram submetidos a cargas contínuas de 30g, 70g e 120g, menos o grupo controle, que não recebeu carga alguma. Os espécimes ficaram imersos em água filtrada por 28 dias dentro de uma estufa a 37°C. Depois deste período, as amostras foram submetidas a testes de cisalhamento em uma Máquina de Ensaios Universal Kratos. Os resultados foram registrados e enviados para análise estatística. CONCLUSÕES: (1) o cimento Concise apresentou maior resistência à remoção que o cimento Transbond XT para todas as cargas utilizadas, (2) não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na resistência adesiva frente às três cargas utilizadas para os dois cimentos testados; (3) no momento da fratura, conforme ocorreu o aumento da carga, a porcentagem de fratura do esmalte diminuiu para o Concise, ao contrário do cimento Transbond XT, onde a porcentagem de fratura de esmalte se manteve constante com o aumento das cargas. Abstract in english AIM: The purpose of this study was to test differences on bond strength between auto-cured (Concise) and light-cured (Transbond XT) cements after static loading and shear test. METHODS: Eighty bovine teeth and metallic orthodontic brackets (Morelli Ortodontia Braquete Edgewise/Rickets) were tested a [...] fter static loads of 30, 70 and 120grs. Bovine enamel was conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid gel for one minute, rinsed and dried. Adhesives were applied and brackets were bonded according to manufacturer’s instructions. Cement thickness was standardized with the use of a heavier Gilmore needle. After 24 hours, half of the specimens were submitted to the static loads of 30, 70 and 120grs. Control group remained unloaded. Then, specimens were immersed in distilled water for 28 days at 37ºC. Afterwards, orthodontic brackets were attached to a loop wire and submitted to a shear force (Máquina de Ensaios Kratos Universal Kratos) under a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min and load cell of 500Kgf. A two-way ANOVA test (alpha = 0.05) was used to detect significant interactions between cements and static loads. CONCLUSIONS: (1) The Concise cement showed more statistically significant bond strength values than the Transbond XT cement for all static loads; (2) No statistically significant differences were observed regarding static loads for all cements tested and (3) Higher static loads provided less enamel fracture in the Concise group after shear test, whereas in the Transbond XT the rate of enamel fracture remained unchanged regardless of previous load applied.

  6. Evaluation of the influence of dental bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide in orthodontic bracket shear bond strength

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcus Vinicius Neiva Nunes do, Rego; Roanselli Marllon Lima dos, Santos; Leanne Matias Portela, Leal; Carlos Gustavo Silva, Braga.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o propósito do presente estudo in vitro foi avaliar a resistência de união de braquetes colados em pré-molares previamente submetidos ao clareamento com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35%. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 21 dentes pré-molares hígidos, divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos (n = 7). O [...] grupo I (G1) incluiu os dentes que não foram submetidos ao clareamento. As superfícies de esmalte dos grupos II (G2) e III (G3) foram submetidas ao processo de clareamento com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35% (Whiteness HP Maxx). No grupo II (G2), após o clareamento, os dentes foram armazenados por 24 horas em água destilada a 37ºC e, em seguida, braquetes metálicos para pré-molares foram colados utilizando resina Transbond XT (3M). O grupo III (G3) também foi submetido ao mesmo procedimento, sete dias após o clareamento. Após a colagem, todos os dentes foram armazenados em água destilada a 37ºC por 24 horas. Todos os grupos foram submetidos ao teste de tração utilizando-se máquina universal de ensaios Emic DL2000 a uma velocidade 0,5mm/min. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: a resistência à descolagem dos braquetes foi comparada entre os grupos por meio da utilização do teste não paramétrico Kruskall Wallis (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the bond strength of brackets bonded to premolars previously subjected to bleaching with a 35% hydrogen peroxide. METHODS: Twenty one healthy premolars were selected and randomly divided into three groups (n = 7). Group I (G1) included [...] teeth that were not submitted to bleaching. The enamel surfaces of Groups II (G2) and III (G3) were submitted to a bleaching process with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP Maxx). On Group II (G2), after bleaching, the teeth were stored for 24 hours in distilled water at 98.6 ºF, and then, premolar metallic brackets were bonded using Transbond XT (3M) resin. Group III (G3) was submitted to the same procedure seven days after bleaching. After bonding, all teeth were stored in distilled water at 98.6 ºF for 24 hours. All groups were submitted to a traction test using an EMIC DL2000 universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The bracket resistance to debonding was compared between the groups by the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test (p

  7. A comparative clinical study of the failure rate of orthodontic brackets bonded with two adhesive systems: conventional and self-etching primer (SEP)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladys Cristina, Dominguez; André, Tortamano; Luiz Vicente de Moura, Lopes; Priscilla Campanatti Chibebe, Catharino; Camillo, Morea.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desempenho clínico da colagem de braquetes ortodônticos com resina Transbond (3M Unitek) associada a dois sistemas adesivos: convencional em duas etapas (ataque ácido + Transbond XT adhesive Primer) e Self-Etching Primer (SEP), em etapa única (T [...] ransbond Plus). MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída de 480 braquetes metálicos (Victory, 3M Unitek), colados em 24 pacientes, que foram tratados durante um período de 36 a 48 meses. A colagem foi feita por meio do sistema split-mouth, utilizando os dois sistemas de colagem em cada paciente. Foi analisada a taxa de queda dos braquetes para cada sistema de colagem, descrita a causa da queda conforme relato do paciente e a posição dos dentes nas arcadas. RESULTADOS: o sistema adesivo convencional apresentou taxa de queda de 5,41%, enquanto a do SEP foi de 4,58%. O sistema convencional apresentou 5 quedas (38,4%) no quadrante superior direito, 2 (15,4%) no quadrante superior esquerdo, 4 (30,8%) no quadrante inferior direito e 2 (15,4%) no quadrante inferior esquerdo. O SEP apresentou 4 quedas (36,4%) no quadrante superior direito, 1 (9%) no quadrante superior esquerdo, 3 (27,3%) no quadrante inferior direito e 3 (27,3%) no quadrante inferior esquerdo. Por meio da análise estatística descritiva e do teste Odds Ratio, constatou-se que não houve diferença significativa entre essas taxas (p = 0,67). CONCLUSÃO: com base nesses resultados, pode-se concluir que o sistema adesivo SEP apresentou eficácia clínica semelhante à do sistema adesivo convencional. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study compared the clinical performance of orthodontic brackets bonded with Transbond adhesive paste after two priming systems: a two-stage conventional system (acid etching + Transbond XT adhesive primer) and a singlestage self-etching primer (SEP) (Transbond Plus). METHODS: The sam [...] ple comprised 480 metal brackets bonded to the teeth of 24 consecutive patients treated for 36 to 48 months. A split-mouth design was used for bonding, and both systems were used in each patient. Bracket failure rates for each system were analyzed; and failure causes as reported by the patients and the quadrant of teeth for which brackets failed were recorded. RESULTS: The conventional system group had a failure rate of 5.41%, whereas the rate for SEP was 4.58%. In this group, there were 5 failures (38.4%) in the right maxillary quadrant, 2 (15.4%) in the left maxillary quadrant, 4 (30.8%) in the right mandibular quadrant, and 2 (15.4%) in the left mandibular quadrant. In the SEP group, there were 4 (36.4%) failures in the right maxillary quadrant, 1 (9%) in the left maxillary quadrant, 3 (27.3%) in the right mandibular quadrant, and 3 (27.3%) in the left mandibular quadrant. Results of descriptive statistical analysis and odds ratio did not show any significant differences between rates (p = 0.67). CONCLUSION: The clinical efficiency of SEP was similar to that of the conventional system.

  8. The evolution of bonding in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gange, Paul

    2015-04-01

    In the early days of fixed-appliance orthodontic treatment, brackets were welded to gold or stainless steel bands. Before treatment, the orthodontist had to create enough space around each tooth to accommodate the bands, and then those spaces had to be closed at the end of treatment, when the bands were removed. This was time-consuming for the orthodontist and uncomfortable for the patient. Banded appliances frequently caused gingival trauma when fitted, and decalcification could occur under the band. In the mid-1960s, Dr George Newman, an orthodontist in Orange, New Jersey, and Professor Fujio Miura, chair of the Department of Orthodontics at Tokyo Medical and Dental University in Japan, pioneered the bonding of orthodontic brackets to enamel. Many developments have occurred in the decades that followed, including many new adhesives, sophisticated base designs, new bracket materials, faster or more efficient curing methods, self-etching primers, fluoride-releasing agents, and sealants. The purpose of this article is to review the history of orthodontic bonding, especially the materials used in the bonding process. PMID:25836345

  9. Coated Rectangular Composite Archwires: A Comparison Of Self-Ligating And Conventional Bracket Systems During Sliding Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David Keith

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the resistance to sliding of coated rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwires using various brackets systems and second-order bracket angulations. Resistance to sliding was investigated for eight bracket systems: six self-ligating brackets (four passive and two passive-active) and two conventional brackets. A rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwire of 0.019 x 0.025-in dimension from BiomersRTM SimpliClear was drawn through a three-bracket model system at ten millimeters per minute for 2.5 millimeters. For each bracket, the resistance to sliding was measured at four bracket angulations (0°, 2.5°, 5°, and 10°) in a dry state at room temperature. The fiber reinforced composite archwire produced the lowest sliding resistance with the passive self-ligating bracket system (Damon DQ) at each bracket angulation tested. Overall, self-ligating bracket systems generated lower sliding resistance than conventionally ligated systems, and one passive/active self-ligating bracket system (In-Ovation-R). There was a significant increase in resistance to sliding as bracket angulation increased for all bracket systems tested. Microscopic analysis revealed increased perforation of the archwire coating material as bracket angulations were increased. Our findings show that the rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwire may be acceptable for sliding mechanics during the intermediate stages of orthodontic tooth movement, however more long-term studies are needed.

  10. Interferência dos diferentes glazeamentos na colagem de bráquetes ortodônticos em superfícies cerâmicas / Effects of the different glazed ceramic surfaces on the bond of orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. C, Dalvi; A. M, Bolognese.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas diferentes formas de glazeamento da superfície de porcelana quanto à resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes metálicos colados com diferentes cimentos. Quarenta e dois corpos de prova de metalocerâmica foram confeccionados (2 controles) e divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com o t [...] ipo de glazeamento, com camada extra de glaze (G) ou auto-glazeados (AG), e o cimento utilizado, resina fotopolimerizável (r) ou ionômero de vidro resinosos (i), formando os seguintes grupos: Gr, Gi, AGr e AGi com 10 corpos de prova cada grupo. Todas as superfícies dos corpos de prova receberam tratamento com ácido fosfórico 35% por 30 s seguidos de uma camada de silano. Quarenta bráquetes metálicos foram colados. Os corpos de prova foram submetidos a termociclagem e ao teste de resistência ao cisalhamento com uma máquina universal de ensaios mecânicos. Uma amostra de cada grupo após descolagem, remoção da resina e polimento, foi avaliado em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O índice de fratura coesiva da porcelana foi também avaliado. Os resultados mostram valores acima da média aceitável na literatura para todos os grupos, sendo que o grupo AGr apresentou valor menor (10,38 MPa) e estatisticamente significativo em relação aos demais. A análise no microscópio eletrônico de varredura mostrou que as superfícies, após polimento, não readquirem as características de antes da colagem, apesar de se apresentarem aceitáveis clinicamente. Houve fratura da porcelana em todos os grupos. Conclui-se que é possível se conseguir colagem adequada de bráquetes metálicos em superfícies metalocerâmicas auto-glazeadas e com camada extra de glaze, preservando-o, não necessitando reconhecer previamente a forma de glazeamento. Abstract in english Different glazing techniques for porcelain surface were evaluated in terms of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with different cements. Forty-two metal-ceramic samples were made (2 controls) and then divided into four groups according to type of glazing technique, either using extra gl [...] aze layer (G) or self-glazing material (SG), and type of adhesive material, that is, self-curing resin (r) or resin glass-ionomer cement (i), thus forming the following groups: Gr, Gi, SGr, and SGi with 10 samples each. The whole surface of all samples was treated with 35% phosphoric acid for 30 s, followed by application of silane layer. Forty metallic brackets were bonded. The samples were submitted to thermocycling process and shear bond strength test with a universal testing machine. After bracket debonding, removal of resin, and polishing, one sample from each group was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The index of cohesive porcelain fracture was also assessed. The results show that all the groups had, on average, values higher than those found in the literature, with AGr presenting the lowest value (10.38 MPa) compared to other groups. SEM analysis showed that the porcelain surfaces did not recover their original characteristics before the bracket debonding procedure, although they were considered acceptable for clinical use. Porcelain fracture was observed in all groups. One can conclude that it is possible to bond metallic brackets adequately to metal-ceramic porcelain surfaces previously treated with either self-glazing material or extra glaze layer without having to recognise the glazing technique originally employed.

  11. Interferência dos diferentes glazeamentos na colagem de bráquetes ortodônticos em superfícies cerâmicas Effects of the different glazed ceramic surfaces on the bond of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C Dalvi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas diferentes formas de glazeamento da superfície de porcelana quanto à resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes metálicos colados com diferentes cimentos. Quarenta e dois corpos de prova de metalocerâmica foram confeccionados (2 controles e divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com o tipo de glazeamento, com camada extra de glaze (G ou auto-glazeados (AG, e o cimento utilizado, resina fotopolimerizável (r ou ionômero de vidro resinosos (i, formando os seguintes grupos: Gr, Gi, AGr e AGi com 10 corpos de prova cada grupo. Todas as superfícies dos corpos de prova receberam tratamento com ácido fosfórico 35% por 30 s seguidos de uma camada de silano. Quarenta bráquetes metálicos foram colados. Os corpos de prova foram submetidos a termociclagem e ao teste de resistência ao cisalhamento com uma máquina universal de ensaios mecânicos. Uma amostra de cada grupo após descolagem, remoção da resina e polimento, foi avaliado em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O índice de fratura coesiva da porcelana foi também avaliado. Os resultados mostram valores acima da média aceitável na literatura para todos os grupos, sendo que o grupo AGr apresentou valor menor (10,38 MPa e estatisticamente significativo em relação aos demais. A análise no microscópio eletrônico de varredura mostrou que as superfícies, após polimento, não readquirem as características de antes da colagem, apesar de se apresentarem aceitáveis clinicamente. Houve fratura da porcelana em todos os grupos. Conclui-se que é possível se conseguir colagem adequada de bráquetes metálicos em superfícies metalocerâmicas auto-glazeadas e com camada extra de glaze, preservando-o, não necessitando reconhecer previamente a forma de glazeamento.Different glazing techniques for porcelain surface were evaluated in terms of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with different cements. Forty-two metal-ceramic samples were made (2 controls and then divided into four groups according to type of glazing technique, either using extra glaze layer (G or self-glazing material (SG, and type of adhesive material, that is, self-curing resin (r or resin glass-ionomer cement (i, thus forming the following groups: Gr, Gi, SGr, and SGi with 10 samples each. The whole surface of all samples was treated with 35% phosphoric acid for 30 s, followed by application of silane layer. Forty metallic brackets were bonded. The samples were submitted to thermocycling process and shear bond strength test with a universal testing machine. After bracket debonding, removal of resin, and polishing, one sample from each group was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The index of cohesive porcelain fracture was also assessed. The results show that all the groups had, on average, values higher than those found in the literature, with AGr presenting the lowest value (10.38 MPa compared to other groups. SEM analysis showed that the porcelain surfaces did not recover their original characteristics before the bracket debonding procedure, although they were considered acceptable for clinical use. Porcelain fracture was observed in all groups. One can conclude that it is possible to bond metallic brackets adequately to metal-ceramic porcelain surfaces previously treated with either self-glazing material or extra glaze layer without having to recognise the glazing technique originally employed.

  12. Avaliação do uso do Self Etching Primer na colagem de braquetes ortodônticos metálicos / Assessment of the Self-Etching Primer on bonding of metallic orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriane Regina, Sponchiado; Afonso E., Wunderlich Júnior; Paulo Sérgio, Galletta; Murilo, Rosa.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nesta pesquisa laboratorial foi avaliada a resistência de união ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos colados ao esmalte dentário bovino, utilizando um sistema adesivo convencional, composto de ácido fosfórico + primer + resina adesiva, e de um sistema SEP (self-etching primer) que combina ácido e [...] primer em uma única solução, avaliado em ambiente seco e úmido (com água). Quarenta e oito incisivos inferiores bovinos foram divididos em três grupos de 16 unidades, que foram assim preparados: grupo 1 (controle) ácido fosfórico 37% + primer + resina Transbond XT; o grupo 2 Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer em ambiente seco + resina Transbond XT e no grupo 3 o Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer foi aplicado em ambiente úmido com água + Transbond XT. Efetuada a colagem, procedeu-se o ensaio mecânico em uma máquina Instron, a uma velocidade de 1mm/min. As médias da resistência de união ao cisalhamento encontradas foram: 9,29MPa para o grupo 1; 10,57MPa para o grupo 2 e 7,45MPa para o grupo 3, sendo que os três grupos apresentaram resistência compatível com o uso clínico. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre o sistema convencional e o SEP em ambiente seco, nem em ambiente úmido. Houve redução significativa na resistência de união ao cisalhamento para o SEP em ambiente úmido quando comparado ao SEP em ambiente seco. Concluímos que o Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer apresenta resistência de união ao esmalte similar ao ácido fosfórico 37% + primer, sendo indicado para uso clínico na colagem de braquetes ortodônticos. Abstract in english This research evaluated the shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to bovine teeth, using conventional adhesive system consisting of phosphoric acid + primer + adhesive resin, and a system SEP (self-etching primer) that combines acid and primer in one solution. The SEP system was evaluated [...] in either dry and moist (water) environments. Forty-eight lower bovine incisors teeth were divided in three groups of sixteen units each one, prepared as following: group 1(control) phosphoric acid 37% + primer + Transbond XT resin; group 2 Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer in dry environment + Transbond XT resin, and group 3 the Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer applied in moist environment + Transbond XT.After bonding, the mechanical test was performed with an Instron machine (crosshead speed of 1mm/min). The shear bond strength were: 9,29 MPa for group 1;10,57 MPa for group 2 and 7,45 MPa for group 3.All groups showed clinical acceptable resistance. There wasn't significant difference between conventional system and the SEP in dry environment, neither in moist environment. However, there was a significant reduction in the shear bond strength for the SEP in moist environment when compared with SEP in dry environment. It was concluded that Transbond + Self Etching Primer showed shear bond strength to enamel similar to phosphoric acid 37% + primer, therefore it is indicated to clinically bond orthodontic brackets.

  13. Fracture strength of different soldered and welded orthodontic joining configurations with and without filling material

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jens Johannes, Bock; Jacqueline, Bailly; Christian Ralf, Gernhardt; Robert Andreas Werner, Fuhrmann.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength of different joints made by conventional brazing, TIG and laser welding with and without filling material. Five standardized joining configurations of orthodontic wire in spring hard quality were used: round, cross, 3 mm length, 9 mm lengt [...] h and 7 mm to orthodontic band. The joints were made by five different methods: brazing, tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding with and without filling material. For the original orthodontic wire and for each kind of joint configuration or connecting method 10 specimens were carefully produced, totalizing 240. The fracture strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). Data were analyzed by ANOVA (p=0.05) and Bonferroni post hoc test (p=0.05). In all cases, brazing joints were ruptured on a low level of fracture strength (186-407 N). Significant differences between brazing and TIG or laser welding (p

  14. An overview of orthodontic material degradation in oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi T; Upadhayay S

    2010-01-01

    Various types of metallic orthodontic appliances are used in the management of malocclusion. These appliances are placed in oral environnent under many stresses and variations such as masticatory forces, appliance loading, temperature fluctuations, varieties of ingested food and saliva. These metals undergo electrochemical reactions with the oral environment resulting in dissolution or formation of chemical compounds. Various microorganisms and many aggressive ions containing oral environment...

  15. Effects of ligation type and method on the resistance to sliding of novel orthodontic brackets with second-order angulation in the dry and wet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstenson, Glenys A; Kusy, Robert P

    2003-08-01

    Rectangular stainless steel (SS) archwires were coupled with four SS bracket designs: Mini Diamond Twin, which was a conventional twin bracket; VersaT, which had bumps along the slot floor and rounded slot walls; Shoulder, which had bosses outside the tie-wings to lift the ligation off the archwire; and Synergy, which had bosses between the outer and inner tie-wings, bumps along the slot floor, and rounded slot walls. For all designs, the values of resistance to sliding (RS) were measured at five normal forces and 32 second-order angulations in the dry and wet (saliva) states. RS values at these same angles and states were also measured for the following: Mini Diamond Twin brackets ligated with rings and SS ligature wires; VersaT brackets ligated with rings; Shoulder brackets ligated with rings in a figure-8 and a figure-O around the tie-wings; and Synergy brackets ligated with rings around the outer tie-wings and around the inner tie-wings. In both states, the coefficients of friction were similar for the Mini Diamond Twin, VersaT, and Synergy brackets; the values for the Shoulder brackets were slightly greater than for the other three designs. In the passive configuration, the features of the Shoulder and Synergy brackets reduced RS when the rings were not in contact with the archwires. In the active configuration, the binding behavioral patterns of the brackets were not influenced by ligation methods. Thus, these different ligation types and methods only affected the classical frictional component of RS in the passive configuration. PMID:12940563

  16. Dynamic stress relaxation of orthodontic thermoplastic materials in a simulated oral environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dongyu; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Hui; Bai, Yuxing

    2013-11-30

    Mechanical properties are crucial for screening orthodontic thermoplastic materials for invisible aligners. However, most of previous studies were carried out within laboratory conditions which limit our understanding of the mechanical behaviors of aligners within oral environment. In this study, we studied the dynamic stress relaxation of thermoplastic materials by combination of Bose ElectroForce and a homemade temperature-controlled water bath. The 3-h stress relaxation curves of five orthodontic thermoplastic materials were measured within 37°C water bath as well as comparatively in ambient atmospheric environment (~20°C). The percentage residual stress at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min was selected for statistical analyses. As expected, the experimental results showed that the residual stress within all five materials decreased with time, and that this process was significantly accelerated in the 37°C water bath (pErkodur and Masel exhibited slower relaxing rates in the 37°C water bath (p<0.05). PMID:24240895

  17. Innovative materials: the NiTi alloys in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, G; Riva, G

    1996-01-01

    Since ten years the NiTi alloys have gained an ever increasing place in orthodontic practice: that is due to their peculiar mechanical properties ascribed to a martensitic thermoelastic transformation which can be thermally or, in a proper temperature range, stress-induced. In the last case, when martensite is stress-induced at body temperature, the stress-strain behaviour is pseudoelastic with large deformations gained or recovered at constant stress, respectively in direct/reverse transformation: this behaviour exploited in orthodontics allowed to overcome the drawbacks intrinsic to the use of conventional alloys as stainless steel or Co-Mo alloys, where small displacements can be achieved at decreasing loads. From the phase state diagram of NiTi alloys it appears that at body temperature they are stable, but out of equilibrium: thermal treatments at intermediate temperatures can therefore modify the equilibrium state and as a consequence the transformation temperatures respect to body temperature. That allows to modify the recovery stress level according to the requirements of practice and thus disclosing new roads: the capability to foresee NiTi archwires pre-programmed in different sections, with a personalized scheme. Attention has not currently been paid to the modifications in the recovery stress induced by a temperature change inside the oral cavity. Recent results have shown that the thermal changes in the oral cavity induced by cold/hot liquid intake can considerably modify the stress level to which the dentition is exposed: though confined to the time extent connected with drinking, similar effects can be expected also for meals intake and should be taken into account for a correct procedure. PMID:8980837

  18. Biocompatibilidade dos materiais em Ortodontia: mito ou realidade? Biocompatibility of orthodontic materials: myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Macedo de Menezes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma revisão sobre os conceitos relacionados à biocompatibilidade dos materiais empregados em Ortodontia. Fatos relacionados às reações de hipersensibilidade aos diversos materiais ortodônticos são discutidos, sendo apresentadas as condutas recomendáveis nestas situações.The aim of this paper is to present a review on the biocompatibility of orthodontic materials. Hypersensitivity reactions to these materials are discussed and the recommended conduct in this kind of situation are presented.

  19. Evaluación in vitro de la resistencia friccional entre brackets cerámicos y arcos de acero inoxidable con y sin recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método Sol-Gel In vitro evaluation of frictional resistance between ceramic brackets and orthodontic steel wires with and without glass coatings applied by Sol-Gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Adriana Rendón Arias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: comparar la resistencia friccional estática y dinámica in vitro entre brackets cerámicos y alambres de acero inoxidable con recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método Sol-Gel y sin él. MÉTODOS: se prepararon 58 alambres de acero inoxidable AISI 304 de 0.016 x 0.016 con recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por Sol-Gel y sin él. Posteriormente se evaluó la resistencia a la fricción estática y dinámica in vitro de los alambres sobre brackets cerámicos de zafiro monocristalino y se caracterizaron las superficies en contacto por microscopia óptica y electrónica de barrido (SEM. RESULTADOS: se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos tanto para la fuerza de fricción estática (p = 0,000 como dinámica (p = 0,001. El grupo de los alambres recubiertos presentó una fuerza de fricción estática y dinámica mayor (estática: 1,78 ± 0,44 N, dinámica: 1,75 ± 0,49 N que el grupo sin recubrimientos (estática: 1,37 ± 0,31 N, dinámica: 1,41 ± 0,27 N. La caracterización por SEM mostró que se producen defectos superficiales en los recubrimientos después de las pruebas de fricción. CONCLUSIÓN: los recubrimientos evaluados no mostraron mejor comportamiento friccional sobre brackets de zafiro monocristalino cuando son comparados con el grupo control.INTRODUCTION: to compare the in vitro static and dynamic frictional resistance between ceramic brackets and stainless steel wires with and without glass coatings applied by sol-gel method. METHODS: 58 commercial stainless steel orthodontic wires AISI 304 (0.016 x 0.016 inch were prepared with and without vitreous coating applied by Sol- Gel method. The in vitro static and dynamic frictional resistance of the wires on the mono-crystalline ceramic brackets were evaluated; also, the wire surfaces were characterized by means of Optical Microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. RESULTS: statistically significant differences were found between both groups under static (p = 0.000 as well as dynamic (p = 0.001 friction test. The friction values found in the coated group were higher (Static friction: 1.78 ± 0.44 N, Dynamic friction: 1.75 ± 0.49 N than the group with no coating (Static friction: 1.37 ± 0.31 N, Dynamic friction: 1.41 ± 0.27 N. Characterization by SEM showed surface defects in both groups after the friction tests. CONCLUSION: the evaluated coatings did not perform better in terms of frictional behavior on sapphire mono-crystalline ceramic brackets when compared with the control group.

  20. Evaluación in vitro de la resistencia friccional entre brackets cerámicos y arcos de acero inoxidable con y sin recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método Sol-Gel / In vitro evaluation of frictional resistance between ceramic brackets and orthodontic steel wires with and without glass coatings applied by Sol-Gel method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz Adriana, Rendón Arias; Gustavo Adolfo, Cano Correa; Alejandro, peláez Vargas; Pedro M, Jaramillo Vallejo; Claudia, García Garcia; Yessid, Montoya Góez.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: comparar la resistencia friccional estática y dinámica in vitro entre brackets cerámicos y alambres de acero inoxidable con recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método Sol-Gel y sin él. MÉTODOS: se prepararon 58 alambres de acero inoxidable AISI 304 de 0.016 x 0.016 con recubrimiento v [...] ítreo aplicado por Sol-Gel y sin él. Posteriormente se evaluó la resistencia a la fricción estática y dinámica in vitro de los alambres sobre brackets cerámicos de zafiro monocristalino y se caracterizaron las superficies en contacto por microscopia óptica y electrónica de barrido (SEM). RESULTADOS: se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos tanto para la fuerza de fricción estática (p = 0,000) como dinámica (p = 0,001). El grupo de los alambres recubiertos presentó una fuerza de fricción estática y dinámica mayor (estática: 1,78 ± 0,44 N, dinámica: 1,75 ± 0,49 N) que el grupo sin recubrimientos (estática: 1,37 ± 0,31 N, dinámica: 1,41 ± 0,27 N). La caracterización por SEM mostró que se producen defectos superficiales en los recubrimientos después de las pruebas de fricción. CONCLUSIÓN: los recubrimientos evaluados no mostraron mejor comportamiento friccional sobre brackets de zafiro monocristalino cuando son comparados con el grupo control. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: to compare the in vitro static and dynamic frictional resistance between ceramic brackets and stainless steel wires with and without glass coatings applied by sol-gel method. METHODS: 58 commercial stainless steel orthodontic wires AISI 304 (0.016 x 0.016 inch) were prepared with and w [...] ithout vitreous coating applied by Sol- Gel method. The in vitro static and dynamic frictional resistance of the wires on the mono-crystalline ceramic brackets were evaluated; also, the wire surfaces were characterized by means of Optical Microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: statistically significant differences were found between both groups under static (p = 0.000) as well as dynamic (p = 0.001) friction test. The friction values found in the coated group were higher (Static friction: 1.78 ± 0.44 N, Dynamic friction: 1.75 ± 0.49 N) than the group with no coating (Static friction: 1.37 ± 0.31 N, Dynamic friction: 1.41 ± 0.27 N). Characterization by SEM showed surface defects in both groups after the friction tests. CONCLUSION: the evaluated coatings did not perform better in terms of frictional behavior on sapphire mono-crystalline ceramic brackets when compared with the control group.

  1. Development of an orthodontic elastic material using EMA-based resin combined with 1-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takehiro; Miyazawa, Ken; Ueda, Naoya; Hata, Yuki; Kawai, Tatsushi; Goto, Shigemi

    2011-01-01

    For the development of new orthodontic elastic material, 1-butanol was added to PEMA-TA/HX resin. In the present study, basic experiments to reveal the mechanical properties of the materials were conducted. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that addition of 1-butanol did not cause any chemical changes to the PEMA-TA/HX resin. After addition of 1-butanol to PEMA-TA/HX resin, the modulus of elasticity, instantaneous modulus elasticity, retarded elasticity and viscosity were lowered in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the elastic strain was increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, on the application of heat a shape-memory effect was observed. These results suggest that the modulus of elasticity of this material can be adjusted. Additionally, this material has the ability to restore force as a function of its shape-memory effect in cases of plastic deformation at the insertion of appliances. This new orthodontic elastic material has the potential to be clinically effective in orthodontic treatment. PMID:21946487

  2. Bonding brackets to porcelain: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sant'Anna Eduardo Franzotti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, in vitro, the effect of various porcelain surface treatments on the shear strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain and the mode of fracture after debonding. Eighty-eight samples of metallic supported feldspathic porcelain were randomly divided into four groups according to their surface preparation as follows: the porcelain was maintained intact (GI, roughened with a diamond bur (GII, etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid (GIII, or sandblasted with aluminum oxide (GIV. The specimens were treated with silane (Scothprime and brackets were bonded with Concise. Each sample was subjected to a shear load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min and a recording was made at the point of failure. Bond strengths, adequate to withstand the application of orthodontic forces, were achieved in all groups. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test showed no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (p>0.05. However, many more porcelain fractures occurred on deglazed porcelain. This study indicates that with the appropriate material selection, the silane/composite procedure alone may be adequate for bonding.

  3. Comparative study on direct and indirect bracket bonding techniques regarding time length and bracket detachment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jefferson Vinicius, Bozelli; Renato, Bigliazzi; Helga Adachi Medeiros, Barbosa; Cristina Lucia Feijo, Ortolani; Francisco Antonio, Bertoz; Kurt, Faltin Junior.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar o tempo necessário para realização da colagem de braquetes pelas técnicas direta (CDB) e indireta (CIB), mensurando o tempo despendido entre a parte laboratorial (CIB) e a parte clínica (CDB e CIB), e a prevalência de descolamentos durante o período de observação de 24 semanas. MÉT [...] ODOS: dezessete pacientes (7 homens e 10 mulheres), com idade média de 21 anos, com necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico, foram selecionados para participar desse estudo. Foram utilizados um total de 304 braquetes, sendo que 151 foram colados pela técnica de CDB e 153 pela CIB, com o mesmo tipo de braquete e material de colagem. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon, com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: o tempo total para realização da CIB foi maior em relação à CDB (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the time spent for direct (DBB - direct bracket bonding) and indirect (IBB - indirect bracket bonding) bracket bonding techniques. The time length of laboratorial (IBB) and clinical steps (DBB and IBB) as well as the prevalence of loose bracket after a [...] 24-week follow-up were evaluated. METHODS: Seventeen patients (7 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 21 years, requiring orthodontic treatment were selected for this study. A total of 304 brackets were used (151 DBB and 153 IBB). The same bracket type and bonding material were used in both groups. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by Wilcoxon non-parametric test at 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Considering the total time length, the IBB technique was more time-consuming than the DBB (p

  4. Influência do agente clareador peróxido de carbamida a 10% na resistência mecânica da colagem de braquetes ortodônticos Influence of 10% carbamide peroxide gel on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Norões R. da Matta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo in vitro foi determinar a influência do agente clareador peróxido de carbamida a 10% na resistência mecânica da colagem de braquetes ortodônticos. Foram estudados três grupos denominados G1 (não submetido ao clareamento, G2 (com clareamento e colagem realizada 1 semana após e G3 (com clareamento e colagem realizada 24h após. O teste de cisalhamento foi conduzido na máquina de ensaios mecânicos Emic, com a velocidade de deformação de 0,5 mm/min.A resitência ao cisalhamento em relação à área de colagem foi calculada para cada dente e expressa em MPa. Os resultados mostraram aumento estatisticamente significante (pThe purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the influence of 10% carbamide peroxide gel on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Three group were studied: G1 (without bleaching, G2 (bleaching and bonding after 1 week and G3 (bleaching and bonding after 24h. The shear test was conduced in a Emic testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0,5 mm/min. The shear bond strength was calculated for each tooth and expressed in MPa. The results show enhance statistical significant (p<0,001 on the shear bond strength after bleaching and encreased with the time interval between bleaching and bonding, significantily.

  5. A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C02, Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm2 on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

  6. Antimicrobial and fluoride release capacity of orthodontic bonding materials

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erika Machado, Caldeira; Amanda, Osorio; Edna Lucia Couto, Oberosler; Delmo Santiago, Vaitsman; Daniela Sales, Alviano; Matilde da Cunha Goncalves, Nojima.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and fluoride releasing capacity of 3 bonding materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty nine specimens with standardized surface smoothness and dimensions were prepared. The antimicrobial capacity of the materials against S. mutans, [...] L. casei and C. albicans was evaluated by determining the percentage of growth inhibition of these microorganisms in an inoculated medium, obtained by optical density readouts on a spectrophotometer. The potential to interfere in microbial growth on the surface of the studied materials was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluoride release capacity in ultrapure water for 14 days was analyzed by means of ion chromatography. RESULTS: The PLUS group presented the highest percentage of microbial inhibition and the most contamination-free surface. The FUJI group presented the best fluoride release capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The TransbondTM Plus Color Change was the one that presented the best general behavior considering the evaluated aspects.

  7. Hausdorff Distance evaluation of orthodontic accessories' streaking artifacts in 3D model superimposition

    OpenAIRE

    José Rino Neto; Fernando Penteado Lopes da Silva; Israel Chilvarquer; João Batista De Paiva; Angélica Maria Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether image artifacts caused by orthodontic metal accessories interfere with the accuracy of 3D CBCT model superimposition. A human dry skull was subjected three times to a CBCT scan: at first without orthodontic brackets (T1), then with stainless steel brackets bonded without (T2) and with orthodontic arch wires (T3) inserted into the brackets' slots. The registration of image surfaces and the superimposition of 3D models were performed. Within-subjec...

  8. Bonding brackets to porcelain: in vitro study / Colagem de brackets em porcelana: estudo in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Franzotti, Sant' Anna; Maria Evangelina, Monnerat; Orlando, Chevitarese; Maria Bernadete Sasso, Stuani.

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, in vitro, the effect of various porcelain surface treatments on the shear strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain and the mode of fracture after debonding. Eighty-eight samples of metallic supported feldspathic porcelain were randomly divided into [...] four groups according to their surface preparation as follows: the porcelain was maintained intact (GI), roughened with a diamond bur (GII), etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid (GIII), or sandblasted with aluminum oxide (GIV). The specimens were treated with silane (Scothprime) and brackets were bonded with Concise. Each sample was subjected to a shear load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min and a recording was made at the point of failure. Bond strengths, adequate to withstand the application of orthodontic forces, were achieved in all groups. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test showed no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (p>0.05). However, many more porcelain fractures occurred on deglazed porcelain. This study indicates that with the appropriate material selection, the silane/composite procedure alone may be adequate for bonding.

  9. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de adesivo ortodôntico associado a verniz de clorexidina e timol na colagem de braquetes / Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of orthodontic adhesive associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish in bracket bonding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Freire de Carvalho, Calabrich; Marcelo de Castellucci e, Barbosa; Maria Regina Lorenzetti, Simionato; Rogério Frederico Alves, Ferreira.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana da associação de um adesivo ortodôntico com um verniz de clorexidina e timol. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 32 pré-molares humanos divididos em 4 grupos. O grupo 1 consistiu do grupo controle, no qual o adesivo utilizado para a colagem do braquete não estava [...] associado a nenhum agente antimicrobiano. Os grupos 2, 3 e 4 foram colados com um sistema adesivo associado a um verniz de clorexidina e timol. Os grupos 3 e 4 foram armazenados em água por 7 dias e 30 dias, respectivamente, enquanto os corpos de prova do grupo 2 foram, logo depois da colagem, colocados em ágar semeado com Streptococcus mutans por 48h a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os grupos experimentais, com exceção do grupo controle, apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana com tendência de redução do seu potencial de ação com maior tempo de imersão em água. CONCLUSÃO: a associação do verniz de clorexidina a um sistema adesivo utilizado em Ortodontia apresenta-se vantajosa pela sua atividade antimicrobiana. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the antimicrobial activity resulting from the association of an orthodontic adhesive with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. METHODS: Thirty-two extracted human premolars were used, divided into four groups. In Group 1, the control group, the adhesive used to bond the bracket was not [...] associated with any antimicrobial agent. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were bonded with an adhesive system associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. Groups 3 and 4 were stored in water for 7 days and 30 days, respectively, while the specimens from group 2 were, soon after bonding, placed on agar seeded with Streptococcus mutans for 48 hours, at 37º C. RESULTS: The experimental groups, with the exception of the control group, showed antimicrobial activity whose action tended to decline commensurately with the amount of time that they remained immersed in water. CONCLUSIONS: The association of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish with an adhesive system used in orthodontics proved to be advantageous due to its antimicrobial activity.

  10. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de adesivo ortodôntico associado a verniz de clorexidina e timol na colagem de braquetes Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of orthodontic adhesive associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish in bracket bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Freire de Carvalho Calabrich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana da associação de um adesivo ortodôntico com um verniz de clorexidina e timol. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 32 pré-molares humanos divididos em 4 grupos. O grupo 1 consistiu do grupo controle, no qual o adesivo utilizado para a colagem do braquete não estava associado a nenhum agente antimicrobiano. Os grupos 2, 3 e 4 foram colados com um sistema adesivo associado a um verniz de clorexidina e timol. Os grupos 3 e 4 foram armazenados em água por 7 dias e 30 dias, respectivamente, enquanto os corpos de prova do grupo 2 foram, logo depois da colagem, colocados em ágar semeado com Streptococcus mutans por 48h a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os grupos experimentais, com exceção do grupo controle, apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana com tendência de redução do seu potencial de ação com maior tempo de imersão em água. CONCLUSÃO: a associação do verniz de clorexidina a um sistema adesivo utilizado em Ortodontia apresenta-se vantajosa pela sua atividade antimicrobiana.OBJECTIVE: To assess the antimicrobial activity resulting from the association of an orthodontic adhesive with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. METHODS: Thirty-two extracted human premolars were used, divided into four groups. In Group 1, the control group, the adhesive used to bond the bracket was not associated with any antimicrobial agent. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were bonded with an adhesive system associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. Groups 3 and 4 were stored in water for 7 days and 30 days, respectively, while the specimens from group 2 were, soon after bonding, placed on agar seeded with Streptococcus mutans for 48 hours, at 37º C. RESULTS: The experimental groups, with the exception of the control group, showed antimicrobial activity whose action tended to decline commensurately with the amount of time that they remained immersed in water. CONCLUSIONS: The association of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish with an adhesive system used in orthodontics proved to be advantageous due to its antimicrobial activity.

  11. Comparative study of frictional forces generated by NiTi archwire deformation in different orthodontic brackets: In vitro evaluation Estudo comparativo da força de atrito produzida pela deformação de arco NiTi em diferentes braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Vilanova Queiroz; Rafael Yagüe Ballester; João Batista De Paiva; José Rino Neto; Giselle Mara Galon

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the frictional forces between 0.014-in NiTi wires (Aditek) with 4 mm horizontal deflection and brackets with different archwire ligation systems. METHODS: Four types of self-ligating brackets (Damon MX, Easy Clip, Smart Clip and In-Ovation), a triple bracket (Synergy) and a twin bracket with 8-shaped ligature (Tecnident) were tested. Twin brackets with conventional elastomeric ligatures (Morelli) were used as control group. Tests were rep...

  12. Influência do tempo pós-fixação na resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes colados com diferentes materiais Influence of post-fixation time on shear bond strength of brackets fixed with different bonding materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço CORRER SOBRINHO

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a resistência ao cisalhamento da união, nos tempos pós-fixação de 10 minutos e 24 horas, de quatro materiais para colagem de bráquetes e os tipos de falhas na fratura. Foram utilizados 64 pré-molares humanos recém-extraídos embutidos em resina. As faces vestibulares de 32 pré-molares foram condicionadas com ácido fosfórico a 35%, por 30 segundos e em 16 deles, os bráquetes foram colados com Concise Ortodôntico (3M e nos demais com resina composta Z100 (3M. Em 32 dentes, os bráquetes foram colados sem condicionamento do esmalte, com ionômeros de vidro Fuji I (GC e Fuji Ortho LC (GC. Após a fixação, 32 corpos-de-prova foram armazenados em água destilada a 37ºC, por 10 minutos e o restante por 24 horas e submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento numa máquina com velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Os resultados submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey (5% mostraram que os maiores valores de resistência ao cisalhamento aos 10 minutos e 24 horas foram observados com o Concise Ortodôntico, com diferença estatística significativa em relação ao Fuji Ortho LC, Z100 e Fuji I. Nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada entre Fuji Ortho LC, Z100 e Fuji I. Os autores concluíram que o Concise Ortodôntico apresentou maiores valores de resistência ao cisalhamento em relação aos outros materiais, nos tempos de 10 minutos e 24 horas, os valores obtidos no período de 24 horas foram superiores em relação aos de 10 minutos, para todos materiais e um grande número de falhas adesivas foi observada para o Fuji I, Concise Ortodôntico e Z100.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of four bonding materials for brackets, 10 minutes and 24 hours after their fixation, as well as the kinds of fracture observed. The buccal surfaces of 32 premolars were etched for 30 seconds with 35% phosphoric acid, and brackets were bonded using Orthodontic Concise (3M and Z100 (3M. In other 32 premolars, brackets were bonded with Fuji I (GC and Fuji Ortho LC (GC on the buccal surfaces, without acid etching. After the bonding procedures, 32 samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 10 minutes, and 32 samples were stored at the same temperature for 24 hours. The samples were then submitted to shear bond strength testing in an Instron testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. The results indicated that, for 10 minutes and 24 hours, Orthodontic Concise showed shear bond strength values (6.22 and 7.73 MPa, respectively higher than Fuji Ortho LC (3.32 and 5.10 MPa, Z100 (2.72 and 4.51 MPa and Fuji I (2.52 and 4.54 MPa. No statistical difference was verified between Fuji Ortho LC, Z100 and Fuji I (p < 0.05. In conclusion, Orthodontic Concise showed better shear bond strength values than the other three bonding materials, for both 10-minute and 24-hour storage periods; the shear bond strength averages were higher for the storage time of 24 hours, for all tested materials, and a great number of adhesive fractures were observed in the specimens which received Fuji I, Orthodontic Concise and Z100.

  13. Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes colados com resinas ortodônticas fluoretadas / Evaluation of shear bond strength of brackets bonded with orthodontic fluoride-releasing composite resins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcia Cristina, Rastelli; Ulisses, Coelho; Emígdio Enrique Orellana, Jimenez.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos colados com resinas que contêm flúor, comparando-as a uma resina convencional; e analisar a quantidade de adesivo remanescente na superfície do esmalte. MÉTODOS: sessenta pré-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos: Gr [...] upo I - Concise (3M), Grupo II - Ultrabond (Aditek do Brasil) e Grupo III - Rely-a-Bond (Reliance). Após a colagem dos braquetes, as amostras foram termocicladas (500 ciclos) nas temperaturas de 5°C e 55°C. Após 48 horas, foram submetidas aos ensaios mecânicos de cisalhamento na direção oclusocervical, com velocidade de carga de 0,5mm/min, em uma máquina MTS 810. RESULTADOS: foram observadas resistências médias ao cisalhamento de 24,54±6,98MPa para o Grupo I, de 11,53±6,20MPa para o Grupo II e de 16,46±5,72MPa para o Grupo III. A Análise de Variância determinou diferença estatística entre as médias de resistência ao cisalhamento entre os grupos (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets bonded with fluoride releasing composite resins, comparing them with a conventional resin and to analyze the amount of resin left on the enamel surface. METHODS: Sixty premolars were randomly divided into three groups: Group [...] I - Concise (3M), Group II - Ultrabond (Aditek do Brasil) and Group III - Rely-a-Bond (Reliance). After bonding, the samples were thermocycled (500 cycles) at 5ºC and 55ºC temperatures. After 48 hours they were subjected to shear bond strength testing, in the occluso-gingival direction, using an MTS 810 Universal Testing Machine with load speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The results demonstrated a mean shear bond strength of 24.54 ± 6.98 MPa for Group I, 11.53 ± 6.20 MPa for Group II, and 16.46 ± 5.72 MPa for Group III. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) determined a statistical difference in the mean shear bond strengths between groups (p

  14. Effects of self-ligating brackets on the surfaces of stainless steel wires following clinical use: AFM investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S; Joo, H-J; Cheong, Y; Park, Y-G; Park, H-K

    2012-04-01

    In orthodontic treatment, the frictional force between the archwire and bracket reduces the effectiveness of orthodontic treatment. The frictional force is affected not only by the geometry of the self-ligating brackets but also by physical changes between the bracket slots and archwire surfaces during sliding movement. This study examined quantitatively the effect of self-ligating treatments on the surfaces of stainless steel (SS) archwires during tooth movement in vivo by atomic force microscopy. Orthodontic 0.019? × 0.025? SS archwires after clinical use with the first bicuspid-extraction treatment were employed using the Damon 3MX(®) SS self-ligating brackets, Clippy-C(®) ceramic self-ligating brackets, and Kosaka(®) SS brackets. Intact SS archwires were used as the control group. All SS archwires after clinical use showed severe scratches and significantly higher roughness caused by frictional interactions between the brackets and archwires (p ceramic self-ligating brackets, with conventional SS brackets, and with SS self-ligating brackets (p orthodontic treatment with SS self-ligating brackets may require smaller orthodontic forces than that with ceramic self-ligating brackets or conventional SS brackets. PMID:22188518

  15. Staining of esthetic brackets by plaque disclosing solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiza Novelino Acatauassú, Ismael; Mauro de Amorim Acatauassú, Nunes; Ana Maria Novelino Acatauassú, Nunes; Rogério Heládio Lopes, Motta; Ana Paula Dias, Demasi; Flávia Martão, Flório.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM: To evaluate the staining of esthetic orthodontic brackets by plaque disclosing solutions. METHODS: Two types of brackets manufactured by GAC/DENTSPLY(r) were evaluated: ceramic (n=30) and polycarbonate (n=30). The brackets were divided into 6 groups. Two control groups (n=6) were immersed [...] in absolute ethanol: GI - ceramic brackets and GII - polycarbonate brackets. Four experimental groups (n=12) were immersed in different plaque disclosing solutions: GIII (ceramic brackets) and GIV (polycarbonate brackets) were immersed in Replak(r); GV (ceramic brackets) and GVI (polycarbonate brackets) were immersed in Replasul "S"(r). Relative quantitative analysis of the influence of plaque disclosing tablets on bracket staining was performed using reflectance spectrophotometry of stain deposition. Exploratory analysis of the data was performed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in a 2x2 factorial setup (bracket x immersion) with additional treatments (controls). RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the ceramic brackets presented the highest amount of staining when Replasul "S"(r) was used (pd"0.05). However, when Replak(r) was used, no statistically significant difference was found in comparison with the control group (p>0.05). For polycarbonate brackets, staining was detected for both disclosing solutions (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The disclosing solutions caused stain formation on polycarbonate brackets and, under the tested conditions, use of Replak(r) on ceramic brackets did not cause staining.

