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1

The influence of bracket material, ligation force and wear on frictional resistance of orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Planar static frictional phenomena were investigated for two types of ceramic and one type of stainless steel orthodontic bracket against rectangular stainless steel archwire. The brackets studied were 'Starfire' (single crystal aluminium oxide), 'Allure III' (polycrystalline aluminium oxide), and 'Dentaurum' (stainless steel). The investigative parameters were: bracket material, force of ligation and whether the brackets were new or 'worn'. Without exception, both types of ceramic bracket produced greater frictional resistance than the stainless steel brackets throughout testing. At a ligation force of 500 g, the Starfire bracket gave the greatest frictional resistance. At ligation forces of 200 and 50 g, the greatest frictional resistance was seen with Allure III. After a period of simulated wear, frictional resistance of Starfire tended to increase at the greatest ligation load while that of both ceramics decreased slightly at the two lower ligation loads. The ceramic brackets caused abrasive wear of the archwire surfaces and the consequent wear debris may have contributed to the changes in frictional resistance seen with Starfire and Allure III. Dentaurum brackets produced minimal frictional resistance in any test and negligible change with wear.

Keith O; Jones SP; Davies EH

1993-05-01

2

Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified that resin composites and glass ionomer are the most studied and researched materials for this purpose. Resin-modified glass ionomer, with its biocompatibility, capacity of releasing fluoride and no need for acid etching on the tooth structure, has become increasingly popular among dentists. However, due to the esthetic and mechanical properties of light polymerizable resin composite, it continues to be one of the adhesives of choice in the bracket bonding technique and its use is widely disseminated.

Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca; Daene Patrícia Tenório Salvador da Costa; Renata Cimões; Lúcia Carneiro de Souza Beatrice; Ana Cláudia da Silva Araújo

2010-01-01

3

Invisible orthodontics part 3: aesthetic orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: In this, the third part of the series, aesthetic orthodontic treatment will be considered. The previous two articles have looked at invisible orthodontics with Invisalign and lingual brackets. This article will discuss the properties and use of aesthetic brackets, along with examples of orthodontic treatment cases using the aesthetic brackets. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Increasing demand for aesthetics during orthodontic treatment has resulted in a significant increase in the use of aesthetic brackets. Clinicians need to be aware of the benefits and drawbacks of aesthetic brackets.

Waring D; McMullin A; Malik OH

2013-09-01

4

Are flowable resin-based composites a reliable material for metal orthodontic bracket bonding?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To compare the tensile bond strength (TBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of three flowable resin-based composites and three orthodontic adhesive systems for metal bracket bonding. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Sixty bovine incisors were randomly divided into six groups. Enamel surfaces were etched with 37 percent phosphoric acid for 30 seconds and stainless steel orthodontic brackets were bonded using either flowable resin-based composites (3M Flow, FL; Tetric Flow, TF; and Wave, WA) or orthodontic bonding systems (Transbond XT, TX; Concise Orthodontic, CO; Fill Magic Ortodôntico, FM). All specimens were thermal cycled and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, after which they were subsequently tested for TBS using a universal testing machine. ARI scores were determined after the failure of brackets. TBS and ARI data were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey, and Kruskal-Wallis tests (p=0.05), respectively. RESULTS: Rankings of the resin-based composites based on TBS means (MPa) were TX (6.4 ± 2.1), followed by CO (4.5 ± 2.7), FM (3.7 ± 1.2), FL (3.6 ± 1.2), TF (3.3 ± 1.2), and WA (2.4 ± 0.6). CO exhibited the lowest ARI mean score (0.9 ± 1.2) which was significantly different from the other five materials: TX (2.8 ± 0.42), FM (2.8 ± 0.42), FL (2.9 ± 0.32), TF (2.9 ± 0.32), and WA (3.0 ± 0.01). However, there were no statistically significant differences among the other groups with mean scores of 2.8-3.0. A score of 3.0 indicated that all the resin remained bonded to the tooth surface. CONCLUSION: The flowable resin-based composites tested (Fl, TF, and WA) used to bond metal orthodontic brackets to bovine enamel had low mean TBS values but acceptable ARI mean scores. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Flowable composites may not be appropriate for bracket bonding, unless the teeth to be bonded are not subjected to higher orthodontic stresses, such as those without an antagonist.

Pick B; Rosa V; Azeredo TR; Cruz Filho EA; Miranda WG Jr

2010-01-01

5

POLYAMIDE ORTHODONTIC BRACKET  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides a synthetic resin bracket body (2) with improved transparency, aesthetic properties, abrasion resistance, scratch resistance, and chemical resistance. A polyamide is used as the raw material for the bracket body (2), which is formed by injection molding. A metal groove member (8) for guiding or fixing an arch wire (11) is embedded into the center of the polyamide bracket body (2) by insert molding. The polyamide is a transparent member that allows light to pass through and has a structural formula (formula 1). This polyamide has little discoloration by food, etc., and is highly transparent.