  16. Effect of archwire size and material on the resistance to sliding of self-ligating brackets with second-order angulation in the dry state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstenson, Glenys A; Kusy, Robert P

    2002-09-01

    When paired with a particular self-ligating bracket design, the material and the geometric characteristics of an archwire influence its resistance to sliding. Four designs of self-ligating brackets (1 with a slide, 3 with clips) were coupled with 5 types of archwires: 14-mil round austenitic nickel-titanium, 16 x 22-mil rectangular austenitic nickel-titanium, 19 x 25-mil rectangular austenitic nickel-titanium, 19 x 25-mil rectangular martensitic nickel-titanium, and 19 x 25-mil rectangular stainless steel. The resistance to sliding (RS) of each archwire-bracket couple was measured at second-order angles between -9 degrees and 9 degrees. Interbracket distances of 8 and 18 mm between the test bracket and the adjacent brackets mimicked closure of a premolar extraction. When clearance exists, the RS is negligible for self-ligating brackets with slides coupled to any size of wire as well as for those with clips when coupled to wires that do not contact the clip. Once the wire attains a certain size and contacts the clip, the RS depends on the archwire size, the bracket design, and the materials of the couple. When coupled with the 16 x 22-mil wire, the brackets with clips applied normal forces ranging from a low of 5.6 centi-Newtons (cN) (1 cN = 1 g) to a high of 230 cN. When clearance disappears, the RS increased proportionally with the second-order angle. The 19 x 25-mil stainless steel wires, which were the most stiff, increased at rates between 75 and 84 cN/degree; the 14-mil austenitic nickel-titanium wires, which were the least stiff, increased at rates from 2.6 to 5.4 cN/degree. The treatment objectives for a particular patient at a specific stage should determine the appropriate archwire-bracket combination. PMID:12226612

  17. Experiense with remineraling means in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanova Ye.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In patients undergoing orthodontic treatment using bracket-technology a high risk of caries development. The algorithm of preventive interventions for the prevention of hair demineralization of enamel of the teeth

  18. Evaluation of mechanical properties of esthetic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Shigeyuki; Umezaki, Eisaku; Komazawa, Daigo; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Suda, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Plastic brackets, as well as ceramic brackets, are used in various cases since they have excellent esthetics. However, their mechanical properties remain uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine how deformation and stress distribution in esthetic brackets differ among materials under the same wire load. Using the digital image correlation method, we discovered the following: (1) the strain of the wings of plastic brackets is within 0.2% and that of ceramic and metal brackets is negligible, (2) polycarbonate brackets having a stainless steel slot show significantly smaller displacement than other plastic brackets, and (3) there is a significant difference between plastic brackets and ceramic and stainless steel brackets in terms of the displacement of the bracket wing. PMID:25755677

  19. An innovative approach for investigating the ceramic bracket-enamel interface - optical coherence tomography and confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romînu, Roxana Otilia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Romînu, Mihai; Negrutiu, Meda; Laissue, Philippe; Mihali, Sorin; Cuc, Lavinia; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2008-09-01

    Bonding has become a routine procedure in several dental specialties - from prosthodontics to conservative dentistry and even orthodontics. In many of these fields it is important to be able to investigate the bonded interfaces to assess their quality. All currently employed investigative methods are invasive, meaning that samples are destroyed in the testing procedure and cannot be used again. We have investigated the interface between human enamel and bonded ceramic brackets non-invasively, introducing a combination of new investigative methods - optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscopy (CM). Brackets were conventionally bonded on conditioned buccal surfaces of teeth The bonding was assessed using these methods. Three dimensional reconstructions of the detected material defects were developed using manual and semi-automatic segmentation. The results clearly prove that OCT and CM are useful in orthodontic bonding investigations.

  20. Management of Gingival Recession Associated with Orthodontic Treatment: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Tarun Kumar; Phogat, Megha; Sharma, Tarun; Prasad, Narayana; Singh, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    Many patients undergo orthodontic treatment for aesthetic improvement. It is well established that the patients who undergo orthodontic treatment have a high susceptibility to present plaque accumulation on their teeth because of the presence of brackets, wires and/or other orthodontic elements on the teeth surfaces with which the oral hygiene procedures might be more difficult. The orthodontic treatment is a double-action procedure regarding the periodontal tissues which may be very meaningf...

  1. Influence of lingual bracket position on microbial and periodontal parameters in vivo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Francesca, Sfondrini; Maurizia, Debiaggi; Francesca, Zara; Roberto, Brerra; Mario, Comelli; Marco, Bianchi; Sara Ramella, Pollone; Andrea, Scribante.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Lingual orthodontics is becoming more popular in dental practice. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare plaque formation on teeth bonded with the same bracket onto buccal or lingual surface, with non-bonded control teeth, via an in vivo growth experiment over a 30-day pe [...] riod. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with split-mouth design was set up enrolling 20 dental students. Within each subject sites with buccal and lingual brackets and control sites were followed. Clinical periodontal parameters (periodontal pocket depth: PPD; bleeding on probing: BOP) were recorded at baseline and on days 1, 7 and 30. Microbiological samples were taken from the brackets and the teeth on days 1, 7 and 30 to detect colony-forming units (CFU). Total CFU, streptococci CFU and anaerobe CFU were measured. RESULTS: No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between buccal and lingual brackets in terms of clinical periodontal parameters and microbiological values. Conclusion: Bracket position does not have significant impact on bacterial load and on periodontal parameters.

  2. Influence of lingual bracket position on microbial and periodontal parameters in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francesca Sfondrini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lingual orthodontics is becoming more popular in dental practice. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare plaque formation on teeth bonded with the same bracket onto buccal or lingual surface, with non-bonded control teeth, via an in vivo growth experiment over a 30-day period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with split-mouth design was set up enrolling 20 dental students. Within each subject sites with buccal and lingual brackets and control sites were followed. Clinical periodontal parameters (periodontal pocket depth: PPD; bleeding on probing: BOP were recorded at baseline and on days 1, 7 and 30. Microbiological samples were taken from the brackets and the teeth on days 1, 7 and 30 to detect colony-forming units (CFU. Total CFU, streptococci CFU and anaerobe CFU were measured. RESULTS: No significant differences (P>0.05 were found between buccal and lingual brackets in terms of clinical periodontal parameters and microbiological values. Conclusion: Bracket position does not have significant impact on bacterial load and on periodontal parameters.

  3. Analysis of mesiodistal angulations of preadjusted brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Rogério de, MENDONÇA; Ana Caroline Gonçales, VERRI; Aubrey Fernando, FABRE; Osmar Aparecido, CUOGHI.

    2014-08-21

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Manufacturers offer various prescriptions of preadjusted brackets for use in the “straight-wire” orthodontic technique. However, the need to incorporate bends in the rectangular wires during orthodontic finishing has led to concerns regarding the type of prescription chosen and the credibility of in [...] formation provided by the manufacturer. The aim of this study was to compare the slot angulations of Roth prescription preadjusted metallic brackets for the maxillary left central incisor and maxillary left canine. For each tooth type, 10 brackets of three commercial brands (GAC, Forestadent and Morelli) were selected. Two individual metal matrices for brackets and tooth positioning were made for each group of teeth. Captured images were obtained by standardized ortho-radial photography with a digital camera. Images were exported and analyzed with the Image J software package. One-way ANOVA and Tukey statistical analyses were performed at the 5% significance level. For brackets of the maxillary left central incisor, differences in mean angulation were observed between the Morelli and GAC groups (p

  4. Influência do tempo pós-fixação na resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes colados com diferentes materiais / Influence of post-fixation time on shear bond strength of brackets fixed with different bonding materials

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lourenço, CORRER SOBRINHO; Gisele Maria, CORRER; Simonides, CONSANI; Mário Alexandre Coelho, SINHORETI; Rafael Leonardo Xediek, CONSANI.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a resistência ao cisalhamento da união, nos tempos pós-fixação de 10 minutos e 24 horas, de quatro materiais para colagem de bráquetes e os tipos de falhas na fratura. Foram utilizados 64 pré-molares humanos recém-extraídos embutidos em resina. As faces vestibulares de 32 pré-mol [...] ares foram condicionadas com ácido fosfórico a 35%, por 30 segundos e em 16 deles, os bráquetes foram colados com Concise Ortodôntico (3M) e nos demais com resina composta Z100 (3M). Em 32 dentes, os bráquetes foram colados sem condicionamento do esmalte, com ionômeros de vidro Fuji I (GC) e Fuji Ortho LC (GC). Após a fixação, 32 corpos-de-prova foram armazenados em água destilada a 37ºC, por 10 minutos e o restante por 24 horas e submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento numa máquina com velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Os resultados submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey (5%) mostraram que os maiores valores de resistência ao cisalhamento aos 10 minutos e 24 horas foram observados com o Concise Ortodôntico, com diferença estatística significativa em relação ao Fuji Ortho LC, Z100 e Fuji I. Nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada entre Fuji Ortho LC, Z100 e Fuji I. Os autores concluíram que o Concise Ortodôntico apresentou maiores valores de resistência ao cisalhamento em relação aos outros materiais, nos tempos de 10 minutos e 24 horas, os valores obtidos no período de 24 horas foram superiores em relação aos de 10 minutos, para todos materiais e um grande número de falhas adesivas foi observada para o Fuji I, Concise Ortodôntico e Z100. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of four bonding materials for brackets, 10 minutes and 24 hours after their fixation, as well as the kinds of fracture observed. The buccal surfaces of 32 premolars were etched for 30 seconds with 35% phosphoric acid, and brackets wer [...] e bonded using Orthodontic Concise (3M) and Z100 (3M). In other 32 premolars, brackets were bonded with Fuji I (GC) and Fuji Ortho LC (GC) on the buccal surfaces, without acid etching. After the bonding procedures, 32 samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 10 minutes, and 32 samples were stored at the same temperature for 24 hours. The samples were then submitted to shear bond strength testing in an Instron testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p

  5. [Enamel cracks: influence of orthodontic process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Granger, Chloé; Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    The presence of enamel cracks is not only due to the removal process. It is all the stages before that we need to consider. 1. The presence of risks factors before the treatment (cracks, trauma...) have to be explained to the patient and recorded. 2. The choice of bracket placement: the buccal side is responsible for less cracks than the lingual one. 3. Ceramic brackets need higher debonding forces than metal ones; metal reinforced orthodontic ceramic brackets could be an interesting approach. 4. CVIMR could be better than classic bonds. 5. In case of multiple rebondings, it is better not to etch enamel again but only to level the resin left on tooth surface. 6. Alternatives to removing brackets by pliers are studied, especially for the removal of ceramic brackets to thwart the high debonding force problem : heat, laser... PMID:25158747

  6. Fluoridated etching on orthodontic bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, C L; Wang, W N; Yeh, I S

    1997-09-01

    Enamel demineralization that occurs adjacent to directly bonded orthodontic attachments is of great concern to orthodontists. One procedure suggested to overcome this problem is to use fluoride treatment in an acid etch. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength and the debonding interface distribution of adhesive, with and without the use of fluoridated etch on enamel, before bonding. Ten teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), incorporated with 1.23% sodium fluoride (NaF) for 15 seconds. The control group of 10 teeth was etched with the 37% H3PO4 solution for 15 seconds without fluoride. Fluoride on enamel was first detected with scanning auger microscribe/photoelectron spectroscopy in the fluoridated etching group. The brackets were then bonded on the labial surfaces of the crowns of both groups of teeth. The bracketed teeth were tested, with an Instron machine, to determine the tensile bond strength, as well as with a scanning electron microscope, and by mapping with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer to detect the debonding interfaces. The results showed that the fluoride was found on the enamel after fluoridated etching for 15 seconds. The bond strength and debonding interface distribution between the two groups were not statistically significantly different. Enamel detachment was not present in either group. Hence, the fluoridated etching with 1.23% NaF may have a clinical application in the prevention of demineralization or caries surrounding and under orthodontic brackets bonded to enamel. PMID:9294353

  7. Avaliação da resistência à tração de artifícios ortodônticos - braquete, botão e tela - colados em pré-molares com resina autopolimerizável. estudo "in vitro" / Evaluation of the resistance to traction of orthodontic devices - bracket, bouton and frame - bonded in premolar with autopolimerizable resin. "in vitro" study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter Leal de, Moura; Thaís Cristina Araújo, Moreira; João Batista Mendes, Teles.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Retenção dentária é a condição fisiopatológica em que o dente, uma vez chegado o seu momento fisiológico de erupção, apresenta algum impedimento para realizá-lo. O tratamento, com envolvimento cirúrgico-ortodôntico, visa deslocar o elemento dental para a correta posição na arcada dentária, sem causa [...] r danos aos elementos dentais adjacentes, restabelecendo a estética e a função. A colagem direta de botões e braquetes ortodônticos para tração de dentes inclusos transformou-se na técnica preferida, pois exige menor extensão cirúrgica e remoção de tecido para acesso à coroa dental. A pesquisa objetivou analisar a intensidade da força aplicada ao conjunto dente/artifício/fio de amarrilho, pelo tracionamento, e observar o local do rompimento. Utilizaram-se 45 pré-molares, conservados em soro fisiológico 0,9%, que foram divididos em 3 grupos (15 com braquetes, 15 com botões e 15 com telas). Os dentes foram fixados em canos de PVC preenchidos com resina acrílica e os acessórios fixados ao dente com resina autopolimerizável. Após a colagem dos acessórios ortodônticos, os dentes voltaram a ser conservados em soro fisiológico e o teste realizado após 72 horas, com a utilização de um sensor de força e um programa de computador (Logger Pro). Com os resultados, observou-se que o braquete resistiu a uma força média de 36,0N, sendo a junção fio/braquete o local menos resistente; o botão resistiu a uma força média de 41,2N, a junção fio/botão ortodôntico foi o local menos resistente e a tela resistiu a uma força média de 28,8N, sendo a junção dente/tela o local menos resistente. Abstract in english Restrained is the tooth which, reached its physiological moment of eruption, shows some obstruction to accomplish it. The treatment, with orthodontic-surgical involvement, type drives at to dislocate the dental element for right position in the dental arch, without to cause damages for adjacent dent [...] al element, re-establishing the aesthetics and function. Therefore, the direct bonding of orthodontic bracket and bouton for retained teeth traction became the preferred technic for, besides more clear, it demands smaller surgical amplitude and tissue removal to grant access to the dental crown. The research intended analyse the intensity of applied force to the entirety teeth/device/tie-wire, tractioning through, and to observe the splot rupture. Maked use of 45 premolar, conserved in 0.9%¹ physiological serum, that was divided into three groups (15 with brackets, 15 with boutons and 15 with frames). The tooth was filled in PVC pipe filled with acrylic resin and the devices was bonded to the teeth with autopolimerizable resin. After the bonding realization of the orthodontic devices, the tooth was be preserved in physiological serum and the tests was be realized after 72 hours of the bonding by means of a computer program. The bracket endured to medium force of 36,0N, being the junction wire-device the spot less resistant; the bouton endured to medium force of 41,2N, the juncion wire-bouton was the plot less resistant and the frame was endured to medium force of 28,8N, being the junction teeth/frame the plot less resistant.

  8. Avaliação da resistência à tração de artifícios ortodônticos - braquete, botão e tela - colados em pré-molares com resina autopolimerizável. estudo "in vitro" Evaluation of the resistance to traction of orthodontic devices - bracket, bouton and frame - bonded in premolar with autopolimerizable resin. "in vitro" study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Leal de Moura

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Retenção dentária é a condição fisiopatológica em que o dente, uma vez chegado o seu momento fisiológico de erupção, apresenta algum impedimento para realizá-lo. O tratamento, com envolvimento cirúrgico-ortodôntico, visa deslocar o elemento dental para a correta posição na arcada dentária, sem causar danos aos elementos dentais adjacentes, restabelecendo a estética e a função. A colagem direta de botões e braquetes ortodônticos para tração de dentes inclusos transformou-se na técnica preferida, pois exige menor extensão cirúrgica e remoção de tecido para acesso à coroa dental. A pesquisa objetivou analisar a intensidade da força aplicada ao conjunto dente/artifício/fio de amarrilho, pelo tracionamento, e observar o local do rompimento. Utilizaram-se 45 pré-molares, conservados em soro fisiológico 0,9%, que foram divididos em 3 grupos (15 com braquetes, 15 com botões e 15 com telas. Os dentes foram fixados em canos de PVC preenchidos com resina acrílica e os acessórios fixados ao dente com resina autopolimerizável. Após a colagem dos acessórios ortodônticos, os dentes voltaram a ser conservados em soro fisiológico e o teste realizado após 72 horas, com a utilização de um sensor de força e um programa de computador (Logger Pro. Com os resultados, observou-se que o braquete resistiu a uma força média de 36,0N, sendo a junção fio/braquete o local menos resistente; o botão resistiu a uma força média de 41,2N, a junção fio/botão ortodôntico foi o local menos resistente e a tela resistiu a uma força média de 28,8N, sendo a junção dente/tela o local menos resistente.Restrained is the tooth which, reached its physiological moment of eruption, shows some obstruction to accomplish it. The treatment, with orthodontic-surgical involvement, type drives at to dislocate the dental element for right position in the dental arch, without to cause damages for adjacent dental element, re-establishing the aesthetics and function. Therefore, the direct bonding of orthodontic bracket and bouton for retained teeth traction became the preferred technic for, besides more clear, it demands smaller surgical amplitude and tissue removal to grant access to the dental crown. The research intended analyse the intensity of applied force to the entirety teeth/device/tie-wire, tractioning through, and to observe the splot rupture. Maked use of 45 premolar, conserved in 0.9%¹ physiological serum, that was divided into three groups (15 with brackets, 15 with boutons and 15 with frames. The tooth was filled in PVC pipe filled with acrylic resin and the devices was bonded to the teeth with autopolimerizable resin. After the bonding realization of the orthodontic devices, the tooth was be preserved in physiological serum and the tests was be realized after 72 hours of the bonding by means of a computer program. The bracket endured to medium force of 36,0N, being the junction wire-device the spot less resistant; the bouton endured to medium force of 41,2N, the juncion wire-bouton was the plot less resistant and the frame was endured to medium force of 28,8N, being the junction teeth/frame the plot less resistant.

  9. Frictional Resistance of Three Types of Ceramic Brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Claire L.; Khaled Khalaf

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the static frictional resistance at the bracket/archwire interface in two recently introduced bracket systems and compare them to conventional ceramic and conventional metal bracket systems. Three variables were considered including the bracket system, archwire type and archwire angulation. Material and Methods: Four bracket systems were tested in vitro: Self ligating ceramic, ceramic with metal slot and module, conventional ceramic with module and conventional m...

  10. Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Borges Retamoso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000 running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91 was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73 and XS (10.39±4.06 groups (p<0.05. Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

  11. Using Little's Irregularity Index in orthodontics: outdated and inaccurate?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macauley, Donal

    2012-12-01

    Little\\'s Irregularity Index (LII) was devised to objectively score mandibular incisor alignment for epidemiological studies but has been extended to assess the relative performance of orthodontic brackets, retainer or treatment modalities. Our aim was to examine the repeatability and precision of LII measurements of four independent examiners on the maxillary arch of orthodontic patients. The hypothesis was that the reproducibility of individual contact point displacement measurements, used to calculate the LII score, are inappropriate.

  12. Disinclusion of unerupted teeth by mean of self-ligating brackets: Effect of blood contamination on shear bond strength

    OpenAIRE

    Scribante, Andrea; Sfondrini, Maria F.; Gatti, Sara; Gandini, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of blood contamination on the shear bond strength and failure site of three different orthodontic self-ligating brackets. Study Design: 240 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 12 groups of 20 specimens each. Orthodontic self-ligating brackets were tested under four different enamel surface conditions: a) dry, b) blood contamination before priming, c) blood contamination after priming, d) blood contamina...

  13. A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets; Um estudo in vitro sobre os efeitos da irradiacao pelo laser de Er:YAG combinado com a terapia com fluor na resistencia acida do esmalte de dentes submetidos a aparelho ortodontico fixo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiyasu, Roseli Y.A

    2001-07-01

    Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C0{sub 2}, Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2} on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

  14. Longitudinal epiphyseal bracket

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Alexander D.; Mubarak, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal epiphyseal bracket or bracket epiphysis is an uncommon disorder of growth. Alternatively known as a delta phalanx, it is due to an anomalous secondary ossification center that extends longitudinally along the diaphysis. Although rare, longitudinal epiphyseal bracket most commonly manifests in the hands as clinodactyly and in the feet as hallux varus. Previously, longitudinal epiphyseal bracket has been treated with angular osteotomy, but we recommend early surgical physiolysis. W...

  15. [Lingual orthodontics: why is it progressing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, D; Leclerc, J F

    1991-01-01

    At the early stages of the 80's, most of the practitioners and the patients have been seduced by lingual orthodontic. But the difficulties of the technic have rapidly given a disappointment. Today ten years later the authors present the progress which have been realized: the evolution of the brackets, the accuracy of their placement in the lab procedure with the new targ, the making of the wire, the patient's comfort increase. The placement brackets are customized by making an anatomical resin pad. Placement of the brackets have evoluted from a quantized system in two dimensions (Targ 1) to a no quantized system in three dimensions (Class System) and finally to a real quantized system in three dimensions (Targ 2 with a compass of thickness with measures the first order band). Data System DALI (Drawing Arch Lingual Ideal) allows to draw the exact design of the wire. A video tape shows the different laboratory and clinical phases. By using light cured periodontal protection like Barricaid from Caulk: the patients have a greater adaptation with their appliance. All this progress give to lingual orthodontic credibility. Lingual is a reality to day and it's the first concept with customized brackets extremely accuracy, full quantized in the three orders, using the computer progress. PMID:1842252

  16. Dental Extrusion with Orthodontic Miniscrew Anchorage: A Case Report Describing a Modified Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Flávio Eduardo Guillin; Abrão, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by means of an orthodontic extrusion with the modified method of Roth and Diedrich. PMID:25713739

  17. Clinical characteristics and properties of plastic brackets: A comprehensive review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karamouzos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this article is to provide the clinician with an up-to-date comprehensive literature review concerning the clinical characteristics and properties of plastic brackets. The article criticaily presents and discusses the various aspects of plastic brackets with regard to the construction, material properties, bond strength, frictional resistance, torque properties and bracket fracture. The article also contains guidelines and criteria concerning-the specific applications and use of plastic brackets.

  18. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure

  19. A comparative study to evaluate the effects of ligation methods on friction in sliding mechanics using 0.022" slot brackets in dry state: An In-vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinay, K; Venkatesh, M J; Nayak, Rabindra S; Pasha, Azam; Rajesh, M; Kumar, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Background: Friction between archwires and brackets is assuming greater importance for finishing with increased use of sliding mechanics in orthodontics as friction impedes the desired tooth movement. The following study is conducted to compare and evaluate the effect of ligation on friction in sliding mechanics using 0.022" slot bracket in dry condition. Materials & Methods: In the study 48 combinations of brackets, archwires and different ligation techniques were tested in order to provide best combination that offers less friction during sliding mechanics. Instron- 4467 machine was used to evaluate static and kinetic friction force values and the results were subjected to Statistical Analysis and Anova test. Results: The results of the study showed that 0.022" metal brackets, Stainless steel wires and Slick modules provided the optimum frictional resistance to sliding mechanics. It is observed that frictional forces of 0.019" x 0.025" were higher when compared with 0.016" x 0.022" Stainless steel archwire due to the increase in dimension. Self-ligating brackets offered least friction followed by mini twin, variable force, regular stainless steel, ceramic with metal insert bracket and ceramic brackets. The stainless steel ligature offered less resistance than slick and grey modules, and TMA wires recorded maximum friction. Conclusion: The stainless steel archwire of 0.019" x 0.025" dimension are preferred during sliding mechanics, these archwires with variable force brackets ligated with Slick Modules offer decreased friction and is cost effective combination which can be utilized during sliding mechanics. How to cite the article: Vinay K, Venkatesh MJ, Nayak RS, Pasha A, Rajesh M, Kumar P. A comparative study to evaluate the effects of ligation methods on friction in sliding mechanics using 0.022" slot brackets in dry state: An In-vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):76-83. PMID:24876706

  20. Frictional Resistance of Three Types of Ceramic Brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the static frictional resistance at the bracket/archwire interface in two recently introduced bracket systems and compare them to conventional ceramic and conventional metal bracket systems. Three variables were considered including the bracket system, archwire type and archwire angulation. Material and Methods: Four bracket systems were tested in vitro: Self ligating ceramic, ceramic with metal slot and module, conventional ceramic with module and conventional metal with module. A specially constructed jig and an Instron testing machine were used to measure the static frictional resistance for 0.014 inches round and 0.018 x 0.025 inches rectangular stainless steel wires at 0° and 7° angulations. Main outcome measures: static frictional force at the bracket/archwire interface; recorded and measured in units of force (Newtons. Results: Self ligating ceramic and metal slot ceramic bracket systems generated significantly less static frictional resistance than conventional ceramic bracket systems with the wire at both angulations (P < 0.05. Changing the wire from 0.014 round to 0.018 x 0.025 rectangular wire significantly increased frictional forces for metal slot ceramic and conventional metal bracket systems (P < 0.01. Increasing wire angulation significantly increased frictional resistance at the bracket/archwire interface for all four types of bracket systems tested (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Compared to conventional ceramic, self ligating ceramic and metal slot ceramic bracket systems should give improved clinical performance, matching that of conventional metal brackets.

  1. Longitudinal epiphyseal bracket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Alexander D; Mubarak, Scott J

    2013-12-01

    Longitudinal epiphyseal bracket or bracket epiphysis is an uncommon disorder of growth. Alternatively known as a delta phalanx, it is due to an anomalous secondary ossification center that extends longitudinally along the diaphysis. Although rare, longitudinal epiphyseal bracket most commonly manifests in the hands as clinodactyly and in the feet as hallux varus. Previously, longitudinal epiphyseal bracket has been treated with angular osteotomy, but we recommend early surgical physiolysis. We describe this uncommon disorder, our current recommendation for treatment, and present three illustrative cases. PMID:24432108

  2. Model and Analysis on Car Seat Mounting Bracket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.Srinivasan#1 , M. Lava Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract--In this paper, we are desiged a car seat mounting bracket with seat arrangement by using Pro/E Softwarefor Automobile Applications. We have Conducted, structural analysis by varying the seat bracket material. By extracting the results Comparison is done for three materials to validate better material for car seat mounting bracket to find out which material is best for the withstand in loading condition. Analysis is by using ANSYS software.

  3. Quantitative analysis of S. mutans and S. sobrinus cultivated independently and adhered to polished orthodontic composite resins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ulises, Velazquez-Enriquez; Rogelio Jose, Scougall-Vilchis; Rosalia, Contreras-Bulnes; Jaime, Flores-Estrada; Shinsuke, Uematsu; Ryozo, Yamaguchi.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Orthodontics, fixed appliances placed in the oral cavity are colonized by microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the independent bacterial colonization of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in orthodontic composite resins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven orthodont [...] ic composite adhesives for bonding brackets were selected and classified into 14 groups; (GIm, GIs) Enlight, (GIIm, GIIs) Grengloo, (GIIIm, GIIIs) Kurasper F, (GIVm, GIVs) BeautyOrtho Bond, (GVm, GVs) Transbond CC, (GVIm, GVIs) Turbo Bond II, (GVIIm, GVIIs) Blugloo. 60 blocks of 4x4x1 mm of each orthodontic composite resin were made (total 420 blocks), and gently polished with sand-paper and ultrasonically cleaned. S. mutans and S. sobrinus were independently cultivated. For the quantitative analysis, a radioactive marker was used to codify the bacteria (³H) adhered to the surface of the materials. The blocks were submerged in a solution with microorganisms previously radiolabeled and separated (210 blocks for S. mutans and 210 blocks for S. sobrinus) for 2 hours at 37ºC. Next, the blocks were placed in a combustion system, to capture the residues and measure the radiation. The statistical analysis was calculated with the ANOVA test (Sheffè post-hoc). RESULTS: Significant differences of bacterial adhesion were found amongst the groups. In the GIm and GIs the significant lowest scores for both microorganisms were shown; in contrast, the values of GVII for both bacteria were significantly the highest. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the orthodontic composite resin evaluated in the GIm and GIs, obtained the lowest adherence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, which may reduce the enamel demineralization and the risk of white spot lesion formation.

  4. Quantitative analysis of S. mutans and S. sobrinus cultivated independently and adhered to polished orthodontic composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Velazquez-Enriquez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Orthodontics, fixed appliances placed in the oral cavity are colonized by microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the independent bacterial colonization of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in orthodontic composite resins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven orthodontic composite adhesives for bonding brackets were selected and classified into 14 groups; (GIm, GIs Enlight, (GIIm, GIIs Grengloo, (GIIIm, GIIIs Kurasper F, (GIVm, GIVs BeautyOrtho Bond, (GVm, GVs Transbond CC, (GVIm, GVIs Turbo Bond II, (GVIIm, GVIIs Blugloo. 60 blocks of 4x4x1 mm of each orthodontic composite resin were made (total 420 blocks, and gently polished with sand-paper and ultrasonically cleaned. S. mutans and S. sobrinus were independently cultivated. For the quantitative analysis, a radioactive marker was used to codify the bacteria (³H adhered to the surface of the materials. The blocks were submerged in a solution with microorganisms previously radiolabeled and separated (210 blocks for S. mutans and 210 blocks for S. sobrinus for 2 hours at 37ºC. Next, the blocks were placed in a combustion system, to capture the residues and measure the radiation. The statistical analysis was calculated with the ANOVA test (Sheffè post-hoc. RESULTS: Significant differences of bacterial adhesion were found amongst the groups. In the GIm and GIs the significant lowest scores for both microorganisms were shown; in contrast, the values of GVII for both bacteria were significantly the highest. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the orthodontic composite resin evaluated in the GIm and GIs, obtained the lowest adherence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, which may reduce the enamel demineralization and the risk of white spot lesion formation.

  5. Effects of self-ligating and conventional brackets on halitosis and periodontal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaygisiz, Emine; Uzuner, Fatma Deniz; Yuksel, Sema; Taner, Levent; Culhao?lu, Rana; Sezgin, Yasemin; Ate?, Can

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effects of fixed orthodontic treatment with steel-ligated conventional brackets and self-ligating brackets on halitosis and periodontal health. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients, at the permanent dentition stage aged 12 to 18 years, who had Angle Class I malocclusion with mild-to-moderate crowding were randomly selected. Inclusion criteria were nonsmokers, without systematic disease, and no use of antibiotics and oral mouth rinses during the 2-month period before the study. The patients were subdivided into three groups randomly: the group treated with conventional brackets (group 1, n ?=? 20) ligated with steel ligature wires, the group treated with self-ligating brackets (group 2, n ?=? 20), and the control group (group 3, n ?=? 20). The periodontal records were obtained 1 week before bonding (T1), immediately before bonding (T2), 1 week after bonding (T3), 4 weeks after bonding (T4), and 8 weeks after bonding (T5). Measurements of the control group were repeated within the same periods. The volatile sulfur components determining halitosis were measured with the Halimeter at T2, T3, T4, and T5. A two-way repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the groups statistically. Results: No statistically significant group × time interactions were found for plaque index, gingival index, pocket depth, bleeding on probing, and halitosis, which means three independent groups change like each other by time. The risk of tongue coating index (TCI) being 2 was 10.2 times higher at T1 than at T5 (P halitosis. PMID:25101909

  6. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Cano, Jorge; Campo, Julia?n; Bonilla, Elena; Colmenero, Ce?sar

    2012-01-01

    The use of orthodontic treatment in adult patients is becoming more common and these patients have different requirements specially regarding duration of treatment and facial and dental aesthetics. Alveolar corticotomy is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic treatment. This literature revision include an historical background, biological and orthodontic fundamentals and the most significant clinical applications of this technique. Orthodontic treatment time is reduced with this tech...

  7. Comparision of Shear Bond Strength of Stainless Steel and Ceramic Brackets at 24 Hours after Etching Enamel with Different Proportions of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinaya; Karthikeyan; Sarvanan; Vikram, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets and ceramic brackets at 24h after etching the enamel with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (1.23% APF) at different proportions (40%,30%,20%) incorporated in conventional etchant (37% phosphoric acid). Materials and Methods: Eighty premolars (maxillary and mandibular first and second premolars) extracted for orthodontic purpose has been selected for the study and samples were divided into 4 groups containing 10 teeth each. Comprised of teeth etched Group 1 with 40% of APF gel etchant is Group 2 teeth etched with 30% of APF gel in Group 3 teeth etched with 20% of APF gel etchant and Group 4 teeth were etched with conventional etchant (37% phosphoric acid). Results: The experimental group of Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride (APF) at different proportion (40%, 30%, 20%) incorporated with etchant application for 40s on the enamel surface at 24h indicated that group 4 showed the higher bond strength of all other remaining groups and the groups 1, 2 and 3 showed satisfactory bond strength. The statistical evaluation also revealed that the bond strength of control group (37% phosphoric acid) was greater than those of experimental groups. Conclusion: The present study results shows that the ceramic brackets have higher bond strength than stainless steel brackets (material wise). PMID:25302260

  8. Deformation of metal brackets: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, D A; Choi, L K; Caruso, J M; Tomlinson, J L; Scott, G E; Jeiroudi, M T

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of material and design on the force and stress required to permanently deform metal brackets. Fourteen types of metal brackets were categorized according to raw material composition, slot torque degree, and wing type. Five types of raw materials, three types of slot torque degree, and four types of wing design were tested using an archwire torque test developed by Flores. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test showed that all three categories had a significant effect on the force and stress needed to permanently deform metal brackets. Of the three, raw material had the greatest effect on the amount of force. Results showed that 17-4PH and 303S had higher yield strengths and regular twin brackets had higher resistance to deformation. Also, as slot torque degree increased, brackets deformed with less force. Result confirmed that brackets requiring the greatest stress to permanently deform were made of steel with the greatest hardness. PMID:7978523

  9. Shear bond strength of metal brackets to feldspathic porcelain treated by Nd:YAG laser and hydrofluoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Hashem; Sobouti, Farhad; Etemadi, Ardavan; Chiniforush, Nasim; Shariati, Mahsa

    2015-02-01

    Adult orthodontic treatment requires bonding orthodontic attachment to dental restorations. Ceramics are commonly used as esthetic restorative materials for the crowns and bridges. The present study evaluated the shear bond strength of metal orthodontic brackets to the feldspathic porcelain surfaces following conditioning by different powers of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and hydrofluoric acid as a conventional method. Seventy-two glazed porcelain samples were prepared and randomly attributed to six equal groups of 12. In the conventional hydrofluoric (HF) group, the specimens were etched by 9.6 % hydrofluoric acid for 4 min. In laser groups, samples were conditioned by 0.75-, 1-, 1.25-, 1.5-, and 2-W Nd:YAG laser for 10 s. Metal brackets were bonded to porcelain samples and after being stored in distilled water for 24 h, they were subjected to thermocycling for 500 cycles. The debonding was carried out by a Zwick testing machine. The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tamhane multiple comparisons tests. The mean ± SD of the shear bond strength in the laser group 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 2 W and HF group was 2.2?±?0.9, 4.2?±?1.1, 4.9?±?2.4, 7?±?1.7, 9.6?±?2.7, and 9.4?±?2.5, respectively. Together with the increased power of laser, the mean shear bond strength was increased continuously and no significant differences were found between the HF group and the laser groups with power of 1.5 or 2 W. Also, there was no significant difference between all test groups in ARI scores. There was no significant difference between bond strength of laser groups with power of 1.5 and 2 W and HF-etched group. So, Nd:YAG laser with appropriate parameters can be used as an alternative method for porcelain etching. PMID:24142046

  10. Quality management in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl-Andersen, Birte

    2005-11-01

    The introduction of modern quality thinking to orthodontic care should be a continuing effort on the part of the orthodontic profession. The strategy for the development of a European quality management system in orthodontic care was developed from 1993 to 2000 during the EURO-QUAL project. During the project's first stage, the basic prerequisites were identified for a general model of quality management in orthodontic care. A supra-national agreement was reached on policy statements for orthodontic care in Europe. The essential components of an orthodontic quality management system are: linking orthodontic care to population need, patient partnership, clinical accountability, and containing costs.Value-based health care and "TQM", the philosophy of total quality management, are basic principles applied in accordance with the recommendations of the European Health Committee of September 1997 and the "Health-for-All" policy framework of the World Health Organization. PMID:16331548

  11. Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Borges, Retamoso; Fabrício Mezzomo, Collares; Eduardo Silveira, Ferreira; Susana Maria Werner, Samuel.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III) on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longit [...] udinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000) running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91) was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73) and XS (10.39±4.06) groups (p

  12. Cellulose Nanofibre Mesh for Use in Dental Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ireland, Anthony J.; Boyd, Stephen A.; Bo Su; Sandy, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a 3D mesh of defect free electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibres and to use this to produce a prototype composite resin containing nanofibre fillers. This might find use as an aesthetic orthodontic bracket material or composite veneer for restorative dentistry. In this laboratory based study cellulose acetate was dissolved in an acetone and dimethylacetamide solvent solution and electrospun. The spinning parameters were optimised and lithium chloride adde...

  13. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Carl T.; Mcgorray, Susan P.; Calogero Dolce; Madhu Nair; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5?mm. ...

  14. Influence of in vitro pigmenting of esthetic orthodontic ligatures on smile attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Ferraz; Marcelo de Castellucci; Márcio Sobral

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of dental students and orthodontists on the degree of influence that pigmented esthetic elastic ligatures have on smile attractiveness, by judging clinical photographs. METHODS: Sixteen clinical facial photographs of the smile and 16 close up images of the smile of a single patient wearing monocrystalline porcelain orthodontic brackets, Teflon coated NiTi wire brackets and esthetic elastic ligatures of five different commercial brands were distributed int...

  15. The Stealth in comparison with other lingual brackets: properties and procedures for indirect bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Carlo; Veneziani, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of brackets available for lingual orthodontics. One, the Stealth bracket system, which can be positioned in the laboratory with Class or Targ or Pacon bonding systems and can be transferred with multiple or single transfers made either with thermoplastic materials or with resin has some advantages. 1) A single wing with horizontal engagement of the arch and good interbracket distance, permitting early engagement of rectangular arch wire with good torque control. 2) A deep slot and easy ligation that provides good arch wire stability in the slot during friction mechanics without double overties. 3) A thin design that gives little discomfort to the patient, reduces tongue stress and pain during therapy and allows good cleaning of the appliance. 4) A wide mesh with a strong bonding force 5) A horizontal extension on both sides of the slot that provides two points of contact between the slot and the arch wire for rotation control 6) A horizontal slot for insertion of auxiliaries such as a bite plane that can be used when it is clinically indicated. PMID:17364041

  16. Impact of brackets on smile esthetics: laypersons and orthodontists perception

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Seandra Cordeiro de, Oliveira; Rachel D' Aurea, Furquim; Adilson Luiz, Ramos.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: esse estudo analisou a influência dos aparelhos ortodônticos na estética do sorriso em avaliação por adolescentes, adultos e ortodontistas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de uma jovem mulher, usando-se as seguintes combinações: aparelho ortodôntico de metal com li [...] gaduras de diferentes cores (verde, vermelho e cinza); aparelho ortodôntico cerâmico (ligadura transparente); e sem aparelho - resultando em cinco fotografias de 15x20cm. Para a avaliação das fotografias, 16 adolescentes leigos, 16 adultos leigos e 16 ortodontistas foram selecionados de forma randômica. As fotografias foram aleatoriamente organizadas em um álbum, acompanhadas de uma escala visual analógica (EVA) para o registro das notas. As notas das duas avaliações de cada grupo (adolescentes, adultos e ortodontistas) foram submetidas à análise de erro (teste pareado de Wilcoxon) e comparação múltipla de grupos pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: ortodontistas, adultos e adolescentes concordaram em suas opiniões, porém, os ortodontistas deram notas menores em suas avaliações. Pôde ser observado que os braquetes cerâmicos foram mais aceitos, considerando-se a estética do sorriso, uma vez que os braquetes metálicos tiveram as menores notas. CONCLUSÃO: ortodontistas, adultos e adolescentes parecem preferir soluções estéticas durante o tratamento ortodôntico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the influence of orthodontic appliances on smile esthetics assessed by lay adolescents, lay adults and orthodontists. METHODS: A facial photograph of a smiling young woman was used under the following conditions: With metal orthodontic brackets ligated by different el [...] astic ligature colors (green, red and gray), with ceramic bracket brackets (transparent elastic ligature) and without brackets, totaling five 15 x 20 cm pictures. For the photograph assessment, 16 lay adolescents, 16 lay adults and 16 orthodontists were randomly selected. The photographs were randomly arranged in an album, followed by a visual analog scale (VAS) for the scores registration. Scores in both evaluations of each group of evaluators (adolescents, adults and orthodontists) were submitted to error analysis by WILCOXON test and multiple comparison among groups performed by Kruskal - Wallis at 5% significance. RESULTS: Orthodontists, adults and adolescents agreed in their opinions, although the orthodontists gave lower scores in their assessments. It could be observed that ceramic brackets were more acceptable concerning the smile esthetics, whereas the metal brackets received the lowest scores. CONCLUSION: Orthodontists, adults and even adolescents seem to prefer esthetic solutions during orthodontic treatment.

  17. Impact of brackets on smile esthetics: laypersons and orthodontists perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seandra Cordeiro de Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the influence of orthodontic appliances on smile esthetics assessed by lay adolescents, lay adults and orthodontists. METHODS: A facial photograph of a smiling young woman was used under the following conditions: With metal orthodontic brackets ligated by different elastic ligature colors (green, red and gray, with ceramic bracket brackets (transparent elastic ligature and without brackets, totaling five 15 x 20 cm pictures. For the photograph assessment, 16 lay adolescents, 16 lay adults and 16 orthodontists were randomly selected. The photographs were randomly arranged in an album, followed by a visual analog scale (VAS for the scores registration. Scores in both evaluations of each group of evaluators (adolescents, adults and orthodontists were submitted to error analysis by WILCOXON test and multiple comparison among groups performed by Kruskal - Wallis at 5% significance. RESULTS: Orthodontists, adults and adolescents agreed in their opinions, although the orthodontists gave lower scores in their assessments. It could be observed that ceramic brackets were more acceptable concerning the smile esthetics, whereas the metal brackets received the lowest scores. CONCLUSION: Orthodontists, adults and even adolescents seem to prefer esthetic solutions during orthodontic treatment.OBJETIVO: esse estudo analisou a influência dos aparelhos ortodônticos na estética do sorriso em avaliação por adolescentes, adultos e ortodontistas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de uma jovem mulher, usando-se as seguintes combinações: aparelho ortodôntico de metal com ligaduras de diferentes cores (verde, vermelho e cinza; aparelho ortodôntico cerâmico (ligadura transparente; e sem aparelho - resultando em cinco fotografias de 15x20cm. Para a avaliação das fotografias, 16 adolescentes leigos, 16 adultos leigos e 16 ortodontistas foram selecionados de forma randômica. As fotografias foram aleatoriamente organizadas em um álbum, acompanhadas de uma escala visual analógica (EVA para o registro das notas. As notas das duas avaliações de cada grupo (adolescentes, adultos e ortodontistas foram submetidas à análise de erro (teste pareado de Wilcoxon e comparação múltipla de grupos pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: ortodontistas, adultos e adolescentes concordaram em suas opiniões, porém, os ortodontistas deram notas menores em suas avaliações. Pôde ser observado que os braquetes cerâmicos foram mais aceitos, considerando-se a estética do sorriso, uma vez que os braquetes metálicos tiveram as menores notas. CONCLUSÃO: ortodontistas, adultos e adolescentes parecem preferir soluções estéticas durante o tratamento ortodôntico.

  18. Finite element modeling of superelastic nickel-titanium orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naceur, Ines Ben; Charfi, Amin; Bouraoui, Tarak; Elleuch, Khaled

    2014-11-28

    Thanks to its good corrosion resistance and biocompatibility, superelastic Ni–Ti wire alloys have been successfully used in orthodontic treatment. Therefore, it is important to quantify and evaluate the level of orthodontic force applied to the bracket and teeth in order to achieve tooth movement. In this study, three dimensional finite element models with a Gibbs-potential-based-formulation and thermodynamic principles were used. The aim was to evaluate the influence of possible intraoral temperature differences on the forces exerted by NiTi orthodontic arch wires with different cross sectional shapes and sizes. The prediction made by this phenomenological model, for superelastic tensile and bending tests, shows good agreement with the experimental data. A bending test is simulated to study the force variation of an orthodontic NiTi arch wire when it loaded up to the deflection of 3 mm, for this task one half of the arch wire and the 3 adjacent brackets were modeled. The results showed that the stress required for the martensite transformation increases with the increase of cross-sectional dimensions and temperature. Associated with this increase in stress, the plateau of this transformation becomes steeper. In addition, the area of the mechanical hysteresis, measured as the difference between the forces of the upper and lower plateau, increases. PMID:25458153

  19. Comparative assessment of forces generated during simulated alignment with self-ligating and conventional brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to comparatively assess the magnitude and direction of forces and moments generated from different bracket systems, during the initial levelling and alignment stage of orthodontic treatment. Three types of brackets were used: Orthos2 (Ormco), Damon2 (Ormco), and In-Ovation R (GAC). The brackets were bonded on resin replicas models of a patient's crowded mandibular arch, and a 0.014 inch Damon archform CuNiTi (Ormco) wire was inserted. The model was mounted on the Orthodontic Measurement and Simulation System (OMSS) and six static measurements were taken at the initial crowded state per bracket for the lateral incisor, canine, and first premolar. A total of 10 repetitions were performed for each measurement, with new brackets and archwires used for each trial. The forces and moments generated were registered directly on the OMSS software and were statistically analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance separately for each dental arch location and force component. Group differences were further analyzed with Tukey's post hoc comparisons test at the 0.05 significance level. The lingually inclined, crowded lateral incisor presented an extrusive and buccal movement and showed the lowest force in the vertical direction, whereas the self-ligating group of brackets generated the highest force in the buccolingual direction. The moments applied by the three bracket systems followed the general trend shown for forces; in the vertical axis, the self-ligating brackets exerted lower forces than their conventional counterpart. This was modified in the buccolingual direction where, in most instances, the self-ligating appliances applied higher moments compared with the conventional bracket. In most cases, the magnitude of forces and moments ranged between 30-70 cN and 2-6 N mm, respectively. However, maximum forces and moments developed at the lateral incisor were almost four times higher than the average. PMID:19349418

  20. Fractional Poisson Bracket

    OpenAIRE

    Golmankhaneh, Alireza Khalili

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper fractional Hamilton-Jacobi equation has been derived for dynamical systems involving Caputo derivative. Fractional Poisson-bracket is introduced. Further Hamilton's canonical equations are formulated and quantum wave equation corresponds to the fractional Hamilton-Jacobi equation is suggested. Illustrative examples have been worked out to explain the formalism.

  1. Effect of Activation Mode on Shear Bond Strength of Metallic Brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Americo Bortolazzo, Correr; Ana Rosa, Costa; Adriana Simoni, Lucato; Silvia Amelia, Vedovello; Heloisa Cristina, Valdrighi; Mario, Vedovello Filho; Lourenco, Correr-Sobrinho.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência de união ao cisalhamento (RUC) de braquetes ortodônticos metálicos colados ao dente bovino utilizando resinas compostas ativadas por luz ou quimicamente ativadas. Cento e vinte incisivos mandibulares bovinos foram divididos em 6 grupos (n=20), de aco [...] rdo com o material de colagem: Transbond XT (T); Enforce Dual (ED); Enforce químico (EC); Enforce ativado por luz (EL); Concise Ortodontico (C); e RelyX Unicem Capsula (UN). Braquetes metálicos foram posicionados e firmemente colados aos dentes. A ativação por luz para os grupos T, ED, EL e UN foi realizada em quatro exposições, sendo uma em cada lado do braquete, para um tempo total de exposição de 20 s usando o aparelho XL2500 (3M ESPE). Os grupos EC e C foram ativados quimicamente. Após, todas as amostras foram armazenadas em água deionizada a 37 °C por 24 h. O teste de resistência de união ao cisalhamento foi realizado após o período de armazenagem, à velocidade de 1 mm/minuto. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância e ao teste de Tukey (?=0,05). O índice de remanescente adesivo (IRA) foi avaliado em aumento de 8x. O valor de RUC (MPa) do grupo C (17,72±4,45) foi significantemente maior do que o de outros grupos (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic orthodontic brackets bonded to bovine teeth using light-activated or chemically activated composite resins. One hundred and twenty bovine mandibular incisors were divided into 6 groups (n=20), according to the bonding ma [...] terials: Transbond XT (T); Enforce Dual (ED); Enforce chemical (EC); Enforce Light-activated (EL); Concise Orthodontic (C); and RelyX Unicem Capsule (UN). Metallic brackets were positioned and firmly bonded to the teeth. Light-activation for T, ED, EL and UN was carried out with four exposures on each side of the bracket with 20 s total exposure times using XL2500 (3M ESPE). EC and C were chemically cured. Next, all specimens were stored in deionized water at 37 °C for 24 h. The shear bond strength was carried out at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was evaluated at 8× magnification. C (17.72±4.45) presented significantly higher SBS means (in MPa) than the other groups (p

  2. On the Leibniz bracket, the Schouten bracket and the Laplacian

    CERN Document Server

    Coll, B; Coll, Bartolom'e; Ferrando, Joan Josep

    2003-01-01

    The Leibniz bracket of an operator on a (graded) algebra is defined and some of its properties are studied. A basic theorem relating the Leibniz bracket of the commutator of two operators to the Leibniz bracket of them, is obtained. Under some natural conditions, the Leibniz bracket gives rise to a (graded) Lie algebra structure. In particular, those algebras generated by the Leibniz bracket of the divergence and the Laplacian operators on the exterior algebra are considered, and the expression of the Laplacian for the product of two functions is generalized for arbitrary exterior forms.

  3. Femtosecond laser etching of dental enamel for bracket bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabas, Ayse Sena; Ersoy, Tansu; Gülsoy, Murat; Akturk, Selcuk

    2013-09-01

    The aim is to investigate femtosecond laser ablation as an alternative method for enamel etching used before bonding orthodontic brackets. A focused laser beam is scanned over enamel within the area of bonding in a saw tooth pattern with a varying number of lines. After patterning, ceramic brackets are bonded and bonding quality of the proposed technique is measured by a universal testing machine. The results are compared to the conventional acid etching method. Results show that bonding strength is a function of laser average power and the density of the ablated lines. Intrapulpal temperature changes are also recorded and observed minimal effects are observed. Enamel surface of the samples is investigated microscopically and no signs of damage or cracking are observed. In conclusion, femtosecond laser exposure on enamel surface yields controllable patterns that provide efficient bonding strength with less removal of dental tissue than conventional acid-etching technique. PMID:24045693

  4. Halogen light versus LED for bracket bonding: shear bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Guedes Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: LED light-curing devices seek to provide a cold light activator which allows protocols of material polymerization with shorter duration. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength of bracket bonding using three types of light-curing devices: One with halogen light (Optilight Plus - Gnatus and two with LEDs (Optilight CL - Gnatus and Elipar Freelight - 3M/ESPE. RESULTS: Comparing the results by analysis of variance, the Gnatus LED device showed an inferior statistical behavior in relation to other light sources, when activated by a short time. But, when it was used for 40 seconds, the polymerization results were consistent with the other evaluated sources. The device with the best average performance was the halogen light, followed by the 3M/ESPE LED. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the LEDs may be indicated in orthodontic practice, as long as a protocol is used for the application of light with the activation time of 40 seconds.INTRODUÇÃO: os aparelhos de fotopolimerização por LED buscam proporcionar uma luz ativadora fria, que possibilite protocolos de polimerização do material com menor tempo de duração. OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência à tração da colagem de braquetes, utilizando três tipos de aparelhos fotoativadores: um de luz halógena (Optilight Plus - Gnatus e outros dois de LED (Optilight CL - Gnatus; e Elipar Freelight - 3M/Espe. RESULTADOS: comparando os resultados por meio da análise de variância, o aparelho de LED Gnatus apresentou comportamento estatístico inferior em relação às outras fontes de luz, quando ativado por tempo reduzido. Já quando foi utilizado o tempo de 40 segundos, os resultados de polimerização foram compatíveis com as demais fontes avaliadas. O aparelho que apresentou melhor desempenho médio foi o de luz halógena, seguido pelo LED 3M/Espe. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que os LEDs podem ser indicados na prática ortodôntica, uma vez que seja utilizado um protocolo de aplicação da luz com tempo de ativação de 40 segundos.

  5. External apical root resorption in maxillary root-filled incisors after orthodontic treatment: A split-mouth design study

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas-carreras, Jose? M.; Amarilla, Almudena; Espinar-escalona, Eduardo; Castellanos-cosano, Lizett; Marti?n-gonza?lez, Jenifer; Sa?nchez-domi?nguez, Benito; Lo?pez-fri?as, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare, in a split mouth design, the external apical root resorption (EARR) associated with orthodontic treatment in root-filled maxillary incisors and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. Methodology: The study sample consisted of 38 patients (14 males and 24 females), who had one root-filled incisor before completion of multiband/bracket orthodontic therapy for at least 1 year. For each patient, digital panoramic radiographs taken b...

  6. Glass transition and degree of conversion of a light-cured orthodontic composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela M. D. S. Sostena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the glass transition temperature (Tg and degree of conversion (DC of a light-cured (Fill Magic versus a chemically cured (Concise orthodontic composite. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anelastic relaxation spectroscopy was used for the first time to determine the Tg of a dental composite, while the DC was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy. The light-cured composite specimens were irradiated with a commercial LED light-curing unit using different exposure times (40, 90 and 120 s. RESULTS: Fill Magic presented lower Tg than Concise (35-84ºC versus 135ºC, but reached a higher DC. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that Fill Magic has lower Tg than Concise due to its higher organic phase content, and that when this light-cured composite is used to bond orthodontic brackets, a minimum energy density of 7.8 J/cm² is necessary to reach adequate conversion level and obtain satisfactory adhesion.

  7. Glass transition and degree of conversion of a light-cured orthodontic composite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michela M. D. S., Sostena; Renata A., Nogueira; Carlos R., Grandini; João Carlos Silos, Moraes.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the glass transition temperature (Tg) and degree of conversion (DC) of a light-cured (Fill Magic) versus a chemically cured (Concise) orthodontic composite. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anelastic relaxation spectroscopy was used for the first time to determine the Tg of a de [...] ntal composite, while the DC was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy. The light-cured composite specimens were irradiated with a commercial LED light-curing unit using different exposure times (40, 90 and 120 s). RESULTS: Fill Magic presented lower Tg than Concise (35-84ºC versus 135ºC), but reached a higher DC. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that Fill Magic has lower Tg than Concise due to its higher organic phase content, and that when this light-cured composite is used to bond orthodontic brackets, a minimum energy density of 7.8 J/cm² is necessary to reach adequate conversion level and obtain satisfactory adhesion.

  8. Does orthodontics damage faces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiase, A T; Sandler, P J

    2001-03-01

    With the increasing provision of orthodontic care in this country, certain practitioners have raised concerns regarding the use of elective extractions and retraction mechanics, especially the effects on the facial profile and the TMJ. The non-extraction versus extraction debate spans the history of orthodontics, and the concepts of facial attractiveness are subject to change as fashions change. Within the realms of evidence-based practice, there is little or no evidence to suggest that the philosophies and mechanics of contemporary orthodontics, in the vast majority of cases, cause damage to the profile or are directly linked to the development of TMJ dysfunction. PMID:11819964

  9. Evaluation In Vitro of Frictional Resistance of Self-Ligating Esthetic and Conventional Brackets / Evaluación In Vitro de la Resistencia Friccional en Brackets de Autoligado Estéticos y Convencionales

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Rita Danelon do, Amaral; Perrim Smith, Neto; Matheus Melo, Pithon; Dauro Douglas, Oliveira.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar la resistencia a la fricción producida en de brackets de autoligado estéticos y convencionales durante la simulación mecánica de deslizamiento ortodóncico. Se utilizaron cuatro tipos diferentes de soportes: 3 de tipo autoligado de diferentes marcas (Clarity SL, 3M Unitek; Dam [...] on 3®, Ormco Corporation; In-Ovation C®, GAC International), además de brackets estéticos convencionales (Radiance®, American Orthodontics) asociado con ligaduras elásticas convencionales (Sani-tie®, GAC International) y ligaduras de baja fricción (Slide®, Leone). Para simular la mecánica de deslizamiento, se utilizaron alambres de acero inoxidable con un espesor de 0,018" y 0,017"x0.025" (GAC Internacional). Cinco grupos (n = 10) fueron sometidos a cinco pruebas mecánicas consecutivas en una máquina de prueba universal modelo Emic DL ® 500. Los resultados mostraron niveles bajos de fricción en todos brackets de autoligado probados y con el uso de alambre de 0.018" (p0,05). Por otra parte, los brackets estéticos convencionales asociados con ligaduras convencionales resultaron tener una mayor resistencia a la fricción con ambos alambres probados (p>0,05). Todos los brackets de autoligado presentan niveles de fricción más bajo que los accesorios convencionales. El brackets activo de autoligado In-Ovation C, demostró un mayor grado de fuerza friccional cuando se asocia con alambre rectangular. La ligadura Slide® puede ser una alternativa al uso de brackets de autoligado. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the frictional resistance created in self-ligating esthetic and conventional brackets during simulated orthodontic sliding mechanics. Four different types of brackets were used: 3 self-ligating type of different brands (Clarity SL, 3M Unitek; Damon 3®, Orm [...] co Corporation; In-Ovation C®, GAC International), in addition to conventional esthetic brackets (Radiance®, American Orthodontics) associated with conventional elastic ligatures (Sani-tie®, GAC International) and low friction ligatures (Slide®, Leone). To simulate sliding mechanics, stainless steel wires with thicknesses of 0.018" and 0.017"x0.025" (GAC International) were used. Five groups (n=10) were submitted to five consecutive mechanical tests in a universal test machine model Emic® DL 500. The results showed low frictional levels in all tested self-ligating brackets and with use of 0.018" wire (p0.05). Moreover, conventional esthetic brackets associated with conventional ligatures resulted in greater frictional resistance with both wires tested (p>0.05). All the self-ligating brackets presented lower frictional levels than the conventional accessories. Active self-ligating bracket In-Ovation C, demonstrated higher degree of frictional force when associated with rectangular wire. The Slide® ligature may be an alternative to the use of self-ligating brackets.

  10. Shear bond strength of new and recycled brackets to enamel

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Stenyo Wanderley, Tavares; Simonides, Consani; Darcy Flávio, Nouer; Maria Beatriz Borges de Araújo, Magnani; Paulo Roberto Aranha, Nouer; Laura Moura, Martins.

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes reciclados. Foram utilizados 50 pré-molares humanos, extraídos com finalidade ortodôntica, nos quais foi feita a colagem de bráquetes (S2C-03Z; Dental Morelli, Brasil) com resina composta quimicamente ativada (Co [...] ncise Ortodôntico; 3M, EUA). Os dentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em 5 grupos (n=10). No grupo I (controle), os bráquetes colados permaneceram fixados até o momento do teste de cisalhamento (ou seja, não foram feitos procedimentos de remoção e nova colagem dos bráquetes). Nos grupos II, III e IV, os bráquetes foram removidos e reutilizados após reciclagem com jateamento de óxido de alumínio (90 µm), desgaste com ponta abrasiva de carboneto de silício ou processo industrial por uma empresa especializada (Abzil-Lancer, Brasil), respectivamente. No grupo V, os bráquetes foram removidos e bráquetes novos foram colados sobre o esmalte. Os ensaios de cisalhamento foram realizados numa máquina Instron com velocidade de 0,5 mm/min e os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey com nível de significância de 5 %. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p>0,05) entre os bráquetes do grupo controle (0,52 kgf/mm²), reciclados com óxido de alumínio (0,34 kgf/mm²) e bráquetes novos colados sobre o esmalte onde anteriormente havia bráquetes fixados (0,43 kgf/mm²). Bráquetes reciclados pela empresa especializada (0,28 kgf/mm²) e pelo desgaste com carboneto de silício (0,14 kgf/mm²) apresentaram os menores valores de resistência ao cisalhamento, com diferença estatisticament significante (p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the shear bond strength of recycled orthodontic brackets. S2C-03Z brackets (Dental Morelli, Brazil) were bonded to the buccal surfaces of 50 extracted human premolars using Concise Orthodontic chemically cured composite resin (3M, USA). The teeth we [...] re randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=10), as follows. In group I (control), the bonded brackets remained attached until shear testing (i.e., no debonding/rebonding). In groups II, III and IV, the bonded brackets were detached and rebonded after recycling by 90-mum particle aluminum oxide blasting, silicon carbide stone grinding or an industrial process at a specialized contractor company (Abzil-Lancer, Brazil), respectively. In group V, the bonded brackets were removed and new brackets were bonded to the enamel surface. Shear bond strength was tested in an Instron machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the control brackets (0.52 kgf/mm²), brackets recycled by aluminum oxide blasting (0.34 kgf/mm²) and new brackets attached to previously bonded teeth (0.43 kgf/mm²). Brackets recycled by the specialized company (0.28 kgf/mm²) and those recycled by silicon carbide stone grinding (0.14 kgf/mm²) showed the lowest shear strength means and differed statistically from control brackets (0.52 kgf/mm²) (p

  11. Relationship between friction force and orthodontic force at the leveling stage using a coated wire

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Masaki, MURAYAMA; Yasuhiro, NAMURA; Takahiko, TAMURA; Hiroaki, IWAI; Noriyoshi, SHIMIZU.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between orthodontic force and friction produced from an archwire and brackets affects the sliding of the wire in the leveling stage. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between force and friction in a small esthetic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire. [...] Material and Methods: Five esthetic wires (three coated and two plated) and two small, plain Ni-Ti wires (0.012 and 0.014 inches) were used. We performed a three-point bending test according to ISO 15841 and the drawing test with a dental arch model designed with upper linguoversion of the lateral incisor in the arch (displacements of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm), and evaluated the relationship between them. Results: Unloading bending forces of all wires at displacements of less than 1.0 mm were larger than friction forces, but all friction forces at displacements exceeding 2.0 mm were larger than unloading bending forces. The arch likely expands when displacement from the proximal brackets exceeds 1.0 mm. The friction force of a martensite 0.014-inch Ni-Ti wire was significantly greater than those of the other esthetic and austenitic wires. Conclusions: A wire with the smallest possible friction force should be used in cases with more than 1.0 mm displacement.

  12. Equivalences of Higher Derived Brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A. S.; Scha?tz, F.

    2007-01-01

    This note elaborates on Th. Voronov’s construction [Th. Voronov, Higher derived brackets and homotopy algebras, J. Pure Appl. Algebra 202 (1–3) (2005) 133–153; Th. Voronov, Higher derived brackets for arbitrary derivations, Travaux Math. XVI (2005) 163–186] of L?-structures via higher derived brackets with a Maurer–Cartan element. It is shown that gauge equivalent Maurer–Cartan elements induce L?-isomorphic structures. Applications in symplectic, Poisson and Dirac geometry are...

  13. Beta titanium: a new orthodontic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

    1980-02-01

    Historically, few alloys have been used in the fabrication of orthodontic appliances. This article reviews the gold-based, stainless steel, chrome-cobalt-nickel, and nitinol alloys, as well as beta titanium, a new material for orthodontics. Mechanical properties and manipulative characteristics are summarized to develop a basis for the selection of the proper alloy for a given clinical situation. The beta titanium wire has a unique balance of low stiffness, high springback, formability, and weldability which indicates its use in a wide range of clinical applications. A number of such applications are described. PMID:6928342

  14. Evaluation of shear bond strength of metallic and ceramic brackets bonded to enamel prepared with self-etching primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Ustdal, Ayca; Kurt, Gokmen

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of different metallic and ceramic bracket bonding combinations using self-etching primers (SEPs). Eighty freshly extracted human premolar teeth were randomly divided into four equal groups for bonding with ceramic or metallic brackets as follows: group 1, metallic brackets bonded with conventional acid etching; group 2, metallic brackets bonded with Transbond Plus Self-Etching primer (TPSEP); group 3, ceramic brackets bonded as per group 1; group 4, ceramic brackets bonded as per group 2. The SBS of these brackets was measured and recorded in megapascals (MPa). The adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined after bracket failure. Data were analyzed with the analysis of variance, Tukey, and chi-square tests. The bond strength of group 3 (mean: 36.7 +/- 11.8 MPa) was significantly higher than group 4 (mean: 26.6 +/- 8.9 MPa; P 0.05). Compared with conventional acid etching, SEPs significantly decreased the SBS of ceramic orthodontic brackets. PMID:19509345

  15. Factors affecting the shear bond strength of metal and ceramic brackets bonded to different ceramic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Alhaija, Elham S J; Abu AlReesh, Issam A; AlWahadni, Ahed M S

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal and ceramic brackets bonded to two different all-ceramic crowns, IPS Empress 2 and In-Ceram Alumina, to compare the SBS between hydrofluoric acid (HFA), phosphoric acid etched, and sandblasted, non-etched all-ceramic surfaces. Ninety-six all-ceramic crowns were fabricated resembling a maxillary left first premolar. The crowns were divided into eight groups: (1) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; (2) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched In-Ceram crowns; (3) ceramic brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; (4) ceramic brackets bonded to sandblasted 9.6 per cent HFA-etched In-Ceram crowns; (5) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 37 per cent phosphoric acid-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; (6) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted 37 per cent phosphoric acid-etched In-Ceram crowns; (7) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted, non-etched IPS Empress 2 crowns; and (8) metal brackets bonded to sandblasted, non-etched In-Ceram crowns. Metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets were bonded using a conventional light polymerizing adhesive resin. An Instron universal testing machine was used to determine the SBS at a crosshead speed of 0.1 mm/minute. Comparison between groups was performed using a univariate general linear model and chi-squared tests. The highest mean SBS was found in group 3 (120.15 +/- 45.05 N) and the lowest in group 8 (57.86 +/- 26.20 N). Of all the variables studied, surface treatment was the only factor that significantly affected SBS (P brackets debonded from groups 1, 3, and 5 were not significantly different from those of groups 2, 4, and 6. All debonded metal brackets revealed a similar pattern of bond failure at the adhesive-restorative interface. However, ceramic brackets had a significantly different adhesive failure pattern with dominant failure at the adhesive-bracket interface. Ceramic fractures after bracket removal were found more often in groups 1-4. No significant difference in ceramic fracture was observed between the IPS Empress 2 and In-Ceram groups. PMID:19903729

  16. Oral tissues and orthodontic treatment: common side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farronato, G; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Cannalire, P; Martinelli, G; Tubertini, I; Maspero, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide a literature review about the problems that can occur during orthodontic treatment. Using the PubMed database we collected items that would provide information regarding the direct consequences of the placement of an orthodontic appliance: coming to the discussion of the following topics: candida infections, the effects on the soft tissues, the effects on periodontal tissues and effects on hard tissues. The presence of appliances in the oral cavity increases the prevalence of people with candida, specifically the species Candida Albicans is the most frequently isolated. The balance between the clearance of the microorganism, the colonization and the state of candidiasis depends both on the virulence of the fungus, and the competence of the host immune system. On soft tissues, cases of ulceration of the upper jaw by a rapid palatal expander and pyogenic granuloma due to quad helix appliance have been reported. The second one is mostly observed on vestibular gingiva. The first one was found, however, in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 because of the tissue modifications induced by this pathological condition. The more severe periodontic effects are those caused by incorrect use of orthodontic elastic separators. Finally, the White Spot Lesions are the direct consequences of a wrong conditioning of enamel when attaching the bracket. They represent a first stage of caries in the positioning area of the bracket. The orthodontist is required to intercept these issues not to affect the success of the treatment. PMID:24270203

  17. Microleakage and shear bond strength of orthodontc brackets bonded to hypomineralized enamel following different surface preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabi, Mostafa; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Mohamadipour, Hamideh; Moosavi, Horieh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the effects of several conditioning methods on shear bond strength (SBS) and microleakage of orthodontic brackets bonded to demineralized enamel. Study Design: One hundred premolars were selected and immersed in a cariogenic solution for 12 weeks. The teeth were randomly assigned into 5 groups. In groups 1 and 2, the teeth underwent acid etching for 30 and 120 seconds, respectively. In group 3, a combination of laser and acid etching was employed. A sel...

  18. A comparative evaluation of the tensile strength of silver soldered joints of stainless steel and cobalt chromium orthodontic wires with band material--an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, R; Nandlal, B

    2004-03-01

    The present study was conducted to compare and evaluate the tensile strength of silver soldered joints of stainless steel and cobalt-chromium orthodontic wires with band material. An attempt was made to observe the effect of joint site preparation by incorporation of tack welding and increasing metal to metal surface contact area by flattening an end of the wire prior to soldering along with the regularly used round wires without tack welding. A total of 180 wire specimens were soldered to 180 band specimens. Fifteen samples according to joint site preparation were included for each of the wire groups i.e. Gloria (S.S.), Remanium (S.S.) and Remaloy (Co-Cr) wires of 0.036" in diameter. The findings of the study were suggestive that all three wires may be used for preparing silver soldered joints irrespective of the quality of the wire. However, when subjecting the wire to joint site preparation, Gloria (S.S.) wire showed less tensile strength as compared to Remanium and Remaloy. PMID:15255439

  19. Management of Gingival Recession Associated with Orthodontic Treatment: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Tarun Kumar; Sharma, Tarun; Prasad, Narayana; Singh, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    Many patients undergo orthodontic treatment for aesthetic improvement. It is well established that the patients who undergo orthodontic treatment have a high susceptibility to present plaque accumulation on their teeth because of the presence of brackets, wires and/or other orthodontic elements on the teeth surfaces with which the oral hygiene procedures might be more difficult. The orthodontic treatment is a double-action procedure regarding the periodontal tissues which may be very meaningful in increasing the periodontal health status and may be a harmful procedure which can be followed by several types of periodontal complications. There is a strong correlation between the severity and extent of gingival recessions and the orthodontic treatment suggesting that orthodontic tooth movement may lead to gingival recession. The principal objective in the treatment of gingival recession is to cover the exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics and to reduce hypersensitivity. Different soft tissue grafting procedures have been proposed in the treatment of gingival recessions. Subepithelial connective tissue graft is a reliable method for treatment of gingival recession. The purpose of this case report was to illustrate the relationship between orthodontic therapy and gingival recession and to describe the management of this case. PMID:25177647

  20. Management of gingival recession associated with orthodontic treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Tarun Kumar; Phogat, Megha; Sharma, Tarun; Prasad, Narayana; Singh, Shailendra

    2014-07-01

    Many patients undergo orthodontic treatment for aesthetic improvement. It is well established that the patients who undergo orthodontic treatment have a high susceptibility to present plaque accumulation on their teeth because of the presence of brackets, wires and/or other orthodontic elements on the teeth surfaces with which the oral hygiene procedures might be more difficult. The orthodontic treatment is a double-action procedure regarding the periodontal tissues which may be very meaningful in increasing the periodontal health status and may be a harmful procedure which can be followed by several types of periodontal complications. There is a strong correlation between the severity and extent of gingival recessions and the orthodontic treatment suggesting that orthodontic tooth movement may lead to gingival recession. The principal objective in the treatment of gingival recession is to cover the exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics and to reduce hypersensitivity. Different soft tissue grafting procedures have been proposed in the treatment of gingival recessions. Subepithelial connective tissue graft is a reliable method for treatment of gingival recession. The purpose of this case report was to illustrate the relationship between orthodontic therapy and gingival recession and to describe the management of this case. PMID:25177647

  1. Degradation of orthodontic wires under simulated cariogenic and erosive conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura Cavalcante Lima, JABER; José Augusto, RODRIGUES; Flávia Lucisano Botelho, AMARAL; Fabiana Mantovani Gomes, FRANÇA; Roberta Tarkany, BASTING; Cecilia Pedroso, TURSSI.

    2014-08-04

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of cariogenic and erosive challenges (CCs and ECs, respectively) on the degradation of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) orthodontic wires. Sixty wire segments were divided into four treatment groups and exposed to CCs, ECs, artificial saliva, or dry storage (no-treatmen [...] t control). CC and EC were simulated using a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3) and a citric acid solution (pH 2.3), respectively. Following treatment, the average surface roughness (Ra) of the wires was assessed, and friction between the wires and a passive self-ligating bracket was measured. CuNiTi wires subjected to ECs exhibited significantly higher Ra values than did those that were stored in artificial saliva. In contrast, surface roughness was not affected by CCs. Finally, friction between the treated wires and brackets was not affected by ECs or CCs. Our results indicate that CuNiTi orthodontic wires may suffer degradation within the oral cavity, as ECs increased the surface roughness of these wires. However, rougher surfaces did not increase friction between the wire and the passive self-ligating bracket.

  2. Plaque Index in Multi-Bracket Fixed Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the plaque index in patients receiving multi-bracket fixed orthodontic treatment for various factors like age, gender, socio-economic status, brushing practices, meal habits, types of brackets, types of ligations, use of mouthwash and duration of treatment. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontics Clinic, The Aga Khan University Hospital, from September to November 2011. Methodology: Socio-demographic and clinical modalities were defined and recorded for 131 patients having multi-bracket fixed appliances. The plaque index of subjects were recorded according to the Silness and Loe plaque index method. Independent sample t-test was used to see difference in plaque index in factors having two variables. One way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey tests were used to see difference in plaque index in factors having three variables. Kappa statistics was used to assess inter examiner reliability. P-value 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results: The sample comprised of 37% males (n = 48) and 63% females (n = 83). The plaque index had statistically significant association with practice of brushing i.e., timing of brushing (p=0.001), method of brushing (p=0.08), type of ligatures (p=0.05) and frequency of visits (p=0.01). Conclusion: The plaque accumulation is significantly decreased in subjects who brush the teeth twice or more than twice a day and those who brush their teeth after breakfast. The use of interdental brush and stainless steel ligatures had significantly low plaque. Subjects presenting with more frequent appointments of short-period had significantly less plaque. (author)

  3. Enamel loss following ceramic bracket debonding: A quantitative analysis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Sam N; Trojan, Terry M; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis

    2014-09-29

    Abstract Objective: To measure enamel surface changes after ceramic bracket debonding and after cleanup. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted teeth were scanned in three dimensions using an optical scanner (baseline). Two ceramic bracket systems were placed (19 metal-reinforced polycrystalline ceramic brackets; 21 monocrystalline ceramic brackets). Seven days later, brackets were debonded and teeth scanned (post-debond). Adhesive remnants and bracket fragments were recorded. Tooth surfaces were cleaned using a finishing carbide bur and scanned again (post-cleanup). Post-debond and post-cleanup scans were aligned with the baseline, and surface changes were quantified. Results were statistically compared using t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests (? ?=? .05). Results: The depth of enamel loss (mean ± standard deviation) post-debond was 21 ± 8 µm and 33 µm and post-cleanup was 28 ± 14 µm and 18 ± 8 µm (P ?=? .0191); the post-debond remnant thickness was 188 ± 113 µm and 120 ± 37 µm (P ?=? .2381) and post-cleanup was 16 ± 5 µm and 15 µm for polycrystalline and monocrystalline ceramic brackets, respectively. The monocrystalline ceramic brackets predominantly left all adhesive on the tooth; the polycrystalline ceramic brackets were more likely to leave bracket fragments attached. Conclusion: Both systems allowed successful removal of the brackets with minimal enamel loss. However, the polycrystalline ceramic brackets left more fragments on the tooth, which complicated cleanup efforts. PMID:25264580

  4. Desmistificando os braquetes autoligáveis / Demystifying self-ligating brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata, Sathler; Renata Gonçalves, Silva; Guilherme, Janson; Nuria Cabral Castello, Branco; Marcelo, Zanda.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Atualmente, os braquetes autoligáveis têm sido associados a tratamentos mais rápidos e eficazes, o que desperta a curiosidade em compará-los ao sistema convencional. Ao contrário dos braquetes tradicionais, os autoligáveis não necessitam de ligaduras, sejam elásticas ou metálicas. A literatura é far [...] ta em concluir que essa característica diminui, ostensivamente, a resistência do atrito durante as mecânicas de deslize. Além disso, existem alegações sobre a dimimuição da necessidade de extrações e de expansão maxilar com o uso desses acessórios. Portanto, o objetivo dessa revisão de literatura foi buscar os mais novos estudos a respeito dos aparelhos autoligáveis atualmente utilizados nos tratamentos ortodônticos, confirmando ou retificando as especulações vigentes. Abstract in english Currently self-ligating brackets have been associated to faster and more efficient treatments, which arouse the curiosity to compare them to the conventional system. Unlike traditional appliances, self-ligating brackets do not require elastomeric or metal ligatures. The literature is abundant in con [...] cluding that this feature decreases, ostensibly, the friction resistance during the sliding mechanics. Moreover, there are reports on minimizing the need of extractions and maxillary expansion using these accessories. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review was to seek the newest studies about the self-ligating brackets currently used in orthodontic treatments, confirming or correcting current speculations.

  5. Evaluation of shear bond strength of different treatments of ceramic bracket surfaces Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de diferentes tratamentos na superfície de braquetes cerâmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helou Ramos Andrade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bonding strength of the ceramic bracket and composite resin restoration interface, using four types of treatment on the base of the bracket. METHODOLOGY: 48 photoactivated composite resin discs were used (FiltekTM Z250 contained in specimens and divided into 4 groups of 12 specimens for each group according to the type of treatment performed on the base of the brackets. Once the brackets were bonded, the specimens were subjected to shear stress carried out in a universal testing machine (MTS: 810 Material Test System calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5 mm / minute. The values obtained were recorded and compared by means of appropriate statistical tests - analysis of variance and then Tukey's test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The surfaces of ceramic brackets conditioned with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 1 minute, followed by aluminum oxide blasting, 50µ, after silane application and primer application, was considered the best method to prepare surfaces of ceramic brackets prior to orthodontic esthetic bonding.OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência à união da interface entre braquete cerâmico e restauração de resina composta, empregando quatro tipos de tratamento na base do braquete. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 48 discos de resina fotoativada (Filtek® Z250 incluídos em corpos de prova, divididos em quatro grupos, com 12 espécimes em cada grupo, de acordo com o tipo de tratamento realizado na base do braquete. Uma vez colados os braquetes, os corpos de prova foram submetidos à tensão de cisalhamento, realizado numa máquina universal de ensaios (MTS: 810 Material Test System calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/min. Os valores obtidos foram registrados e comparados por meio de médias, utilizando-se testes estatísticos adequados (análise de Variância e, posteriormente, teste de Tukey. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o condicionamento das superfícies dos braquetes cerâmicos com ácido hidrofluorídrico a 10% por 1 minuto, seguido do jateamento com óxido de alumínio com 50um de tamanho, e posterior aplicação do silano e, depois, aplicação de adesivo, foi considerado o melhor método para o preparo de superfícies de braquetes cerâmicos previamente à colagem estética ortodôntica.

  6. Evaluation of shear bond strength of different treatments of ceramic bracket surfaces / Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de diferentes tratamentos na superfície de braquetes cerâmicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Helou Ramos, Andrade; Rogério Vieira, Reges; Marcos Augusto, Lenza.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência à união da interface entre braquete cerâmico e restauração de resina composta, empregando quatro tipos de tratamento na base do braquete. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 48 discos de resina fotoativada (Filtek® Z250) incluídos em corpos de prova, divididos em quatro grupos, [...] com 12 espécimes em cada grupo, de acordo com o tipo de tratamento realizado na base do braquete. Uma vez colados os braquetes, os corpos de prova foram submetidos à tensão de cisalhamento, realizado numa máquina universal de ensaios (MTS: 810 Material Test System) calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/min. Os valores obtidos foram registrados e comparados por meio de médias, utilizando-se testes estatísticos adequados (análise de Variância e, posteriormente, teste de Tukey). RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o condicionamento das superfícies dos braquetes cerâmicos com ácido hidrofluorídrico a 10% por 1 minuto, seguido do jateamento com óxido de alumínio com 50um de tamanho, e posterior aplicação do silano e, depois, aplicação de adesivo, foi considerado o melhor método para o preparo de superfícies de braquetes cerâmicos previamente à colagem estética ortodôntica. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bonding strength of the ceramic bracket and composite resin restoration interface, using four types of treatment on the base of the bracket. METHODOLOGY: 48 photoactivated composite resin discs were used (FiltekTM Z250) contained in specimens and divided into 4 groups of 1 [...] 2 specimens for each group according to the type of treatment performed on the base of the brackets. Once the brackets were bonded, the specimens were subjected to shear stress carried out in a universal testing machine (MTS: 810 Material Test System) calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5 mm / minute. The values obtained were recorded and compared by means of appropriate statistical tests - analysis of variance and then Tukey's test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The surfaces of ceramic brackets conditioned with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 1 minute, followed by aluminum oxide blasting, 50µ, after silane application and primer application, was considered the best method to prepare surfaces of ceramic brackets prior to orthodontic esthetic bonding.

  7. Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes da técnica lingual colados sobre superfície cerâmica / Evaluation of shear strength of lingual brackets bonded to ceramic surfaces

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michele Balestrin, Imakami; Karyna Martins, Valle-Corotti; Paulo Eduardo Guedes, Carvalho; Ana Carla Raphaelli Nahás, Scocate.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos (American Orthodontics) utilizados na técnica lingual, colados em facetas de cerâmica. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 40 corpos de prova divididos em quatro grupos de 10, de acordo com o material de colagem e do preparo da porcelana: [...] Grupo I -resina Sondhi Rapid-Set e ácido fluorídrico; Grupo II -resina Sondhi Rapid-Set e óxido de alumínio; Grupo III -resina Transbond XT e ácido fluorídrico; e Grupo IV -resina Transbond XT e óxido de alumínio. Previamente à colagem, os braquetes foram preparados com base de resina de carga pesada (Z-250) e as facetas de cerâmica receberam aplicação de silano. O teste de cisalhamento foi realizado por uma máquina de ensaios Kratos à uma velocidade de 0,5mm/min. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através do teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear strength of lingual metal brackets (American Orthodontics) bonded to ceramic veneers. METHODS: A total of 40 specimens were divided into four groups of 10, according to bonding material and ceramics preparation: Group I -Sondhi Rapid-Set res [...] in and Hydrofluoric acid, Group II -Sondhi Rapid-Set resin and aluminum oxide, Group III -Transbond XT resin and Hydrofluoric acid, and Group IV -Transbond XT resin and aluminum oxide. Prior to bonding, the brackets were prepared with heavy-duty resin base (Z-250) and the ceramic veneers were treated with silane. The shear test was conducted with a Kratos testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The results were statistically analyzed by the Tukey test (p

  8. Quantum deformation of the Dirac bracket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Raduta, A. A.; Faessler, Amand

    2006-01-01

    The quantum deformation of the Poisson bracket is the Moyal bracket. We construct quantum deformation of the Dirac bracket for systems which admit global symplectic basis for constraint functions. Equivalently, it can be considered as an extension of the Moyal bracket to second-class constraints systems and to gauge-invariant systems which become second class when gauge-fixing conditions are imposed.

  9. Quantum deformation of the Dirac bracket

    OpenAIRE

    Krivoruchenko, M. I.; Raduta, A. A.; Faessler, Amand

    2005-01-01

    The quantum deformation of the Poisson bracket is the Moyal bracket. We construct quantum deformation of the Dirac bracket for systems which admit global symplectic basis for constraint functions. Equivalently, it can be considered as an extension of the Moyal bracket to second-class constraints systems and to gauge-invariant systems which become second class when gauge-fixing conditions are imposed.

  10. Quantum deformation of the Dirac bracket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum deformation of the Poisson bracket is the Moyal bracket. We construct quantum deformation of the Dirac bracket for systems which admit global symplectic basis for constraint functions. Equivalently, it can be considered as an extension of the Moyal bracket to second-class constraints systems and to gauge-invariant systems which become second class when gauge-fixing conditions are imposed

  11. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires made of super engineering plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Minami; Kanno, Zuisei; Wada, Takahiro; Hongo, Toshio; Doi, Hisashi; Hanawa, Takao; Ono, Takashi; Uo, Motohiro

    2015-02-01

    Most orthodontic equipment is fabricated from alloys such as stainless steel, Co-Cr and Ni-Ti because of their excellent elastic properties. In recent years, increasing esthetic demands, metal allergy and interference of metals with magnetic resonance imaging have driven the development of non-metallic orthodontic materials. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using three super engineering plastics (PEEK, PES and PVDF) as orthodontic wires. PES and PVDF demonstrated excellent esthetics, although PEEK showed the highest bending strength and creep resistance. PEEK and PVDF showed quite low water absorption. Because of recent developments in coloration of PEEK, we conclude that PEEK has many advantageous properties that make it a suitable candidate for use as an esthetic metal-free orthodontic wire. PMID:25748467

  12. The effect of pretreatment with fluoride on the tensile strength of orthodontic bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White spot decalcifications and caries occurring adjacent to bonded orthodontic brackets have long been a concern to orthodontists. One procedure suggested to overcome this problem is fluoride treatment prior to bonding. The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of orthodontic self-cured resin from Concise on teeth rinsed 4 minutes in 1.23% APF with untreated controls. Measurements were made on an Instron machine. Debonding interfaces were observed with a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. Distributions were calculated. The tensile bond strengths of the fluoride-treated teeth and the untreated teeth were not significantly different. The debonding interfaces between resin and bracket base, within the resin itself, and between enamel and resin were similar in the two experimental groups. However, greater enamel detachment was seen within the fluoride pretreatment group. So while fluoride pretreatment does not significantly affect tensile bond strength, it may cause enamel detachment after debonding

  13. A influência da variação da curvatura da base do braquete em uma união ortodôntica submetida a diferentes cargas, através do método dos elementos finitos The influence of the variation of the bracket base curvature in a bonded orthodontic attachment submitted by different load cases using the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Pereira Viana

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou avaliar, através do Método dos Elementos Finitos, a resistência ao deslocamento de quatro diferentes bases de braquetes "straight-wire" (Morelli, Unitek, A-Company e Abzil-Lancer na aplicação de forças de torção e cisalhamento, correlacionando essa resistência à melhor adaptação das bases à superfície vestibular dentária. As curvaturas das bases de braquetes utilizados no presente estudo foram descritas em um estudo prévio, enquanto o contorno dentário foi obtido a partir do escaneamento e cálculo da curvatura média vestibular do canino inferior de uma amostra de 30 indivíduos brasileiros. Empregou-se a análise tridimensional por Elementos Finitos da interface esmalte vestibular/cimento/base do braquete para cada marca testada. Forças de 1N, promovendo deslocamento lateral e torção, foram aplicadas no centro da base do braquete e observou-se a distribuição desses esforços sobre os modelos assim como as tensões normais e de cisalhamento geradas. Os resultados mostraram que a base que melhor se adaptou à superfície vestibular construída foi a da marca Unitek, seguida pela marca A-Company, Abzil-Lancer e Morelli. As deformações sofridas pelos braquetes foram inversamente proporcionais à adaptação à superfície dentária. Os maiores picos de tensão localizaram-se nas proximidades do ponto de aplicação da força. A interface adesivo/esmalte foi mais sujeita à falha na adesão que a interface braquete/adesivo. A força de cisalhamento demonstrou ser mais provável de causar falha na adesão quando comparada à força de torção.The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of the four straight-wire brackets bases (Morelli, Unitek, A-Company and Abzil-Lancer to facial surface of a lower canine. The lower canine facial curvature data to be used in the three-dimensional finite element model were established by 30 Brazilian adult individuals and the brackets bases curvature used were described in a prior study. The three-dimensional finite element analysis of the interface enamel/cement/base of bracket for each tested mark was used. Loads of 1N promoting lateral displacement and torsion had been applied in the center of the base of brackets and the distribution of these efforts on the models was observed as well as the normal and shear tensions generated. The results had shown that the base that better fit to facial surface was the one from Unitek, followed by the A-Company, Abzil-Lancer and Morelli.The brackets deformations were inversely proportional to its adaptation.The biggest peaks of tensions had been situated near to the point of force application. The cement/enamel interface was more likely to fail in the adhesion that the bracket/cement interface. The torsion load was less likely to cause damage in the adhesion when compared with the shear load.

  14. On the quantization of Poisson brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Donin, J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduce two classes of Poisson brackets on algebras (or on sheaves of algebras). We call them locally free and nonsingular Poisson brackets. Using the Fedosov's method we prove that any locally free nonsingular Poisson bracket can be quantized. In particular, it follows from this that all Poisson brackets on an arbitrary field of characteristic zero can be quantized. The well known theorem about the quantization of nondegenerate Poisson brackets on smooth ...

  15. Lasers in orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalcaci, Ruhi; Cokakoglu, Serpil

    2013-01-01

    Many types of dental lasers are currently available that can be efficiently used for soft and hard tissue applications in the field of orthodontics. For achieving the desired effects in the target tissue, knowledge of laser characteristics such as power, wavelength and timing, is necessary. Laser therapy is advantageous because it often avoids bleeding, can be pain free, is non-invasive and is relatively quick. The high cost is its primary disadvantage. It is very important to take the necessary precautions to prevent possible tissue damage when using laser dental systems. Here, we reviewed the main types and characteristics of laser systems used in dental practice and discuss the applications of lasers in orthodontics, harmful effects and laser system safety. PMID:24966719

  16. Occlusion: an orthodontic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasrovi, P M; Meyer, M; Nelson, G D

    2000-10-01

    In recent years, orthodontists have examined their concepts of occlusion. In current literature, at professional meetings, and in continuing education courses, one hears an ongoing discussion of condylar position and mandibular border movements in relation to occlusion. There is a wide variation in opinion as to whether dental occlusion and TMJ function are interdependent. The authors have adopted a dynamic concept of dental function to replace the traditional static view of molar relationship and incisor overlap. This article discusses how occlusion has evolved in orthodontics and reviews Andrews' six keys to ideal static occlusion, the goals of ideal dynamic occlusion, and the six signs of developing malocclusions. The authors also review the literature on the relationship between orthodontics, occlusion, and TMD. PMID:11326521

  17. NiTi WIRES FOR ORTHODONTIC APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Thier, M.; Kubla, G.; Drescher, D.; Bourauel, C.

    1991-01-01

    In order to characterize NiTi orthodontic wires microstructure, transformation temperatures, and deformation behaviour have been investigated. Various states of dislocation density were established by additional heat treatment of a work hardened material. The as recieved wire and the change in microstructure due to the chosen heat treatment were described by optical light microscopy. The stress induced transformation behaviour is related with the experimental results in transformation charact...

  18. A longitudinal laser fluorescence study of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, S; Forsberg, C M; de Josselin de Jong, E; Angmar-Månsson, B

    1998-06-01

    Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances increases the caries risk in young persons. The aim of this study was to apply a new caries diagnostic method, quantitative laser fluorescence, for longitudinal in vivo quantification of changes in incipient enamel lesions related to fixed orthodontic appliances. Seven young patients with active caries lesions disclosed at removal of the orthodontic brackets and bands were enrolled in the study. Caries preventive measures were intensified, including dietary advice, oral hygiene instructions, and the regular use of a fluoride dentifrice. The caries lesions were monitored with the quantitative laser fluorescence method after removal of the brackets and once a month thereafter. For each lesion, three quantities were measured: lesion area (mm2), mean fluorescence loss (%) over the lesion, and maximum loss of fluorescence (%) in the lesion. During a 1-year follow-up period, the areas of the lesions decreased and the enamel fluorescence lost was partly regained indicating that a remineralization process had occurred. It was concluded that quantitative laser fluorescence seems suitable for in vivo monitoring of mineral changes in incipient enamel lesions, and useful for the evaluation of preventive measures in caries prone persons, such as orthodontic patients. PMID:9637561

  19. Evaluation of nickel ion release from various orthodontic arch wires: An in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkutvan, R. S.; Jacob, Sanjay; Charles, Anila; Vadgaonkar, Vaishali; Jatol-Tekade, Suruchi; Gangurde, Parag

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The high incidence of nickel (Ni) allergy and the increasing use of Ni-containing dental biomaterials have been of growing concern. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze and evaluate the rate of Ni ion release from different types arch wires used in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: Four groups of arch wires (nickel titanium [NiTi], SS, Cu NiTi and ion implanted NiTi) with twelve samples were stored in artificial saliva with a pH 5.6-7.0 thermostated at (36.5°C) and tested at different intervals i.e., 7th day, 14th day, and 21st day. The amount of Ni and Ti ions released from the sample were evaluated using an atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The solution was replaced with a fresh bottle to avoid sediments. Results: Statistical analysis was performed by nonparametric tests (Student's paired t-test, one-way analysis of variance and multiple comparison test by Tukey “Honestly significant difference”). The statistical package SPSS PC plus (version 4.0.1) was used for data processing and statistical analysis. Results showed significantly statistical influence on the release amount of Ni and Ti ions. Large variation in concentration of Ni released from brackets and bands combined. However, the amount of Ni ions released in all test solutions diminished with time and was below the critical value necessary to induce allergy and below daily dietary intake level. Conclusions: The daily release of NiTi, SS, Cu NiTi and ion implanted NiTi by an orthodontic appliance in acid pH, particularly favorable to corrosion, was well below that ingested with a normal daily diet. It is therefore concluded that the quantities of metal ions released in our experimental conditions should not be cause for concern in utilizing the appliance. PMID:24818088

  20. Oral health: orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martonffy, Andrea Ildiko

    2015-01-01

    Improper tooth alignment due to crowding, malocclusion, and missing teeth can cause difficulties with eating and speech, and premature wear. It is estimated that more than 20% of children would benefit from orthodontic treatment to correct these conditions, many of which will persist into adulthood if not corrected. Orthodontic care is gaining popularity among adults for similar concerns, as well as for correction of cosmetic issues. The psychological effects of malocclusion should not be ignored. The American Association of Orthodontists recommends that all children undergo evaluation at the first recognition of an orthodontic condition and no later than age 7 years. Some children will need early treatment to help eliminate developing conditions and improve the foundations of the bite, which can ease later treatment in adolescence. For others, treatment in adolescence without early treatment is recommended. Standard cemented braces or clear, removable aligners may be used, depending on the patient's corrective needs. Average treatment time is approximately 2 years; this may be shortened by the use of accelerative techniques. Routine preventive dental care should be continued during the treatment period. PMID:25594451

  1. Orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth: Contemporary views.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To collect and assess the contemporary data referring to orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth.METHOD: Relevant original and review articles were retrieved from PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, Embase, and Scopus databases, until February 2010. RESULTS: Endodontically treated teeth can be moved equally well to vital teeth and for the same distances, without more frequent adverse consequences. They present a smaller degree of apical resorption in mean values compared to vital teeth, however this difference is not regarded to be statistically or clinically significant. Root resorption seems to be related more to the severity of trauma and the stage of root development rather than orthodontic or surgical manipulations. The obturating material of choice in the event of endodontic treatment of teeth with incomplete apex as well as in cases of teeth with complete apex under orthodontic movement, seems to be Ca(OH2, because of the evidence based action of Ca(OH2 against the frequently observed root resorption. In cases of fractures, a 12 month waiting period is suggested before the start of orthodontic treatment, while in cases with no radiographic findings treatment can begin relatively immediately. CONCLUSIONS: Orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth is feasible without negative consequences to the apex. Orthodontic treatment prognosis of endodontically treated teeth depends on the type, the severity and the timing of trauma, as well as the management of the case by the team of therapists.

  2. Retention of orthodontic bands with three different cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadereli, I; Ciger, S

    1995-01-01

    In 1878, zinc phosphate cement was introduced as a dental material and used to cement orthodontic bands. The prevalence of enamel decalcification beneath orthodontic bands has indicated the need for a fluoride-releasing orthodontic luting cement. The purpose of this study was to compare the retentive bond strengths of orthodontic bands cemented individually with zinc polycarboxylate, glass ionomer and zinc phosphate cement adhesives. Forty-eight extracted human molar teeth were embedded in resin blocks and each was randomly assigned to one of the three cement groups. Adapted bands were cemented by using hand pressure and a band seater. The cemented teeth were then put in synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C for twenty-four hours. The force required to fracture the cement bond was used as a measure of cement retention. Using an Instron universal testing machine, a tensile load was applied to each cemented band. The Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance test revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05) among the retentive strengths of the three cements. Both the zinc polycarboxylate and the glass ionomer cements tested were found to be suitable as orthodontic luting agents. In addition, the ability to bond to enamel and stainless steel and to leach fluoride make the glass ionomer cement an ideal orthodontic cement. PMID:7577731

  3. Evaluation of Subgingival Dental Plaque Microbiota Changes In Fixed Orthodontic Patients with Syber Green Real Time PCR

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    Naser Sargolzaie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common problems we confront in orthodontic therapy is periodontal diseases. Initial factor which causes these diseases is colonization of anaerobic microorganisms in subgingival plaque. Technically, local environmental changes related to orthodontic band and brackets may influence the bacterial species in periodontal plaque. However, it seems necessary to assess variations in subgingival plaque caused by orthodontic appliances. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in subgingival microbiota and clinical parameters before and after bracket placement. Methods: Clinical parameters including probing depth (PD, plaque index (PI, clinical attachment level (CAL, bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival index (GI were recorded and subgingival microbial samples were collected in 30 people aged between 13 and 25. As a control group, 15 persons getting matched as to their age and sex with no need to orthodontic treatment were opted using specific primers, SYBER Green Real-Time PCR was carried out in order to determine bacterial flora in stored samples. All mentioned procedures were reassessed in experimental group and in control group three months after band and bracket bonding. A descriptive analysis was conducted, and paired t test and Wilcoxon test were used for differences between groups (P

  4. Relationship between self-concept and satisfaction with tooth alignment and demand for orthodontic treatment and professionally determined orthodontic needs

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    Amirreza Amnaie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Recognition of psychological factors plays an important role in determination of orthodontic treatment needs as well as achieving a successful treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-concept, dentofacial body image, subjective orthodontic treatment needs and professionally determined needs for orthodontic treatment among a group of university students.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 164 students of Isfahan Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery were studied based on a simple sampling procedure. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire consisting of 40 questions, including 3 parts for measurement of self-concept, dentofacial body image and self-perceived treatment need. Professionally determined orthodontic need was assessed using IOTN by two orthodontists. Data was analyzed using SPSS 11. Statistical methods for standardization of questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha, Student’s t-test and Spearman’s correlation were used at a significance level of 0.05.Results: Statistically significant correlations were seen between participants' self-concept, dentofacial body image, subjective orthodontic need and the professionally determined orthodontic need, with Spearman’s correlation coefficients of -0.16, 0.19 and -0.036, respectively (p value < 0.05.Conclusion: The majority of the students were satisfied with their teeth alignment and the more satisfied they were, the higher self-concept they had, with lower demand for orthodontic treatment. Moreover, the orthodontic needs determined by orthodontists were less among students with high self-concept. Key words: Health services needs and demand, Malocclusion, Self-assessment, Self-concept.

  5. Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... desktop! more... Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Article Chapters Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Orthodontics print full article print this chapter email ...

  6. Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes da técnica lingual colados sobre superfície cerâmica Evaluation of shear strength of lingual brackets bonded to ceramic surfaces

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    Michele Balestrin Imakami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos (American Orthodontics utilizados na técnica lingual, colados em facetas de cerâmica. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 40 corpos de prova divididos em quatro grupos de 10, de acordo com o material de colagem e do preparo da porcelana: Grupo I -resina Sondhi Rapid-Set e ácido fluorídrico; Grupo II -resina Sondhi Rapid-Set e óxido de alumínio; Grupo III -resina Transbond XT e ácido fluorídrico; e Grupo IV -resina Transbond XT e óxido de alumínio. Previamente à colagem, os braquetes foram preparados com base de resina de carga pesada (Z-250 e as facetas de cerâmica receberam aplicação de silano. O teste de cisalhamento foi realizado por uma máquina de ensaios Kratos à uma velocidade de 0,5mm/min. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através do teste de Tukey (pOBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear strength of lingual metal brackets (American Orthodontics bonded to ceramic veneers. METHODS: A total of 40 specimens were divided into four groups of 10, according to bonding material and ceramics preparation: Group I -Sondhi Rapid-Set resin and Hydrofluoric acid, Group II -Sondhi Rapid-Set resin and aluminum oxide, Group III -Transbond XT resin and Hydrofluoric acid, and Group IV -Transbond XT resin and aluminum oxide. Prior to bonding, the brackets were prepared with heavy-duty resin base (Z-250 and the ceramic veneers were treated with silane. The shear test was conducted with a Kratos testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The results were statistically analyzed by the Tukey test (p<0.05 and showed a statistically significant difference between groups I (2.77 MPa and IV (6.00 MPa, and between groups III (3.33 MPa and IV. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the bonding of lingual brackets to ceramic surfaces exhibited greater shear strength when aluminum oxide was used in association with the two resins utilized in this study, although Transbond XT showed greater shear strength than Sondhi Rapid-Set.

  7. Interrelationships of endodontic- orthodontic treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedmat S

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was reviewing the literature related to the mutual effects of endodontics and orthodontics on each other providing documented information that can be used by dentists in clinical practice. The effect of orthodontic treatment on the dental pulp and its role in root resorption, the influence of previous trauma to the tooth and endodontic treatment in orthodontic tooth movements and root resorption, recommendations regarding endodontic treatment during orthodontic tooth movement and the role of the orthodontic forces in provision and outcome of endodontic treatment are being discussed. The effect of the orthodontic tooth movement on the pulp is focused primarily on the neurovascular system which can cause degenerative and/or inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. Although, most of these changes are considered reversible, it seems that teeth with complete apical foramen and teeth subjected to previous insults, such as trauma, caries, restorations and periodontal diseases are more susceptible to pulpal irreversible changes. Teeth with root canal treatment that are well cleaned shaped, and three- dimensionally obturated, exhibit less propensity to apical root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. This outcome depends on the absence of microleakage for bacterial ingress. A traumatized tooth can be moved orthodontically with minimal risk of resorption, provided that the pulp has not been severely injured (infection or necrosis. If there is evidence of pulpal demise, appropriate endodontic treatment is necessary prior to orthodontic treatment .If a previously traumatized tooth exhibits resorption, there is a greater chance that orthodontic tooth movement will enhance the resorptive process. If a tooth has been severely traumatized (intrusion, avulsion there would be a greater incidence of resorption with tooth movement. It is recommended that teeth requiring root canal treatment during orthodontic movement be initially cleaned and shaped followed by the interim placement of calcium hydroxide. Final canal obturation with gutta-percha should be accomplished upon the completion of orthodontic treatment. Endodontically treated teeth can be moved orthodontically similar to teeth with vital pulps. In case of endodontic procedures like apexification, there may be no need to delay the orthodontic treatment.

  8. Supersymmetry and the Odd Poisson Bracket

    OpenAIRE

    Soroka, Vyacheslav A.

    2002-01-01

    Some applications of the odd Poisson bracket developed by Kharkov's theorists are represented, including the reformulation of classical Hamiltonian dynamics, the description of hydrodynamics as a Hamilton system by means of the odd bracket and the dynamics formulation with the Grassmann-odd Lagrangian. Quantum representations of the odd bracket are also constructed and applied for the quantization of classical systems based on the odd bracket and for the realization of the i...

  9. Effect of dental bleaching after bracket bonding and debonding using three different adhesive systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucianna de Oliveira, Gomes; Paula, Mathias; Patricia, Rizzo; Telma Martins de, Araújo; Maria Cristina Teixeira, Cangussu.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a influência da colagem e descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos no clareamento caseiro, considerando três diferentes sistemas adesivos. MÉTODOS: quarenta e quatro incisivos bovinos foram divididos em quatro grupos, de acordo com o sistema adesivo utilizad [...] o para colagem dos braquetes. Após a descolagem dos braquetes, os dentes foram pigmentados por 96 horas e depois clareados com peróxido de carbamida a 10% por 6 horas diárias, durante duas semanas. Foram realizadas fotografias digitais padronizadas nos tempos: T0 (inicial); T1 (após descolagem); T2 (após pigmentação); T3, T4 e T5 representando 1, 7 e 14 dias de clareamento. Testes de repetitividade e de estabilidade foram realizados para avaliar a acurácia do método. As imagens foram avaliadas pelo software Adobe Photoshop 7.0, considerando os parâmetros de cor (L*a*b*) e a diferença total de cor adaptada para esse estudo (?;E'). RESULTADOS: os resultados do presente estudo (ANOVA e Tukey; p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of bonding and debonding of orthodontic brackets on dental in-home bleaching, taking into account three different adhesive systems. METHODS: Forty-four bovine incisors were divided into four groups according to the primer system used for orthodontic bracket bondi [...] ng. Following the debonding of orthodontic brackets, the teeth were stored in staining solution for 96 hours. Then, teeth were whitened using 10% carbamide peroxide for two weeks at a 6-hour-a-day regime. Standardized digital photographs were taken at the following intervals: T0 (initial); T1 (after debonding); T2 (after pigmentation); T3, T4 and T5 representing 1, 7, and 14 days of bleaching. Repeatability and stability tests were carried out to check the method accuracy. Images were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software considering (L*a*b*)color coordinate values and a modified color difference total (?;E'). RESULTS: The results of this study (ANOVA and Tukey; p

  10. Evaluation of different enamel conditioning techniques for orthodontic bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Çagr?

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different enamel conditioning techniques for bracket bonding. Methods Ninety-one human premolars were randomly divided in six groups of 15 specimens each. The enamel surfaces of the teeth were etched with 35% orthophosphoric acid in Group 1, with a self-etching primer in Group 2, sandblasted in Group 3, sandblasted and etched with 35% orthophosphoric acid in Group 4, conditioned by Er:YAG laser in Group 5 and conditioned by Er:YAG laser and etched with 35% phosphoric acid gel respectively in Group 6. After enamel conditioning procedures, brackets were bonded and shear bonding test was performed. After debonding, adhesive remnant index scores were calculated for all groups. One tooth from each group were inspected by scanning electron microscope for evaluating the enamel surface characteristics. Results The laser and acid etched group showed the highest mean shear bond strength (SBS) value (13.61 ± 1.14 MPa) while sandblasted group yielded the lowest value (3.12 ± 0.61 MPa). Conclusions Although the SBS values were higher, the teeth in laser conditioned groups were highly damaged. Therefore, acid etching and self-etching techniques were found to be safer for orthodontic bracket bonding. Sandblasting method was found to generate inadequate bonding strength. PMID:23112929

  11. Hausdorff Distance evaluation of orthodontic accessories' streaking artifacts in 3D model superimposition

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    José Rino Neto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether image artifacts caused by orthodontic metal accessories interfere with the accuracy of 3D CBCT model superimposition. A human dry skull was subjected three times to a CBCT scan: at first without orthodontic brackets (T1, then with stainless steel brackets bonded without (T2 and with orthodontic arch wires (T3 inserted into the brackets' slots. The registration of image surfaces and the superimposition of 3D models were performed. Within-subject surface distances between T1-T2, T1-T3 and T2-T3 were computed and calculated for comparison among the three data sets. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distance units (HDu computed between the corresponding data points of the T1 and T2 CBCT 3D surface images were 0.000000 and 0.049280 HDu, respectively, and the mean distance was 0.002497 HDu. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distances between T1 and T3 were 0.000000 and 0.047440 HDu, respectively, with a mean distance of 0.002585 HDu. In the comparison between T2 and T3, the minimum, maximum and mean Hausdorff Distances were 0.000000, 0.025616 and 0.000347 HDu, respectively. In the current study, the image artifacts caused by metal orthodontic accessories did not compromise the accuracy of the 3D model superimposition. Color-coded maps of overlaid structures complemented the computed Hausdorff Distances and demonstrated a precise fusion between the data sets.

  12. On the quantization of Poisson brackets

    CERN Document Server

    Donin, J

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduce two classes of Poisson brackets on algebras (or on sheaves of algebras). We call them locally free and nonsingular Poisson brackets. Using the Fedosov's method we prove that any locally free nonsingular Poisson bracket can be quantized. In particular, it follows from this that all Poisson brackets on an arbitrary field of characteristic zero can be quantized. The well known theorem about the quantization of nondegenerate Poisson brackets on smooth manifolds follows from the main result of this paper as well. The paper can be considered as an algebraic version of Fedosov's method.

  13. Evaluation of orthodontic treatment outcome of Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion by means of the ICON index.

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiakaki, I.; Papadopoulos, M. A.; Ioannidou-marathiotou, I.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate orthodontic treatment outcome in Class II, division 1 malocclusion using the ICON index and to investigate possible differences resulting from the therapeutic method followed DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: This study constitutes part of the first author’s research study realized in 2000 as required by the Postgraduate Orthodontic Program of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dental casts, before and immediately after orthodontic treatment...

  14. Effect of chlorhexidine varnish on bacterial levels in plaque and saliva during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madléna, M; Vitalyos, G; Márton, S; Nagy, G

    2000-01-01

    The plaque-retentive effects of fixed orthodontic appliances may induce a rapid increase in the amount of plaque. The aim of the present study was to conduct a longitudinal clinical investigation on the antibacterial effect of chlorhexidine-containing Cervitec varnish during orthodontic treatment. Twenty-four subjects (9 male, 15 female), aged 16.5 +/- 2.5 years, participated in the study. At baseline, the subjects' DMF-S scores, stimulated salivary flow rates (ml/min) and levels of salivary Streptococcus mutans (SM) and lactobacilli (LB) were determined using Dentocult SM strip and Dentocult LB methods. After placing the orthodontic appliances, the subjects were treated with Cervitec or a placebo varnish around the bands and brackets. The chlorhexidine varnish was applied randomly in the first or second quadrant, and placebo varnish in the opposite quadrant, according to the split-mouth technique. The varnish application was repeated every 3 months to the same sites. Follow-up samples of saliva and plaque from around brackets and bands were collected at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Plaque SM and salivary SM, as well as LB counts were determined as at baseline. The results showed that a significantly higher proportion of plaque samples belonged to the low-risk category (SM count10(5) CFU/ml) on the test side than on the placebo side. Distribution of salivary samples between the low-risk and high-risk categories (based on SM and LB counts) did not change significantly until the end of the follow-up period. The number of new carious lesions after debonding the fixed orthodontic appliance was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the Cervitec-treated quadrant compared to the placebo varnish-treated quadrant. The results show that the chlorhexidine-containing varnish effectively reduced the number of SM in dental plaque around fixed orthodontic appliances. PMID:11460282

  15. Enamel surface morphology after bracket debonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, R; Toledano, M; García-Godoy, F

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets and the enamel morphology after using six methods for removal of adhesive after bracket debonding. A total of thirty-five recently extracted noncarious human premolars were used. The twin bracket Mini-Taurus was used with the Mono-Lok2 TM bonding system. Shear bond strength (MPa) was calculated. Immediately after the brackets were removed, the teeth were rinsed and dried, using an air-water syringe. The adhesive remnant index was calculated and the debonded teeth with residual adhesive material attached to the enamel surface were equally sorted in seven groups of five, as follows: Group 1. The residual adhesive was removed with a 12-blade tungsten carbide finishing bur in a high-speed handpiece, using water as the coolant. Group 2. The residual adhesive was removed with a 12-blade tungsten carbide finishing bur in a low-speed handpiece, using water as the coolant. Group 3. The residual adhesive was removed with an Arkansas stone: Dura-white stones for finishing composite in a high-speed handpiece using water as the coolant. Group 4. The residual adhesive was removed with an Arkansas stone: Dura-white stones for finishing composite in a low-speed handpiece, using water as the coolant. Group 5. The residual adhesive was removed with Sof-Lex aluminum oxide discs according to manufacturer's instructions in a low-speed handpiece, using water as the coolant. Group 6. The residual adhesive was removed with Enhance Composite Finishing Discs in a low-speed handpiece, using water as the coolant. In this group, the paste was not applied after the polishing discs. Group 7. The residual adhesive was removed with Enhance Composite Finishing Discs and Polishing Cups in a low-speed handpiece, using water as the coolant. Prisma-gloss polishing paste and ultrafine polishing paste were applied according to manufacturer's instructions. After removal of the adhesive, all teeth were evaluated with the scanning electron microscope. The results revealed a mean shear bond strength of 12.75 MPa. The higher the bond strength, the higher the percentage of ARI. The smoothest enamel surface was obtained when the Enhance system with the gloss polishing paste was used; the second smoothest enamel surface was obtained when using Sof-Lex discs. If the paste was not used with the Enhance system, the obtained surface was rougher than when using Sof-Lex discs. PMID:9795734

  16. Influence of in vitro pigmenting of esthetic orthodontic ligatures on smile attractiveness

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila, Ferraz; Marcelo, Castellucci; Márcio, Sobral.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar, através de fotografias clínicas, entre estudantes de Odontologia e ortodontistas, o grau de influência que ligaduras elásticas estéticas pigmentadas exercem sobre a atratividade do sorriso. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 16 fotografias clínicas faciais do sorriso e 16 de sorriso aproxi [...] mado de um único paciente portando braquetes ortodônticos de porcelana monocristalina, fio de NiTi teflonado e ligaduras elásticas estéticas de cinco marcas comerciais diferentes, distribuídas em oito grupos, G1 a G8 (Morelli, Ortho Technology, TP Orthodontics, 3M/Unitek clear, 3M/Unitek obscure, American Orthodontics clear, American Orthodontics pearl e American Orthodontics metalic pearl). Foram utilizadas 20 ligaduras de cada grupo, totalizando 160 ligaduras. Metade delas foi utilizada em estado natural e a outra metade após pigmentação in vitro. Todas as fotografias foram julgadas por 40 avaliadores, sendo 20 ortodontistas e 20 estudantes de Odontologia. RESULTADOS: para ortodontistas, as ligaduras American Orthodontics pearl (G7) foram as que menos influenciaram o grau de atratividade do sorriso nos dois tipos de fotografias utilizadas. Para os estudantes de Odontologia, nas fotografias faciais do sorriso, as que obtiveram o melhor desempenho foram Morelli (G1), American Orthodontics clear (G6) e American Orthodontics pearl (G7) e, nas fotografias de sorriso aproximado, American Orthodontics pearl, metalic pearl e clear (G7, G8 e G6, respectivamente). CONCLUSÕES: tanto para ortodontistas quanto para estudantes de Odontologia, a pigmentação das ligaduras elásticas influenciou de forma negativa o grau de atratividade dos sorrisos nos dois tipos de fotografias clínicas avaliadas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of dental students and orthodontists on the degree of influence that pigmented esthetic elastic ligatures have on smile attractiveness, by judging clinical photographs. METHODS: Sixteen clinical facial photographs of the smile and 16 close up images of the smile [...] of a single patient wearing monocrystalline porcelain orthodontic brackets, Teflon coated NiTi wire brackets and esthetic elastic ligatures of five different commercial brands were distributed into eight groups, G1 to G8 (Morelli®, Ortho Tecnology™, TP Orthodontics™, Unitek/3M™clear, Unitek/3M™ obscure, American Orthodontics™ clear, American Orthodontics™ pearl and American Orthodontics™ metallic pearl). Twenty ligatures were used in each group, totaling 160 ligatures. Half of them were used in their natural state, and the other half after in vitro pigmentation. All the photographs were judged by 40 evaluators, 20 orthodontists and 20 dental students. RESULTS: For orthodontists, American™ pearl (G7) ligatures were those that least influenced the degree of attractiveness of the smile in the two types of photographs used. For the dental students, in the facial photographs of the smile, ligatures with the best performance were Morelli® (G1), American™ clear (G6) and American™ pearl (G7) and in the close up photographs of the smile, American™ pearl, metallic pearl and clear (G7, G8 and G6). CONCLUSIONS: For both orthodontists and dental students, pigmentation of the elastic ligatures had a negative influence on the degree of attractiveness of smiles in the two types of clinical photographs evaluated.

  17. Influence of in vitro pigmenting of esthetic orthodontic ligatures on smile attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ferraz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of dental students and orthodontists on the degree of influence that pigmented esthetic elastic ligatures have on smile attractiveness, by judging clinical photographs. METHODS: Sixteen clinical facial photographs of the smile and 16 close up images of the smile of a single patient wearing monocrystalline porcelain orthodontic brackets, Teflon coated NiTi wire brackets and esthetic elastic ligatures of five different commercial brands were distributed into eight groups, G1 to G8 (Morelli®, Ortho Tecnology™, TP Orthodontics™, Unitek/3M™clear, Unitek/3M™ obscure, American Orthodontics™ clear, American Orthodontics™ pearl and American Orthodontics™ metallic pearl. Twenty ligatures were used in each group, totaling 160 ligatures. Half of them were used in their natural state, and the other half after in vitro pigmentation. All the photographs were judged by 40 evaluators, 20 orthodontists and 20 dental students. RESULTS: For orthodontists, American™ pearl (G7 ligatures were those that least influenced the degree of attractiveness of the smile in the two types of photographs used. For the dental students, in the facial photographs of the smile, ligatures with the best performance were Morelli® (G1, American™ clear (G6 and American™ pearl (G7 and in the close up photographs of the smile, American™ pearl, metallic pearl and clear (G7, G8 and G6. CONCLUSIONS: For both orthodontists and dental students, pigmentation of the elastic ligatures had a negative influence on the degree of attractiveness of smiles in the two types of clinical photographs evaluated.OBJETIVO: avaliar, através de fotografias clínicas, entre estudantes de Odontologia e ortodontistas, o grau de influência que ligaduras elásticas estéticas pigmentadas exercem sobre a atratividade do sorriso. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 16 fotografias clínicas faciais do sorriso e 16 de sorriso aproximado de um único paciente portando braquetes ortodônticos de porcelana monocristalina, fio de NiTi teflonado e ligaduras elásticas estéticas de cinco marcas comerciais diferentes, distribuídas em oito grupos, G1 a G8 (Morelli, Ortho Technology, TP Orthodontics, 3M/Unitek clear, 3M/Unitek obscure, American Orthodontics clear, American Orthodontics pearl e American Orthodontics metalic pearl. Foram utilizadas 20 ligaduras de cada grupo, totalizando 160 ligaduras. Metade delas foi utilizada em estado natural e a outra metade após pigmentação in vitro. Todas as fotografias foram julgadas por 40 avaliadores, sendo 20 ortodontistas e 20 estudantes de Odontologia. RESULTADOS: para ortodontistas, as ligaduras American Orthodontics pearl (G7 foram as que menos influenciaram o grau de atratividade do sorriso nos dois tipos de fotografias utilizadas. Para os estudantes de Odontologia, nas fotografias faciais do sorriso, as que obtiveram o melhor desempenho foram Morelli (G1, American Orthodontics clear (G6 e American Orthodontics pearl (G7 e, nas fotografias de sorriso aproximado, American Orthodontics pearl, metalic pearl e clear (G7, G8 e G6, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: tanto para ortodontistas quanto para estudantes de Odontologia, a pigmentação das ligaduras elásticas influenciou de forma negativa o grau de atratividade dos sorrisos nos dois tipos de fotografias clínicas avaliadas.

  18. Association of Periodontal Health with Orthodontic Appliances among Indian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagrani, P R; Agarwal, Abhay Prem Prakash; Quadri, S M Muqtadir; Rajmani, Hemlata; Tiwari, Anurag; Dash, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess the association of periodontal status of the patients with and without orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 520 patients (220 undergoing orthodontic procedure and 300 non-orthodontic patients). Periodontal health status was assessed using community periodontal index and loss of attachment. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and level of significance used was 5% level. Result: Overall mean number of segments for bleeding component (Score 1) was 0.86 ± 0.708, that of calculus (Score 2) 0.30 ± 0.460, for shallow pockets (4-5 mm) (Score 3) 0.33 ± 0.744 and for deep pockets (6 mm or more) (Score 4) 0.38 ± 0.476. Patients with orthodontic appliances had poor periodontal status than the non-orthodontic patients (P periodontal status as it leads to more retention of food debris. Hence, these patients should be motivated to maintain good oral hygiene. PMID:25709367

  19. Immunosuppressants: implications in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There are medications capable of affecting bone metabolism and the rate of tooth movement. Among these medications are the immunosuppressants, which act by repressing the action of T lymphocytes, however they can cause bone loss and consequently lead to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a common complication following kidney, heart, liver or lung transplantation. The immunosuppressant treatment for preventing organ rejection after transplantation, in general, includes glucocorticoids, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus. All these drugs can have jeopardizing effects on bone mineral homeostasis and consequently influence tooth movement. In recent years, however, the increasing use of immunosuppressants has raised questions about their effects on bone metabolism in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review study was to inform orthodontists about the influence of immunosuppressants on bone metabolism and tooth movement.

  20. Immunosuppressants: implications in Orthodontics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Lacerda dos, Santos; Maria Cláudia Mesquita, Lacerda; Renato Torres, Gonçalves; Marco Aurélio, Martins; Margareth Maria Gomes de, Souza.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: There are medications capable of affecting bone metabolism and the rate of tooth movement. Among these medications are the immunosuppressants, which act by repressing the action of T lymphocytes, however they can cause bone loss and consequently lead to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a [...] common complication following kidney, heart, liver or lung transplantation. The immunosuppressant treatment for preventing organ rejection after transplantation, in general, includes glucocorticoids, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus. All these drugs can have jeopardizing effects on bone mineral homeostasis and consequently influence tooth movement. In recent years, however, the increasing use of immunosuppressants has raised questions about their effects on bone metabolism in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review study was to inform orthodontists about the influence of immunosuppressants on bone metabolism and tooth movement.

  1. Comparison between two methods for resin removing after bracket debonding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo De, Marchi; Luciana Manzotti De, Marchi; Raquel Sano Suga, Terada; Hélio Hissashi, Terada.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a eficácia de dois discos abrasivos de silicone e óxido de alumínio para a remoção da resina remanescente após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 10 dentes bovinos selecionados al [...] eatoriamente, sendo 2 para o grupo controle e os demais divididos em dois grupos, os quais receberam colagem de braquetes ortodônticos com resina ortodôntica Concise (3M). Os métodos de remoção da resina após a descolagem dos acessórios ortodônticos em apenas uma etapa foram: Grupo A - disco Optimize (TDV); e Grupo B - disco Onegloss (Shofu), empregados em baixa rotação. Após a remoção da resina remanescente pelos métodos mencionados, os dentes foram preparados para serem submetidos à análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura, obtendo-se fotografias da superfície do esmalte com aumento de 50X. Seis examinadores avaliaram as fotografias seguindo a escala de avaliação de Zachrisson e Arthun (1979). RESULTADOS: no Grupo A, observou-se pequenos arranhões na superfície do esmalte, bem como pouco remanescente de resina em algumas das fotografias; enquanto, no Grupo B, observou-se maior lisura, pouco ou nenhum remanescente de resina e alguns riscos nas fotografias. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os dois métodos avaliados e o grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: os dois discos abrasivos mostraram-se eficientes para remoção da resina remanescente após a descolagem de braquete em única etapa. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess - using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) - the effectiveness of two abrasive discs, one made from silicon and one from aluminum oxide, in removing adhesive remnants (AR) after debonding orthodontic brackets. METHODS: Ten randomly selected bovine teeth [...] were used, i.e., 2 in the control group, and the other 8 divided into two groups, which had orthodontic brackets bonded to their surface with Concise Orthodontic Adhesive (3M). The following methods were employed - in one single step - to remove AR after debracketing: Group A, Optimize discs (TDV) and Group B, Onegloss discs (Shofu), used at low speed. After removing the AR with the aforementioned methods, the teeth were prepared to undergo SEM analysis, and photographs were taken of the enamel surface with 50x magnification. Six examiners evaluated the photographs applying the Zachrisson and Årtun enamel surface index (ESI) system (1979). RESULTS: Group A exhibited minor scratches on the enamel surface as well as some AR in some of the photographs, while Group B showed a smoother surface, little or no AR and some abrasion marks in the photographs. No statistically significant differences were found between the two methods and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The two abrasive discs were effective in removing the AR after bracket debonding in one single step.

  2. Corrosion of weldments in orthodontic appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of corrosion-related problems of dental materials has undergone a considerable development in recent years in order to avoid the use of materials with insufficient corrosion resistance in patients mouth. The subject of the present work was to study a particular type of corrosion: galvanic corrosion. One of the most common case of galvanic couples in patients mouth are the orthodontic appliances. The materials studied in the present work were stainless steel strips and silver-copper wires, isolated and welded between them. The electrochemical tests were performed in a NaCl 0.1M and Lactic Acid 0.1 M solution (pH2.3), and after test, the specimens were observed using the optical and scanning electron microscope. The results show that when stainless steel is coupled with a silver solder, the last is the anode of the galvanic couple. As a consequence of this, the silver solder undergone a severe attack. Stainless steel orthodontic appliances with silver solder are feasibly destroyed due to a severe attack on the filler metal disjoining the welded parts. (author) 9 refs

  3. Comparison of shear bond strength of brackets recycled using micro sandblasting and industrial methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Manuela M Haro; Vicente, Ascensión; Alfonso-Hernández, Noelia; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Bravo-González, Luis-Alberto

    2014-09-17

    Objective: To evaluate in vitro the shear bond strength of brackets recycled by sandblasting with aluminum oxide particles of different sizes or reconditioned industrially after successive rebonding. Materials and Methods: Eighty brackets were bonded and debonded sequentially three times. After the first debonding, brackets were divided into four groups: (group 1) sandblasting with aluminum oxide particles of 25 ?, (group 2) 50 ?, and (group 3) 110 ?, and (group 4) industrial recycling. Bond strength and adhesive material remaining on debonded bracket bases were evaluated for each successive debond. Results: No significant differences were detected between the four groups following the first recycle (P > .05). After the second recycle, bond strength was significantly greater for the industrially recycled group than the other groups (P .016). In the evaluation of bond material remnant, the industrially recycled group left significantly less bond material after successive recycling than the other groups did (P aluminum oxide particle used for sandblasting increased and as recycling was repeated. PMID:25230006

  4. Problems in Standardization of Orthodontic Shear Bond Strength Tests; A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. A. Akhoundi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bonding brackets to the enamel surface has gained much popularity today. New adhesive systems have been introduced and marketed and a considerable increase in research regarding bond strength has been published. A considerable amount of these studies deal with shear bond strength of adhesives designed for orthodontic purpose.Previous studies have used variety of test designs. This diversity in test design is due to the fact that there is no standard method for evaluating shear bond strength in orthodontics. Therefore comparison of data obtained from different study is almost impossible.This article tries to briefly discuss the developments occurred in the process of shear bond strength measurement of orthodontic adhesives with an emphasis on the type of test set up and load application.Although the test designs for measuring shear bond strength in orthodontics are still far from ideal, attempts must be made to standardize these tests especially in order to makecomparison of different data easier. It is recommended that test designs be set up in such a manner that better matches with the purpose of the study.

  5. The influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on masticatory and swallowing threshold performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, I B; Pereira, L J; Andrade, A S; Gouvea, D B; Gameiro, G H

    2014-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that treatment with orthodontic appliances disturbs masticatory and swallowing performances. Twenty-seven subjects with malocclusions requiring orthodontic treatment were included in this prospective study. The masticatory and swallowing performances were evaluated at five different times: before bracket placement (T0), immediately after archwire placement (T1), 48 h after archwire placement (T2), 30 days after archwire placement (T3) and 3 months after the initial appointment (T4). Masticatory performance was determined by the median particle sizes for the Optocal test food after 15 chewing strokes, and the swallowing thresholds were registered for both the test food and a natural food (peanuts). Pain during mastication was evaluated using a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Masticatory performance was significantly reduced at T2, at which time patients reported the highest pain values. The time spent to the first swallow was increased at T2 for the natural food but not for the test food. The values for pain, masticatory and swallowing performances at T3 and T4 were similar to those at T0. Orthodontic patient masticatory function is only reduced during the period of higher pain experience, which could also disrupt the deglutition of harder foods. However, neither mastication nor deglutition processes were disturbed by orthodontic appliances in long-term treatment. PMID:25155222

  6. Comparison of the antibacterial effects of persica mouthwash with chlorhexidine on streptococcus mutans in orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi P.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine mouthwash has shown the highest antimicrobial effects in orthodontic patients, however, some complications have limited its widespread use. The goal of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effects of persica mouthwash with chlorhexidine in fixed orthodontics patients. Sixty patients (13-18 years old on fixed orthodontic treatment, with desirable oral health were randomly divided into three equal groups of control, clorhexidine and persica. Patients were educated to properly use these mouthwashes. The control group was asked to wash their mouth with water twice a day. The numbers of streptococcus mutans colonies available in the elastic rings around the two bracket bases were determined in culture mediums before and immediately after a single application of water or mouthwashes and also following their daily uses for three weeks. The number of bacterial colonies then were compared at these three graps. The use of persica resulted in a significant (p<0.001 reduction in the number of streptococcus mutans colonies, albeit it was not as potent as chlorhexidine. Thirteen and fourty percent of patients using persica mouthwash experienced tooth discoloration and changes in taste respectively. The corresponding figures for chlorhexidine were 86% and 73% respectively. Significant reduction of streptococcus mutans colonies by persica as well as its lower tooth discoloration effects and unpleasant taste relative to chlorhexidine might give credence to the use of complementary herbal compounds in orthodontics patients.

  7. The effect of enamel bleaching on the shear bond strengths of metal and ceramic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozta?, E; Ba?delen, G; Kiliço?lu, H; Ulukapi, H; Aydin, I

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bleaching and delayed bonding on the shear bond strengths of metal and ceramic brackets bonded with light and chemically cure composite resin to human enamel. One hundred and twenty extracted human premolar teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 40 each. The first two groups were bleached with 20 per cent carbamide peroxide (CP) at-home bleaching agent. No bleaching procedures were applied to the third group and served as control. The first two and control groups were divided into equal subgroups according to different adhesive-bracket combinations. Specimens in group 1 (n = 40) were bonded 24 hours after bleaching process was completed while the specimens in group 2 (n = 40) were bonded 14 days after. The specimens in all groups were debonded with a Universal testing machine while the modified adhesive remnant index was used to evaluate fracture properties. No statistically significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of metal and ceramic brackets bonded to bleached enamel after 24 hours, 14 days, and unbleached enamel with light or chemical cure adhesives (P > 0.05). The mode of failure was mostly at the bracket/adhesive interface and cohesive failures within the resin were also observed. Our findings indicated that at-home bleaching agents that contain 20 per cent CP did not significantly affect the shear bond strength of metal and ceramic orthodontic brackets to enamel when bonding is performed 24 hours or 14 days after bleaching. PMID:21262931

  8. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camilo Aquino, Melgaço; Mônica Tirre de Souza, Araújo.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article [...] aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc) and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  9. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  10. Orthodontic tooth movement with clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl T; McGorray, Susan P; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5?mm. every two weeks using clear aligners. A duplicate aligner was provided for the second week of each cycle. Weekly polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions were taken, and digital models were fabricated to measure OTM. Initial and final cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained to characterize OTM. Results were compared to data from a similar protocol, where subjects received a new aligner biweekly. No significant difference was found in the amount of OTM between the two groups, with mean total OTM of 1.11?mm. (standard deviation (SD) 0.30) and 1.07?mm. (SD 0.33) for the weekly aligner and biweekly control groups, respectively (P = 0.72). Over eight weeks, in two-week intervals, material fatigue does not play a significant role in the rate or amount of tooth movement. PMID:22928114

  11. Hausdorff Distance evaluation of orthodontic accessories' streaking artifacts in 3D model superimposition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Rino Neto; Fernando Penteado Lopes da, Silva; Israel, Chilvarquer; João Batista de, Paiva; Angélica Maria, Hernandez.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine whether image artifacts caused by orthodontic metal accessories interfere with the accuracy of 3D CBCT model superimposition. A human dry skull was subjected three times to a CBCT scan: at first without orthodontic brackets (T1), then with stainless steel brack [...] ets bonded without (T2) and with orthodontic arch wires (T3) inserted into the brackets' slots. The registration of image surfaces and the superimposition of 3D models were performed. Within-subject surface distances between T1-T2, T1-T3 and T2-T3 were computed and calculated for comparison among the three data sets. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distance units (HDu) computed between the corresponding data points of the T1 and T2 CBCT 3D surface images were 0.000000 and 0.049280 HDu, respectively, and the mean distance was 0.002497 HDu. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distances between T1 and T3 were 0.000000 and 0.047440 HDu, respectively, with a mean distance of 0.002585 HDu. In the comparison between T2 and T3, the minimum, maximum and mean Hausdorff Distances were 0.000000, 0.025616 and 0.000347 HDu, respectively. In the current study, the image artifacts caused by metal orthodontic accessories did not compromise the accuracy of the 3D model superimposition. Color-coded maps of overlaid structures complemented the computed Hausdorff Distances and demonstrated a precise fusion between the data sets.

  12. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delphine, MARET; Christine, MARCHAL-SIXOU; Jean-Noel, VERGNES; Olivier, HAMEL; Marie, GEORGELIN-GURGEL; Lucas, VAN DER SLUIS; Michel, SIXOU.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Fort [...] y-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively), independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  13. Alternatives to ceramic brackets: the tensile bond strengths of two aesthetic brackets compared ex vivo with stainless steel foil-mesh bracket bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arici, S; Regan, D

    1997-05-01

    The mean tensile/peel bond strengths were evaluated for three types of aesthetic brackets (a ceramic-reinforced bracket and two generations of a ceramic/polycarbonate combination bracket). These were found to be significantly lower than the mean tensile/peel bond strength of a convention foil-mesh stainless steel bracket base. Failure of the ceramic-reinforced polycarbonate brackets occurred predominantly by fracture of the tie wings during testing. With the ceramic/polycarbonate combination brackets, the majority of the specimens failed due to separation of the ceramic and polycarbonate parts of the bracket. PMID:9218111

  14. Effects of surface roughness on the coefficients of friction in model orthodontic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusy, R P; Whitley, J Q

    1990-01-01

    Orthodontists, like others (Engel, P.A. (1976) Impact Wear of Materials. Elsevier Scientific, New York.), often equate the smoothness of surfaces with the absence of friction. To investigate whether the surface roughness of opposing materials influence the coefficients of friction and ultimately the movement of teeth, arch wires were slid between contact flats to simulate orthodontic arch wire-bracket appliances. From laser specular reflectance measurements, the RMS surface roughness of these arch wires varied from 0.04 microns for stainless steel to 0.23 microns for nickel titanium. Using the same technique, the roughnesses of the contact flats varied from 0.03 microns for the 1 micron lapped stainless steel, to 0.26 microns for the as-received alumina. After each of the arch wire-contact flat couples was placed in a friction tester, fifteen normal forces were systemically applied at 34 degrees C. From plots of the static and kinetic frictional forces vs the normal forces, dry coefficients of friction was obtained that were greater than those reported in the dental literature. The all-stainless steel couples had lower kinetic coefficients (0.120-0.148) than the stainless steel-polycrystalline alumina couple (0.187). When pressed against the various flats, the beta-titanium arch wire (RMS = 0.14 microns) had the highest coefficients of friction (0.445-0.658), although the nickel titanium arch wire was the roughest (RMS = 0.23 microns). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) verified that mass transfer of the beta-titanium arch wire occurred by adhesion onto the stainless steel flats or by abrasion from the sharply faceted polycrystalline alumina flats. PMID:2211736

  15. Fricção em braquetes gerada por fios de aço inoxidável, superelásticos com IonGuard e sem IonGuard / Friction force on brackets generated by stainless steel wire and superelastic wires with and without IonGuard

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Carlos Campos, Braga; Mario, Vedovello Filho; Mayury, Kuramae; Heloísa Cristina, Valdrighi; Sílvia Amélia Scudeler, Vedovello; Américo Bortolazzo, Correr.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a fricção no braquete (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3,2mm, largura 0,022" x 0,030", Torque -2° e angulação +13°, Morelli®, Brasil), utilizando fios ortodônticos retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" de aço inoxidável (Morelli®, Brasil) e de níquel-titânio sup [...] erelásticos Bioforce com IonGuard e sem IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, EUA). MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 24 conjuntos braquetes/segmento de fio, divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o fio. Cada conjunto braquete/segmento de fio foi testado 3 vezes e obtida uma média. Os ensaios foram realizados em máquina universal de ensaios EMIC DL2000®. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância com significância de 95%. RESULTADOS: o fio retangular Bioforce com IonGuard apresentou fricção significativamente menor que o Bioforce sem IonGuard, porém sem diferença do fio de aço inoxidável. Entretanto, o coeficiente de variação dos fios Bioforce com e sem IonGuard foi menor que o do fio de aço inoxidável. CONCLUSÃO: os fios retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" Bioforce com IonGuard apresentam menor fricção que o fio Bioforce sem IonGuard, sem diferença para o fio de aço inoxidável. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the friction forces on brackets (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3.2 mm, width 0.022" x 0.030 ", Torque -2° and angulation +13°, Morelli®, Brazil), with stainless steel orthodontic rectangular wire (Morelli®, Brazil) and nickel titanium superelastic Biofo [...] rce wires with and without IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, USA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four brackets/wire segment combinations were used, distributed into three groups according to the orthodontic wire. Each bracket/wire segment combination was tested three times. The tests were performed in a universal testing machine Emic DL2000®. The data was submitted to ANOVA one way followed by Tukey's post hoc test (p

  16. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410 Section 872.5410...5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for...

  17. Blood contamination effect on shear bond strength of an orthodontic hydrophilic resin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Taís de Morais Alves da, Cunha; Bruna Ariela, Behrens; Denise, Nascimento; Luciana Borges, Retamoso; Luís Filipe Siu, Lon; Orlando, Tanaka; Odilon, Guariza Filho.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of blood contamination on shear bond strength (SBS) and bond failure pattern of metallic brackets bonded using a new hydrophilic resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty human premolars were randomly allocated into 4 groups (n=20) according to the [...] bonding material and contamination pattern. GI: brackets bonded with the Transbond XT conventional system without contamination; GII: brackets bonded with the Transbond XT conventional system with blood contamination; GIII: brackets bonded with the Transbond Self Etching Primer and Transbond Plus Color without contamination; GIV: brackets bonded with the Transbond Self Etching Primer and Transbond Plus Color with blood contamination. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then submitted to SBS test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: Blood contamination decreased (P

  18. Understanding the Kauffman bracket skein module

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, Doug; Frohman, Charles; Kania-bartoszynska, Joanna

    1996-01-01

    The Kauffman bracket skein module $K(M)$ of a 3-manifold $M$ is defined over formal power series in the variable $h$ by letting $A=e^{h/4}$. For a compact oriented surface $F$, it is shown that $K(F \\times I)$ is a quantization of the $\\g$-characters of the fundamental group of $F$, corresponding to a geometrically defined Poisson bracket. Finite type invariants for unoriented knots and links are defined. Topologically free Kauffman bracket modules are shown to generate fini...

  19. Comparison of enamel-bracket bond strength using direct- and indirect-bonding techniques with a self-etching ion releasing S-PRG filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Teresa; Mayoral, Juan R; Giner, Lluís; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2015-02-01

    This in vitro study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of two systems for bonding orthodontic brackets to enamel. The first system involved a self-etching primer (Beauty Ortho Bond, BO) containing surface pre-reacted glass filler. The second involved a primer applied with phosphoric acid etching (Transbond XT, TX). Ninety-six extracted human premolars were divided into eight groups: Group I (TX/direct bonding), Group II (TX/indirect bonding), Group III (BO/direct bonding), and Group IV (BO/indirect bonding). Groups V-VIII were identical to Groups I-IV, respectively, but were also subjected to 1,500 thermal cycles between 5 and 55°C. ARI was scored by binocular microscopy. SBS was analyzed by three-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni test. ARI was analyzed by the chi-squared test. The BO groups showed lower SBS and ARI results than the TX groups. SBS was significantly influenced by the primer material, bonding technique, and thermal cycling. PMID:25748457

  20. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Soon-Yong Kwon; Yong Kim; Hyo-Won Ahn; Ki-Beom Kim; Kyu-Rhim Chung; Seong-Hun Kim

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithograph...

  1. A Geometric Action for the Courant Bracket

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, X; Rodgers, V G J; Rodríguez, L; Liu, Xiaolong; Rodriguez, Leo; Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando

    2006-01-01

    An important operation in generalized complex geometry is the Courant bracket which extends the Lie bracket that acts only on vectors to a pair given by a vector and a p-form. We explore the possibility of promoting the elements of the Courant bracket to physical fields by constructing a geometric action based on the Kirillov-Kostant symplectic form. The action generalizes Polyakov's two-dimensional quantum gravity which might be viewed as the geometric action for the Virasoro algebra. In particular, we show that the action arising from the centrally extended Courant bracket for a pair of a vector and a zero form is similar to the action obtained from the semidirect product of the Virasoro algebra with the affine Kac-Moody algebra with group U(1). We also discuss the general case of $p$-forms but the situation is more restricted.

  2. Shear bond strength of ceramic brackets with various base designs bonded to aluminous and fluorapatite ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Samruajbenjakul, Buncha

    2010-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of various ceramic bracket base designs bonded to glazed aluminous (Vitadur Alpha) and fluorapatite (IPS e.max Ceram) ceramics, to examine the mode of failure, and to determine the debonding characteristics of the brackets and the ceramic surfaces after bond failure. Forty ceramic discs (15 mm in diameter and 1.5 mm thick) of each ceramic were prepared and divided into four equal groups. Ten pieces of each group of different bracket bases (beads, Inspire Ice; large round pits, Crystalline IV; and irregular base, Clarity) and one group of stainless steel brackets (Optimesh XRT, control) were bonded to glazed ceramics under a 200 g load. All specimens were then subjected to SBS evaluation using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.2 mm per minute. The data were analysed using analysis of variance and Tukey's test at a significance level of 0.05. The mode of failure was examined under a stereomicroscope. The results demonstrated that for Vitadur Alpha and IPS e.max Ceram, the highest SBS were found with Inspire Ice (25.1 +/- 2.6 and 24.9 +/- 2.1 MPa) and were significantly different than Crystalline IV (21.6 +/- 1.1 and 20.9 +/- 1.5 MPa), Clarity (19.6 +/- 1.5 and 19.3 +/- 2.3 MPa), and Optimesh XRT (14.9 +/- 1.3 and 15.3 +/- 2.2 MPa; P orthodontic force. PMID:19797413

  3. Evaluation of frictional forces between ceramic brackets and archwires of different alloys compared with metal brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Pulido Guerrero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, frictional forces produced by ceramic brackets and arch wires of different alloys. Frictional tests were performed on three ceramic brackets: monocrystalline (Inspire ICE, polycrystalline (InVu, polycrystalline with metal slot (Clarity, and one stainless steel bracket (Dyna-Lock. Thirty brackets of each were tested, all with .022" slots, in combination with stainless steel and nickel-titanium wires .019" × .025", at 0° and 10° angulation, in artificial saliva. Arch wires were pulled through the slots at a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min. There were statistically significant differences between the groups of brackets and wires studied (p < .05. The polycrystalline brackets with metal slots had values similar to those of conventional polycrystalline brackets, and the monocrystalline brackets had the highest frictional forces. The nickel-titanium wires produced the lowest friction. The addition of metal slots in the polycrystalline brackets did not significantly decrease frictional values. Nickel-titanium wires produced lower friction than those of stainless steel.

  4. Force-Degradation Pattern of Six Different Orthodontic Elastomeric Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Ah, Mirhashemi; Safarshahroudi, A.; Sodagar, A.; Atai, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An ideal orthodontic force system should exert continuous light force. Thus, many efforts have been made to improve the memory characteristics of elastomeric chains. The aim of this study was to compare elastomeric chains (ECs) claimed by their manufacturers to offer high memory with traditional ones according to their force-extension diagrams.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, ECs were divided into six groups, each containing 40 pieces of chain, from three brands (Amer...

  5. Nickel: humoral and periodontal changes in orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although several studies have discussed nickel influence on the development of immunological reactions in orthodontic patients, it is noticed that the evidence towards the appliances, as well as towards the possible consequences of this material on the oral and general health of the individual are still inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to present the current stage of knowledge on this issue, highlighting the most recent findings considering the periodontal and humoral aspects of allergic subjects.

  6. Fixed appliance orthodontic treatment duration in Brunei Darussalam.

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Grace; Umesan, Uday Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Fixed appliance orthodontic treatment (braces) is routinely used to address mal-positions of teeth and create esthetic smiles. Although it is desirable that treatment not exceed two years but, in practice, duration of up to two-and-a-half years is deemed acceptable. This review was undertaken to determine treatment duration for routine state-funded fixed appliance treatment in Brunei Darussalam and identify possible influencing factors. Materials and Methods: 100 consecutive cas...

  7. Influence of Ortho Primer Morelli adhesion booster on orthodontic brackets shear bond strength

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sabrina de Mendonça, Invernici; Ivan Toshio, Maruo; Elisa Souza, Camargo; Thais Miyuki, Hirata; Hiroshi, Maruo; Odilon, Guariza Filho; Orlando, Tanaka.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This work aimed at assessing the bond strength (AS), the site of the flaw and the relation between them and Ortho Primer Morelli® (OPM) adhesion optimizer. METHODS: Sixty test specimens, made out of bovine permanent lower incisors, were divided into three groups: TXT Primer (control), in [...] which a conventional adhesive system was applied (primer and paste); OPM, in which TXT primer was replaced by OPM; and TXT without Primer, in which only TXT paste was used. A shear force was applied at a speed of 0,5 mm/min. Failure site was assessed by the Remaining Adhesion Index (RAI). RESULTS: Kruskal-Wallis demonstrated that OPM (8.54 ± 1.86 MPa) presented a statistically higher AS (p 0.05) between TXT with or without Primer (6.42 ± 2.12 MPa). Regarding the RAI, the K test demonstrated that TXT Primer and OPM (prevailing scores 2 and 3) showed higher values (p 0.05). CONCLUSION: OPM increases AS and presents the same bond failure location if compared to a conventional adhesive system; the use of the TXT adhesive system paste only was shown to have the same AS if compared to conventional systems, except it does not allow to predict the adhesive failure site; there is no correlation between AS and bond failure location, regardless of the use of any adhesion optimizer.

  8. Orthodontic treatment standard in an accredited graduate orthodontic clinic in North America assessed using the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwundi O. Onyeaso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the orthodontic treatment service provided by a graduate orthodontic clinic in North America. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Department of Orthodontics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, USA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre-treatment and post-treatment dental casts of 100 patients were randomly selected from the model store of the clinic. The selection of the dental casts was without consideration for age or gender. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON was used to assess the need, complexity of the malocclusion, outcome, and degree of improvement and whether the completed case was acceptable or not. The reliability of the examiner using the ICON was assessed using the Root Mean Square. In addition to descriptive statistics, logistic and linear regression analyses as well as spearman rank correlation coefficient were used in the statistical analyses of the sample. RESULTS: According to the ICON, 86 cases were considered as needing orthodontic treatment and 60 cases were classified as difficult or very difficult to treat. Only 5 cases were considered as easy. Substantially and greatly improved cases were 82 while 5 cases were minimally improved. Only one case was in no improvement/worse category. Ninety-four finishes were considered acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of orthodontic care provided in a graduate orthodontic clinic in North America is appraised objectively. The quality of care could be described as excellent. The study supports the valuable nature of the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need in assessing the multiple facets of orthodontic provision.

  9. Early orthodontic treatment and interceptive treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsten, Rune

    2013-04-01

    Orthodontics as health care is sometimes at odds with modern marketing with its strong focus on aesthetics. In this commentary, I highlight how important it is that research of orthodontic treatment as a value for the entire community is performed and published. PMID:23207100

  10. CBCT imaging – A boon to orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Genevive L.

    2014-01-01

    The application of innovative technologies in dentistry and orthodontics has been very interesting to observe. The development of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a preferred imaging procedure for comprehensive orthodontic treatment is of particular interest. The information obtained from CBCT imaging provides several substantial advantages. For example, CBCT imaging provides accurate measurements, improves localization of impacted teeth, provides visualization of airway abnormalities,...

  11. Opening and closure forces of sliding mechanisms of different self-ligating brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola, GANDINI; Linda, ORSI; Maria Francesca, SFONDRINI; Andrea, SCRIBANTE.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Self-ligating brackets engage the wire by means of a slide mechanism. Forces that have to be applied to open and close the sliding mechanism of brackets are still unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to measure and compare the opening and closure forces of different self-ligating b [...] rackets. Material and Methods Three different stainless steel self-ligating brackets (Carriere LX, Ortho Organizers; F1000, Leone; Damon Q, Ormco) were tested. For each different bracket, 20 maxillary right central incisors and 20 mandibular right central incisors were used. Opening and closure forces were measured using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Statistical analysis was performed and ANOVA and Tukey tests were carried out. Results Opening forces were registered between 1.1 N and 5.6 N, whereas closure forces were recorded between 1.57 N and 4.87 N. Significant differences were detected among the different brackets and between the two prescriptions tested. Conclusion The knowledge of different opening and closure forces of self-ligating brackets can help the orthodontist in the clinical management of these devices.

  12. Evaluation of frictional forces between ceramic brackets and archwires of different alloys compared with metal brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ariana Pulido, Guerrero; Odilon, Guariza Filho; Orlando, Tanaka; Elisa Souza, Camargo; Sérgio, Vieira.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, frictional forces produced by ceramic brackets and arch wires of different alloys. Frictional tests were performed on three ceramic brackets: monocrystalline (Inspire ICE), polycrystalline (InVu), polycrystalline with metal slot (Clarity), and one sta [...] inless steel bracket (Dyna-Lock). Thirty brackets of each were tested, all with .022" slots, in combination with stainless steel and nickel-titanium wires .019" × .025", at 0° and 10° angulation, in artificial saliva. Arch wires were pulled through the slots at a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min. There were statistically significant differences between the groups of brackets and wires studied (p

  13. Alveolar process reconstruction after tooth extraction by orthodontic indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev ?.?.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine indications for alveolar bone reconstruction after tooth extraction according to orthodontic indications. Material and methods. 62 patients (first maturity level with dental arch asymmetry due to loss of a premolar on one side of the mouth were examined and treated. Frontal-diagonal coefficient of the dental arch was used to determine the correlation between tooth size and dental arch parameters. Results. It has been demonstrated that changes of the alveolar ridge following the extraction of the first premolars in patients of the experimental group were less significant as compared with the controls. Conclusion. It is reasonable to apply this method simultaneously with the removal of a tooth for orthodontic indications or when the alveolar ridge in the post-extraction socket leaves insufficient bone volume.

  14. Dental enamel around fixed orthodontic appliances after fluoride varnish application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, Gontijo; Roberval de Almeida, Cruz; Paulo Roberto Gomes, Brandão.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Um dos maiores problemas enfrentados na clínica ortodôntica é a dificuldade de higienização em função da presença do aparelho fixo e seus componentes. Associado muitas vezes à pouca colaboração do paciente, o tratamento ortodôntico pode criar condições para a perda de estrutura mineral do esmalte, r [...] efletida por manchas brancas e até cavitações nos casos mais severos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a aplicabilidade do verniz fluoretado como método preventivo na clínica ortodôntica. Assim, procurou-se investigar o aspecto do esmalte dental adjacente aos acessórios ortodônticos, bem como determinar o conteúdo dos elementos cálcio, fósforo e flúor nas superfícies tratadas com o verniz em comparação com um controle. Os resultados mostraram, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o produto reacional (semelhante ao fluoreto de cálcio) decorrente da aplicação local. A espectrometria de raios X por dispersão de energia mostrou ainda ter havido maior teor de cálcio e flúor no esmalte tratado. Conclui-se que o verniz fluoretado pode efetivamente conferir proteção ao esmalte dental, durante os desafios cariogênicos, tendo indicação para o emprego nos pacientes em tratamento ortodôntico. Abstract in english Poor oral hygiene has been considered one of the main problems routinely faced in the orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic appliance creates an environment that provides mineral loss from the dental enamel. Such condition is clinically seen as white spot lesions and cavitations in the most severe case [...] s. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a fluoride varnish application as a caries prevention method for clinical orthodontics. The experiment analyzed dental enamel adjacent to orthodontics accessories after treatment. In addition, it was observed the calcium, phosphorus and fluoride contents on enamel treated with a fluoride varnish. The results showed that fluoride varnish application is a simple and fast technique that could be useful in preventing enamel demineralization associated to orthodontic treatment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed significant amount of calcium fluoride-like material deposited on enamel and energy dispersive x-ray analysis demonstrated a large incorporation of calcium and fluoride to the enamel of the treated specimens. It was concluded that fluoride varnish could indeed be considered an efficient preventive method to enhance enamel resistance against the cariogenic challenges during orthodontic therapy.

  15. O posicionamento vertical dos acessórios na montagem do aparelho ortodôntico fixo / Vertical accessories positioning in orthodontics fixed appliance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valéria Fernandes, Vianna; José Nelson, Mucha.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A montagem do aparelho fixo representa uma etapa importante da terapia ortodôntica, já que é através dos acessórios corretamente fixados aos dentes, e dos fios ligados a estes, que serão liberadas as forças armazenadas, resultando na movimentação dentária. Entretanto, não há unanimidade entre os aut [...] ores quanto ao posicionamento vertical dos acessórios ortodônticos nos elementos dentários. Sendo assim, pretendeu-se com este trabalho revisar e discutir o assunto, bem como apresentar sugestões para a resolução das dificuldades clínicas inerentes à sua execução. A solução apresentada, que utiliza dados obtidos dos ensaios em modelos (setup), que são normalmente realizados como parte do planejamento do tratamento ortodôntico, fornecendo informações valiosas, que podem ser utilizadas para a correta montagem do aparelho. A utilização da sistemática apresentada mostrou-se extremamente válida e de comprovados resultados práticos. Abstract in english Bracket positioning is an important stage of orthodontic therapy because by the accessories correctly attached to teeth and the arch wires ties to them, teeth movement can take place by the force released from the orthodontic arch wires. Nevertheless, different authors suggest different bracket pres [...] criptions with different vertical heights. Therefore, this study intended to make a review and discuss different vertical bracket prescriptions and suggest a procedure to overcome clinical difficulties that may occur on this process. The solution proposed that uses data obtained from setup performed in models casts, which usually are made as part of the orthodontic treatment planning, make up in valuable information that could be added for the correct appliance placement. This new procedure has showed extremely valid and of confirmed practical results.

  16. Comparative range of orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, S B; Gipe, D P; Smith, R J

    1986-10-01

    ADA specification No. 32 for determining the range (elastic limit) of orthodontic wires uses the bending of a wire section treated as a cantilever beam. An alternative method for defining the range of orthodontic wires proposed by Waters (1981) is to wrap wire sections around mandrels of varying diameters and measure the deformation imparted after unwrapping. Four brass mandrels with a total of 46 test diameters ranging from 3.5 to 60.0 mm were used in this study. Wire sections 9 cm in length were rolled on the mandrel with a hand lathe. The mandrel cross section required to produce a predetermined amount of deformation (2 mm arc height for a 5 cm chord) was defined as the yield diameter for that particular wire. No individual wire was tested twice so as to avoid introduction of strain history. Test samples of 488 different orthodontic wires supplied by nine commercial distributors were evaluated (a total of 4,747 samples). Stainless steel wires of identical dimensions had a large variation in range, depending on the state of strain hardening and heat treatment. For example, 0.020 inch round wire had yield diameters ranging from 22.8 mm for Australian special plus orange (TP Laboratories) to 42.9 mm for Nubryte gold (G.A.C. International). Chromium cobalt wires had less range than stainless steel before heat treatment, but increased greatly in range after heat treatment. Nitinol (Unitek) had the greatest range of all wires tested (yield diameter of 8.7 mm for 0.016 inch Nitinol). Multistranded stainless steel wires had yield diameters between 9.0 and 14.0 mm. PMID:3464191

  17. Effect of different surface treatments for ceramic bracket base on bond strength of rebonded brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarita, Monique Kruger; Moresca, Alexa Helena Köhler; Losso, Estela Maris; Moro, Alexandre; Moresca, Ricardo Cesar; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of rebonded ceramic brackets after subjecting the bracket base to different treatments. Seventy-five premolars were selected and randomly distributed into five groups (n=15), according to the type of the bracket surface treatment: I, no treatment, first bonding (control); II, sandblasting with aluminum oxide; III, sandblasting + silane; IV, silica coating + silane; and V, silicatization performed in a laboratory (Rocatec system). The brackets were fixed on an enamel surface with Transbond XT resin without acid etching. The brackets were then removed and their bases were subjected to different treatments. Thereafter, the brackets were fixed again to the enamel surface and the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) test. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was then evaluated for each specimen. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests (?=0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed only between Rocatec and the other groups; the Rocatec group showed the lowest SBS values. The highest SBS values were observed for group 1, without any significant difference from the values for groups II, III and IV. Most groups had a higher percentage of failures at the enamel-resin interface (score 1). It was concluded that the surface treatments of rebonded ceramic brackets were effective, with SBS values similar to that of the control group, except Rocatec group. PMID:25672386

  18. Stress Analysis of IPS Lower bracket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. M.; Park, K. N.; Chi, D. Y.; Park, S. K.; Sim, B. S.; Lee, H. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, H. R. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The 3-Pin Fuel Test Loop (FTL) is a facility which could conduct fuel irradiation test at HANARO. It is composed of and In-Pile test Section (IPS) and an Out of- Pile System (OPS). Restraint of the IPS from self-weight and seismic loads is achieved by its support system. The one is box beam in pool-wall and the other is lower bracket on the mounting plate. This study describes the lower bracket stresses for seismic loading and the design and manufacturing of mounting plate mock-up for the asbuilt measurement of the HANARO reactor.

  19. Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO) - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Goyal; Jps, Kalra; Pankaj, Bhatiya; Suchinder, Singla; Parul, Bansal

    2012-12-01

    With an increasing number of adult patients coming to the orthodontic clinic, the orthodontic professional is constantly looking for ways to accelerate tooth movement. Surgical intervention to affect the alveolar housing and tooth movement has been described in various forms for over a hundred years. However, it is the spirit of interdisciplinary collaboration in orthodontics has expanded the realm of traditional orthodontic tooth movement protocols. Periodontal accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO) is a clinical procedure that combines selective alveolar corticotomy, particulate bone grafting, and the application of orthodontic forces. This procedure is theoretically based on the bone healing pattern known as the regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP). PAOO results in an increase in alveolar bone width, shorter treatment time, increased post treatment stability, and decreased amount of apical root resorption. Tooth movement can be enhanced and cases completed with increased alveolar volume providing for a more intact periodontium, decreased need for extractions, degree of facial remodeling and increased bone support for teeth and overlying soft tissues, thereby augmenting gingival and facial esthetics.The purpose of this article is to describe the history, biology, clinical surgical procedures, indications, contraindications and possible complications of the PAOO procedure. Key words:Periodontics, corticotomy, osteogenic, orthodontics. PMID:24455038

  20. [A call for qualitative research in Orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitschaky, O; Hofnung, T; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research is an umbrella term for an array of attitudes and strategies for conducting inquiries that are aimed at discerning how human beings understand, experience, and interpret the social world. It is employed in many different academic disciplines most particularly in the social sciences and humanities, however recently more and more qualitative research is being conducted under the medical sciences including dentistry and orthodontics. This is due to its nature of in-depth investigation, which can provide answers to questions that cannot be satisfactorily answered using quantitative methods alone. The aims of this article are to discuss the characteristics of qualitative research, to review the orthodontic English literature, and to highlight the advantages of qualitative research in orthodontics. The literature review yielded several important conclusions regarding qualitative research in orthodontics: 1. most of the qualitative research done in orthodontics chose to use semi structured in-depth interviews for data collection; 2. qualitative research highlights aspects that are very important, and sometimes crucial to everyday practice and long term treatment; 3. there is a lack of qualitative studies in the field of orthodontics. Taking into account the nature of the orthodontic treatment, which is a prolonged one, demanding of a good orthodontist-patient rapport, and a wide perspective on behalf of the clinician, filling the gap in the discipline through conducting more qualitative studies aimed at understanding the point of view of the patient, as well as that of the clinician, may be beneficial for the improvement of the treatment. PMID:25799792

  1. Soft-tissue profile changes concurrent with the orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarzadeh, F; Adenwalla, S T

    1990-01-01

    Anthropologists have shown that the external covering made up of integument, adipose tissue, connective tissue, and muscle does not always distribute itself in a uniform, orderly manner. There are great variations in the amount and distribution of these soft-tissue elements. Therefore, a facial profile analysis that is limited to measurements on the hard skeletal structure would not appear to conform to the standards of accuracy if an assessment of the soft-tissue profile were required. The purpose of this investigation is to provide an understanding of the changes which occur in the soft-tissue profile during the orthodontic treatment concurrent with normal growth and development. At the present time, it is not possible to devise a set rule for differentiating a desireable from an undesireable soft-tissue facial profile. However, this should not prohibit the presentation of some reference material as an aid in the diagnosis and practice of orthodontics. In many instances evaluations of facial esthetics seem to be singularly influenced by the orthodontist's concept of a pleasing face. At present, the accomplishment of soft-tissue profile changes by dental movement is limited so it is very important to rely on proper timing of the orthodontic treatment through the pubertal growth period to achieve optimal profile changes. PMID:2192991

  2. Force-Degradation Pattern of Six Different Orthodontic Elastomeric Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Mirhashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An ideal orthodontic force system should exert continuous light force. Thus, many efforts have been made to improve the memory characteristics of elastomeric chains. The aim of this study was to compare elastomeric chains (ECs claimed by their manufacturers to offer high memory with traditional ones according to their force-extension diagrams.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, ECs were divided into six groups, each containing 40 pieces of chain, from three brands (American Orthodontics, GAC and Ortho-Technology. Each brand was divided into two groups with respect to their claimed characteristics (with or without memory. Each sample was stretched to twice its original length and kept constant in 37°C distilled water. Force-extension diagrams were drawn by universal testing machine at 0,1,8,24,72 hours and 1, 2, 4-week intervals. Additionally, the amounts of elongation required to deliver 200 g force were calculated. To compare the results, ANOVA and Tukey tests were performed.Results: Force-decay rate was significantly different between traditional and memory chains (p<0.05. For traditional chains, there was a substantial decay in force in the first hour and 30-40% of the force was retained at 4 weeeks. The memory chains demonstrated more constant force and retained 60% of the force. The maximum amount of elongation required to deliver 200 g force belonged to American Orthodontics memory chains (61.9% after 24hr and the minimum to Ortho-Technology ECs (23.4% initially.Conclusion: Memory chains exhibited superior mechanical properties compared to traditional ones. For delivering the same force, memory chains required more elongation. Memory chains of GAC and American Orthodontics showed better characteristics among all chains.

  3. Orthodontic camouflage versus orthognathic surgery: A comparative analysis of long-term stability and satisfaction in moderate skeletal Class III

    OpenAIRE

    Fengshan Chen; Yaxin Yu; Xueyan Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare long-term stability and satisfaction between orthodontic camouflage and orthognathic surgery in treatment of moderate skeletal Class III adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 adults females who had been treated with orthodontic camouflage for Class III malocclusions were recalled at least 3 years post-treatment to evaluate stability and satisfaction with treatment outcomes. The data were compared with similar data for long-term outco...

  4. Rapid Orthodontics with Flapless Piezoelectric Corticotomies: First Clinical Experiences / Ortodoncia Rápida con Corticotomías Piezoeléctricas sin Colgajo: Primeras Experiencias Clínicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Jofre; Julio, Montenegro; Roberto, Arroyo.

    Full Text Available Uno de los mayores desafíos que enfrenta un paciente de ortodoncia es el tiempo que lleva usar brackets. A través de los años, varias técnicas quirúrgicas se han desarrollado para hacer frente a este problema y reducir el tiempo total de tratamiento. Estas combinan los mecanismos de cicatrización ós [...] ea, con cargas de ortodoncia para acelerar el movimiento de los dientes. Aunque eficaz, estas técnicas son bastante invasivas, que requieren la elevación de colgajos bucales y linguales de espesor total con decorticaciones extensas del hueso alveolar bucal y lingual. Por otra parte, con estas técnicas se corre el riesgo de desvitalización dentaria, necrosis avascular del bloque óseo, reabsorción alveolar, y los riesgos de complicaciones, con baja aceptación por parte del paciente. Este trabajo reporta tres casos tratados con un nuevo enfoque sin colgajo para ortodoncia rápida mínimamente invasiva (MIRO - minimally invasive rapid orthodontic). Este procedimiento incluye microincisiones guiadas por radiografías y corticotomías piezoeléctricas localizadas. Las implicaciones clínicas de esta técnica se analizan en este documento. MIRO reduce el tiempo de tratamiento de ortodoncia, evitando los efectos adversos reportados por la ortodoncia acelerada. Abstract in english One of the biggest challenges an orthodontic patient faces is the time spent wearing brackets. Over the years, several surgical techniques have been developed to address this issue and reduce the overall treatment time. These combine bone-healing mechanisms with orthodontic loads to accelerate tooth [...] movement. Although effective, these techniques are also quite invasive in nature, requiring the elevation of buccal and lingual full-thickness flaps with extensive decortications of the buccal and lingual alveolar bone. Moreover, these techniques run the risk of teeth devitalization, avascular necrosis of the osseous block, alveolar resorption, and the risks of complications, with low acceptance by the patient. This manuscript reports three cases treated with a novel, flapless approach for minimally invasive rapid orthodontic (MIRO). This procedure includes radiographic-guided micro incisions and localized piezoelectric corticotomies. The clinical implications of this technique are discussed herein. MIRO reduces orthodontic treatment time, avoiding the reported adverse effects of accelerated orthodontics.

  5. Joint quantum measurements and Poisson bracket invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Polterovich, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a quantum counterpart, in the sense of the Berezin-Toeplitz quantization, of certain constraints on Poisson brackets coming from "hard" symplectic topology. It turns out that they can be interpreted in terms of unsharpness of joint measurements in operational quantum mechanics.

  6. Useless brackets in arithmetic expressions with mixed operations

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Robert; Hernell, Bernt; So?nnerhed, Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    There can be different intentions with brackets in mathematical expressions. It has previously been suggested that mathematically useless brackets can be educationally useful when learning the order of operations in expressions with mixed operations. This paper reports how students (12-13 years) deal with the implicit mental conflict between brackets as a necessary part of the order of operations and brackets to emphasize precedence. The students taking part in this quasi-experimental study w...

  7. Evaluation of shear bond strength of metal bracket to enamel after application of primers over bracket base-an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firuzbakht MM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of application of two types of primers over bracket bases on the shear bond strength (SBS and mode of bond failure."nMaterials and Methods: In this study, 75 human premolar teeth were divided into three equal groups. In group 1 (control, after surface preparation of enamel by conventional method (acid etching+primer brackets were bonded with Transbond XT composite. In group 2 (TX, brackets were bonded to enamel same as the first group but Transbond XT primer were used on bracket bases before placement of composite. In group 3 (PL, Transbond plus primer was applied on bracket bases before placement of composite. After 24 h, the SBS test was performed by universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Then, adhesive remnant index (ARI scores and percentage of cohesive fracture were determined using stereomicroscopy. SBS data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Duncan tests. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze ARI and cohesive fracture results."nResults: There was significant difference in SBS values among the groups (P<0.001. The highest SBS was shown in TX group and the lowest was seen in PL group. There was no significant difference between control and TX groups in ARI scores (P=0.199. No significant difference was found in cohesive fracture values between the groups (P=0.093. Both the control and TX groups showed significant difference in ARI scores and cohesive fracture compared with the PL group in all of the comparisons (P<0.001."nConclusion: Application of Transbond XT primer over bracket base affects the bond strength and failure mode. Transbond XT primer increased the bond strength but Transbond plus primer decreased it.

  8. Courant brackets on noncommutative algebras and omni-Lie algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Uchino, Kyousuke

    2006-01-01

    We define a Courant bracket on an associative algebra using the theory of Hochschild homology, and we introduce the notion of Dirac algebra. We show that the bracket of an omni-Lie algebra is quite a kind of Courant bracket.

  9. Oral Hygiene for the Orthodontic Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of developing gum disease, dental decay and bad breath." Dr. Cangialosi is chairman and professor of Orthodontics ... the enamel on your teeth and contribute to bad breath ( halitosis ). It's important to remove the plaque thoroughly ...

  10. Presurgical orthodontic decompensation of mandibular incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B; Ju, Z; Hägg, U; Tideman, H; Piette, E

    1995-10-01

    The effects of presurgical orthodontic decompensation on lower incisor inclination and angle ANB were studied using a modified Pancherz method of cephalometric analysis. Two groups of patients with mandibular hyperplasia were studied: one group (Group 1) of nineteen cases which required orthodontic decompensation and another (Group 2) of twenty-one cases which did not. The cephalometric changes which occurred in Group 1 were compared with the significant cephalometric differences existing between the two groups with respect to incisor inclination (ILi/OL; P orthodontic treatment the average lower incisal angulation of the treated group was the same as that in the untreated group; the variations (S.D) being 3.6 degrees and 7.4 degrees respectively indicating that the clinical assessment of the orthodontic treatment effect was quite high. PMID:9063124

  11. The Effects of Chlorhexidine and Persica Mouthwashes on Colonization of Streptococcus mutans on Fixed Orthodontics O-rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Fereshteh; Danesh Ardakani, Mohammad; Zandi, Hengameh; Heidarzadeh, Hamed; Moshafi, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Fixed orthodontic appliances predispose patients to dental caries. Use of mouthrinses has been introduced as the effective way for reducing dental plaque accumulation. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Persica mouthwash and Chlorhexidine (CHX) on colonization of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) on fixed orthodontic O-rings. Materials and Method Thirty patients with fixed orthodontic appliances and proper oral hygiene were randomly provided by CHX and Persica and trained to use these mouthwashes according to the manufacturer’s instruction. Sampling was carried out right before and 4 weeks after mouthrinsing treatment. The mean amounts of S. mutans colonies in these groups were compared. Results Comparison of S. mutans colonization within each group revealed both mouthrinses to be efficient. However, this difference was found to be significant only in CHX group. Conclusion Persica cannot be a good alternative mouthwash and patients on orthodontic treatment are still recommended to use CHX.

  12. In vitro cytotoxicity of orthodontic elastics: comparison between two methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare two methodologies, evaluating in vitro the biocompatibility of intra-oral orthodontic elastics through cytotoxity test in culture of HEp-2 cells (human larynx carcinoma, comparing two methodologies: diffusion in agar and incorporation of the neutral red assay. Orthodontic elastics of two different commercial labels were used: American Orthodontic (American Orthodontic, Sheboygon, the USA and Morelli (Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The results using both methodologies demonstrated low cytotoxity for American Orthodontic and for Morelli. In accordance with the results can be concluded that both methodologies can be used to test orthodontic elastics.

  13. Association between gingivitis and anterior gingival enlargement in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabricio Batistin, Zanatta; Thiago Machado, Ardenghi; Raquel Pippi, Antoniazzi; Tatiana Militz Perrone, Pinto; Cassiano Kuchenbecker, Rösing.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a associação entre volume gengival (AG) com condições periodontais e características sócio-demográficas em sujeitos com aparelho ortodônticos fixo. MÉTODOS: uma amostra, de 330 participantes com aparelho ortodôntico fixo, por pelo menos seis mese [...] s, foi examinada, por um único examinador calibrado, para os índices de placa e gengivais, profundidade de sondagem, nível de inserção clínico e aumento de volume gengival. O status socioeconômico, tempo com aparelho ortodôntico fixo e uso de fio dental foram verificados por entrevista oral. A verificação das associações foi realizada por meio de modelos de regressão de Poisson sem ajuste e ajustados. RESULTADOS: a presença de sangramento gengival (RR 1.01; 95% IC 1.00-1.01) e o excesso de resina em torno dos braquetes (RR 1.02; 95% IC 1.02-1.03) foram associadas a um aumento do AG. Não foram encontradas associações entre características sócio-demográficas e AG. CONCLUSÃO: sangramento gengival proximal na região anterior e excesso de resina no entorno dos braquetes estão associados a níveis mais altos de aumento de volume gengival na região anterior em sujeitos com aparelho ortodôntico fixo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association among gingival enlargement (GE), periodontal conditions and socio-demographic characteristics in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A sample of 330 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at [...] least 6 months were examined by a single calibrated examiner for plaque and gingival indexes, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and gingival enlargement. Socio-economic background, orthodontic treatment duration and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. Associations were assessed by means of unadjusted and adjusted Poisson's regression models. RESULTS: The presence of gingival bleeding (RR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01) and excess resin around brackets (RR 1.02; 95% CI 1.02-1.03) were associated with an increase in GE. No associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and GE. CONCLUSION: Proximal anterior gingival bleeding and excess resin around brackets are associated with higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement in subjects under orthodontic treatment.

  14. Malocclusion Pattern (Angle's) in Mauritian Orthodontic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Durgesh, B. H.; Prakash, Prashanth; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Subashchandra Phulari, Basavaraj; Al Kheraif, Abdul Aziz A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the pattern of malocclusion in different ethnic group of Mauritian population visiting the Orthodontic Department at Mauras College of Dentistry and Hospital, Republic of Mauritius. The study population comprised of 624 patients who visited the orthodontic department during 2010. The clinical examination was conducted by a well-calibrated orthodontist. The data were recorded in the case sheets and was analyzed for presence of angles class I, class II, and cl...

  15. Effect of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Gingival Crevicular Fluid Infiltration; a Preliminary Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dannan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The gingival crevicular fluid (GCF is an inflammatory exudate found in the gingival sulcus. The forces exerted during orthodontic treatment cause distortion of the periodontal ligament (PDL extra-cellular matrix, resulting in some biological features that can lead to modification of both GCF volume and its components. The present study investigated the effect of orthodontic tooth movements, specifically canine retraction, on the volume of GCF exudate.Materials and Methods: Fourteen upper and lower canines of patients with different Angle classifications were selected for the study. After extraction of the first premolars, the canines were subjected to orthodontic distal retraction. GCF was sampled from mesial anddistal gingival crevices of each canine separately at baseline, 1 hour, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days after the application of the orthodontic distal retraction. GCF volume was determined by means of an electronic device.Results: GCF volume at tension sites was slightly greater after 21 and 28 days compared to other observation time points. At pressure sites, GCF volume was slightly greater after 28 days compared to other observation time points. None of the observed differences,however, was statistically significant (P>0.05.Conclusion: Orthodontic tooth movement, namely canine retraction, does not significantly increase the volume of GCF exudate. The slight increase in GCF volume could be due to a slight degree of gingival inflammation.

  16. Evaluation of Patient’s Personal Reasons and Experience with Orthodontic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Narkhede, Sameer; Sonawane, Shushma; Gangurde, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study is to evaluate patient’s personal reasons and experience with orthodontic treatment. Also to find the problems faced during the orthodontic procedure. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study was done using pretested questionnaire among 312 patients (178 – males and 134 – females) with a response rate of 85%. The overall mean age of the population was 21.34±62 years. The data was collected on excel sheet and analyzed by SPSS 15.0 software at p value 0.05 for the statistical significance. Results: Half of the participants (52.4%) had undergone orthodontic procedure for straightening the teeth as they think that teeth are the important features that affect the facial profile. Around fifty percent judged themselves that they require this procedure. Most common problem faced by the participants during treatment was its longer duration (29.3%). Still 86.4% of them were satisfied with the treatment. Conclusion: The study concluded most of the subjects themselves noted that they are in need of orthodontic treatment in them. There were many problems faced during the procedure by the participants but still most of them were satisfied after the results. How to cite this article: Sharma S, Narkhede S, Sonawane S, Gangurde P. Evaluation of Patient’s Personal Reasons and Experience with Orthodontic Treatment. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):78-81 . PMID:24453449

  17. A discerning approach to simple aesthetic orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, J H; Sharma, S; Roberts-Harry, D; Qureshi, T

    2015-02-16

    There is currently considerable interest from general dental practitioners (GDPs) in the use of simple orthodontics to treat adult malocclusions. There is controversy in this, particularly in relation to 'quick fixes', simple orthodontics and 'straight teeth in six months' as opposed to more conventional treatment where the whole malocclusion is treated. This article will present a case for the use of simple aesthetic adult orthodontics in a measured and planned way. It will discuss the processes, planning and the importance of consent. It will also highlight how digital technology is used to preview, consent and execute an aesthetic result. Many of the recent systems emerging, have been as a result of the demand and supply of cosmetic dentistry. This, to a degree, has not helped since the implication of a 'quick-fix' is associated with this field. There has also been discussion on what the limits of GDP orthodontics should be. There is variability in how GDPs approach orthodontics, their experience, skill and ability to treat to an acceptable standard. Short courses may be one way of delivering orthodontic training but some of these courses are not regulated and the amount of internal mentoring is variable. This article highlights some of the systems in use, and potential upsides and downsides of this approach. PMID:25686433

  18. Assessment of Periodontal Status of Surgically Exposed and Orthodontically Aligned Impacted Maxillary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Co?arc?

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the periodontal status of impacted canines after 5 years following completion of the combined surgical and orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods: We examined 20 labially impacted canines and 20 palatally impacted canines at 5 years after the end of treatment. We assessed the periodontal status of these teeth. Results: Different outcomes were found regarding the probing depth and the amount of keratinized gingiva in the two mentioned groups of teeth. Conclusions: The assessed periodontal indices may signal the appearance of a periodontal disease around the teeth that were surgically and orthodontically treated

  19. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  20. Nickel: humoral and periodontal changes in orthodontic patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Silva, Marques; Camila Alessandra, Pazzini; Mariele Cristina Garcia, Pantuzo.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Although several studies have discussed nickel influence on the development of immunological reactions in orthodontic patients, it is noticed that the evidence towards the appliances, as well as towards the possible consequences of this material on the oral and general health of the in [...] dividual are still inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to present the current stage of knowledge on this issue, highlighting the most recent findings considering the periodontal and humoral aspects of allergic subjects.

  1. Shear bond strength of metallic brackets photo-activated with light-emitting diode (LED) at different exposure times

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emanuel Braga, Rêgo; Fábio Lourenço, Romano.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of orthodontic metallic brackets photo-activated with two different light-curing sources at different exposure times: halogen light (XL 1500, 3M ESPE) and LED light (Ortholux, 3M Unitek). Sixty bovine permanent lower incisors were inse [...] rted into PVC tubes containing plaster. The buccal surfaces were cleaned with pumice and water, and then etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel. The XT Primer bonding agent (3M Unitek) was applied to the enamel surfaces and the metallic pre-coated brackets (Transbond APC II system, 3M Unitek) were attached to upper central incisors. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=15). In Group I (Control), halogen light was used for 40 seconds, while in Groups II, III, and IV were light-cured with LED light unit for 40, 10, and 5 seconds, respectively. The teeth were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The brackets were submitted to shear bond strength test in universal testing machine (Instron) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Shear bond strength means (MPa) were 4.87 for Group I; 5.89 for Group II; 4.83 for Group III, and 4.39 for Group IV. Tukey's test detected no statistically significant differences among the groups regarding the shear bond strength (p>0.05). Neither of the types of light-curing sources or exposure times influenced the shear bond strength of metallic brackets.

  2. Acceptance of orthodontic miniscrews as temporary anchorage devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kh, Zawawi

    2014-01-01

    Khalid H Zawawi Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Objective: To study the patient’s acceptance, expectation, and experience of pain with ­orthodontic temporary miniscrews. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 165 potential temporary orthodontic miniscrew recipients or their parents. Using the numeric rating scale, patients who received miniscrews as part of their orthodontic treatment were also asked to rate th...

  3. Orthodontic Management of a Severely Rotated Maxillary Central Incisor in the Mixed Dentition: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case report was to introduce an appliance for correcting severe rotation of anterior teeth in the mixed dentition period. A 9-year-old Iranian boy with a mixed dentition Class I malocclusion complained of a severely rotated of upper right central incisor. There was a mesiodens between the central incisors. The supernumerary tooth was first extracted and then a Whip appliance which is composed of a removable plate, a cantilever spring and a central bracket on the rotated tooth was utilized. After 8 months, the upper right central incisor was orthodontically brought into proper alignment. Circumferential supracrestal fibrotomy was performed on the overcorrected tooth. One week after surgery, the device was removed and the retention was started. The whip appliance is a removable appliance that can effectively correct severe rotation of anterior teeth especially during the mixed dentition period.

  4. Effect of moisture on dental enamel in the interaction of two orthodontic bonding systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Pinheiro de Magalhães, Bertoz; Derly Tescaro Narcizo de, Oliveira; Carla Maria Melleiro, Gimenez; André Luiz Fraga, Briso; Francisco Antonio, Bertoz; Eduardo César Almada, Santos.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: a proposta desse estudo foi avaliar, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), a interface adesiva após a descolagem de acessórios ortodônticos, fixados em dentes bovinos com emprego de adesivo hidrofílico e hidrofóbico, em condições distintas de umidade do substrato dentário. [...] MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 20 incisivos inferiores, divididos em quatro grupos (n = 5): Grupo I , empregou-se o sistema de colagem contendo o primer hidrofílico Transbond MIP e a pasta adesiva Transbond XT, aplicados em substrato úmido; Grupo II, empregou-se o sistema de colagem primer hidrofóbico Transbond XT e pasta adesiva em substrato úmido; Grupos III e IV, os braquetes foram colados com os mesmos sistemas de união dos Grupos I e II, porém com esmalte dentário seco. Removidos os acessórios, avaliou-se em MEV, em diferentes magnificações, a interface adesiva e a interação dos sistemas adesivos com o esmalte dentário. As imagens foram avaliadas qualitativamente, observando-se o embricamento mecânico para o adesivo hidrófilo em quaisquer condições de substrato. RESULTADOS: a falta de umidade no esmalte condicionado permitiu uma melhor interação entre os materiais de ligação e a estrutura adamantina. O adesivo hidrofóbico apresentou o pior resultado de interação micromecânica quando aplicado a uma estrutura dentária úmida; já o sistema hidrofílico mostrou-se versátil, obtendo resultados aceitáveis em condições de umidade e excelente interação na ausência de contaminação. CONCLUSÃO: os autores afirmam que a melhor condição do esmalte dentário para a aplicação de primers é com a ausência de umidade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the remaining adhesive interface after debonding orthodontic attachments bonded to bovine teeth with the use of hydrophilic and hydrophobic primers under different dental substrate moisture conditions. [...] MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty mandibular incisors were divided into four groups (n=5). In Group I, bracket bonding was performed with Transbond MIP hydrophilic primer and Transbond XT adhesive paste applied to moist substrate, and in Group II a bonding system comprising Transbond XT hydrophobic primer and adhesive paste was applied to moist substrate. Brackets were bonded to the specimens in Groups III and IV using the same adhesive systems, but on dry dental enamel. The images were qualitatively assessed by SEM. RESULTS: The absence of moisture in etched enamel enabled better interaction between bonding materials and the adamantine structure. The hydrophobic primer achieved the worst micromechanical interlocking results when applied to a moist dental structure, whereas the hydrophilic system proved versatile, yielding acceptable results in moist conditions and excellent interaction in the absence of contamination. CONCLUSION: The authors assert that the best condition for the application of primers to dental enamel occurs in the absence of moisture.

  5. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggestypes of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  6. Assessment of surface friction of self-ligating brackets under conditions of angulated traction / Avaliação da fricção superficial apresentada por braquetes autoligáveis em condições de tracionamento sob angulação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta, Buzzoni; Carlos N., Elias; Daniel J., Fernandes; José Augusto M., Miguel.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a fricção apresentada por braquetes autoligáveis de aço inoxidável com sistema passivo de tampa deslizante sob angulação de 0 grau e 2,5 graus, e comparar o comportamento desse grupo sob angulação nula com o de um grupo de braquetes autoligáveis com sistema ativo de tampa resilient [...] e. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 25 braquetes de caninos superiores, divididos em 5 grupos - braquetes autoligáveis passivos Damon SL II sob angulação de 0 grau e de 2,5 graus; braquetes convencionais Gemini amarrados com ligaduras elásticas sob as mesmas angulações; e um grupo formado pelo sistema ativo Time 2, sob angulação nula. A hipótese a ser testada é se artefatos autoligáveis com sistema de tampa passiva são mais efetivos no controle da fricção do que dispositivos contendo coberturas ativas. O tracionamento foi realizado segundo emprego de 25 segmentos de fio de aço inoxidável 0,020" na máquina de ensaios EMIC DL 10000 com célula de carga de 2,0kg. Cada conjunto braquete/fio foi responsável pela geração de quatro corpos de prova, totalizando-se 100 leituras. As comparações entre médias dos valores foram realizadas através da Análise de Variância (one-way ANOVA) com correções pelo coeficiente de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: as médias de fricção encontradas confirmaram a hipótese em teste, de que o sistema de braquetes Damon SL II é mais eficiente no controle do atrito do que o sistema de tampa ativa sob angulação de 0 grau (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess resistance to sliding of stainless steel passive self-ligating brackets with 0° and 2.5° angulations and to compare them to active self-ligating brackets at zero angulation. The hypothesis to be tested was that passive self-ligating brackets produce low [...] er frictional forces than active self-ligating brackets. METHODS: Twenty five 0.022 x 0.028-in slot maxillary canine brackets were divided into 5 groups of 5 brackets: Damon SL II (Ormco, CA, USA) self-ligating bracket and Gemini (3M/Unitek, CA, USA) conventional bracket with angulation of 0 and 2.5° and a group of Speed 2 (American Orthodontics, WI, USA) active clip self-ligating system with zero angulation. Twenty five segments of stainless steel 0.020-in archwire (TP Orthodontics, IN, USA) were tested and each bracket/wire interface was evaluated at 4 successive points during sliding. Overall, 100 frictional values were analyzed by parametric analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Frictional tests were performed with an Emic DL 10000 testing machine (Emic, Brazil) with a load cell of one kilogram. Passive self-ligating brackets produced lower frictional forces than active self-ligating brackets (p

  7. The 808 nm Laser-Assisted Surgery as an Adjunct to Orthodontic Treatment of Delayed Tooth Eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Younessian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Failure of teeth to erupt from gingival tissues at usual developmental time is called delayed tooth eruption (DTE. Delayed tooth eruption lead to prolonged fixed orthodontic treatment and its eventual complications. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of laser-assisted (808 nm surgical uncovering, on the tooth emergence and orthodontic treatment of DTE.Methods: A total of 16 orthodontic patients were included in this study and were equally assigned to an experimental and a control group. Subjects for experiment consisted of eight patients (6 girls and 2 boys with a mean age of 14±0.9 years. All patients exhibited delayed second premolar eruption. The laser wavelength was 810 nm and it was set in a continuous wave mode at a power output of 1.6 watt with a 0.3-mm diameter fiber tip. When the target tissue was sufficiently anesthetized, the tip was directed at an angle of 10 to 20 degrees to the tissue (light contact mode; and was applied continuously for approximately 12 Seconds until an acceptable tooth exposure area was visible. The facial axis of the clinical crown (FACC line represents the most prominent portion of the facial central lobe for premolars. All orthodontic brackets are aligned along this reference and are located on FA (Facial Axis point. The standard for adequate tooth eruption was the accessibility of facial axis of the clinical crown (FACC for bonding the brackets. Data gathered from the patients were statistically surveyed and compared by means of Tukey’s Test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.Results: All patients showed good gingival status, no significant bleeding during or immediately after the surgery, and acceptable level of healing after laser surgery. The biologic width of the teeth was preserved and no violation of this important periodontal parameter was observed. The average time for accessing the FA point in experimental group was 11±1.1 weeks and the mentioned period was increased to 25±1.8 weeks in control group. The data analysis showed that in patients with DTE, laser intervention significantly accelerated tooth eruption (P Conclusion: Laser-assisted surgical removal of the fibrous tissue over erupting premolars (DTE with appropriate irradiation parameters appears to be a promising adjunct to orthodontic treatment for bringing the premolar to the aligned and leveled dental arch.

  8. Influence of anatomical barriers on maxillary incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Geraldo de, Oliveira; Fabiana Guilhermina Ferreira, Castro.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Apical root resorption is a frequent and occasionally critical problem in orthodontic patients undergoing induced tooth movement. One of the factors that might influence prognosis, especially in maxillary incisors, which most frequently present resorptions, are the so-called the anatom [...] ical barriers; that is, proximity of the buccal and palatal cortical bones to the maxillary incisor roots. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients with excessive vertical growth really present a small distance between the alveolar cortical bones and the maxillary incisor roots, and whether there is a correlation between this distance and the root resorption index in comparison with patients presenting horizontal growth. METHODS: The sample comprised orthodontic records of 18 patients with extraction planning of first maxillary premolars and treatment by the standard and/or preadjusted edgewise brackets. Their initial and final periapical radiographs were evaluated to determine the amount of root resorption that occurred. RESULTS: On the palatal side, patients with excessive vertical growth (Group 2 - SN-GoGn > 43º) showed a narrower alveolar bone than the horizontal growth patients (Group 1 - SN-GoGn

  9. Uma análise dos testes in vitro de força de adesão em Ortodontia An analysis of in vitro bond strength testing in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Orrico de Aragão Pedra e Cal Neto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as metodologias empregadas em testes in vitro de força de adesão em Ortodontia. Foram selecionados nos periódicos American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics e The Angle Orthodontist (do ano de 1993 até 2002 todos os artigos onde foi avaliada a resistência de adesão de braquetes a diferentes superfícies, através de Máquinas de Ensaio Universal Instron ou similares. Foram analisados 127 artigos, e destes 86% foram conduzidos através de ensaios de cisalhamento, ao passo que 14% foram através de ensaios de tração. Dentre os estudos com dentes humanos (68%, os pré-molares foram os mais utilizados (57%, seguidos pelos molares (31%. Quanto ao número de espécimes por grupo, 28 estudos analisaram entre 6 e 10; 30 entre 11 e 15; 33 entre 16 e 20; e 36 analisaram mais de 20 espécimes. Como solução de armazenamento, as mais empregadas foram: água destilada (43%, seguido por Timol a 0,1% (28% e Cloreto de sódio a 0,9% (12%. No que diz respeito à velocidade de operação da máquina, em 25 estudos foi de 0,5 mm/min; em 43 foi de 1,0mm/min; em 8 foi de 2,0 mm/min; e em 38 foi de 5,0 mm/min. Os autores concluem que não existe um consenso na metodologia de tais estudos, sendo então evidenciada a necessidade de uma possível padronização da técnica.The aim of this study was to examine the recent methodology used in laboratory analysis of bond strength in orthodontics. The material used was all the articles published in the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics or The Angle Orthodontics in which the bonding between the bracket and several surfaces were evaluated by Instron Universal Testing Machine or similar devices. It was found 127 articles, in which 86% tested the specimens in shear mode, and 14% used the tensile technique. Among the studies with human teeth (68% premolars were the most frequent (57%, followed by molars (31%. According to the number of specimens per group, 28 studies analysed from 6 to 10; 30 from 11 to 15; 33 from 16 to 20; and 36 analyzed more than 20 specimens. According to nature of the storage solution, the most used were distilled water (43%, followed by 0.1% Timol (28% and 0.9% saline solution (12%. With regard to the cross head speed, in 25 studies were of 0,5mm/min; in 43 were of 1.0mm/min; in 8 was of 2.0mm/min; and in 38 was of 5.0mm/min. The authors concluded that there was not an agreement in the methodology on those studies, and so there is a potential need of technique standardization.

  10. Bracketing as a skill in conducting unstructured qualitative interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsa, Minna Anneli; Kiikkala, Irma; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2015-03-01

    Aim To provide an overview of bracketing as a skill in unstructured qualitative research interviews. Background Researchers affect the qualitative research process. Bracketing in descriptive phenomenology entails researchers setting aside their pre-understanding and acting non-judgementally. In interpretative phenomenology, previous knowledge is used intentionally to create new understanding. Data sources A literature search of bracketing in phenomenology and qualitative research. Review methods This is a methodology paper examining the researchers' impact in creating data in creating data in qualitative research. Discussion Self-knowledge, sensitivity and reflexivity of the researcher enable bracketing. Conclusion Skilled and experienced researchers are needed to use bracketing in unstructured qualitative research interviews. Implications for research/practice Bracketing adds scientific rigour and validity to any qualitative study. PMID:25783146

  11. Compatibility, multi-brackets and integrability of systems of PDEs

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglikov, Boris; Lychagin, Valentin V.

    2008-01-01

    We establish an efficient compatibility criterion for a system of generalized complete intersection type in terms of certain multi-brackets of differential operators. These multi-brackets generalize the higher Jacobi-Mayer brackets, important in the study of evolutionary equations and the integrability problem. We also calculate Spencer delta-cohomology of generalized complete intersections and evaluate the formal functional dimension of the solutions space. The results are ...

  12. Anxiety among adolescents and its affect on orthodontic compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trakyali G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigations have suggested that poor compliance could be an indicator of poor relationship with family and could be related to the person?s personality traits. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parents attitude, the anxiety during treatment and self-confidence/self-care of the patient on cooperation during orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The study material consisted of questionnaires completed by 82 adolescent patients and their parents. The patients were divided into two groups of 42 compliant and 40 non-compliant patients. The above-mentioned questionnaries were State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-STAI, Piers-Harris Children?s Self Concept Scale and The Exercise of Self-Care Agency for the patients and Mc Master Family Assessment Device and Parental Attitude Research Instrument-PARI for the parents. Results: The problem solving and caring attitude of the father and his determinative role in the family had a positive infulence on the compliance of the child. The patients who showed better compliance also had a lower state of anxiety, which could also be explained by the positive effect of the attitude of the father in the family. Conclusion: It would be useful to overcome the increased state of anxiety of the child in the orthodontic clinic by using educational and relaxation techniques. Besides, it would be wise to ask the father to be present at the first appointment during part of the education of the child.

  13. The quaternionic commutator bracket and its implications

    CERN Document Server

    Arbab, Arbab I

    2014-01-01

    A quaternionic commutator bracket for position and momentum shows that the quaternionic wave function, \\emph{viz.} $\\widetilde{\\psi}=(\\frac{i}{c}\\,\\psi_0\\,,\\vec{\\psi})$, represents a state of a particle with orbital angular momentum, $L=3\\,\\hbar$, resulting from the internal structure of the particle. This angular momentum can be attributed to spin of the particle. The vector $\\vec{\\psi}$, points along the direction of $\\vec{L}$. When a charged particle is placed in an electromagnetic fields the interaction energy reveals that the magnetic moments interact with the electric and magnetic fields giving rise to terms similar to Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects.

  14. Derived bracket construction and Manin products

    OpenAIRE

    Uchino, K.

    2009-01-01

    We will extend the classical derived bracket construction to any algebra over a binary quadratic operad. We will show that the derived product construction is a functor given by the Manin white product with the operad of permutation algebras. As an application, we will show that the operad of prePoisson algebras is isomorphic to Manin black product of the Poisson operad with the preLie operad. We will show that differential operators and Rota-Baxter operators are, in a sense...

  15. Integrality of Kauffman brackets of trivalent graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Costantino, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We show that Kauffman brackets of colored framed graphs (also known as quantum spin networks) can be renormalized to a Laurent polynomial with integer coefficients by multiplying it by a coefficient which is a product of quantum factorials depending only on the abstract combinatorial structure of the graph. Then we compare the shadow-state sums and the state-sums based on R-matrices and Clebsch-Gordan symbols, reprove their equivalence and comment on the integrality of the weight of the states. We also provide short proofs of most of the standard identities satisfied by quantum $6j$-symbols of $U_q(sl_2)$.

  16. General dentist orthodontic practice in foreign legal systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan Toshio, Maruo; Armando, Saga; Maria da Glória, Colucci; Orlando, Tanaka; Hiroshi, Maruo.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: General dentist orthodontic practice is a controversial issue and this paper aims to analyze it comparing foreign laws to Brazilian Legal System. METHODS: Regulations and scientific texts concerning orthodontic practice by general dentists, in Portuguese or English language, were sought. [...] RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Portugal clearly forbids general dentist orthodontic practice; United States of America do not clearly forbid general dentist orthodontic practice, but do regulate and promote campaigns to encourage public to seek specialist service; in Australia and England, corrective orthodontics are offered both by orthodontists and general dentists; it was not possible to evaluate how orthodontic services are provided in Eastern Europe; and the fact that general dentists are forbidden to practice corrective orthodontics in Brazilian Legal System is compatible to other countries policy.

  17. Preventive orthodontic management of tooth transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary orthodontics should highlight the periodical control of growth and dental development in order to intercept possible disorders in facial growth and tooth eruption. This may allow avoidance or simplification of corrective orthodontic treatment, making it faster and less aggressive. Tooth transposition, a genetically determined eruptive disturbance, presents a relatively low prevalence in the world population and primarily affects maxillary canines and premolars. This paper presents an option for interceptive treatment of bilateral transposition of maxillary canine and premolar diagnosed early in a young individual. Longitudinal follow-up of RME performed in adequate timing to redirect the eruption pathway of permanent maxillary canines is presented. PMID:25745710

  18. From Peierls brackets to a generalized Moyal bracket for type-I gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, G; Esposito, Giampiero; Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2006-01-01

    In the space-of-histories approach to gauge fields and their quantization, the Maxwell, Yang--Mills and gravitational field are well known to share the property of being type-I theories, i.e. Lie brackets of the vector fields which leave the action functional invariant are linear combinations of such vector fields, with coefficients of linear combination given by structure constants. The corresponding gauge-field operator in the functional integral for the in-out amplitude is an invertible second-order differential operator. For such an operator, we consider advanced and retarded Green functions giving rise to a Peierls bracket among group-invariant functionals. Our Peierls bracket is a Poisson bracket on the space of all group-invariant functionals in two cases only: either the gauge-fixing is arbitrary but the gauge fields lie on the dynamical sub-space; or the gauge-fixing is a linear functional of gauge fields, which are generic points of the space of histories. In both cases, the resulting Peierls bracke...

  19. Avaliação do atrito em braquetes autoligáveis submetidos à mecânica de deslizamento: um estudo in vitro / Evaluation of friction in self-ligating brackets subjected to sliding mechanics: an in vitro study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana Ribeiro, Pacheco; Dauro Douglas, Oliveira; Perrin, Smith Neto; Wellington Correa, Jansen.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: o atrito gerado na interface braquete/fio durante a mecânica de deslizamento pode reduzir a eficiência da movimentação ortodôntica. O método de ligação do fio ao braquete exerce importante papel na determinação desse atrito. MÉTODOS: o presente estudo comparou a força de atrito gerada po [...] r quatro tipos de braquetes autoligáveis (Time®; Damon 2®; In-Ovation R® e Smart Clip®) com um grupo de braquetes ortodônticos convencionais (Dynalock®) associados a ligaduras elásticas tradicionais (Dispens-A-Stix®), que serviu como grupo controle. A força de atrito estático foi mensurada através da máquina universal de ensaios EMIC® DL 500 com dois fios de aço inoxidável com secção transversal 0,018" e 0,017" x 0,025". RESULTADOS: a análise de variância ANOVA e o teste de Tukey mostraram baixos níveis de atrito nos quatro braquetes autoligáveis associados ao fio 0,018" (P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface during sliding mechanics can reduce the efficiency of orthodontic movement. The ligation method employed to tie the archwire to the bracket plays an important role in determining this friction. METHODS: This study compared the fricti [...] onal force generated by four different types of self-ligating brackets (Time™, Damon 2™, In-Ovation R™ and Smart Clip™) with a group of conventional orthodontic brackets (Dynalock™) that require the use of traditional elastomeric ligatures (ExDispens-A-Stix™), which served as the control group. Static friction force was measured using an EMIC DL™ 500 universal testing machine using stainless steel round 0.018-in and rectangular 0.017x0.025-in archwires. RESULTS: ANOVA and Tukey's test showed low levels of friction in the four self-ligating brackets in tests with the 0.018-in wire (P

  20. Factors related to orthodontic treatment time in adult patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Camila Esteves de Oliveira, Melo; Lilianne Oliveira Thiers, Carneiro; Luana Farias, Pontes; Rodolpho Lobão, Cecim; José Nazareno Rufino de, Mattos; David, Normando.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: o tratamento ortodôntico de pacientes adultos apresenta grande variabilidade no tempo necessário para sua realização. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse trabalho foi investigar a influência de diversas variáveis sobre o tempo de tratamento. MÉTODOS: foram examinados 70 casos clínicos, de pacient [...] es adultos, com bom resultado final, coletados em clínicas de três ortodontistas experientes, cujo acervo total inicial era de 4.723 prontuários. A influência das variáveis idade, sexo, padrão facial, severidade inicial da má oclusão (medida por meio do índice PAR), relação sagital de caninos, tipo de braquetes (estético ou metálico), exodontias, faltas às consultas e "quebras" de aparelho, sobre o tempo de tratamento (variável dependente), foram avaliadas por meio da análise de regressão linear múltipla, seguida do método Stepwise, com p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The length of time that it takes an orthodontist to treat adult patients varies widely. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how different variables influence treatment time. METHODS: Seventy clinical case reports of successfully treated adult patients were examined. The [...] patients were selected from 4,723 records held by three experienced orthodontists. The influence exerted by the following variables on treatment time was assessed: age, sex, facial pattern, severity of malocclusion (measured by the PAR index), sagittal relationship of canines, type of brackets (ceramic or metal), tooth extractions, missed appointments and orthodontic appliance issues/breakages, the latter being the dependent variable. Assessment was performed by multiple linear regression analysis, followed by the stepwise method with P

  1. Hydrodynamic Nambu brackets derived by geometric constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blender, Richard; Badin, Gualtiero

    2015-03-01

    A geometric approach to derive the Nambu brackets for ideal two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics is suggested. The derivation is based on two-forms with vanishing integrals in a periodic domain, and with resulting dynamics constrained by an orthogonality condition. As a result, 2D hydrodynamics with vorticity as dynamic variable emerges as a generic model, with conservation laws which can be interpreted as enstrophy and energy functionals. Generalized forms like surface quasi-geostrophy and fractional Poisson equations for the stream-function are also included as results from the derivation. The formalism is extended to a hydrodynamic system coupled to a second degree of freedom, with the Rayleigh–Bénard convection as an example. This system is reformulated in terms of constitutive conservation laws with two additive brackets which represent individual processes: a first representing inviscid 2D hydrodynamics, and a second representing the coupling between hydrodynamics and thermodynamics. The results can be used for the formulation of conservative numerical algorithms that can be employed, for example, for the study of fronts and singularities.

  2. Consequences of enamel preparation with sodium hypochlorite, polyacrylic and phosphoric acids for the bonding of brackets with resin-modified glass ionomer cements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra Marques, Trindade; Tatiana Bahia Junqueira, Pereira; Perrin, Smith Neto; Martinho Campolina Rebello, Horta; Matheus Melo, Pithon; Emílio, Akaki; Dauro Douglas, Oliveira.

    1423-14-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of deproteinization with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) prior to enamel conditioning with 10% polyacrylic acid (PAA) and 35% phosphoric acid (PA) on the bond strength (BS) of brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). One hu [...] ndred human premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were divided into 5 groups (n = 20 in each group): G1 (control), enamel conditioning with PA, application of adhesive and bonding of brackets with TransbondTM XT composite resin (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); G2, enamel conditioning with PAA and bonding with RMGIC (Fuji OrthoTM LC, GC America, Alsip, IL, USA); G3, NaOCl-treated enamel, conditioning with PAA and bonding with RMGIC; G4, enamel conditioning with PA and bonding with RMGIC; and G5, NaOCl-treated enamel, conditioning with PA and bonding with RMGIC. Once the brackets were bonded, the teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at room temperature and pressure until being subjected to shear stress in a Universal Mechanical Testing Machine (EMIC® DL 500, São José dos Pinhais, PR, Brazil). The BS value was higher in G1 (17.08 ± 6.39) than in any of the experimental groups (p 0.05), except between G3 (9.86 ± 2.90) and G5 (5.00 ± 2.49). No statistically significant differences were noted between the mean Adhesive Remnant Index values among the evaluated groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The use of NaOCl combined with PAA increased the BS of brackets bonded with RMGIC. The deproteinization of the group treated with PA reduced the shear bond strength of the brackets.

  3. Assessment of the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements for orthodontic cementation

    OpenAIRE

    Farret, Marcel M.; Eduardo Martinelli de Lima; Eduardo Gonçalves Mota; Oshima, Hugo Mitsuo S.; Gabriela Maguilnik; Patrícia Alves Scheid

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mechanical properties of three glass ionomers cements (GICs) used for band cementation in Orthodontics. METHODS: Two conventional glass ionomers (Ketac Cem Easy mix/3M-ESPE and Meron/Voco) and one resin modified glass ionomer (Multi-cure Glass ionomer/3M-Unitek) were selected. For the compressive strength and diametral tensile strength tests, 12 specimens were made of each material. For the microhardness test 15 specimens were made of each material and for the shear...

  4. Three-dimensional analysis of an orthodontic delta spring

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio Rodrigo Mandello, Rodrigues; Paulo César, Borges; Marco Antônio, Luersen; Marcelo do Amaral, Ferreira.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to analyze the force system, moment-force ratios (M/F) and von Mises stresses in an orthodontic delta spring using a 3D finite element model. The M/F ratio produced by an orthodontic spring is related to the different types of tooth movement that are likel [...] y to occur in the sagittal and occlusal planes. METHODS: Analyses were performed using a 3D finite element model, and a data acquisition system was used to validate the numerical results. RESULTS: Reactive forces between 0.0 and 2.0 N were observed along the x-axis, while null values were observed along the y- and z-axes. The maximum activation that ensured geometric stability and mechanical stresses below the elastic limit of the material was 10.0 mm. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that a delta spring can provide (i) uncontrolled tipping for activation of less than 1.0 mm; (ii) controlled counterclockwise tipping for activation between 1.0 and 4.5 mm; (iii) translation for activation between 4.5 and 5.0 mm; and (iv) controlled clockwise tipping in the sagittal plane for activation between 5.0 and 10.0 mm. No tooth movement was observed in the occlusal plane for the M/F ratios observed.

  5. Effect of Low Llevel Therapy on Orthodontic Movement in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini MH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Lasers with different characteristics have been used to stimulate orthodontic tooth movement. Considering the contradictory findings in this regard, this study was designed to assess the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement.Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 12 patients (4 boys and 8 girls; average age:16.9 ± 3.4 with extracted upper first premolars and required canine retraction into extraction site were included. While in both sides canines were retracted by NiTi coil spring, one side was exposed to GaAlAs laser (890 nm. LLLT was done (on the buccal and palatal mucosa by slow movement of probe at the beginning of the first month. Impression and cast fabrication performed at the beginning of retraction, one and two months later. The amount of retraction on the cast was measured with the aid of a reference plaque fabricated on the rogae using a digital caliper. Data were analyzed using paired sample T-test and one-sample Kolmogorov-Simirnov test. Results: There was no significant difference in the amounts of canine movement between laser exposed and control sides (P>0.05. Conclusion: The energy dose of laser used in this study (72 J per each tooth was not appropriate for increasing dental movement.

  6. Biocompatibility of orthodontic adhesives in rat subcutaneous tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to verify the hypothesis that no difference in biocompatibility exists between different orthodontic adhesives. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were used in this study and divided into five groups (n=6: Group 1 (control, distilled water, Group 2 (Concise, Group 3 (Xeno III, Group 4 (Transbond XT, and Group 5 (Transbond plus Self-Etching Primer. Two cavities were performed in the subcutaneous dorsum of each animal to place a polyvinyl sponge soaked with 2 drops of the respective adhesive in each surgical loci. Two animals of each group were sacrificed after 7, 15, and 30 days, and their tissues were analyzed by using an optical microscope. RESULTS: At day 7, Groups 3 (Transbond XT and 4 (Xeno III showed intense mono- and polymorphonuclear inflammatory infiltrate with no differences between them, whereas Groups 1 (control and 2 (Concise showed moderate mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. At day 15, severe inflammation was observed in Group 3 (Transbond XT compared to other groups. At day 30, the same group showed a more expressive mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: Among the orthodontic adhesive analyzed, it may be concluded that Transbond XT exhibited the worst biocompatibility. However, one cannot interpret the specificity of the data generated in vivo animal models as a human response.

  7. Biocompatibility of orthodontic adhesives in rat subcutaneous tissue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Lacerda dos, Santos; Matheus Melo, Pithon; Alline Birra Nolasco, Fernandes; Márcia Grillo, Cabral; Antônio Carlos de Oliveira, Ruellas.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to verify the hypothesis that no difference in biocompatibility exists between different orthodontic adhesives. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were used in this study and divided into five groups (n=6): Group 1 (control, disti [...] lled water), Group 2 (Concise), Group 3 (Xeno III), Group 4 (Transbond XT), and Group 5 (Transbond plus Self-Etching Primer). Two cavities were performed in the subcutaneous dorsum of each animal to place a polyvinyl sponge soaked with 2 drops of the respective adhesive in each surgical loci. Two animals of each group were sacrificed after 7, 15, and 30 days, and their tissues were analyzed by using an optical microscope. RESULTS: At day 7, Groups 3 (Transbond XT) and 4 (Xeno III) showed intense mono- and polymorphonuclear inflammatory infiltrate with no differences between them, whereas Groups 1 (control) and 2 (Concise) showed moderate mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. At day 15, severe inflammation was observed in Group 3 (Transbond XT) compared to other groups. At day 30, the same group showed a more expressive mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: Among the orthodontic adhesive analyzed, it may be concluded that Transbond XT exhibited the worst biocompatibility. However, one cannot interpret the specificity of the data generated in vivo animal models as a human response.

  8. Clinical evaluation of periodontal health during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H?n?oiu T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fixed orthodontic appliances make daily application of oral hygiene standard procedures more difficult and in time may lead to accumulation of oral biofilms and development of gingivitis and hyperplasia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the periodontal health expressed by clinical indices in patients under orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, according to different oral hygene maintenance programs. Material and method: We performed a randomized prospective study on 60 patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (17-25 years of age devided in three study groups. The clnical indices recorded were: modified gingival index, plaque index and sulcular bleeding index. Statistical analysis or the results were carried out using Student t test. Results: The patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A-patients were instructed to use electric brush, water flosser and interdental brush, group B- electric brush, interdental brush and fluoride and group C- manual brushing and fluoride. Statistical comparison of the values of the indexes with the Student t test for independent samples showed statistically significant differences in all three groups of patients studied between initial and final values of all recorded clinical parameters. Conclusions: Fixed orthodontics do not induce periodontal disease if basic principles of oral hygiene are followed in compliant patients, which are correctly instructed to deal with real challenge, represented by complete elimination of debris and bacterial accumulation.

  9. Design and Analysis for EPB Shield Bracket Based on Ansys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun An bo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the structural characteristics of EPB shield bracket, the author establishes 3D solid model by Solidworks and corresponding finite element model of the bracket portion which is connected to the cutterhead by ANSYS WORKBENCH software. Through the static analysis of bracket’s stress characteristics under extreme conditions, we get its stress, deformation and safety coefficient distribution law under the maximum constraint conditions. After getting the maximum equivalent stress, the analysis of the calculation results shows that this kind of bracket with good static characteristics can meet the design strength requirement. This paper points out the weak position of bracket’s strength, and provides some reference data for the structural optimization design, as well as some basic data for both the structural design of bracket and the construction maintenance. Moreover, the structure analysis in the process of the grid selection and the key technology of the post-processing method are discussed in detail. The design example shows the effectiveness of the method.

  10. Brackets in the jet-bundle approach to field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Barnich, Glenn

    1997-01-01

    In the first part the sh Lie structure of brackets in field theory, described in the jet bundle context along the lines suggested by Gel'fand, Dickey and Dorfman, is analyzed. In the second part, we discuss how this description allows us to find a natural relation between the Batalin-Vilkovisky antibracket and the Poisson bracket.

  11. [Evaluation of presurgical orthodontic correction of the mandibular prognathism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, B; Ju, Z; Hagg, U; Tideman, H

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of presurgical orthodontic correction of the mandibular prognathism. The sample consisted of two groups of surgical cases. The cases of the mandibular prognathism in group I with lower anterior dental compensation received presurgical orthodontic decompensation, and the cases in group II without lower anterior dental compensation did not receive presurgical orthodontic decompensation. The results showed that before presurgical orthodontic treatment, significantly differences existed between the two groups variable ILi/OL and ANB. After presurgical orthodontic correction lower incisors position in group I was very close to that in the group II, this means that the presurgical orthodontic treatment significantly changed the position of the lower incisors. PMID:7789229

  12. A pilot clinical study of Class III surgical patients facilitated by improved accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, JiaQi; Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Bai, YunYang; Zou, Wei

    2014-10-27

    Objective: To evaluate if the improved accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (IAOO) procedure could speed Class III surgical patients' preoperative orthodontic treatment duration and, if yes, to what extent. This study was also designed to determine whether or not an IAOO procedure affects the tooth-moving pattern during extraction space closure. Materials and Methods: The samples in this study consisted of 24 Class III surgical patients. Twelve skeletal Class III surgery patients served as an experimental group (group 1) and the others as a control group (group 2). Before treatment, the maxillary first premolars were removed. For group 1, after the maxillary dental arch was aligned and leveled (T2), IAOO procedures were performed in the maxillary alveolar bone. Except for this IAOO procedure in group 1, all 24 patients experienced similar combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. Study casts of the maxillary dentitions were made before orthodontic treatment (T1) and after extraction space closure (T3). All of the casts were laser scanned, and the amount of movement of the maxillary central incisor, canine, and first molar, as well as arch widths, were digitally measured and analyzed by using the three-dimensional model superimposition method. Results: The time durations T3-T2 were significantly reduced in group 1 by 8.65 ± 2.67 months and for T3-T1 were reduced by 6.39 ± 2.00 months (P .05). Conclusion: The IAOO can reduce the surgical orthodontic treatment time for the skeletal Class III surgical patient by more than half a year on average. The IAOO procedures do not save anchorage. PMID:25347045

  13. Risk factors for low molar bite force in adult orthodontic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene Krogh; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to analyse which parameters in a standard orthodontic material are most important for identifying factors for low bite force. Such analyses have not previously been reported in adult orthodontic patients. The sample comprised 95 adults (67 females and 28 males) aged 18-55 years sequentially admitted for conventional orthodontic treatment. All subjects had moderate to severe malocclusions. Bite force was measured by a pressure transducer, craniofacial dimensions and head posture were measured on profile radiographs, number of teeth in contact were evaluated with a plastic strip in intercuspidal position, and symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were evaluated by TMD screening. Associations were assessed by Spearman correlations, Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test, and multiple stepwise regression analyses. Associations were found between bite force and craniofacial dimensions as mandibular prognathia (S-N-Pg, P <0.05; S-N-sm, P <0.05), sagittal jaw relationship (SS-N-Pg, P <0.05), mandibular inclination (NSL/ML, P <0.05), and mandibular plane angle (ML/RL, P <0.01) and between bite force and TMD symptoms (P <0.05) and TMD signs (P <0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that gender (P <0.001), TMD symptoms (P <0.01), and mandibular plane angle (P <0.001) were the most important factors for the magnitude of the bite force in adult orthodontic patients (R(2) = 0.32). The results showed that particularly women with TMD symptoms and an increased mandibular plane angle are at risk of having low bite force. This may prove valuable in the clinic, especially in orthodontic cases with an increased need for vertical anchorage during treatment.

  14. Cytokines and VEGF Induction in Orthodontic Movement in Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Perillo, L.; Polimeni, A.; Rosa, A.; Berrino, L.; Pierantoni, G. M.; Feola, A.; Cito, L.; Monsurr Amp, A.; Di Domenico, M.; Amp Apuzzo, F. D.

    2012-01-01

    Orthodontics is a branch of dentistry that aims at the resolution of dental malocclusions. The specialist carries out the treatment using intraoral or extraoral orthodontic appliances that require forces of a given load level to obtain a tooth movement in a certain direction in dental arches. Orthodontic tooth movement is dependent on efficient remodeling of periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, correlated with several biological and mechanical responses of the tissues surrounding the teeth...

  15. Referent geometric entities in orthodontics on 3D models

    OpenAIRE

    Majstorovi? Nemanja V.; Ma?uži? Jelena; Gliši? Branislav

    2014-01-01

    3D modeling is often used in orthodontics. Most commonly used software today is problem- oriented CAD system (OrthoCAD and others), as well as general CAD software for engineering modeling. Both methods require definition and use of various geometric entities to describe and monitor orthodontic status, but still there have been more than one approach to definition of geometric entities that characterize orthodontic parameters. The aim of this study was to d...

  16. Possibilities to prevent gingivitis during fixed orthodontic appliance therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mati? Sava; Ivanovi? Mirjana; Mandi? Jelena; Nikoli? Predrag

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: During orthodontic treatment, the risk of gingivitis, periodontal disease and dental caries is increased. For good gingival health during orthodontic therapy, patients must be educated about the importance of daily oral hygiene and also given instructions on plaquecontrol techniques and how to use plaque removal devices properly. Objectives: The aim of this study was to present risk factors for gingivitis during treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances as well as methods and ...

  17. Surgical–orthodontic treatment of a skeletal class III malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyar, Radha; Singh, G. K.; Mehrotra, Divya; Singh, Alka

    2010-01-01

    For patients whose orthodontic problems are so severe that neither growth modification nor camouflage offers a solution, surgery to realign the jaws or reposition dentoalveolar segments is the only possible treatment option left. One indication for surgery obviously is a malocclusion too severe for orthodontics alone. It is possible now to be at least semiquantitative about the limits of orthodontic treatment, in the context of producing normal occlusion as the diagrams of the “envelope of ...

  18. Surgical Orthodontic Treatment of Severe Skeletal Class II

    OpenAIRE

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.; Al-sebaei, Maisa O.; Afify, Ahmed R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an adult Saudi male patient who presented with a severe skeletal class II deformity. The case was managed with a combination of presurgical orthodontic treatment followed by a double jaw orthognathic surgery and then another phase of orthodontic treatment for final occlusal detailing. Extraction of the four first premolars was done during the presurgical orthodontic phase of treatment to decompensate upper and lower incisors and to give room for surgical setback of the ma...

  19. Comparative study of the effect of in vitro and in vivo aging on morphology, microstructure and elemental composition of nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zinelis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Comparative study of microstructure, morphology and elemental composition of archwires retrieved and aged in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHOD: NiTi archwires were retrieved following a 2-month intraoral placement in 20 fully bonded orthodontic patients, whereas another 20 archwires were submerged in a 0.1 M lactic acid solution for the same time period. Morphology was studied with optical and scanning electron microscopy, elemental surface composition and molecular analysis of deposits were studied using X-ray microanalysis and ultra-red spectrometry, respectively; composition of wire mass was studied using fluorescent spectrometry and metal ion release in the aging solution was investigated using atomic emission spectrometry of inductively coupled plasma. RESULTS: Retrieved archwires demonstrated rough surfaces with craters, K and Na deposits, localized formations of Ca-P crystals and absorption of proteins and alcohols, in contrast to archwires aged in vitro which presented a slight increase in roughness. The microstructure of retrieved wires demonstrated localized crystal network destruction of the martensitic formations, probably due to loads developing during wire engagement in the bracket slot; on the other hand, wires aged in vitro showed no change. Nickel wire content ranged from 47% to 53%. The aging solution showed higher ferrum concentration resulting from the manufacturing process and attributed to higher ferrum solubility in relation to other alloy elements; nickel and titanium were in the order of one hundredth ppm. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that in vitro aging of NiTi archwires is not comparable to their clinical aging. As a result, application of this process does not provide any clinically valuable information.

  20. Management of patients with Class II malocclusion treated with combined orthodontic treatment and genioplasty: Report of two cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lazarides

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of patients with Class II malocclusion includes orthodontics, surgery or a combination of these therapeutic modalities. Patient wishes and expectations should be considered besides clinical findings, for selecting the most appropriate treatment strategy. Two cases of patients with Class II malocclusion are reported in this paper. Both were initially managed with orthodontic treatment that restored dental occlusion, whereas the skeletal discrepancy was not affected. Augmentation genioplasty was performed for facial esthetic correction using the alloplastic implant material Proplast® (Polytetrafluoroethylene. The esthetic result was satisfactory and remained stable during the 2-year postoperative follow-up.

  1. Preliminary Process Design of ITER ELM Coil Bracket Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Xiangbin; SHI, Yi

    2015-03-01

    With the technical requirement of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, the manufacture and assembly technology of the mid Edge Localized Modes (ELM) coil was developed by the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ASIPP). As the gap between the bracket and the Stainless Steel jacketed and Mineral Insulated Conductor (SSMIC) can be larger than 0.5 mm instead of 0.01 mm to 0.1 mm as in normal industrial cases, the process of mid ELM coil bracket brazing to the SSMICT becomes quiet challenging, from a technical viewpoint. This paper described the preliminary design of ELM coil bracket brazing to the SSMIC process, the optimal bracket brazing curve and the thermal simulation of the bracket furnace brazing method developed by ANSYS. BAg-6 foil (Bag50Cu34Zn16) plus BAg-1a paste (Bag45CuZnCd) solders were chosen as the brazing filler. By testing an SSMICT prototype, it is shown that the average gap between the bracket and the SSMIC could be controlled to 0.2-0.3 mm, and that there were few voids in the brazing surface. The results also verified that the preliminary design had a favorable heat conducting performance in the bracket.

  2. Assessment of the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements for orthodontic cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel M. Farret

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mechanical properties of three glass ionomers cements (GICs used for band cementation in Orthodontics. METHODS: Two conventional glass ionomers (Ketac Cem Easy mix/3M-ESPE and Meron/Voco and one resin modified glass ionomer (Multi-cure Glass ionomer/3M-Unitek were selected. For the compressive strength and diametral tensile strength tests, 12 specimens were made of each material. For the microhardness test 15 specimens were made of each material and for the shear bond strength tests 45 bovine permanent incisors were used mounted in a self-cure acrylic resin. Then, band segments with a welded bracket were cemented on the buccal surface of the crowns. For the mechanical tests of compressive and diametral tensile strength and shear bond strength a universal testing machine was used with a crosshead speed of 1,0 mm/min and for the Vickers microhardness analysis tests a Microdurometer was used with 200 g of load during 15 seconds. The results were submitted to statistical analysis through ANOVA complemented by Tukey's test at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The results shown that the Multi-Cure Glass Ionomer presented higher diametral tensile strength (p OBJETIVO: avaliar as propriedades mecânicas de três cimentos de ionômero de vidro (CIVs utilizados para cimentação de anéis ortodônticos. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados dois CIVs convencionais (Ketac Cem Easy mix/3M-ESPE e Meron/Voco e um CIV modificado por resina (Multi-Cure Glass ionomer/3M-Unitek. Para os testes de resistência à compressão e tração diametral, foram confeccionados 12 corpos de prova de cada material. Para os testes de microdureza, foram confeccionados 15 corpos de prova de cada material; para os testes de resistência de união ao cisalhamento, foram utilizados 45 dentes bovinos incluídos em resina acrílica, sobre os quais foi cimentada uma lâmina de anel ortodôntico com braquete soldado a ela para a realização dos ensaios. Para os testes de compressão, tração diametral e cisalhamento, foi utilizada uma máquina universal de ensaios a uma velocidade de 1mm/min; para os testes de microdureza Vickers, foi utilizado um microdurômetro com 200g de carga durante 15 segundos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística ANOVA, complementada pelo teste de Tukey ao nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que o Multi-Cure Glass Ionomer apresentou resistência à tração diametral significativamente maior (p < 0,01 e maior resistência à compressão (p = 0,08 em relação aos CIVs convencionais. Além disso, o Ketac Cem apresentou microdureza significativamente maior que os demais materiais (p < 0,01. CONCLUSÃO: o CIV modificado por resina apresentou propriedades mecânicas superiores às dos CIVs convencionais, que, por sua vez, apresentaram poucas diferenças entre si.

  3. Calculation of four-particle harmonic-oscillator transformation brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanas, D.; Kalinauskas, R. K.; Mickevi?ius, S.

    2010-02-01

    A procedure for precise calculation of the three- and four-particle harmonic-oscillator (HO) transformation brackets is presented. The analytical expressions of the four-particle HO transformation brackets are given. The computer code for the calculations of HO transformation brackets proves to be quick, efficient and produces results with small numerical uncertainties. Program summaryProgram title: HOTB Catalogue identifier: AEFQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1247 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6659 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 90 Computer: Any computer with FORTRAN 90 compiler Operating system: Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, True64 Unix RAM: 8 MB Classification: 17.17 Nature of problem: Calculation of the three-particle and four-particle harmonic-oscillator transformation brackets. Solution method: The method is based on compact expressions of the three-particle harmonics oscillator brackets, presented in [1] and expressions of the four-particle harmonics oscillator brackets, presented in this paper. Restrictions: The three- and four-particle harmonic-oscillator transformation brackets up to the e=28. Unusual features: Possibility of calculating the four-particle harmonic-oscillator transformation brackets. Running time: Less than one second for the single harmonic-oscillator transformation bracket. References:G.P. Kamuntavi?ius, R.K. Kalinauskas, B.R. Barret, S. Mickevi?ius, D. Germanas, Nuclear Physics A 695 (2001) 191.

  4. Effects of silica coating and silane surface conditioning on the bond strength of rebonded metal and ceramic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saadet, Atsü; Bülent, Çatalba& #351; ; Ibrahim Erhan, Gelgör.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tribochemical silica coating and silane surface conditioning on the bond strength of rebonded metal and ceramic brackets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty debonded metal and 20 debonded ceramic brackets were randomly assigned to receive one [...] of the following surface treatments (n=10 for each group): (1) sandblasting (control); (2) tribochemical silica coating combined with silane. Brackets were rebonded to the enamel surface on the labial and lingual sides of premolars with a light-polymerized resin composite. All specimens were stored in distilled water for 1 week and then thermocycled (5,000 cycles) between 5-55ºC. Shear bond strength values were measured using a universal testing machine. Student's t-test was used to compare the data (?=0.05). Failure mode was assessed using a stereomicroscope, and the treated and non-treated bracket surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Rebonded ceramic brackets treated with silica coating followed by silanization had significantly greater bond strength values (17.7±4.4 MPa) than the sandblasting group (2.4±0.8 MPa, P

  5. Labio-lingual root control of lower anterior teeth and canines obtained by active and passive self-ligating brackets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Paolo M; Salih, Raaid A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the torque capabilities of passive and active self-ligating (SL) brackets on mandibular incisors and canines using three-dimensional (3D) imaging analysis. Materials and Methods: Two types of SL bracket systems were analyzed: a passive and an active. Both brackets had a 0.022 × 0.028-inch slot size. Treatment protocol and wire sequences were followed as recommended by the manufacturers. Twenty-six patients were included in the passive group and 20 were included in the active group; all received pretreatment and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanning. Based on the CBCT scans, a customized 3D analysis was developed to assess labiolingual inclination of the roots of mandibular canines and incisors with respect to the occlusal plane before and after treatment. Results: Following treatment, a statistically significant labiolingual proclination of the teeth was seen in both groups. Moreover, in both SL systems the roots exhibited a large variation in labiolingual inclination between adjacent teeth even after treatment. Conclusions: A significant proclination was seen for the mandibular front teeth; the claimed third-order torque control of SL systems could not be demonstrated. Therefore, a considerable play between the wire and the brackets could be hypothesized, even more in relation to the passive than the active SL brackets.

  6. Impacted canines: Etiology, diagnosis, and orthodontic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Ranjit; Gandikota, ChandraSekhar; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao; Rama, Haranath Reddy Medapati; Anche, Sampath

    2012-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary and mandibular canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem, the treatment of which usually requires an interdisciplinary approach. Surgical exposure of the impacted tooth and the complex orthodontic mechanisms that are applied to align the tooth into the arch may lead to varying amounts of damage to the supporting structures of the tooth, not to mention the long treatment duration and the financial burden to the patient. Hence, it seems worthwhile to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, an overview of the incidence and sequelae, as well as the surgical, periodontal, and orthodontic considerations in the management of impacted canines is presented. PMID:23066259

  7. Reforming craniofacial orthodontics via stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Pritam; Prasad, N.K.K.; Sahoo, Nivedita; Kumar, Gunjan; Mohanty, Debapreeti; Sah, Sushila

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are the most interesting cells in cell biology. They have the potential to evolve as one of the most powerful technologies in the future. The future refers to an age where it will be used extensively in various fields of medical and dental sciences. Researchers have discovered a number of sources from which stem cells can be derived. Craniofacial problems are very common and occur at all ages. Stem cells can be used therapeutically in almost every field of health science. In fact, many procedures will be reformed after stem cells come into play. This article is an insight into the review of the current researches being carried out on stem cells and its use in the field of orthodontics, which is a specialized branch of dentistry. Although the future is uncertain, there is a great possibility that stem cells will be used extensively in almost all major procedures of orthodontics.

  8. [Contributions of medical hypnosis to orthodontic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonnet Garcia, Marie-Hélène

    2014-09-01

    Hypnosis is making a comeback in all of the medical disciplines. But in a world where everyone wants to control everything and manage everything, it's helpful to know that hypnosis is a dynamic process that cannot be forced on anyone, a psychic reality, clearly demonstrated today by brain imaging. Hypnosis does not take any power over the individual. It is just one more tool to help ease patient's discomfort. It is also useful to avoid professional burnout to provide care without depleting our energy and without wasting our valuable time. Medical hypnosis is a real asset for providing comfortable orthodontic treatment and creating a serene atmosphere. It can be done simply and rapidly to take high quality impressions, to place braces comfortably on a patient who is sitting quietly. Orthodontic treatment requires cooperation and motivation, so let's give our patients a new sense of confidence and a willingness to cooperate. PMID:25158751

  9. Association of orthodontic treatment needs and oral health-related quality of life in Saudi children seeking orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ali H; Hassan, Mona HA; Linjawi, Amal I

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to assess the effects of different orthodontic treatment needs on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of Saudi children seeking orthodontic treatment as perceived by the children and their parents. Methods A cross-sectional evaluation of orthodontic patients and their attending parents was conducted to assess the relationship between orthodontic treatment needs and the OHRQoL. The study sample comprised 120 young orthodontic patients (36 boys, 84 girls; age range, 12–15 years). Each participant was assessed for orthodontic treatment needs and OHRQoL using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Needs and the Michigan Oral Health-related Quality of Life Scales–Version C (child) and Version PG (parent/guardian), respectively. Results Orthodontic treatment needs significantly affected mouth aching, chewing and biting, going to school, and playing. Higher income and borderline index of orthodontic treatment needs are significantly related to oral health impact on quality of life perceived by the child, while younger age and high school education are related to oral health impact on quality of life as perceived by the parent/guardians. Conclusion These findings emphasize the impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL in children. PMID:25419119

  10. Anterior Teeth Splinting After Orthodontic Treatment: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    Geramy, A.; Retrouvey, J. M.; Sobuti, F.; Salehi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Retention after orthodontic treatment is still an important part of the treatment. Splints are considered as an alternative for removable retainers. The main goal of this study was to assess splinting biomechanically.Materials and Methods: Three dimensional finite element models (3D) were designed of a mandibular anterior segment which included six anterior teeth with their supporting tissues (model 1 as control) and with a bonded lingual fixed retainer in the two other models. The...

  11. Influence of exogenous pigmentation on the optical properties of orthodontic elastic ligatures

    OpenAIRE

    Alline Birra Nolasco Fernandes; Alexandre Antonio Ribeiro; Marcus Vinicius Almeida de Araujo; Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the optical properties of orthodontic elastic ligatures under the influence of exogenous pigments contained in the daily diet. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the analysis, colorless (clear) elastic segments (ORTHO Organizers, lot 660625A10) were used as received from the manufacturer, and were divided into 8 groups of 3 segments each. Each group was immersed in 200 mL of a solution containing a determined substance, as follows: distilled water (contr...

  12. Impact of Bisphosphonate on Orthodontic tooth movement and osteoclastic count: An Animal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataramana, V.; Chidambaram, S.; Reddy, B. Vishnuvardhan; Goud, E. V. Soma Shekara; Arafath, Mohammed; Krishnan, Santhana

    2014-01-01

    Background : The aim of the current study is to examine the effect of systemically administered BP-Pamidronate, on Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM) along with osteoclastic quantification in New Zealand white rabbits. Materials & Methods : Twenty rabbits used in the study, were equally divided into 2 groups ; Group-1 as Control & Group-2 as Experimental. A sentalloy NITI closed coil spring (GAC International, USA) of 100 gram force, ligated between the lower first mo...

  13. Compromised first permanent molars: an orthodontic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, D C-V; Bleakley, J E

    2010-03-01

    The first permanent molar (FPM) is commonly subject to significant compromise which may arise due to caries or endodontic complication, or from developmental anomalies such as hypoplasia. Compromised teeth with questionable prognosis may result in short and long-term clinical dilemmas. This review article highlights the factors that require careful consideration when a compromised FPM is detected and the importance of timely FPM extraction. Several clinical cases are described in detail to discuss possible treatment options from the orthodontic perspective. PMID:20415906

  14. Clinicians' Choices in Selecting Orthodontic Archwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Izabella Pop

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the choices made by clinicians in selecting archwires during the initial, intermediate and final stages of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Methods: We carried out a questionnaire-based study at the Orthodontics and Pedodontics Clinic Târgu Mure?, between March 2012 and September 2012. The questionnaires consisted of two parts: the first included questions related to the dimension, alloy used in fabrication, section (round or rectangular and manufacturer of the archwires used by the orthodontists in their orthodontic practice, the second part was concerned with their personal opinion about the physical properties and disadvantages of the archwires. Results: From a total number of 90 distributed questionnaires, 62 were returned. The majority of clinicians are using stainless steel (SS and nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi wires in their fixed orthodontic treatments, very few are using beta-titanium (Beta Ti, copper nickel-titanium (Co- NiTi and esthetic archwires. The preferred dimension seem to be 0.022 inches in the appliance system. Regarding the wire dimensions, 0.014, 0.016 inch wires are mostly used from the round section group and 0.016 × 0.022 inch, 0.017 × 0.025 inch from the rectangular ones. Conclusions: There is a general lack of agreement between the clinicians surveyed regarding the properties of an ideal archwire and the disadvantages of the used wires. The most frequently used alloys seemed to be the SS and NiTi

  15. Orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Consolaro; Renata Bianco, Consolaro.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com frequência, há a necessidade de movimentar-se dentes endodonticamente tratados ou ainda em tratamento endodôntico. Para colaborar com a compreensão e fundamentação do assunto, abordaremos: 1) a movimentação ortodôntica em dentes endodonticamente tratados sem lesão periapical; 2) a movimentação o [...] rtodôntica em dentes endodonticamente tratados com lesão periapical inflamatória; e 3) a movimentação ortodôntica em dentes endodonticamente tratados de necrose pulpar asséptica por traumatismo dentário. Em praticamente todas as situações, dentes endodonticamente tratados a serem movimentados ortodonticamente devem ser submetidos a uma avaliação criteriosa, por parte do endodontista, sobre as condições adequadas ou não do tratamento endodôntico. Em seguida, no presente trabalho procurou-se, singelamente, induzir um insight para novas pesquisas clínicas sobre o tema, que possam definitivamente comprovar os conhecimentos obtidos pela inter-relação de conhecimentos em paralelo à prática clínica. Abstract in english Often there is the need of moving teeth endodontically treated or teeth still in endodontic treatment. In order to collaborate with the comprehension and substantiation of the following subjects will be discussed: 1) Orthodontic movement in endodontically treated teeth without periapical lesion, 2) [...] Orthodontic movement in endodontically treated teeth with inflammatory periapical lesion, and 3) Orthodontic movement in teeth endodontically treated due to aseptic pulp necrosis by dental trauma. In practically all situations, endodontically treated teeth to be orthodontically moved must be subjected to a careful evaluation by the endodontist about the conditions, adequate or not, of the endodontic treatment. Then, in this paper it was sought to induce an insight for new clinical researches about the theme that may definitely prove the information obtained by interrelations of information in parallel to clinical practice.

  16. Adult orthodontics: multi- or interdisciplinary treatment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of adult patients seen in the orthodontic offices are presenting with an ongoing degeneration caused either by loss of one or more teeth and/or progressing periodontal disease. The treatment of these patients can rarely stand alone and both diagnosis and treatment planning should be a production of a close interaction between orthodontists, periodontists and prosthodontists eventually assisted by gnathologists, implantologists and oral surgeons. The close interaction with the periodontist before and during the treatment cannot be stressed enough. In spite of the conservative approach practiced in many places within periodontology, it should be appreciated that any orthodontic tooth movement involving intrusive components should not be performed in the presence of pathological pockets. New regenerative periodontal treatment procedures have improved the prognosis for treatment of tooth movement even of teeth with vertical defects. The appliances should be selected taking the periodontal status and the eventual metabolic factors into consideration. The importance of the correct biomechanical system has a crucial influence on long-term prognosis for the dentition. Animal experiments carried out on monkeys and dogs have repeatedly demonstrated that it is possible to regain lost attachment even in the case of horizontal bone loss through a carefully conducted combined periodontal- and orthodontic treatment and long-term follow-up have confirmed that the results can be maintained over decennia. Improved understanding of the tissue reaction generated during tooth movement have opened new aspects of tooth movement ‘with bone' and the regeneration of atrophic alveolar processes through tooth movements have created a new basis for major reconstructions. The spectrum of orthodontics has been widened further through the introduction of the skeletal anchorage systems. A result characterized by an ideal occlusion may not be obtainable but the possible treatment goal should be defined and agreed upon between involved colleagues and between the therapeutic team and the patient before initiating the treatment. Cost benefit both in term of time and money required in relation to different alternatives should be discussed.

  17. Class III Malocclusion Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Alves Furquim; Karina Maria Salvatore de Freitas; Guilherme Janson; Luis Fernando Simoneti; Marcos Roberto de Freitas; Daniel Salvatore de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion. She had significant anteroposterior and transverse discrepancies, a concave profile, and strained lip closure. Intraorally, she had a negative overjet of 5?mm and an overbite of 5?mm. The treatment objectives were to correct the malocclusion, and facial esthetic and also re...

  18. Estimation of changes in nickel and chromium content in nickel-titanium and stainless steel orthodontic wires used during orthodontic treatment: An analytical and scanning electron microscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kararia, Vandana; Jain, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kararia, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1–3 M 0.016” NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016” NiTi, group 3–3 M 0.019” *0.025” SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at ×2000, ×4000 and ×6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0). Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics. PMID:25684911

  19. Cytotoxicity of alginate for orthodontic use

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matheus Melo, Pithon; Rogério Lacerda dos, Santos; Fernanda Otaviano, Martins; Maria Teresa Villela, Romanos.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a citotoxicidade de três diferentes alginatos de uso ortodôntico. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados três diferentes alginatos divididos em três grupos, denominados grupo JCO (Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho), OP (Orthoprint) e CO (Carrex Orthotrace). Três grupos controle também participaram: contr [...] ole + (C+), constituído pelo detergente celular Tween 80; controle - (C-) PBS; e controle de célula (CC) onde as células não foram expostas a nenhum material. Após manipulação dos materiais, seguindo as orientações do fabricante, foram confeccionados corpos de prova utilizando-se anéis de silicone. Em seguida, esses foram imersos em meio mínimo essencial de Eagle (MEM) por 2min, onde, então, procedeu-se à remoção do sobrenadante e à colocação em contato com fibroblastos L929. Após contato com o meio, as células foram incubadas por mais 24h onde, então, foi adicionado o corante vermelho neutro a 0,01%. Passado esse período, foram fixadas e, então, realizada contagem de células viáveis em espectrofotômetro (BioTek, Vermont, EUA) em um comprimento de onda de 492nm. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram diferenças estatística entre os grupos CC e C- com os demais. O grupo experimental JCO mostrou-se com maior citotoxicidade, seguido pelos grupso OP e CO. CONCLUSÕES: pode-se concluir, com a realização desse trabalho, que todos os alginatos testados mostraram caráter citotóxico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of three different alginate impression materials for orthodontic use. METHODS: Three different brands of alginate were divided into three groups, namely, Group JCO (Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho), OP (Orthoprint) and CO (Cavex Orthotrace). Three control groups were [...] also included: Group C+ (positive control), consisting of detergent Tween 80; Group C- (negative control), consisting of PBS, and Group CC (cell control), consisting of cells not exposed to any material. After manipulating the materials according to the respective manufacturer instructions, samples were made with the use of silicon rings. Then the samples were immersed in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) for 2 minutes. The supernatants were then removed and brought into direct contact with L929 fibroblasts. After exposure to the medium, the cells were incubated for 24 hours. Then 100 µl of 0.01% neutral red dye were added. The cells were incubated again for 3 hours so that the dye could be absorbed. After this 3-hour period, the cells were fixed to perform the viable cell count, using a spectrophotometer (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA) at a wavelength of 492 nm. RESULTS: Statistical differences were found when Groups CC and C- were compared with the other experimental groups. Group JCO had the highest cytotoxicity, followed by Groups OP and CO. CONCLUSION: Based on the results obtained in this work, it was concluded that all alginate impression materials are potentially cytotoxic.

  20. Computerized analysis of the smile in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Vicente de Moura LOPES

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In most cases the search for orthodontic treatment is related withesthetics cause. Nowadays, a beautiful smile is extremely importantfor the society. Establishing elements for diagnosis and planning,looking at a harmonious and well-balanced smile became an obligation at dentistry offices. The esthetics is evaluated by the outline of the bone tissues and its relation with the soft tissues. A good way to get this evaluation is using photographs. The purpose of this research was to analyze computer standard pictures of the maximum smile, as complement to the orthodontic documentation to help not only in the diagnostic and planning but also in the valuation of obtained results. Standard pictures of the maximum smile were obtained in the natural position of the head. Linear,angular and proportional measures were evaluated through the computerized program (CEFX2001 – CDT. The sample consisted of 28 patients, white, male, age between 19 and 25 years old, with Class I occlusion and no previous orthodontic treatment. The values of the descriptive statistics and error analysis were obtained. The results were compared with the values found in the literature, and the values found at a study using the same computerized program CEFX2001 – CDT, but with female patients. The final results were similar to the values found in the literature and the values found in a study using the same computerized program CEFX2001 – CDT,but with female patients.

  1. The evolution of cephalometric diagnosis in Orthodontics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurício Barbosa Guerra da, Silva; Eduardo Franzotti, Sant' Anna.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: apesar do desenvolvimento da tomografia computadorizada ter representado um marco na área do diagnóstico por imagem, sua utilização em Odontologia deu-se de forma muito discreta ao longo dos anos. Com o surgimento de programas para análises de imagens tridimensionais, específicos para Or [...] todontia e Cirurgia Ortognática, uma nova realidade está sendo construída. OBJETIVO: os autores do presente artigo têm o objetivo de informar à sociedade ortodôntica fundamentos sobre imagem radiográfica cefalométrica digital e tomografia computadorizada, discutindo sobre o campo de visão (FOV), doses de radiação, exigências para o uso em Ortodontia e simulações radiográficas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Although the development of CT have represented a landmark in diagnostic imaging, its use in Dentistry turned out very discretely over the years. With the appearance of programs for analysis of three-dimensional images, specific for Orthodontics and Orthognathic surgery, a new reality [...] is being built. OBJECTIVE: The authors of this study aim to inform the orthodontic society of fundamentals about digital cephalometric radiographic image and computed tomography, discussing about: Field of view (FOV), radiation doses, demands for the use in Orthodontics and radiographic simulations.

  2. Er:YAG Laser for Brackets Bonding: A SEM Study after Debonding

    OpenAIRE

    Ierardo, G.; Di Carlo, G.; Petrillo, F.; Luzzi, V.; Vozza, I.; Migliau, G.; Kornblit, R.; Rocca, J. P.; Polimeni, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The introduction of Er:YAG laser in dentistry for ablation of hard tissues advocated an alternative method of enamel etching for orthodontics purpose. Materials and Methods. 55 extracted human third molars were inserted in acrylic resin blocks and divided into five groups of 11 teeth. Group 1 was treated with 37% orthophosphoric acid for 30 seconds. Group 2 was treated with laser irradiation (Er:YAG Fidelius III, Fotona, Slovenia) at 80?mJ and 4?Hz. Group 3 underwent laser tre...

  3. Esthetic perception and economic value of orthodontic appliances by lay Brazilian adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela, Feu; Fernanda, Catharino; Candice Belchior, Duplat; Jonas, Capelli Junior.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a percepção de brasileiros adultos leigos para diferentes aparelhos ortodônticos e sua influência na valorização econômica do tratamento, considerando o nível socioeconômico, idade e sexo dos avaliadores. MÉTODOS: oito combinações de aparelhos ortodônticos e alinhadores foram coloc [...] adas em um adulto com bom alinhamento dentário, e fotografias frontais foram feitas para compor um álbum de imagens de pesquisa. Uma amostra de adultos (n = 252, mediana = 26 anos) classificou cada imagem por (1) atratividade, em uma escala visual analógica, e (2) disposição a pagar a mais para realizar o tratamento com um aparelho estético em relação a um aparelho metálico e em relação a um alinhador. Comparações da atratividade dos aparelhos foram realizadas utilizando-se o teste de Friedman e o post-hoc de Dann. A correlação entre a valorização econômica, nível socioeconômico, idade, sexo e percepção estética foi calculada com a análise de correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: a atratividade dos aparelhos ortodônticos variou significativamente, na seguinte hierarquia: alinhadores > aparelhos de safira > aparelhos metálicos tradicionais e autoligáveis > aparelhos dourados. A correlação entre a atratividade dos aparelhos e a disposição em pagar mais por eles foi fraca. Contudo, ter melhor nível socioeconômico e idade entre 17 e 26 anos aumentou significativamente a disposição de pagar dos avaliadores. CONCLUSÕES: alinhadores e braquetes de safira com fio estético foram considerados as opções de maior atratividade para essa amostra. Entretanto, os avaliadores não estiveram dispostos a pagar a mais para realizar seus tratamentos com os dispositivos que julgaram mais estéticos, sendo, contudo, significativamente influenciados por seu nível socioeconômico e idade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the esthetic perception of different appliances by Brazilian lay adults and its influence in the attributed value of orthodontic treatment, considering evaluators' socioeconomic status, age and gender. METHODS: Eight different combinations of orthodontic appliances and clear t [...] ray aligners were placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile. Standardized frontal photographs were captured and incorporated into a research album. A sample of adults (n = 252, median = 26 years old) were asked to rate each image for (1) its attractiveness on a visual analog scale and (2) the willingness to pay (WTP) for a cosmetic appliance when compared to a standard metalic appliance and a clear tray aligner. Comparisons between the appliances' attractiveness were performed using the Friedman's test and Dann's post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances' attributed value, socioeconomic status, age, gender, and esthetic perception was assessed using Spearman's correlation analysis. RESULTS: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied significantly in the following hierarchy: Clear aligners>sapphire brackets>self-ligating/conventional stainless steel brackets>and golden metal appliances. The correlation between WTP and esthetic perception was week. However, for individuals with better socioeconomic status and aged between 17-26 years old significantly, a significantly higher WTP was found. CONCLUSION: Clear aligners and sapphire brackets with esthetic archwire were considered better esthetic options in this sample. Nevertheless, patients were not willing to pay more money for appliances they deemed more esthetic, however, they were significantly influenced by their socioeconomic level and age.

  4. Bracketing in qualitative research: conceptual and practical matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Constance T

    2009-07-01

    Bracketing is presented as two forms of researcher engagement: with data and with evolving findings. The first form is the well-known identification and temporary setting aside of the researcher's assumptions. The second engagement is the hermeneutic revisiting of data and of one's evolving comprehension of it in light of a revised understanding of any aspect of the topic. Both of these processes are ongoing, and they include the careful development of language with which to represent findings. Extensive everyday examples of bracketing and of interviewing are presented. As a form of disclosure in qualitative research, the background from which this article was written is shared. At that point, Husserl's and Heidegger's historical introductions of bracketing are presented briefly, followed by a discussion of reflexivity and hermeneutics. The article closes with warnings of how residual positivism can work against qualitative rigor and with a suggested qualitative research study on bracketing. PMID:20183407

  5. On the optimality of double-bracket flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arieh Iserles

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the optimality of the stable fixed point of the double-bracket equations. We introduce different types of optimality and prove local and global optimality results with respect to the Schatten p-norms.

  6. A twisted generalization of linear Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dongping; Bai, Chengming

    2010-09-01

    We study a twisted generalization of linear Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type, in which the Lie bracket is replaced by a Hom-Lie bracket. With some natural additional conditions, such structures correspond to the Hom-Novikov algebras introduced by Yau, which is the twisted version of Balinsky-Novikov's approach of constructing a Lie algebra from a Novikov algebra. Certain central extensions of this twisted generalization of linear Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type are obtained from the bilinear forms on their corresponding Hom-Novikov algebras satisfying some invariance conditions. Finally, we give some examples of the infinite-dimensional Hom-Lie algebras constructed from the Hom-Novikov algebras. In particular, there is an interesting twisted generalization of the Virasoro algebra.

  7. A twisted generalization of linear Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Dongping [Department of Mathematics, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan 650092 (China); Bai Chengming, E-mail: dongpinghou22@yahoo.com.c, E-mail: baicm@nankai.edu.c [Chern Institute of Mathematics and LPMC, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2010-09-10

    We study a twisted generalization of linear Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type, in which the Lie bracket is replaced by a Hom-Lie bracket. With some natural additional conditions, such structures correspond to the Hom-Novikov algebras introduced by Yau, which is the twisted version of Balinsky-Novikov's approach of constructing a Lie algebra from a Novikov algebra. Certain central extensions of this twisted generalization of linear Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type are obtained from the bilinear forms on their corresponding Hom-Novikov algebras satisfying some invariance conditions. Finally, we give some examples of the infinite-dimensional Hom-Lie algebras constructed from the Hom-Novikov algebras. In particular, there is an interesting twisted generalization of the Virasoro algebra.

  8. Generalized Poisson brackets for discrete and continuous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalized Poisson Brackets are discussed following closely the book of Sudarshan and Mubunda without going into the formalism of symplectic forms. It is found that there are rather drastic differences between discrete and continuous systems, especially with respect to fulfillment of Jacobi identity. Examples are given for the continuous case, and the relation of the brackets to Lagrangian derivation, Liouville theorem and Lie groups are explained. Applications, especially in plasma physics, are mentioned. (orig.)

  9. Avaliação in vitro da liberação de níquel por braquetes metálicos In vitro nickel release from metallic orthodontic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Lara Sória; Luciane Menezes; Berenice Dedavid; Marçal Pires; Susana Rizzatto; Luiz Cesar da Costa Filho

    2005-01-01

    O aço inoxidável austenítico é utilizado para confecção de dispositivos ortodônticos e contém cerca de 8-10% de níquel em sua composição, metal este responsável por reações alérgicas de hipersensibilidade. Acredita-se que a liberação de níquel dos dispositivos metálicos pode provocar dermatites de contato em pacientes suscetíveis. Este estudo laboratorial avaliou a influência de três variáveis na liberação de níquel: 1) o tipo de liga do braquete; 2) o tipo de soluç...

  10. The management of traumatic ankylosis during orthodontics: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T G

    2000-01-01

    Dental ankylosis may be a significant complication in orthodontic clinical practice. This case report describes the management of a malocclusion, complicated by an ankylosed maxillary central incisor, which arose during orthodontic treatment, following an acute traumatic injury. The use of the ankylosed incisor in successfully managing the significant Class II division 1 malocclusion is described.

  11. Gingival enlargement in different age groups during fixed Orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Hossam A.; Assiri, Hassan Ahmed M.; Kandyala, Reena; Togoo, Rafi A.; Turakhia, Viral S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: During fixed orthodontic therapy, adolescents tend to have higher chances of gingivitis and gingival enlargement (GE) compared to adults. A cross sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the above hypothesis, by assessing GE in patients of different age groups receiving fixed orthodontic therapy.

  12. Orthodontics Without Braces and Wires!! ....... A New Paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasu Murthy S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The very need of orthodontic treatment by a majority of patients is often for reasons of enhancement or improvement in dental alignment and facial esthetics. Reluctance for use of labial fixed metallic appliances is due to poor esthetics and fear of pain. Clear plastic aligners offer an excellent alternative to esthetic orthodontic treatment especially for young adults in their permanent dentition.

  13. Orthodontics Without Braces and Wires!! ....... A New Paradigm.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasu Murthy S; Vijay,

    2011-01-01

    The very need of orthodontic treatment by a majority of patients is often for reasons of enhancement or improvement in dental alignment and facial esthetics. Reluctance for use of labial fixed metallic appliances is due to poor esthetics and fear of pain. Clear plastic aligners offer an excellent alternative to esthetic orthodontic treatment especially for young adults in their permanent dentition.

  14. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn [Dept. of Dentistry, Overbrook Hospital, Chiang Rai (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus [Dept. of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39{+-}1.27 (8.24{+-}7.22%) and 1.69{+-}1.14 mm (10.16{+-}6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  15. Comparison of clinical bracket point registration with 3D laser scanner and coordinate measuring machine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mahtab, Nouri; Arash, Farzan; Ali Reza Akbarzadeh, Baghban; Reza, Massudi.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o valor diagnóstico de um scanner a laser desenvolvido para determinar as coordenadas dos pontos de colagem de braquetes, comparando seus resultados aos resultados obtidos com uma máquina de medição coordenada (MMC). MÉTODOS: esse estudo experimen [...] tal diagnóstico foi conduzido com modelos ortodônticos obtidos a partir da arcada superior de 18 pacientes adultos, com oclusão normal de Classe I. Inicialmente, as coordenadas dos pontos de colagem de braquetes de todos os modelos foram mensuradas por uma MMC. Em seguida, as coordenadas tridimensionais (X, Y, Z) dos pontos foram mensuradas nos mesmos modelos por um scanner a laser 3D, desenvolvido na Universidade de Shahid Beheshti. A eficácia e confiabilidade dos dois sistemas foram avaliadas pelo Coeficiente de Correlação Intraclasse (CCI) e pela fórmula de Dahlberg. RESULTADOS: a diferença entre a média da dimensão mensurada pela MMC e o valor real obtido foi de 0,0066mm (IC 95%: 69,98340 - 69,99140). A diferença média para o scanner a laser foi de 0,107 ± 0,133 (95% IC: -0,002 - 0,24). Em cada método, as diferenças não foram significativas. Ao comparar os dois métodos, o CCI gerou um valor de 0,998 para a coordenada X e de 0,996 para a coordenada Y. A diferença média para as coordenadas registradas em cada dente da arcada foi de 0,616mm. CONCLUSÃO: a precisão das coordenadas do ponto de colagem dos braquetes foi a mesma no scanner a laser e na MMC. A diferença média entre as medições manteve-se dentro dos limites de erros operacionais. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of a laser scanner developed to determine the coordinates of clinical bracket points and to compare with the results of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). METHODS: This diagnostic experimental study was conducted on maxil [...] lary and mandibular orthodontic study casts of 18 adults with normal Class I occlusion. First, the coordinates of the bracket points were measured on all casts by a CMM. Then, the three-dimensional coordinates (X, Y, Z) of the bracket points were measured on the same casts by a 3D laser scanner designed at Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. The validity and reliability of each system were assessed by means of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Dahlberg's formula. RESULTS: The difference between the mean dimension and the actual value for the CMM was 0.0066 mm. (95% CI: 69.98340, 69.99140). The mean difference for the laser scanner was 0.107 ± 0.133 mm (95% CI: -0.002, 0.24). In each method, differences were not significant. The ICC comparing the two methods was 0.998 for the X coordinate, and 0.996 for the Y coordinate; the mean difference for coordinates recorded in the entire arch and for each tooth was 0.616 mm. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of clinical bracket point coordinates measured by the laser scanner was equal to that of CMM. The mean difference in measurements was within the range of operator errors.

  16. Avaliação do coeficiente de atrito de braquetes metálicos e estéticos com fios de aço inoxidável e beta-titânio / Evaluation of the friction coefficient of metal and esthetic brackets with stainless steel and beta-titanium wires

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristine Pritsch, Braga; Guilherme Drumond, Vanzin; Ernani Menezes, Marchioro; João Carlos P., Beck.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um fator importante que define a eficácia dos aparelhos ortodônticos fixos é o atrito existente entre as superfícies de fios e braquetes. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o coeficiente de atrito estático entre fios de aço inoxidável e beta-titânio (TP Orthodontics) e braquetes de aço [...] inoxidável (Dynalock® - Unitek), braquetes estéticos com slot de aço inoxidável (Clarity® - Unitek) e estéticos convencionais (Allure® - GAC). Para tanto, construiu-se um equipamento no Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Mecatrônica da PUCRS. Antes de serem iniciados os testes, foi quantificado o erro de método e constatou-se que não houve interferência significante (p>0,05) do fator operador nas medições. Então, pôde-se calcular o valor do coeficiente de atrito, obtido pela divisão da força de atrito pela carga normal. O método estatístico utilizado neste estudo foi Análise de Variância (ANOVA) e teste de Comparações Múltiplas (Tukey). Constatou-se que: 1) a combinação com menor coeficiente de atrito foi composta pelo fio de aço inoxidável e braquete Dynalock® e a que apresentou maior coeficiente foi a do braquete Allure® com o fio de beta-titânio; 2) o fio de beta-titânio apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente maior do que o fio de aço inoxidável; 3) o braquete Dynalock® não apresentou diferenças significativas em relação ao coeficiente de atrito do braquete Clarity® quando o fio utilizado foi de beta-titânio. No entanto, quando o fio testado foi de aço inoxidável, apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente menor. O braquete Clarity® apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente menor do que o braquete Allure®. Abstract in english An important factor that defines the effectiveness of the appliances is the friction between the surfaces of wires and brackets. Thus, that study was developed in order to investigate the static friction coefficient between stainless steel and beta-titanium wires (TP Orthodontics) and the stainless [...] steel brackets (Dynalock® - Unitek), esthetic brackets with a stainless steel slot (Clarity® - Unitek) and conventional esthetic brackets (Allure® - GAC). For this purpose, an equipment was built in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics at PUCRS. It should be stressed that before the tests began, the Method Error was quantified and it was found that there was no significant interference (p>0,05) by the factor operating in the measurements. From then, the friction coefficient could be calculated, obtained by dividing friction force by the normal load. The statistic method used in these study was Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Multiple Comparison test (Tukey). It was found that: 1) the combination with the lowest friction coefficient was constituted by the stainless steel wire against the Dynalock® bracket, and the one with the highest friction coefficient was that of the Allure® bracket with the beta-titanium wire; 2) the beta-titanium wire presented a friction coefficient that was significantly higher than the stainless steel wire; 3) the Dynalock® bracket did not present any significant differences in relation to the friction coefficient of the Clarity® bracket when the wire used was of beta-titanium. However, when the wire tested was of stainless steel, the Dynalock® bracket presented a significantly lower friction coefficient. The Clarity® bracket presented a significantly lower friction coefficient than the Allure® bracket.

  17. Combined orthodontic - mucogingival treatment of a deep post-orthodontic gingival recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Giovanni; Parenti, Serena Incerti; Ghigi, Gino; Bonetti, Giulio Alessandri

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the interdisciplinary management of an isolated-type recession defect in a severely compromised mandibular incisor of a young post-orthodontic patient is described. The prognosis of root coverage surgery was very questionable and unpredictable due to the severe root malposition (III Miller class gingival recession). The treatment plan consisted of: (1) interproximal enamel reduction to gain space within the dental arch, (2) orthodontic repositioning of the root of the affected tooth within the alveolar bone and (3) root coverage mucogingival surgery. Clinical re-evaluation 7 months after fixed orthodontic treatment revealed major improvements in the root coverage prognosis due to the resolution of root malposition and de novo formation of keratinized tissue apical to the root exposure (I Miller class gingival recession). A subepithelial connective tissue graft was performed as a root coverage surgical procedure. Clinical examination 1 year after surgery revealed complete root coverage, good color blending with adjacent soft tissue and an increase in facial gingival thickness. Successful periodontal and esthetic outcomes can be accomplished after the combined orthodontic-periodontal treatment of a severely mucogingivally compromised tooth. PMID:22908075

  18. Composição química e aspecto superficial do slot de braquetes metálicos / Elemental composition and superficial aspect of metallic brackets slot

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana Féres, Assad-Loss; Regina Maria Lopes, Neves; José Nelson, Mucha.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a composição química e rugosidade do fundo do slot de 90 braquetes metálicos divididos em 9 grupos: grupo 1- aço inoxidável (Equilibrium 2 - Dentaurum); grupo 2 - titânio (Equilibrium ti - Dentaurum); grupo 3- cromo-cobalto (Topic- Dentaurum); grupo 4 - aço inoxidável (Standard -TP [...] Orthodontics); grupo 5 - aço inoxidável (Serie light - American Orthodontics); grupo 6 - aço inoxidável (Kirium Line - Abzil Lancer); grupo 7 - aço inoxidável livre de níquel (Monobloc - Morelli); grupo 8 - aço inoxidável (Convencional- Morelli) e grupo 9 - aço inoxidável livre de níquel (Monobloc Golden - Morelli). METODOLOGIA: a composição química foi analisada pela Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva. A avaliação qualitativa do fundo do slot foi realizada através do MEV classificada de 0 a 8, correspondente às características da superfície. RESULTADOS: composição química - grupo 1 = titânio puro; grupo 9 = recoberto por nitreto de titânio em 99,48%; grupo 3 = cromo-cobalto; grupo 8 = aço inoxidável livre de níquel. Os demais grupos são compostos de aço inoxidável. Avaliação da superfície - grupo 1 = valor 2 (superfície mais polida); grupos 2, 5 e 7 = valor 3 (aspecto de polimento); grupos 3, 8 e 9 = valor 6 (menor polimento); grupo 4 = valor 6,5 (maior rugosidade) e o grupo 6 = valor 5 (características intermediárias de polimento). CONCLUSÕES: os braquetes metálicos são compostos de diferentes ligas e estão disponíveis com baixo conteúdo ou ausência de níquel. Os braquetes de titânio apresentaram polimento semelhante aos de aço inoxidável, porém os recobertos por nitreto de titânio e os de cromo-cobalto mostraram superfície mais irregular ou menos polida. Abstract in english AIM: To evaluate the elemental composition and the slot roughness of 90 metallic brackets divided into 9 groups: group 1 - stainless steel (Equilibrium 2 - Dentaurum); group 2 - titanium (Equilibrium ti - Dentaurum); group 3 - chromium-cobalt (Topic - Dentaurum); group 4 - stainless steel (Standard [...] - TP Orthodontics); group 5 - stainless steel (Serie light - American Orthodontics); group 6 - stainless steel (Kirium Line - Abzil Lancer); group 7 - stainless steel (Monobloc - Morelli); group 8 - stainless steel (Standard - Morelli) and group 9 - stainless steel (Monobloc Golden - Morelli). METHODS: Elemental composition was evaluated using the Spectroscopy of Dispersive Energy. The qualitative slot surface evaluation was assessed using a 500X scanning electron microscope. The microphotography was classified according to surface characteristics in 0-8 values. RESULTS: Elemental composition - group 1 = 100% titanium alloy; group 9 = 99,48% of titanium nitride coated. Group 3 = cobalt-chromium alloy; Group 8 = nickel free stainless steel alloy; other groups stainless steel alloy. Surface evaluation - Group 1 = value 2 (smoothest surface); Groups 2, 5 and 7 =value 3 (smooth surface); Groups 3, 8 and 9 showed value 6 (roughness surface); Group 4 = value 6,5 (the most roughness and irregular surface); and Group 6 has intermediate characteristics among the groups, with value 5. CONCLUSIONS: Metallic brackets were composed of different alloys and they were available with a small percentage or no nickel. The surface roughness was similar for both titanium and stainless steel, however the titanium nitride coated and cobalt-chromium showed an irregular and rough surface.

  19. Composição química e aspecto superficial do slot de braquetes metálicos Elemental composition and superficial aspect of metallic brackets slot

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    Tatiana Féres Assad-Loss

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a composição química e rugosidade do fundo do slot de 90 braquetes metálicos divididos em 9 grupos: grupo 1- aço inoxidável (Equilibrium 2 - Dentaurum; grupo 2 - titânio (Equilibrium ti - Dentaurum; grupo 3- cromo-cobalto (Topic- Dentaurum; grupo 4 - aço inoxidável (Standard -TP Orthodontics; grupo 5 - aço inoxidável (Serie light - American Orthodontics; grupo 6 - aço inoxidável (Kirium Line - Abzil Lancer; grupo 7 - aço inoxidável livre de níquel (Monobloc - Morelli; grupo 8 - aço inoxidável (Convencional- Morelli e grupo 9 - aço inoxidável livre de níquel (Monobloc Golden - Morelli. METODOLOGIA: a composição química foi analisada pela Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva. A avaliação qualitativa do fundo do slot foi realizada através do MEV classificada de 0 a 8, correspondente às características da superfície. RESULTADOS: composição química - grupo 1 = titânio puro; grupo 9 = recoberto por nitreto de titânio em 99,48%; grupo 3 = cromo-cobalto; grupo 8 = aço inoxidável livre de níquel. Os demais grupos são compostos de aço inoxidável. Avaliação da superfície - grupo 1 = valor 2 (superfície mais polida; grupos 2, 5 e 7 = valor 3 (aspecto de polimento; grupos 3, 8 e 9 = valor 6 (menor polimento; grupo 4 = valor 6,5 (maior rugosidade e o grupo 6 = valor 5 (características intermediárias de polimento. CONCLUSÕES: os braquetes metálicos são compostos de diferentes ligas e estão disponíveis com baixo conteúdo ou ausência de níquel. Os braquetes de titânio apresentaram polimento semelhante aos de aço inoxidável, porém os recobertos por nitreto de titânio e os de cromo-cobalto mostraram superfície mais irregular ou menos polida.AIM: To evaluate the elemental composition and the slot roughness of 90 metallic brackets divided into 9 groups: group 1 - stainless steel (Equilibrium 2 - Dentaurum; group 2 - titanium (Equilibrium ti - Dentaurum; group 3 - chromium-cobalt (Topic - Dentaurum; group 4 - stainless steel (Standard - TP Orthodontics; group 5 - stainless steel (Serie light - American Orthodontics; group 6 - stainless steel (Kirium Line - Abzil Lancer; group 7 - stainless steel (Monobloc - Morelli; group 8 - stainless steel (Standard - Morelli and group 9 - stainless steel (Monobloc Golden - Morelli. METHODS: Elemental composition was evaluated using the Spectroscopy of Dispersive Energy. The qualitative slot surface evaluation was assessed using a 500X scanning electron microscope. The microphotography was classified according to surface characteristics in 0-8 values. RESULTS: Elemental composition - group 1 = 100% titanium alloy; group 9 = 99,48% of titanium nitride coated. Group 3 = cobalt-chromium alloy; Group 8 = nickel free stainless steel alloy; other groups stainless steel alloy. Surface evaluation - Group 1 = value 2 (smoothest surface; Groups 2, 5 and 7 =value 3 (smooth surface; Groups 3, 8 and 9 showed value 6 (roughness surface; Group 4 = value 6,5 (the most roughness and irregular surface; and Group 6 has intermediate characteristics among the groups, with value 5. CONCLUSIONS: Metallic brackets were composed of different alloys and they were available with a small percentage or no nickel. The surface roughness was similar for both titanium and stainless steel, however the titanium nitride coated and cobalt-chromium showed an irregular and rough surface.

  20. Comparative study of friction between metallic and conventional interactive self-ligating brackets in different alignment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Sérgio Ricardo; Matheus, Davison; Jimenez-Pellegrin, Maria Cristina; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; do Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the friction between three bracket models: conventional stainless steel (Ovation, Dentsply GAC), self-ligating ceramic (In-Ovation, Denstply GAC) and self-ligating stainless steel brackets (In-Ovation R, Dentsply GAC). Methods Five brackets were used for each model. They were bonded to an aluminum prototype that allowed the simulation of four misalignment situations (n = 10). Three of these situations occurred at the initial phase (in which a 0.016-in nickel-titanium wire was used): 1. horizontal; 2. vertical; and 3. simultaneous horizontal/vertical. One of the situations occurred at the final treatment phase: 4. no misalignment (in which a 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel rectangular wire was used). The wires slipped through the brackets and friction was measured by a Universal Testing Machine. Results Analysis of variance followed by Tukey's Test for multiple comparisons (? = 0.05) were applied to assess the results. Significant interaction (p bracket produced the highest friction. The two self-ligating models resulted in lower and similar values, except for the horizontal situation, in which In-Ovation C® showed lower friction, which was similar to the In-Ovation R® metallic model. For the no misalignment situation, the same results were observed. Conclusion The self-ligating system was superior to the conventional one due to producing less friction. With regard to the material used for manufacturing the brackets, the In-Ovation C® ceramic model showed less friction than the metallic ones. PMID:25162570

  1. Evaluation of ionic degradation and slot corrosion of metallic brackets by the action of different dentifrices

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    Gustavo Antônio Martins Brandão

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro ionic degradation and slot base corrosion of metallic brackets subjected to brushing with dentifrices, through analysis of chemical composition by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS and qualitative analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. METHODS: Thirty eight brackets were selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 7. Two groups (n = 5 worked as positive and negative controls. Simulated orthodontic braces were assembled using 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel wires and elastomeric rings. The groups were divided according to surface treatment: G1 (Máxima Proteção Anticáries®; G2 (Total 12®; G3 (Sensitive®; G4 (Branqueador®; Positive control (artificial saliva and Negative control (no treatment. Twenty eight brushing cycles were performed and evaluations were made before (T0 and after (T1 experiment. RESULTS: The Wilcoxon test showed no difference in ionic concentrations of titanium (Ti, chromium (Cr, iron (Fe and nickel (Ni between groups. G2 presented significant reduction (p OBJETIVO: avaliar in vitro a degradação iônica e corrosão do fundo do slot de braquetes metálicos submetidos à escovação com dentifrícios, realizando análises da composição química por Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva (EDS e qualitativa por Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados 38 braquetes divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais (n = 7. Dois grupos (n = 5 funcionaram como controles positivo e negativo. Aparelhos ortodônticos simulados foram confeccionados com fios de aço inoxidável 0,019" x 0,025" e anéis elastoméricos. Os grupos foram divididos de acordo com o tratamento de superfície: G1 (Máxima Proteção Anticáries®; G2 (Total 12®; G3 (Sensitive®; G4 (Branqueador®; Controle Positivo (saliva artificial e Controle Negativo (sem tratamento. Foram realizados 28 ciclos de escovação e avaliações antes (T0 e após (T1 o experimento. RESULTADOS: o teste de Wilcoxon indicou não existir diferença nas concentrações iônicas de titânio (Ti, cromo (Cr, ferro (Fe e níquel (Ni entre os grupos. O grupo G2 apresentou redução significativa (p < 0,05 na concentração do íon alumínio (Al e os grupos G3 e G4 apresentaram aumento significativo (p < 0,05 nas concentrações do íon alumínio. A análise em MEV mostrou aumento nas características indicativas de corrosão dos grupos G2, G3 e G4. CONCLUSÃO: a análise por EDS revelou que os grupos controle e G1 não sofreram alterações na composição química. O grupo G2 apresentou degradação na quantidade de íons Al, e G3 e G4 sofreram aumento na concentração de Al. A imersão em saliva artificial e o dentifrício Máxima Proteção Anticáries® não alteraram o polimento de superfície. Os dentifrícios Total 12®, Sensitive® e Branqueador® alteraram o polimento de superfície.

  2. Effect of adhesive remnant removal on enamel topography after bracket debonding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Larissa Adrian Meira, Cardoso; Heloísa Cristina, Valdrighi; Mario, Vedovello Filho; Américo Bortolazzo, Correr.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: na finalização do tratamento ortodôntico, torna-se relevante o conhecimento da ação dos métodos de remoção do remanescente resinoso sobre o esmalte. OBJETIVO: o objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efei [...] to de métodos de remoção do remanescente de resina após a descolagem do braquete e do polimento na rugosidade (Ra) e topografia (ESI) do esmalte. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados 50 pré-molares humanos, divididos em cinco grupos, de acordo com o método empregado para a remoção da resina residual: broca carbide tungstênio em alta rotação (BCT), discos Sof-Lex (SL), alicate removedor de resina (AL), ultrassom (US) e pontas Fiberglass (PF). Braquetes metálicos foram colados com Transbond XT, armazenados a 37° por 24 horas antes da descolagem com alicate removedor de braquete, sendo aplicados posteriormente os meios de remoção e executado o polimento com pasta de pedra-pomes. Realizou-se análises qualiquantitativas, com avaliações antes da colagem dos braquetes, após a descolagem e após o polimento, sendo os valores obtidos submetidos à análise estatística com teste F (ANOVA), de Tukey (Ra) e testes de Kruskal-Wallis e Bonferroni (ESI) (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: At orthodontic treatment completion, knowledge about the effects of adhesive remnant removal on enamel is paramount. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at assessing the effect of different adhesive remna [...] nt removal methods on enamel topography (ESI) and surface roughness (Ra) after bracket debonding and polishing. METHODS: A total of 50 human premolars were selected and divided into five groups according to the method used for adhesive remnant removal: high speed tungsten carbide bur (TCB), Sof-Lex discs (SL), adhesive removing plier (PL), ultrasound (US) and Fiberglass burs (FB). Metal brackets were bonded with Transbond XT, stored at 37oC for 24 hours before debonding with adhesive removing plier. Subsequently, removal methods were carried out followed by polishing with pumice paste. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted with pre-bonding, post-debonding and post-polishing analyses. Results were submitted to statistical analysis with F test (ANOVA) and Tukey's (Ra) as well as with Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni tests (ESI) (P

  3. Evaluation of ionic degradation and slot corrosion of metallic brackets by the action of different dentifrices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Antônio Martins, Brandão; Rafael Menezes, Simas; Leandro Moreira de, Almeida; Juliana Melo da, Silva; Marcelo de Castro, Meneghim; Antonio Carlos, Pereira; Haroldo Amorim de, Almeida; Ana Maria Martins, Brandão.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar in vitro a degradação iônica e corrosão do fundo do slot de braquetes metálicos submetidos à escovação com dentifrícios, realizando análises da composição química por Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva (EDS) e qualitativa por Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV). MÉTODOS: fo [...] ram selecionados 38 braquetes divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais (n = 7). Dois grupos (n = 5) funcionaram como controles positivo e negativo. Aparelhos ortodônticos simulados foram confeccionados com fios de aço inoxidável 0,019" x 0,025" e anéis elastoméricos. Os grupos foram divididos de acordo com o tratamento de superfície: G1 (Máxima Proteção Anticáries®); G2 (Total 12®); G3 (Sensitive®); G4 (Branqueador®); Controle Positivo (saliva artificial) e Controle Negativo (sem tratamento). Foram realizados 28 ciclos de escovação e avaliações antes (T0) e após (T1) o experimento. RESULTADOS: o teste de Wilcoxon indicou não existir diferença nas concentrações iônicas de titânio (Ti), cromo (Cr), ferro (Fe) e níquel (Ni) entre os grupos. O grupo G2 apresentou redução significativa (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro ionic degradation and slot base corrosion of metallic brackets subjected to brushing with dentifrices, through analysis of chemical composition by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and qualitative analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). METHODS: Thirty [...] eight brackets were selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 7). Two groups (n = 5) worked as positive and negative controls. Simulated orthodontic braces were assembled using 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel wires and elastomeric rings. The groups were divided according to surface treatment: G1 (Máxima Proteção Anticáries®); G2 (Total 12®); G3 (Sensitive®); G4 (Branqueador®); Positive control (artificial saliva) and Negative control (no treatment). Twenty eight brushing cycles were performed and evaluations were made before (T0) and after (T1) experiment. RESULTS: The Wilcoxon test showed no difference in ionic concentrations of titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) between groups. G2 presented significant reduction (p

  4. Association of orthodontic treatment needs and oral health-related quality of life in Saudi children seeking orthodontic treatment

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    Hassan AH

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ali H Hassan,1 Mona HA Hassan,2,3 Amal I Linjawi11Department of Orthodontics, 2Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Biostatistics, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt Introduction: The objective was to assess the effects of different orthodontic treatment needs on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL of Saudi children seeking orthodontic treatment as perceived by the children and their parents.Methods: A cross-sectional evaluation of orthodontic patients and their attending parents was conducted to assess the relationship between orthodontic treatment needs and the OHRQoL. The study sample comprised 120 young orthodontic patients (36 boys, 84 girls; age range, 12–15 years. Each participant was assessed for orthodontic treatment needs and OHRQoL using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Needs and the Michigan Oral Health-related Quality of Life Scales–Version C (child and Version PG (parent/guardian, respectively.Results: Orthodontic treatment needs significantly affected mouth aching, chewing and biting, going to school, and playing. Higher income and borderline index of orthodontic treatment needs are significantly related to oral health impact on quality of life perceived by the child, while younger age and high school education are related to oral health impact on quality of life as perceived by the parent/guardians.Conclusion: These findings emphasize the impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL in children.Keywords: OHRQoL, malocclusion, adolescent, IOTN

  5. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics

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    Konta, Brigitte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health. The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance. There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application and the scientific investigation of this effectiveness of fixed appliances or orthodontic treatment in general. There is much research in the area of diagnostics or further development of appliances or techniques done, however extremely few in the area of need for intervention, analysis of the sustainability; influence factors on the success, like caries or quantification of side effects e. g. root resorption. This research to evaluate the indications is completely lacking, also the required evaluation parameters (e. g. means long-term dental maintenance. This gap is in this respect dubious since a link of determining the demand (inducing demand and supply in Central European health systems is economically given. This enables to create a possibility for a so-called supply induced demand. To get rid of discussions that the professional work of orthodontics can be near to induced demand or unnecessary indications, research of this topic is quite essential. This requires much stronger information for indications. This can improve confidence for patients and insurance companies. Existing indices like the Index of Treatment Need (IOTN seem to be of academic interest without practice importance for daily work. The question which indications can be regarded as scientifically proven for the intervention must be given big attention immediately. The individual and subjective assessment of the orthodontist (whose experience is not doubted has to be considered as not sufficient. The scientific background is absolutely necessary due to ethic reasons for the patient, economic reasons for the social insurance system or financiers and also for the orthodontists to evaluative and legitimates the treatment. Well coordinated research with the goal of collecting specific data is urgently required for individual therapeutic processes with appropriate design. The study quality is also an essential topic. It is unacceptable at the beginning of the 21st century with the background of the evidence based medicine, that studies are published with enormous methodological errors. Orthodontic

  6. Influence of surface conditioning on ceramic microstructure and bracket adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkensammer, Frank; Freudenthaler, Josef; Pseiner, Bernhard; Bantleon, Hans Peter

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different conditioning procedures on various ceramic microstructures and bracket adhesion. Ceramic specimens (feldspathic, leucite, leucite-free, and fluorapatite) were mechanically conditioned (n = 20 per ceramic type) with conventional hydrofluoric acid (5 per cent HF; 60/30 seconds), buffered hydrofluoric acid (9.6 per cent BHF; 60/30 seconds), or sandblasting (Al(2)O(3)/SiO(2) particles). Silane coupling agents were added for chemical conditioning before bracket bonding. Bracket adhesion was calculated with a shear test in a universal testing machine. The bracket-composite-ceramic interface was further evaluated using the adhesive remnant index (ARI). One specimen of each ceramic/conditioning combination was subjected to qualitative electron microscopy investigation. One-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's honestly significant difference test were applied for inferential statistics. Conditioning with conventional 5 per cent HF or sandblasting resulted in significantly (P 0.001) influence on bond strength. Higher ARI scores were found in the conventional 5 per cent HF and sandblasted groups, when compared with the 9.6 per cent BHF group. Microscopic examination of the conditioned ceramic surfaces showed that leucite and leucite-free ceramics differed most with respect to their surface roughness, though without an influence on shear bond strength (SBS; P Bracket adhesion was mostly influenced by the conditioning procedure itself. Sandblasted ceramic surfaces showed sufficient conditioning and bracket adhesion; however, the increased bracket adhesion was associated with a risk of ceramic surface damage. PMID:21652538

  7. Shear bond strength of nanofilled flowable resins used for indirect bracket bonding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Ferreira Leite Moreira da, Silva; Marcelo Alves, Correa; Lourenço, Correr Sobrinho; Alexandre, Moro; Ricardo Cesar, Moresca; Gisele Maria, Correr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIM: To evaluate the bond strength of brackets fixed with different materials (two light-cured nanofilled resins - Transbond Supreme LV and Flow Tain LV, a light-cured resin - Transbond XT (control) and two chemically cured resins for indirect bonding - Sondhi Rapid- Set and Custom I.Q.) using the i [...] ndirect bonding technique after 10 min and 24 h, and evaluate the type of failure. METHODS: One hundred premolars were selected and randomly divided into groups (n=10) according to the material and fixation period. The brackets were bonded through the indirect technique following the manufacturer's instructions and stored in deionized water at 37°C for 10 min or 24 h. After, the specimens were submitted to a shear bond strength (SBS) test (Instron) at 0.5 mm/min and evaluated for adhesive remnant index (ARI). The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p Sondhi Rapid-Set > Custom I.Q.). There was no significant difference in resistance values between 10 min and 24 h, regardless of the materials. Most groups showed adhesive remaining adhered to the enamel (scores 2 and 3) without statistically significant difference (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the light-cured nanofilled materials used in indirect bonding showed greater resistance than the chemically cured materials. The period of fixation had no influence on the resistance for different materials.

  8. Maximum forces and deflections from orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstone, C J; Goldberg, A J

    1983-08-01

    The maximum bending moment of an orthodontic wire is an important parameter in the design and use of an orthodontic appliance. It is the wire property that determines how much force an appliance can deliver. A bending test which allows direct measurement of the maximum bending moment was developed. Data produced from this test are independent of wire length and configuration. The maximum bending moment, percent recovery, and maximum springback were determined for round and rectangular cross sections of stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium wires. The data suggest the need for more specifically defining maximum moment and maximum springback. Three maximum bending moments are described: Me, My, and Mult. My and Mult are clinically the most significant. Appliances that are required to have no permanent deformation must operate below My. Appliances that exhibit marked permanent deformation may be used in some applications and, if so, higher bending moments can be produced. In order of magnitude, the maximum bending moment at yield is largest in stainless steel, beta-titanium, and nickel-titanium for a given cross section. Nickel-titanium and beta-titanium have significantly larger springback than stainless steel determined at the moment at yield. Nickel-titanium did not follow the theoretical ratio between ultimate bending moment and the bending moment at yield, exhibiting a very large ratio. The study supports the hypothesis that most orthodontic appliances are activated in a range where both plastic and elastic behavior occurs; therefore, the use of yield strengths for calculation of force magnitude can lead to a significant error in predicting the forces delivered. PMID:6576645

  9. Normal torque of the buccal surface of mandibular teeth and its relationship with bracket positioning: a study in normal occlusion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Antonio, Mestriner; Carla, Enoki; José Nelson, Mucha.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avaliou o grau de inclinação vestíbulo-lingual de coroas dentais de dentes inferiores em relação ao torque. Foram obtidos modelos de gesso das arcadas superiores e inferiores de 31 adultos brasileiros, brancos com oclusão normal e estética facial agradável, que nunca haviam sido submetid [...] os a tratamento ortodôntico. Foi desenvolvido um dispositivo capaz de medir o grau de inclinação do encaixe retangular do bráquete em relação ao plano oclusal, em três alturas de colagem: padrão (centro da coroa clínica); oclusal (deslocado 0.5 mm para oclusal em relação à posição padrão) e cervical (0.5 mm para cervical em relação à posição padrão). Com exceção dos incisivos inferiores, que apresentaram pequena diferença de torque entre si (centrais com torque lingual de raiz e laterais com torque vestibular de raiz), os demais valores médios estão próximos aos encontrados na literatura. A variação vertical dos bráquetes em 1.0 mm (de oclusal para cervical) determinou, devido à convexidade da face vestibular, pequenas variações de torque para incisivos e caninos e valores mais acentuados para pré-molares e molares (em média 2, 3 e 8 graus, respectivamente). Abstract in english This study evaluated the degree of buccolingual inclination of mandibular tooth crowns relative to torque. For such purpose, mandibular and maxillary stone casts from 31 Caucasian Brazilian adults with normal occlusion, pleasant facial aspect and no history of previous orthodontic treatment were exa [...] mined. A custom device was developed for measuring the degree of inclination (torque) of bracket slots of orthodontic appliances relative to the occlusion plane, at three bonding height: standard (center of clinical crown), occlusal (0.5 mm occlusally from standard) and cervical (0.5 mm cervically from standard). Except for the mandibular incisors, which presented a small difference in torque from one another (lingual root torque for central incisors and buccal root torque for lateral incisors), the remaining average values are close to those found in the literature. Due to the convexity of the buccal surface, the 1-mm vertical shift of the brackets from occlusal to cervical affected the values corresponding to the normal torque, in approximately 2 degrees in central and lateral incisors, 3 degrees in canines and 8 degrees in premolars and molars.

  10. Assessment of pain experience in adults and children after bracket bonding and initial archwire insertion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcio José da Silva, Campos; Marcelo Reis, Fraga; Nádia Rezende Barbosa, Raposo; Ana Paula, Ferreira; Robert Willer Farinazzo, Vitral.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: durante o tratamento ortodôntico, os pacientes rotineiramente relatam situações de dor, que ocorrem em até 95% dos casos. Essa dor é proveniente de alterações no ligamento periodontal e nos tecidos moles circundantes, e a sua intensidade e prevalência variam de acordo com a faixa etária [...] dos pacientes. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a experiência de dor nos dentes e na mucosa bucal em pacientes adultos e crianças durante duas fases iniciais do tratamento ortodôntico. MÉTODOS: a intensidade de dor nos dentes e na mucosa bucal relatada por 20 pacientes, 10 crianças (11-13 anos) e 10 adultos (18-37 anos), foi registrada com uma Escala Visual Analógica (EVA) durante 14 dias, sendo 7 dias apenas com os braquetes colados e 7 dias com o arco inicial inserido. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença significativa na intensidade de dor entre adultos e crianças. Após a colagem dos braquetes, 50% das crianças e 70% dos adultos relataram dor; e, após a inserção do arco inicial, a prevalência de relatos foi de 70% para ambos os grupos. Os adultos relataram dores constantes e de baixa intensidade na mucosa bucal, enquanto as crianças mostraram grande variação na intensidade, porém com tendência de diminuição durante o período de avaliação. Os picos de intensidade e prevalência de dor nos dentes ocorreram, respectivamente para crianças e adultos, 24h e 48h após a inserção do arco inicial. CONCLUSÃO: de modo geral, as crianças exibiram menor prevalência de relatos de dor, porém com maior intensidade do que os adultos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Ninety five percent of orthodontic patients routinely report pain, due to alterations in the periodontal ligament and surrounding soft tissues, with intensity and prevalence varying according to age. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess toothache and buccal mucosal pain in adults and [...] children during two initial phases of the orthodontic treatment. METHODS: The intensity of toothache and buccal mucosal pain reported by 20 patients, 10 children (11-13 years) and 10 adults (18-37 years) was recorded with the aid of a Visual Analog Scale (VAS), during 14 days - 7 days with bonded brackets only and 7 days with the initial archwire inserted. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in pain intensity among adults and children. After bracket bonding, 50% of the children and 70% of the adults reported pain. 70% of both groups reported pain after initial archwire insertion. While adults reported constant, low intensity, buccal mucosal pain, the children showed great variation of pain intensity, but with a trend towards decreasing pain during the assessment period. After initial archwire insertion the peaks of toothache intensity and prevalence occurred 24 hours in children and 48 hours in adults. CONCLUSIONS: In general, children reported pain less frequently than adults did, though with greater intensity.

  11. Orthodontic treatment in adults: restoring smile esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldino Capelozza Filho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The search for orthodontic treatment by adult patients is increasing. This demand may be explained by many reasons, but the most important was the change in the concept of normality, allowing the selection of simpler and more conservative and consistent therapeutic objectives. This conceptual evolution, combined with the technological advances allowed an improvement in orthodontic management, making it more effective, fast and comfortable. The promotion of awareness of the society on the advantages of this treatment and the increase in esthetic demands, with an increasingly longer and active social, affective and professional life, creates a context in which the need for Orthodontics is absolutely established for the adult individuals. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to report the nuances in diagnosis and orthodontic treatment of an adult patient, in a different perspective. Within this approach, the objective is to recover the shape, i.e. to establish occlusal conditions that would probably be present if the patient had been assisted at the proper time, namely during growth and tooth irruption.INTRODUÇÃO: a procura de tratamento ortodôntico por pacientes adultos é cada vez maior. Essa demanda pode ser justificada por vários fatores, mas o mais relevante foi a mudança do conceito de normal, permitindo a opção por metas terapêuticas mais conservadoras, simples e consistentes. Essa evolução conceitual, mais os avanços tecnológicos, permitiram melhora no manejo ortodôntico, tornando-o mais efetivo, rápido e confortável. A conscientização, por parte da sociedade, das vantagens desse tratamento e o aumento da exigência estética entre os adultos, com uma vida social, afetiva e profissional cada vez mais longa e ativa, cria um contexto onde fica absolutamente estabelecida a necessidade de uma Ortodontia para os indivíduos adultos. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse artigo foi relatar as nuances de diagnóstico e tratamento ortodôntico em um paciente adulto, dentro de uma perspectiva reformadora. Nessa abordagem, o objetivo é o resgate da forma, ou seja, estabelecer condições oclusais que, provavelmente, estariam presentes se o paciente tivesse sido assistido em épocas adequadas, na fase de crescimento e erupção dentária.

  12. Orthodontic treatment in adults: restoring smile esthetics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leopoldino, Capelozza Filho; Maria Fernanda Barros, Aranha; Terumi Okada, Ozawa; Arlete de Oliveira, Cavassan.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: a procura de tratamento ortodôntico por pacientes adultos é cada vez maior. Essa demanda pode ser justificada por vários fatores, mas o mais relevante foi a mudança do conceito de normal, permitindo a opção por metas terapêuticas mais conservadoras, simples e consistentes. Essa evolução [...] conceitual, mais os avanços tecnológicos, permitiram melhora no manejo ortodôntico, tornando-o mais efetivo, rápido e confortável. A conscientização, por parte da sociedade, das vantagens desse tratamento e o aumento da exigência estética entre os adultos, com uma vida social, afetiva e profissional cada vez mais longa e ativa, cria um contexto onde fica absolutamente estabelecida a necessidade de uma Ortodontia para os indivíduos adultos. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse artigo foi relatar as nuances de diagnóstico e tratamento ortodôntico em um paciente adulto, dentro de uma perspectiva reformadora. Nessa abordagem, o objetivo é o resgate da forma, ou seja, estabelecer condições oclusais que, provavelmente, estariam presentes se o paciente tivesse sido assistido em épocas adequadas, na fase de crescimento e erupção dentária. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The search for orthodontic treatment by adult patients is increasing. This demand may be explained by many reasons, but the most important was the change in the concept of normality, allowing the selection of simpler and more conservative and consistent therapeutic objectives. This con [...] ceptual evolution, combined with the technological advances allowed an improvement in orthodontic management, making it more effective, fast and comfortable. The promotion of awareness of the society on the advantages of this treatment and the increase in esthetic demands, with an increasingly longer and active social, affective and professional life, creates a context in which the need for Orthodontics is absolutely established for the adult individuals. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to report the nuances in diagnosis and orthodontic treatment of an adult patient, in a different perspective. Within this approach, the objective is to recover the shape, i.e. to establish occlusal conditions that would probably be present if the patient had been assisted at the proper time, namely during growth and tooth irruption.

  13. Orthodontic treatment of a midline diastema related to mesiodens and thumb-sucking habit / Tratamento ortodôntico de um diastema mediano relacionado a mesiodens e hábito de sucção digital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Wilson, Machado; Aldrieli Regina, Ambrosio; Sergei Godeiro F. Rabelo, Caldas; Luiz Gonzaga, Gandini Júnior.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A associação de mesiodens com hábito de sucção digital como fatores etiológicos de diastemas medianos é uma situação clínica incomum e, quando presente, provoca um comprometimento estético e funcional. O objetivo desse trabalho é descrever o caso clínico de um paciente, aos 9 anos de idade [...] , com mordida aberta anterior e um diastema mediano de 9 mm. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Após o diagnóstico ortodôntico, a conduta terapêutica foi a exodontia do mesiodens e instalação de uma grade palatina fixa para controle do hábito de sucção digital. Em seguida, bráquetes ortodônticos foram colados nos incisivos centrais superiores e o diastema foi fechado possibilitando a irrupção espontânea dos incisivos laterais. Quando adequados níveis de trespasse vertical e horizontal entre os incisivos foi alcançado e o hábito removido, o tratamento foi finalizado. CONCLUSÃO: É importante ressaltar que com o objetivo de alcançar resultados estéticos e funcionais satisfatórios, minimizando sequelas ao desenvolvimento da oclusão deve-se realizar o diagnóstico precoce e intervenção imediata dos diastemas medianos patológicos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: Midline diastema due to simultaneous interplay of mesiodens and thumb-sucking habit is a very uncommon situation and can represent negative impact on esthetics and function. The purpose of this article is to describe a case report of a 9 year-old boy with a 9-mm midline diastema and an ante [...] rior open bite treated with an interceptive orthodontic approach. CASE DESCRIPTION: After orthodontic diagnosis, treatment undertaken was the surgical removal of the mesiodens and the use of a palatal crib therapy in order to discontinue the thumb habit. Then, orthodontic brackets were bonded on maxillary central incisors and the diastema closed allowing the spontaneous irruption of the maxillary laterals incisors. When acceptable levels of overbite and overjet were achieved and the habit was controlled, the orthodontic treatment was discontinued. CONCLUSION: To assure good results in managing pathological midline diastemas the diagnosis and treatment should be performed as early as possible.

  14. From conventional to self-ligating bracket systems: Is it possible to aggregate the experience with the former to the use of the latter?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anderson, Capistrano; Aldir, Cordeiro; Danilo Furquim, Siqueira; Leopoldino, Capelozza Filho; Mauricio de Almeida, Cardoso; Renata Rodrigues de, Almeida-Pedrin.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: a Ortodontia passa, como toda ciência, por constantes evoluções tecnológicas que buscam aumentar a efetividade da abordagem terapêutica, visando a diminuição do tempo de tratamento, o aumento do conforto para os pacientes, bem como a obtenção da tão almejada, e pouco alcançada, estabil [...] idade em longo prazo. O estágio atual de desenvolvimento tecnológico da Ortodontia representa, ao que tudo indica, uma fase de transição entre os sistemas convencionais de ligação (com módulos elásticos) e os chamados autoligáveis. As evidências científicas nem sempre consubstanciam a clara percepção clínica das vantagens desse sistema, no que diz respeito a um menor tempo de alinhamento e nivelamento, uma relativa simplificação técnica, maior conforto para os pacientes, além do aumento da capacidade de tratamento sem extrações - embora essa indicação esteja mais ligada à avaliação do padrão morfológico facial, e menos a qualquer escolha técnica. Desde um passado recente e não menos brilhante, a Ortodontia vem utilizando a individualização de braquetes para tratamentos compensatórios, buscando aumentar a efetividade da abordagem terapêutica, com menores custos biológicos e menor tempo de tratamento. OBJETIVO: o presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar um protocolo bem definido de melhor aproveitamento dessa fase de transição tecnológica, buscando explorar o que cada sistema tem de melhor, principalmente sob a óptica da redução do tempo de tratamento e aumento da capacidade de movimentação dentária compensatória em pacientes adultos. Especificamente, serão abordadas as más oclusões de Classe III compensáveis, usando o sistema de braquetes autoligáveis onde se deseja maior capacidade de movimento expansivo e protrusivo (arcada superior) e braquetes convencionais Prescrição III Capelozza(r) onde a manutenção da forma com mínima mudança (arcada inferior) é imprescindível para a obtenção dos resultados almejados. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Orthodontics, just as any other science, has undergone advances in technology that aim at improving treatment efficacy with a view to reducing treatment time, providing patients with comfort, and achieving the expected, yet hardly attained long-term stability. The current advances in [...] orthodontic technology seem to represent a period of transition between conventional brackets (with elastic ligatures) and self-ligating brackets systems. Scientific evidence does not always confirm the clear clinical advantages of the self-ligating system, particularly with regard to reduced time required for alignment and leveling (a relatively simple protocol), greater comfort for patients, and higher chances of performing treatment without extractions - even though the number of extractions is more closely related to patient's facial morphological pattern, regardless of the technique of choice. Orthodontics has recently and brilliantly used bracket individualization in compensatory treatment with a view to improving treatment efficacy with lower biological costs and reduced treatment time. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims at presenting a well-defined protocol employed to produce a better treatment performance during this period of technological transition. It explores the advantages of each system, particularly with regards to reduced treatment time and increased compensatory tooth movement in adult patients. It particularly addresses compensable Class III malocclusions, comparing the system of self-ligating brackets, with which greater expansive and protrusive tooth movement (maxillary arch) is expected, with conventional brackets Capelozza Prescription III, with which maintaining the original form of the arch (mandibular arch) with as little changes as possible is key to yield the desired results.

  15. Motivational factors and future plans of nigerian orthodontic residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemitan, Tolulase Abosede; Bamgbose, Oladipo J; Fadeju, Dada A

    2013-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate factors influencing career choice of Nigerian orthodontic residents and to identify their future plans. All orthodontic residents in the Nigerian residency training programs were invited to complete a survey in July 2010. Data were categorized by demographic variables and were analyzed with statistical methods including chi-square analyses. Twenty-eight of the thirty-seven orthodontic residents in Nigeria completed the survey. The most important factor influencing the decision to pursue specialty training in orthodontics was a "passion for orthodontics" (42.9 percent), followed by "intellectual stimulation/challenge" (25 percent). The decision to become an orthodontist was made by 32.1 percent of the respondents while in dental school; 35.7 percent decided after completing dental school during private practice and 14.3 percent during a dental residency, while 3.6 percent had already decided before starting their dental school studies. Eleven residents (39.3 percent) said they plan to work in a private practice environment. Only four residents indicated that they will most likely practice primarily in an academic setting, while ten were undecided. Most residents (85.7 percent) reported planning to practice in an urban setting. A passion for orthodontics was the major attraction for orthodontic residency training for most residents in Nigeria, and few residents were considering academic career choices after graduation. PMID:23382527

  16. The influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Monika A; van Waes, Hubertus J M; Filippi, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Halitosis is a widely spread condition. There are numerous causes. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of fixed orthodontic appliances on the occurrence of halitosis. 55 patients in an orthodontic practice were monitored at three points in time after application of orthodontic appliance (T1: immediately after application, T2: 4 weeks after application, T3: 3 months after application). Monitoring included patient self-evaluation, plaque index, tongue coating index and organoleptic measurement. The subjective parameters taste, dry mouth and breath odor did not show statistical differences. However, with the presence of fixed orthodontic appliances, confidence when performing dental hygiene decreased statistically significantly (p = 0.003). Additionally, the tongue coating index showed a statistically significant difference between T1 and T2 (p = 0.012) as well as T1 and T3 (p ? 0.001). Analogous results were found for organoleptic measurement (T1 and T2 [p = 0.002]; T1 and T3 [p ? 0.001]) and plaque index (T1 and T2/ T3 [p ? 0.001]). Fixed orthodontic appliances lead to a statistically significant increase of the plaque and tongue coating indices. A statistically significant increase was also observed with organoleptic measurement scores. The suspected positive correlation between halitosis and fixed orthodontic appliances was confirmed. Halitosis can be an important indicator of oral health during orthodontic treatment and can serve as a motivating factor for adequate patient oral health care maintenance. PMID:24554561

  17. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of polyurethane and non-latex orthodontic chain elastics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.L., Santos; M.M., Pithon; A.R.B., Pereira; M.T.V., Romanos.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Allergy caused by latex proteins has been well documented. Thus, the study of non-latex materials, is necessary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity of silver-coloured orthodontic chain elastics, of polyurethane and latex-free. Nine chain elastics from different manufactures (3 lat [...] ex-free and 6 polyurethane) were divided into 9 groups of 10 elastics each: Group UK (Latex-free, 3M Unitek), Group TP (Látex-free, TP Orthodontics), Group AO (Látex-free, American Orthodontics), Group O (Polyurethane, OrthoSource), Group M (Polyurethane, Morelli), Group TD (Polyurethane, Tecnident), Group UD (Polyurethane, Uniden), Group AZ (Polyurethane, Abzil) and Group AK (Polyurethane, Aditek). The cytotoxicity essay was performed using cell cultures (L-929 line cells, mouse fibroblast) that were submitted to the cell viability test with neutral red ("dye-uptake") at 1, 2, 3, 7 and 28 days. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were employed (p.05), except between the Groups UK and TP at 28 days (p

  18. The effects of ion implantation on the beaks of orthodontic pliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, E; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Luyckz, S; Fatti, L P

    1991-06-01

    The surface of stainless steel may be hardened by bombarding the material with a stream of nitrogen ions generated by a nuclear accelerator. In the present study this technique was used to determine the hardening effect of ion implantation on the beaks of stainless steel orthodontic pliers. Ten orthodontic pliers (Dentarum 003 094) were divided into two equal groups, designated control and experimental. The beaks of the experimental pliers were subjected to ion implantation, after which the tips of the beaks of all the pliers were stressed in an apparatus attached to an Instron testing machine. A cyclical load of 500 N was applied to the handles of the pliers, while a 0.9 mm (0.036 inch) round, stainless steel wire was held between the tips of the beaks. The effect of the stress was assessed by measurement with a traveling microscope of the gap produced between the tips of the beaks. Measurements were taken before loading and after 20, 40, 60, and 80 cycles. Statistical analysis of variance and the two-sample t tests indicated that there was a significant increase in the size of the gap as the pliers were stressed from 0 to 80 cycles (p less than 0.001). Furthermore, the mean gap was significantly greater in the control group than in the experimental group (p less than 0.001). This study suggests that ion implantation increases the hardness of the tips of the beaks of orthodontic pliers. PMID:2038970

  19. Comparison of the Effect of Three Cements on Prevention of Enamel Demineralization Adjacent to Orthodontic Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Mehdi; Farhadi, Sareh; Rastegarfard, Neda

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims This in vitro study was designed to compare enamel demineralization depths adjacent to bands cemented with zinc polycarboxylate, glass ionomer (GI) and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), in order to achieve minimal enamel demineralization during orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods Sixty fully developed extracted third molars were randomly divided into three testgroups each containing 20 samples, used to cement orthodontic bands with zinc polycarboxylate, GI and RMGI. All samples were demineralized using White method using hydroxyapatite, latic acid and Carbapol for in vitro caries simulation, and then, immersed in 10% solution of methylene blue. The mean depth of dye penetration was assessed up to 0.1 millimeter, reflect-ing the depth of enamel demineralization. One way ANOVA and LSD statistical tests were employed to evaluate significant differences among groups. Results The highest dye penetration depth was seen in zinc polycarboxylate group, followed by GI, and RMGI groups, respectively, with significant differences among each two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion The use of RMGI cement seems to present significantly better prevention of enamel demineralization adja-cent to orthodontics bands. PMID:22991644

  20. Analysis of the dentin-pulp complex in teeth submitted to orthodontic movement in rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila da Siveira, Massaro; Renata Bianco, Consolaro; Milton, Santamaria Junior; Maria Fernanda Martins-Ortiz, Consolaro; Alberto, Consolaro.

    Full Text Available In order to microscopically analyze the pulpal effects of orthodontic movement, 49 maxillary first molars of rats were submitted to orthodontic appliance composed of a closed coil spring anchored to the maxillary incisors, placed for the achievement of mesial movement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten anim [...] als were used as the control group and were not submitted to orthodontic force; the other animals were divided into groups according to the study period of tooth movement, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. The investigation of pulp and periodontal changes included hyalinization, fibrosis, reactive dentin and vascular congestion. Statistical evaluation was performed between control and experimental groups and between periods of observation using non-parametric chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference concerning pulpal changes between control and experimental groups nor between periods of observation. The control group, at 3 and 5 days, revealed greater hyalinization of the periodontal ligament (p

  1. Analysis of the dentin-pulp complex in teeth submitted to orthodontic movement in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila da Siveira Massaro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to microscopically analyze the pulpal effects of orthodontic movement, 49 maxillary first molars of rats were submitted to orthodontic appliance composed of a closed coil spring anchored to the maxillary incisors, placed for the achievement of mesial movement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten animals were used as the control group and were not submitted to orthodontic force; the other animals were divided into groups according to the study period of tooth movement, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. The investigation of pulp and periodontal changes included hyalinization, fibrosis, reactive dentin and vascular congestion. Statistical evaluation was performed between control and experimental groups and between periods of observation using non-parametric chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference concerning pulpal changes between control and experimental groups nor between periods of observation. The control group, at 3 and 5 days, revealed greater hyalinization of the periodontal ligament (p<0.05, whereas root resorption was significantly greater at 5 and 7 days (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: No morphological change from the effect of induced tooth movement could be found in the dentin-pulp complex. In addition, no inflammatory or pulp degeneration, detectable in optical microscopy, was found in experimental groups.

  2. The effects of ion implantation on the beaks of orthodontic pliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface of stainless steel may be hardened by bombarding the material with a stream of nitrogen ions generated by a nuclear accelerator. In the present study this technique was used to determine the hardening effect of ion implantation on the beaks of stainless steel orthodontic pliers. Ten orthodontic pliers (Dentarum 003 094) were divided into two equal groups, designated control and experimental. The beaks of the experimental pliers were subjected to ion implantation, after which the tips of the beaks of all the pliers were stressed in an apparatus attached to an Instron testing machine. A cyclical load of 500 N was applied to the handles of the pliers, while a 0.9 mm (0.036 inch) round, stainless steel wire was held between the tips of the beaks. The effect of the stress was assessed by measurement with a traveling microscope of the gap produced between the tips of the beaks. Measurements were taken before loading and after 20, 40, 60, and 80 cycles. Statistical analysis of variance and the two-sample t tests indicated that there was a significant increase in the size of the gap as the pliers were stressed from 0 to 80 cycles (p less than 0.001). Furthermore, the mean gap was significantly greater in the control group than in the experimental group (p less than 0.001). This study suggests that ion implantation increases the hardness of the tips of the beaks of orthodontic pliers

  3. Variation of orthodontic treatment decision-making based on dental model type: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachêco-Pereira, Camila; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine in which clinical scenarios digital models are valid as replacements for plaster models during orthodontic treatment decision-making process and treatment planning. Materials and Methods: An attempt to identify all pertinent published information was made. Retained articles were those where a decision-making process leading to differential orthodontic treatment plans based on either method were compared. The search was tailored for PubMed and adapted for EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, LILACS, and Web of Science. A partial grey literature search was conducted through Google Scholar. References lists of the included articles were screened for potential relevant studies. The methodology of selected studies was evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS). Results: Only two studies were finally selected for the qualitative and quantitative synthesis. QUADAS results scores from selected studies ranged from 61% to 83% of 11 items evaluated. In one, the overall treatment plan regarding orthognathic surgery for Class II malocclusion changed in 13% to 22% of the cases. In the other one, 6% of the orthodontic treatment plans changed. Conclusion: Digital models could be used to replace plaster models in Class II malocclusion treatment planning. PMID:25098186

  4. Periodontal consequences of mandibular incisor proclination during presurgical orthodontic treatment in Class III malocclusion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chooryung J; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Objective: To test the hypothesis that periodontal changes are similar between proclined and minimal-changed mandibular incisor position groups during presurgical orthodontic treatment for Class III orthognathic surgery. Materials and Methods: The following measurements were performed before and after presurgical orthodontic treatment of 75 patients (proclination group, 39 subjects; minimal-change group, 36 subjects): clinical crown length, sulcus and bone probing depths, and width of attached gingiva from clinical examination; infradentale-to-MP (perpendicular distance of infradentale to mandibular plane) from examination of lateral cephalograms; and the distance between the cementoenamel junction and alveolar crest from examination of periapical radiographs. Data were compared between the two groups, and a regression analysis was performed to investigate factors affecting the periodontal changes. Results: In both groups, clinical crown length and bone probing depth increased during presurgical orthodontics (P labial alveolar bone recession and a decrease in width of attached gingiva. However, the amount of the periodontal recession appeared to be clinically insignificant. PMID:25090134

  5. Eficacia del JAL 90458 sobre el recrecimiento de placa en pacientes con aparatología fija multibrackets / Efficacy of JAL 90458 in the regrowth of plaque in patients with orthodontic braces

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.C., Claudet Angulo; J.J., Alió Sanz; E.M., Ramírez Mingorance; C., Iglesias Conde; F.J., Manso Platero.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia del JAL 90458 sobre el recrecimiento de placa en pacientes con aparatología fija "multibrackets". Material y métodos. Participaron 16 sujetos (11 mujeres y 5 hombres) entre 12 a 39 años de edad. El estudio fue realizado bajo condiciones de un ensayo [...] clínico, aleatorizado, doble ciego y paralelo de grupos balanceados usando un diseño de recrecimiento de placa. Los sujetos recibieron una profilaxis oral y suspendieron toda medida de higiene oral por los siguientes 4 días, usando sólo el gel asignado. Se evaluó el Índice de placa de Quigley-Hein modificado por Turesky (IPQH-T), el Índice de placa bracket (IPb) y el Índice de Sangrado al Sondaje (ISS). Para el análisis de datos se utilizó el test de la t de Student para muestras independientes, el test exacto de Fisher y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativa entre el JAL 90458 y el gel control en el IPQH-T (2,52±0,57 vs 1,78±0,79, p Abstract in english Introduction. The objective was test the efficacy of JAL 90458 on the regrowth of plaque in patients with orthodontic braces. Material and methods. A total of 16 subjects (11 women and 5 men) between the ages of 12 and 39 took part in this study. The study was conducted under clinical trial conditio [...] ns, double blind, parallel and randomized in balanced groups using a plaque regrowth design. The subjects had a professional teeth-cleaning and were instructed to not use any kind of oral hygiene measures for the next four days, using only the gel that had been assigned to them. We took into account the following parameters: the Quigley - Hein plaque index, modified by Turesky (QHPI-T), Plaque-Bracket Index (PIb) and the Bleeding on Probing Index (BOP). Analysis of the data was done using a Student´s t-test, Fisher´s exact test and Pearson´s correlation coefficient. Results. Statistically significant differences between the JAL 90458 group and the control gel group were obtained in the QHPI-T (2.52±0.57 vs 1.78±0.79, p

  6. Effect of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Socket Preservation on Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Seifi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR is considered to be an important sequel associated with orthodontic tooth movement (OTM. OTM after Socket preservation enhances the periodontal condition before orthodontic space closure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histologic effects of NanoBone®, a new highly nonsintered porous nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone on root resorption following OTM. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. In each dog, four defects were created at the mesial aspects of the maxillary and mandibular first premolars. The defects were filled with NanoBone®. We used the NiTi closed coil for mesial movement of the first premolar tooth. When the experimental teeth moved approximately halfway into the defects, after two months, the animals were sacrificed and we harvested the area of interest. The first premolar root and adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The three-way ANOVA statistical test was used for comparison. Results: The mean root resorption in the synthetic bone substitute group was 22.87 ± 11.25×10-4 mm2 in the maxilla and 21.41 ± 11.25×10-4 mm2 in the mandible. Statistically, there was no significant difference compared to the control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: The use of a substitution graft in the nano particle has some positive effects in accessing healthy periodontal tissue following orthodontic procedures without significant influence on root resorption (RR. Histological evaluation in the present study showed osteoblastic activity and remodeling environment of nanoparticles in NanoBone®.

  7. Mechanical Behavior of Various Orthodontic Retraction Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Setiawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Retraction spring is a type of orthodontic apparatus that is used to move a tooth with respect to another by utilizing its spring back effect. It is made of metallic wire formed to individual orthodontic cases. A specific geometry results in a set of force system, consisting of forces and moments, that provides specific movement effect when it is pre-activated to the adjacent teeth. Currently, orthodontists select its geometry depending on their knowledge and experience. It is based on separate and less-than-comprehensive literatures that not all orthodontists have access to. It may result in inaccuracies in treating individual tooth retraction case. Engineering approach to estimating retraction spring structural behavior is proposed through analytical, numerical and empirical methods. Castigliano method is used as the analytical approach, whilst finite element method is used as the numerical approach. The two simulation approaches were compared to the experiments to obtain the best simulation model. The behavior of the simulation models agree well with those of experiments. Hence, the simulation models were used to simulate a large number of geometries to form database of structural behavior of retraction spring that could be used in the geometry selection by orthodontists.

  8. The impacted canine--an orthodontic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, David P

    2012-04-01

    The impacted canine is relatively common in incidence and can often lead to difficult treatment planning decisions. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) imaging has improved diagnosis and treatment planning of impacted canines. In particular, this technology has allowed the clinician to accurately locate and visualize these teeth better than ever before, as well as greater appreciate the degree of damage to neighbouring teeth such as lateral incisors. Improved diagnosis and treatment planning with CBCT has therefore resulted in improved treatment outcomes. The objective of this presentation will be to cover the incidence, complications and management of impacted canines from an orthodontic perspective. Impacted canines are commonly cited as occurring in 1% of the population. Complications of impacted canines include root resorption and devitalization of the adjacent lateral incisor, ankylosis, cyst formation and prolonged retention of the deciduous canine. Interceptive management of impacted canines may include the removal of the deciduous canine. Managementof impacted canines also include either their removal or orthodontic movement into their correct position. PMID:24783845

  9. A Comparison of Parental Satisfaction in the Quality of their Child’s Orthodontic Treatment by Orthodontists and Pedodontists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, Kamalshikha; Raghav, Shweta; Kanungo, Himanshu; Pharande, Amol J; Patil, Chetan; Jawale, Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim was to evaluate satisfaction of the parents of children who have undergone orthodontic treatment provided by their orthodontists and pediatric dentists in their private practice. Materials and Methods: A total of 412 parents were interviewed with the help of a questionnaire containing information such as demographic part, experience of braces, motives for orthodontic treatment, complications faced during the procedure and reasoning for satisfaction. Student’s t-test was applied to analyze the results. The level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: A higher level of satisfaction was seen in parents of children treated by pedodontists (mean score of satisfaction = 0.752) when compared with those treated by orthodontists (mean score of satisfaction = 0.631) which was statistically significant. Parents of girl patients showed a higher mean score of satisfaction (1.021) when compared with those of boy patients (0.321), which was also statistically significant. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the pedodontists performed orthodontic treatment to a similar standard as orthodontists, in fact they proved to be better in terms of patient care and behavior management as the parental satisfaction in the quality of orthodontic care was more with pediatric dentists than with orthodontists in this study. PMID:25709363

  10. Bracket debonding by mid-infrared laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the proper laser radiation for ceramic bracket debonding and the investigation of the tooth root temperature injury. The debonding was investigated by diode-pumped continuously running Tm:YAP and Nd:YAG lasers, and by GaAs laser diode generating radiation with the wavelengths 1.997 ?m, 1.444 ?m, and 0.808 ?m, respectively. The possibility of brackets removal by laser radiation was investigated together with the tooth and, it specifically, root temperature rise. From the results it follows that continuously running diode pumped Tm:YAG or Nd:YAG laser generating wavelengths 1.997 ?m or 1.444 ?m, respectively, having the output power 1 W can be good candidates for ceramic brackets debonding

  11. Bracketed morality revisited: how do athletes behave in two contexts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavussanu, Maria; Boardley, Ian D; Sagar, Sam S; Ring, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The concept of bracketed morality has received empirical support in several sport studies (e.g., Bredemeier & Shields, 1986a, 1986b). However, these studies have focused on moral reasoning. In this research, we examined bracketed morality with respect to moral behavior in sport and university contexts, in two studies. Male and female participants (Study 1: N = 331; Study 2: N = 372) completed questionnaires assessing prosocial and antisocial behavior toward teammates and opponents in sport and toward other students at university. Study 2 participants also completed measures of moral disengagement and goal orientation in both contexts. In most cases, behavior in sport was highly correlated with behavior at university. In addition, participants reported higher prosocial behavior toward teammates and higher antisocial behavior toward opponents in sport than toward other students at university. The effects of context on antisocial behavior were partially mediated by moral disengagement and ego orientation. Our findings extend the bracketed morality concept to prosocial and antisocial behavior. PMID:24197713

  12. Correlative roentgenography and morphology of the longitudinal epiphyseal bracket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed examination of a complete chondro-osseous specimen from a patient with duplication of the first ray of the foot revealed the involved metatarsal had a trapezoid-shaped, diaphyseal-metaphyseal osseous unit that was longitudinally bracketed along the lateral side by a functioning physis, epiphysis, and secondary (epiphyseal) ossification center. The physis extended as an arc from the medial proximal side toward and along the lateral side and then back to the medial side distally. The medial side of the diaphysis had a normal periosteum. The longitudinal epiphyseal ossification bracket was a composite of initially separate proximal and distal secondary ossification centers that had progressively extended toward each other and finally coalesced along the laterally placed epiphyseal cartilage. We have termed this deformity the 'longitudinal epiphyseal bracket' (LEB). The macroscopic and microscopic anatomy relevant to initial diagnosis and evaluation of sequential roentgenographic changes will be considered. (orig.)

  13. Structural Analysis of the Redesigned Ice/Frost Ramp Bracket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. R.; Dawicke, D. S.; Gentz, S. J.; Roberts, P. W.; Raju, I. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the interim structural analysis of a redesigned Ice/Frost Ramp bracket for the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). The proposed redesigned bracket consists of mounts for attachment to the ET wall, supports for the electronic/instrument cables and propellant repressurization lines that run along the ET, an upper plate, a lower plate, and complex bolted connections. The eight nominal bolted connections are considered critical in the summarized structural analysis. Each bolted connection contains a bolt, a nut, four washers, and a non-metallic spacer and block that are designed for thermal insulation. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the bracket is developed using solid 10-node tetrahedral elements. The loading provided by the ET Project is used in the analysis. Because of the complexities associated with accurately modeling the bolted connections in the bracket, the analysis is performed using a global/local analysis procedure. The finite element analysis of the bracket identifies one of the eight bolted connections as having high stress concentrations. A local area of the bracket surrounding this bolted connection is extracted from the global model and used as a local model. Within the local model, the various components of the bolted connection are refined, and contact is introduced along the appropriate interfaces determined by the analysts. The deformations from the global model are applied as boundary conditions to the local model. The results from the global/local analysis show that while the stresses in the bolts are well within yield, the spacers fail due to compression. The primary objective of the interim structural analysis is to show concept viability for static thermal testing. The proposed design concept would undergo continued design optimization to address the identified analytical assumptions and concept shortcomings, assuming successful thermal testing.

  14. On Deformations of Multidimensional Poisson Brackets of Hydrodynamic Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    The theory of Poisson vertex algebras (PVAs) (Barakat et al. in Jpn J Math 4(2):141-252, 2009) is a good framework to treat Hamiltonian partial differential equations. A PVA consists of a pair of a differential algebra and a bilinear operation called the -bracket. We extend the definition to the class of algebras endowed with commuting derivations. We call this structure a multidimensional PVA: it is a suitable setting to study Hamiltonian PDEs with d spatial dimensions. We apply this theory to the study of symmetries and deformations of the Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type for d = 2.

  15. On Deformations of Multidimensional Poisson Brackets of Hydrodynamic Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Matteo

    2014-11-01

    The theory of Poisson vertex algebras (PVAs) (Barakat et al. in Jpn J Math 4(2):141-252, 2009) is a good framework to treat Hamiltonian partial differential equations. A PVA consists of a pair {({A},{\\cdot_?\\cdot})} of a differential algebra {{A}} and a bilinear operation called the {?} -bracket. We extend the definition to the class of algebras {{A}} endowed with {d ? 1} commuting derivations. We call this structure a multidimensional PVA: it is a suitable setting to study Hamiltonian PDEs with d spatial dimensions. We apply this theory to the study of symmetries and deformations of the Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type for d = 2.

  16. The unmet orthodontic treatment need of adolescents and influencing factors for not seeking orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalj, Stjepan; Slaj, Martina; Athanasiou, Athanasios E; Govorko, Danijela Kalibovi?; Slaj, Mladen

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate unmet orthodontic treatment needs of adolescents in Zagreb, Croatia, compare normative and self-perceived need and investigate factors influencing the reason why untreated subjects with severe malocclusions have not been treated before. One thousand and forty-two non-orthodontically treated subjects in age groups of 12 and 18 years, from sixteen randomly selected public schools in Zagreb, Croatia were examined. The Dental Aesthetic Index, Aesthetic Component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and a questionnaire concerning self-perceived orthodontic treatment need, perception of aesthetics, function, behaviors and socioeconomic status were used. Around one third of untreated adolescent population had an objective need, less than 20 percent had aesthetic need, and self-perceived need was reported in one third of population. Associations and agreements between objective, aesthetic and self-perceived need were weak (r = 0.27-0.48; p 0.05) to 0.32 (p related in persons with no treatment need or minor need (r = 0.53-0.59) than in those with major need (r = 0.31-0.40). Multiple logistic regression analyses confirmed that objective, aesthetic and self-perceived needs were better related between themselves than to socio-economic status of subjects, function, activities of daily living and oral health-related behaviors. It appears that self-perceived treatment need has low role in predicting objective need, but relation between satisfaction and awareness of malocclusion could be one of basic factors in process of making decision to go for treatment and maybe could serve in predicting patient's compliance. PMID:25643546

  17. [A study of mechanical properties of orthodontic wires in tension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantellos, B; Lagoudakis, M; Toutountzakis, N

    1990-12-01

    Orthodontic forces are applied to the teeth basically by means of different types of orthodontic wires. Knowledge of the mechanical properties of such wires are very helpful to the clinician in design and application of optimal force systems during orthodontic treatment. The basic mechanical properties were studied for 17 types of orthodontic wires (all rectangular and of the same size), in tension. Modulus of elasticity (E), yield strength (YS) and maximum elastic strain (Springback) (YS/E) were calculated for each type of wires. Stainless steel wires have demonstrated higher modulus of elasticity (and yield strength) in comparison with wires of nickel-titanium and beta titanium alloys. B-titanium wires showed higher modulus of elasticity than nickel-titanium ones. In addition stainless steel wires were found to have higher values for springback than cobalt-chromium ones and lower values (for the same variable) than nickel-titanium and B-titanium wires. PMID:2129597

  18. Surface roughness of orthodontic band cements with different compositions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Françoise Hélène van de, Sande; Adriana Fernandes da, Silva; Douver, Michelon; Evandro, Piva; Maximiliano Sérgio, Cenci; Flávio Fernando, Demarco.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated comparatively the surface roughness of four orthodontic band cements after storage in various solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight standardized cylinders were made from 4 materials: zinc phosphate cement (ZP), compomer (C), resin-modified glass ionomer cemen [...] t (RMGIC) and resin cement (RC). Specimens were stored for 24 h in deionized water and immersed in saline (pH 7.0) or 0.1 M lactic acid solution (pH 4.0) for 15 days. Surface roughness readings were taken with a profilometer (Surfcorder SE1200) before and after the storage period. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (comparison among cements and storage solutions) or paired t-test (comparison before and after the storage period) at 5% significance level. RESULTS: The values for average surface roughness were statistically different (pRMGIC>C>R (p0.05). Compared to the current threshold (0.2 µm) related to biofilm accumulation, both RC and C remained below the threshold, even after acidic challenge by immersion in lactic acid solution. CONCLUSIONS: Storage time and immersion in lactic acid solution increased the surface roughness of the majority of the tested cements. RC presented the smoothest surface and it was not influenced by storage conditions.

  19. Socket sclerosis, a rare complication in orthodontic tooth movement

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Navneet Arora; Khurana, Gaurav; Uppal, Nakul

    2010-01-01

    Socket sclerosis is usually asymptomatic and does not require any treatment. The only potential complication arises during orthodontic treatment, wherein sclerosed socket of the premolar teeth may be an obstacle in closing the space by movement of teeth through the extraction space. This article demonstrates the problems encountered during the orthodontic treatment of a 20-year-old Malaysian woman with socket sclerosis and the treatment strategy employed to overcome the same.

  20. The management of premolar supernumeraries in three orthodontic cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the incidence, etiology and location of supernumerary teeth with emphasis on premolar supernumeraries and examines the management of supernumerary premolars of three patients undergoing orthodontics. These cases demonstrate that the management of premolars is assessed individually and treatments based on potential complications, which may occur during the orthodontic and surgical management of the dentition. Progress and posttreatment radiographs are recommended for the assessment of late forming supernumerary teeth.

  1. Surgical-orthodontic correction of a Class III dentofacial deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Devanna, Raghu; Kakkirala, Neelima

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the surgical-orthodontic treatment of a 26-year-old post-pubertal male patient with a Class III dentofacial deformity. In the pre-surgical orthodontic phase of treatment, a reverse overjet of 5.5 mm was created and arch compatibility was obtained. A mandibualr set back with BSSO was performed during surgery to restore ideal overjet, overbite, occlusion and optimal esthetics. After 1 year of treatment, the results remained stable.

  2. Contribution of cone beam computed tomography to the detection of apical root resorption after orthodontic treatment in root-filled and vital teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iury; Valladares-Neto, José; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-11-13

    Abstract Objective: To investigate whether root-filled teeth are similar to vital pulp teeth in terms of apical root resorption (ARR) after orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: An original sample of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 1256 roots from 30 orthodontic patients were analyzed. The inclusion criteria demanded root-filled teeth and their contralateral vital teeth, while teeth with history of trauma had to be excluded to comply with exclusion criteria. CBCT images of root-filled teeth were compared before and after orthodontic treatment in a split-mouth design study. Tooth measurements were made with multiplanar reconstruction using axial-guided navigation. The statistical difference between the treatment effects was compared using the paired t-test. Results: Twenty posterior root-filled teeth and their contralaterals with vital pulp were selected before orthodontic treatment from six adolescents (two boys and four girls; mean [SD] age 12.8 [1.8] years). No differences were detected between filled and vital root lengths before treatment (P ?=? .4364). The mean differences in root length between preorthodontic and postorthodontic treatment in filled- and vital roots were -0.30 mm and -0.16 mm, respectively, without any statistical difference (P ?=? .4197) between them. Conclusion: There appears to be no increase in ARR after orthodontic treatment in root-filled teeth with no earlier ARR. PMID:25393801

  3. The effect of residence time on the tensile properties of superelastic and thermal activated Ni-Ti orthodontic wires

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kathia Maria Fosenca de, Britto; José Eduardo, Spinelli; Antonio Eduardo, Martinelli; Rubens Maribondo do, Nascimento.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Since the 1980s, different devices based on superelastic alloys have been developed to fulfill orthodontic applications. Particularly in the last decades several researches have been carried out to evaluate the mechanical behavior of Ni-Ti alloys, including their tensile, torsion and fatigue propert [...] ies. However, studies regarding the dependence of elastic properties on residence time of Ni-Ti wires in the oral cavity are scarce. Such approach is essential since metallic alloys are submitted to mechanical stresses during orthodontic treatment as well as pH and temperature fluctuations. The goal of the present contribution is to provide elastic stress-strain results to guide the orthodontic choice between martensitic thermal activated and austenitic superelastic Ni-Ti alloys. From the point of view of an orthodontist, the selection of appropriate materials and the correct maintenance of the orthodontic apparatus are essential needs during clinical treatment. The present work evaluated the elastic behavior of Ni-Ti alloy wires with diameters varying from 0.014 to 0.020 inches, submitted to hysteresis tensile tests with 8% strain. Tensile tests were performed after periods of use of 1, 2 and 3 months in the oral cavity of patients submitted to orthodontic treatment. The results from the hysteresis tests allowed to exam the strain range covered by isostress lines upon loading and unloading, as well as the residual strain after unloading for both superelastic and thermal activated Ni-Ti wires. Superelastic Ni-Ti wires exhibited higher load isostress values compared to thermal activated wires. It was found that such differences in the load isostress values can increase with increasing residence time.

  4. Evaluation of fixed orthodontic patients\\\\\\' compliance in the clinic of Shiraz dental school: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Zarif Najafi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Orthodontic patients’ cooperation is a determining factor in treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between patient cooperation during orthodontic treatment with variables such as age, sex, life setting, treatment duration and functional and social discomfort experienced.   Materials and Methods: Specimens were consisted of 100 orthodontic patients (36 males and 64 females between 13-35 years old (average age: 22.57±1.69 years. Patients’ demographic traits, treatment duration andfunctional-social discomfort by the orthodontic treatment were evaluated using a questionnaire answered by the patients or their parents. The degree of patient cooperation was assessed by the modified cooperation questionnaire (Orthodontic Patient Cooperation Scale [OPCS] which was completed by an orthodontist. Data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA, T-test, intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson Correlation.   Results: No significant difference was found between the cooperation of male and female patients (P=0.867 and also between the cooperation of the patients who lived in the urban and rural setting (P=0.613. Treatment duration and compliance showed a low negative correlation which was not statistically significant (r=-0.155, P=0.127. Functional-social discomfort and compliance showed a low negative correlation which was not statistically significant (r=-0.118, P=0.244. No significant correlations were found between the compliance and age (r=0.002, P=0.988; and also the treatment duration and functional-social discomfort experienced(r=0.164, P=0.105.   Conclusion: Patient compliance appears to be a complex issue that cannot easily be predicted only by factors such as age, gender, life setting, treatment duration and functional-social discomfort experienced.

  5. Factors associated with pain induced by orthodontic separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, V J; Farella, M; Chandler, N P; Kieser, J A; Thomson, W M

    2014-04-01

    Pain resulting from the application of orthodontic forces varies markedly across individuals. The reasons of this variability are still largely unknown. To investigate factors that may be associated with orthodontic pain following the application of orthodontic separators. One hundred and seven participants were screened for pain response over 48 h following placement of orthodontic elastomeric separators. The highest (n = 10) and lowest (n = 10) pain responders were identified, and data collected on tooth pain sensitivity to electrical stimulation in conjunction with using the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and cold pressor test (CPT). There were statistically significant differences between high- and low-pain responders in catastrophising score (P ? 0.023). For every PCS magnification score of 1 unit higher, the relative risk of being a high-pain responder was 1.6 (P = 0.002); those scoring higher on helplessness had a lower risk of being so. DAS scores of high-pain responders were twice as high as those of low-pain responder (P = 0.043). During the first 2 min of CPT, the high-pain responders experienced more pain than the low-pain responders (P ? 0.029). Tooth pain thresholds did not differ between the two different pain responder groups. Pain catastrophising, dental anxiety and cold sensitivity appear to modify the pain experienced following placement of orthodontic separators. Further research is needed to determine the validity of screening questions to identify at-risk patients prior to commencing orthodontic treatment. PMID:24483937

  6. Citotoxicity of nonlatex elastomeric ligatures of orthodontic use

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério, Lacerda-Santos; Alane Sonally Benício do, Nascimento; Allana Roberta Bandeira, Pereira; Paulyana Pryscilla de Melo, Freire; Matheus Melo, Pithon; Maria Teresa Villela, Romanos.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate cytotoxicity between polyurethane and non-latex orthodontic elastomeric ligatures. Seven elastomeric ligatures of black-coloured from different manufactures (3 non-latex, 3 polyurethane and 1 latex) were divided into 7 groups of 10 elastics each: Group UK (nonlat [...] ex, 3M Unitek), Group TP (nonlatex, TP Orthodontics), Group AO (nonlatex, American Orthodontics), Group O (Polyurethane, OrthoSource), Group M (Polyurethane, Morelli), Group TD (Polyurethane, Tecnident) and Group TC (latex - Control, TP Orthodontics). The cytotoxicity essay was performed using cell cultures (L-929 line cells, mouse fibroblast) that were submitted to the cell viability test with neutral red ("dye-uptake") at 1, 2, 3, 7 and 28 days. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with 1-way analysis followed by the Tukey post hoc test were employed (p.05). There was a statistically differences (p.05) between the groups O, M and TD at in all experimental times. It can be concluded that the nonlatex elastomeric ligatures of Unitek, TP Orthodontics, and American Orthodontics showed higher cell viability compared to others ligatures.

  7. Orthodontic treatment in patients with reduced periodontal insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Labayle Couhat Carraro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review to investigate orthodontic treatment in periodontal patients. Periodontal disease causes loss of attachment that results in pathological dental migration Periodontal disease can affect young persons and adults, with a higher incidence in adults, so that the number of adults seeking orthodontic treatment has increased significantly. The periodontal disease must be controlled before the orthodontic treatment begins, and during the treatment it is important to keep the patient motivated as regards control of oral hygiene, with periodical reviews by the periodontist. With regard to assembly of the fixed appliance, special care is required not to place the accessories close to the gingival margin, in addition to using light forces porportional to the amount of periodontal attachment, and kept within the biological limits of movement. Correction of the poorly positioned teeth and controlled orthodontic movement can favor remodeling of the alveolar process in all directions. After orthodontic treatment it is important plan containment individually. Integrated orthodontic-periodontal teamwork is essential for reestablishing a healthy periodontium and satisfactory occlusion.

  8. Heat treatment following surface silanization in rebonded tribochemical silica-coated ceramic brackets: shear bond strength analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emilia Adriane, Silva; Flavia Zardo, Trindade; Helcio Nagib Jose Feres, Reskalla; Jose Renato Cavalcanti de, Queiroz.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat treatment on the tribochemical silica coating and silane surface conditioning and the bond strength of rebonded alumina monocrystalline brackets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty alumina monocrystalline brackets were randomly divided accordi [...] ng to adhesive base surface treatments (n=20): Gc, no treatment (control); Gt, tribochemical silica coating + silane application; Gh, as per Gt + post-heat treatment (air flux at 100ºC for 60 s). Brackets were bonded to the enamel premolars surface with a light-polymerized resin and stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 100 days. Additionally, half the specimens of each group were thermocycled (6,000 cycles between 5-55ºC) (TC). The specimens were submitted to the shear bond strength (SBS) test using a universal testing machine (1 mm/min). Failure mode was assessed using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), together with the surface roughness (Ra) of the resin cement in the bracket using interference microscopy (IM). 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey test were used to compare the data (p>0.05). RESULTS: The strategies used to treat the bracket surface had an effect on the SBS results (p=0.0), but thermocycling did not (p=0.6974). Considering the SBS results (MPa), Gh-TC and Gc showed the highest values (27.59±6.4 and 27.18±2.9) and Gt-TC showed the lowest (8.45±6.7). For the Ra parameter, ANOVA revealed that the aging method had an effect (p=0.0157) but the surface treatments did not (p=0.458). For the thermocycled and non-thermocycled groups, Ra (µm) was 0.69±0.16 and 1.12±0.52, respectively. The most frequent failure mode exhibited was mixed failure involving the enamel-resin-bracket interfaces. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the aging method, Gh promoted similar SBS results to Gc, suggesting that rebonded ceramic brackets are a more effective strategy.

  9. U matrix construction for Quantum Chromodynamics through Dirac brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for obtaining the U matrix using Dirac brackets, recently developed by Kiefer and Rothe, is applied for Quantum Chromodynamics. The correspondent interaction Lagrangian is the same obtained by Schwinger, Christ and Lee, using independent methods. (L.C.J.A.)

  10. Avaliação da força de tração em braquetes colados pela técnica indireta com diferentes sistemas de adesão / Evaluation of tensile strength of brackets bonded by indirect technique

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André, Tortamano; Fábio, Nauff; Sandra Regina Frazatto, Naccarato; Júlio Wilson, Vigorito.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a resistência à tração de braquetes ortodônticos colados pela técnica indireta e pela técnica direta convencional. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados 50 pré-molares humanos íntegros, recém-extraídos por motivos ortodônticos. Esses dentes foram divididos [...] em 5 grupos, nos quais foram colados braquetes ortodônticos metálicos (Abzil-Brasil) com as resinas compostas ortodônticas Concise (3M-Unitek-EUA) e Transbond XT (3M-Unitek-EUA) - utilizadas em ambas as técnicas, direta e indireta - e Transbond Sondhi (3M-Unitek-EUA) - desenvolvida exclusivamente para a técnica indireta. O grupo I (controle I) foi objeto de colagem direta com Transbond XT; no grupo II (controle II) procedeu-se à colagem direta com Concise o grupo III recebeu colagem indireta com Concise; o grupo IV foi submetido à colagem indireta com Transbond XT e no grupo V foi realizada colagem indireta com Transbond Sondhi. Na técnica direta, o braquete foi colado diretamente sobre o esmalte após condicionamento ácido e aplicação de adesivo. Na técnica indireta, os braquetes foram colados primeiramente sobre modelo de gesso e depois transferidos para o dente, com o auxílio de moldeira individualizada. Os corpos-de-prova foram submetidos a testes de tração (Instron 4400) e os resultados foram objeto de testes estatísticos de análise de variância e de Tukey a 1%. RESULTADOS: os grupos III e V revelaram resultados significantemente menores que os dos dois grupos controles. CONCLUSÃO: a força obtida na colagem indireta com a resina Transbond XT não difere da força obtida na colagem direta com as resinas Concise e Transbond XT. Abstract in english AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding strength of brackets for direct and indirect bonding techniques. METHODS: Were used 50 human premolars recently extracted for orthodontic reasons. These teeth were divided in 5 groups and metalic orthodontic brackets (Abzil-Brazil) were bond [...] ed by direct and indirect techniques with orthodontic composite resins: group I (Control I) - direct bonding using Concise (3M-Unitek-EUA); group II (Control II) - direct bonding using Transbond (3M-Unitek-EUA) with XT bond system; group III - indirect bonding using Concise (3M-Unitek-EUA); group IV - indirect bonding using Transbond (3M-Unitek-EUA) with XT bonding system; group V - indirect bonding using Transbond with Sondhi bonding system (3M-Unitek-EUA). The Sondhi bonding system was designed specifically for indirect bonding. In the direct bonding technique brackets were placed directly on the enamel surface, in the indirect technique brackets were first bonded in a cast of the teeth and then they were transfered by means of a tray to the teeth. The samples were submitted to tensile tests (Instron 4400) and the statistical ANOVA and Tukey ( 1%) tests were applied. RESULTS: The groups III and V showed lower bond strength than control groups (I and II), there was no significant difference between group IV and control groups (I and II). CONCLUSION: It was concluded that for indirect bonding technique only the Transbond XT (3M) didn't show significant statistical difference when compared to the direct bonding technique.

  11. Corrosion behavior of self-ligating and conventional metal brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lúcio Henrique Esmeraldo Gurgel, Maia; Hibernon, Lopes Filho; Antônio Carlos de Oliveira, Ruellas; Mônica Tirre de Souza, Araújo; Delmo Santiago, Vaitsman.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: testar a hipótese nula de que o processo de envelhecimento em braquetes autoligáveis não é superior ao de braquetes convencionais. Métodos: Vinte e cinco braquetes metálicos convencionais (GN, 3M/Unitek; GE, GAC; VE, Aditek) e 25 autoligáveis (SCs, 3M/Unitek; INs, GAC; ECs, Aditek) d [...] e três fabricantes (n = 150) foram submetidos ao envelhecimento em solução de NaCl à temperatura constante de 37 ± 1ºC, durante 21 dias. O conteúdo de íons níquel, cromo e ferro na solução coletada com 7, 14 e 21 dias foi quantificado por meio de espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Depois de completado o processo de envelhecimento, os braquetes foram analisados com microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV), em magnificações de 22x e de 1.000x. Resultados: comparando-se a liberação de metais por braquetes autoligáveis e convencionais do mesmo fabricante, observou-se que o grupo SCs liberou mais níquel (p Abstract in english Objective: To test the null hypothesis that the aging process in self-ligating brackets is not higher than in conventional brackets. Methods: Twenty-five conventional (GN-3M/Unitek; GE-GAC; VE-Aditek) and 25 self-ligating (SCs-3M/Unitek; INs-GAC; ECs-Aditek) metal brackets from three manufactu [...] rers (n = 150) were submitted to aging process in 0.9% NaCl solution at a constant temperature of 37 ± 1ºC for 21 days. The content of nickel, chromium and iron ions in the solution collected at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days was quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After the aging process, the brackets were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) under 22X and 1,000X magnifications. Results: Comparison of metal release in self-ligating and conventional brackets from the same manufacturer proved that the SCs group released more nickel (p

  12. New methodology for evaluating osteoclastic activity induced by orthodontic load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adriele Silveira; Fernandes, Alline Birra Nolasco; Maciel, José Vinicius Bolognesi; Netto, Juliana de Noronha Santos; Bolognese, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a dynamic process of bone modeling involving osteoclast-driven resorption on the compression side. Consequently, to estimate the influence of various situations on tooth movement, experimental studies need to analyze this cell. Objectives The aim of this study was to test and validate a new method for evaluating osteoclastic activity stimulated by mechanical loading based on the fractal analysis of the periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone interface. Material and Methods The mandibular right first molars of 14 rabbits were tipped mesially by a coil spring exerting a constant force of 85 cN. To evaluate the actual influence of osteoclasts on fractal dimension of bone surface, alendronate (3 mg/Kg) was injected weekly in seven of those rabbits. After 21 days, the animals were killed and their jaws were processed for histological evaluation. Osteoclast counts and fractal analysis (by the box counting method) of the PDL-bone interface were performed in histological sections of the right and left sides of the mandible. Results An increase in the number of osteoclasts and in fractal dimension after OTM only happened when alendronate was not administered. Strong correlation was found between the number of osteoclasts and fractal dimension. Conclusions Our results suggest that osteoclastic activity leads to an increase in bone surface irregularity, which can be quantified by its fractal dimension. This makes fractal analysis by the box counting method a potential tool for the assessment of osteoclastic activity on bone surfaces in microscopic examination. PMID:25760264

  13. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in Brazilian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the prevalence and severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs in adolescents from the northeast of Brazil aged between 12 and 18 years.STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was composed by 300 adolescents (47.7% were males, 52.3% females. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Information regarding occlusal alterations (Dental Aesthetic Index, DAI and subjective perceptions on occlusal pathologies were collected by means of structured questionnaires submitted to the students. Bivariate analysis was used to determine the existence of association between the severity of the occlusal pathologies and the other associated factors.RESULTS: The prevalence of malocclusion was 63.3% and there was no statistically significant sex differences of DAI scores (P>0.050. Twenty-four percent had a handicapping malocclusion that needed mandatory treatment. A severe malocclusion for which treatment was highly desirable was recorded in 18% of the adolescents and 21.3% had a definite malocclusion for which treatment was elective. The bivariate analysis revealed a positive association between the variable "dissatisfaction on smiling related to occlusal problems" and the DAI scores (P<0.050.CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the need of implementation of immediate preventive-interceptive programs by the local government health authorities.

  14. New methodology for evaluating osteoclastic activity induced by orthodontic load

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriele Silveira, ARAÚJO; Alline Birra Nolasco, FERNANDES; José Vinicius Bolognesi, MACIEL; Juliana de Noronha Santos, NETTO; Ana Maria, BOLOGNESE.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a dynamic process of bone modeling involving osteoclast-driven resorption on the compression side. Consequently, to estimate the influence of various situations on tooth movement, experimental studies need to analyze this cell. Objectives The aim of this study was [...] to test and validate a new method for evaluating osteoclastic activity stimulated by mechanical loading based on the fractal analysis of the periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone interface. Material and Methods The mandibular right first molars of 14 rabbits were tipped mesially by a coil spring exerting a constant force of 85 cN. To evaluate the actual influence of osteoclasts on fractal dimension of bone surface, alendronate (3 mg/Kg) was injected weekly in seven of those rabbits. After 21 days, the animals were killed and their jaws were processed for histological evaluation. Osteoclast counts and fractal analysis (by the box counting method) of the PDL-bone interface were performed in histological sections of the right and left sides of the mandible. Results An increase in the number of osteoclasts and in fractal dimension after OTM only happened when alendronate was not administered. Strong correlation was found between the number of osteoclasts and fractal dimension. Conclusions Our results suggest that osteoclastic activity leads to an increase in bone surface irregularity, which can be quantified by its fractal dimension. This makes fractal analysis by the box counting method a potential tool for the assessment of osteoclastic activity on bone surfaces in microscopic examination.

  15. Effect of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Seifi; Mohammad Reza Badiee; Zahra Abdolazimi; Parisa Amdjadi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a cytokine involved in angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and stimulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The present study assesses the effects of a local injection of bFGF on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement.Materials and Methods: In this laboratory animal study, we randomly divided 50 rats into 5 groups of 10 rats each. Rats received 0.02 cc injections of the following doses of bFGF: group A (10 ng), group B (100 ng) and group C (1000 ...

  16. Periodontal aspects associated with the surgical and orthodontic treatment of impacted canines.

    OpenAIRE

    Melkos, A. B.; Papadopoulos, M. A.

    2004-01-01