MIYAJI HIROAKI

6

Carbon dioxide laser and bonding materials reduce enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Altering the structure of the enamel surface around the orthodontic bracket by reducing its content of carbonate and phosphate resulting from application of CO(2) laser may represent a more effective strategy in preventing caries in this region. This study aimed at determining whether irradiation with a CO(2) laser combined with fluoride-releasing bonding material could reduce enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets subjected to cariogenic challenge. Ninety bovine enamel slabs were divided into five groups (n = 18): non-inoculated brain-heart infusion broth group, non-fluoride-releasing composite resin (NFRCR--control group), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), CO(2) laser + Transbond (L+NFRCR) and CO(2) laser + Fuji (L+RMGIC). Slabs were submitted to a 5-day microbiological caries model. The Streptococcus mutans biofilm formed on the slabs was biochemically and microbiologically analysed, and the enamel Knoop hardness number (KHN) around the brackets was determined. The data were analysed by ANOVA and Tukey tests (? = 0.05). Biochemical and microbiological analyses of the biofilm revealed no statistically significant differences among the groups. Lased groups presented the highest KHN means, which statistically differed from NFRCR; however, no difference was found between these lased groups. RMGIC did not differ from NFRCR which presented the lowest KHN mean. The CO(2) laser (? = 10.6 ?m; 10.0 J/cm(2) per pulse) use with or without F-bonding materials was effective in inhibiting demineralization around orthodontic brackets. However, no additional effect was found when the enamel was treated with the combination of CO(2) laser and an F-releasing material.

de Souza-e-Silva CM; Parisotto TM; Steiner-Oliveira C; Kamiya RU; Rodrigues LK; Nobre-dos-Santos M

2013-01-01

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The use of Ormocer as an alternative material for bonding orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As new adhesives, composite resins, and bonding techniques were introduced, orthodontists adopted some of these innovations and added them to their armamentarium. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of two adhesive materials; one with an organically modified ceramic matrix, Admira (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) and another that contains the traditional Bis GMA matrix namely Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). The new materials have a lower wear rate and are more biocompatible than traditional composites. Forty molar teeth were randomly divided into two groups: 20 teeth bonded with the Transbond adhesive system and the other 20 teeth with the Admira bonding system. Student's t-test was used to compare the SBS of the two adhesives. Significance was predetermined at P < or = .05. The results of the t-test comparisons (t = 0.489) of the SBS indicated that there was no significant (P = .628) difference between the two adhesives tested. The mean SBS for Admira was 5.1 +/- 3.3 MPa and that for Transbond XT was 4.6 +/- 3.2 MPa. It was concluded that the new material, Ormocer, which is an organically modified ceramic restorative material can potentially have orthodontic applications if available in a more flowable paste. These new materials are more biocompatible and have lower wear rate including bonding orthodontic brackets to teeth.

Ajlouni R; Bishara SE; Soliman MM; Oonsombat C; Laffoon JF; Warren J

2005-01-01

8

The use of Ormocer as an alternative material for bonding orthodontic brackets.  

Science.gov (United States)

As new adhesives, composite resins, and bonding techniques were introduced, orthodontists adopted some of these innovations and added them to their armamentarium. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of two adhesive materials; one with an organically modified ceramic matrix, Admira (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) and another that contains the traditional Bis GMA matrix namely Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). The new materials have a lower wear rate and are more biocompatible than traditional composites. Forty molar teeth were randomly divided into two groups: 20 teeth bonded with the Transbond adhesive system and the other 20 teeth with the Admira bonding system. Student's t-test was used to compare the SBS of the two adhesives. Significance was predetermined at P Ormocer, which is an organically modified ceramic restorative material can potentially have orthodontic applications if available in a more flowable paste. These new materials are more biocompatible and have lower wear rate including bonding orthodontic brackets to teeth. PMID:15747824

Ajlouni, Raed; Bishara, Samir E; Soliman, Manal M; Oonsombat, Charuphan; Laffoon, John F; Warren, John

2005-01-01

9

Preadjusted orthodontic bracket system and method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A preadjusted orthodontic bracket system for applying torque force to a selected tooth. The system comprises an archwire of substantially rectangular cross-section having first and second side dimensions and a bracket configured to be attached to the selected tooth and including a substantially rectangular slot which edgewise receives the archwire, the slot having a predetermined width and being formed in the bracket at a built-in torque angle. The smaller of the first and second side dimensions of the archwire is less than full-size for the width of the bracket slot and the built-in torque angle of the slot is greater than a full expression of a target torque angle recommended for the tooth by a selected one of the Roth, Andrews, Alexander, Hilgers, Bench, Ricketts, Cetlin and other known preadjusted orthodontic techniques. The archwire and preadjusted bracket, in combination, apply force to the tooth at an actual torque angle which substantially corresponds to the target torque angle recommended for the tooth by the selected orthodontic technique.

ALLESEE TIMOTHY J; BROSIUS DAVID J

10

Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. A great number of techniques have been used for bonding orthodontic brackets to the tooth surfaces. Glass ionomer cements are frequently used material for this purpose. The aim of this study was to measure the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement...

Miti? Vladimir

11

Corrosion of resin-bonded orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective was to identify the nature and origin of indelible black and green stains found in enamel after the removal of bonded orthodontic brackets. Several brackets were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Irrespective of the type of bracket or resin, morphologic evidence of corrosion activity was found. Brackets were pitted, and in some cases large amounts of metal were missing. Cracks were found in the resin which led to sites of destruction in which structures resembling microorganisms were also found. X-ray analysis showed the presence of chromium, nickel, iron, and chlorine in significant amounts in the bonding, discolored resin. It was concluded that the cracks were favoring crevice corrosion. In the presence of organisms and a lowered pH, together with a chloride environment and an oxygen gradient, conditions conducive to corrosion are established.

Gwinnett AJ

1982-06-01

12

Soportes de autoligado en ortodoncia/ Orthodontic brackets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Fundamento: el sistema de ligado del arco al soporte debe ser seguro, fuerte, rápido, confortable para el paciente, fácil de usar y producir poca fricción. Objetivo: argumentar el manejo de las técnicas fijas con el uso de los soportes de autoligado. Conclusiones: los soportes de autoligado constituyen una opción novedosa en ortodoncia, pero en Cuba se han utilizado poco. Se clasifican en pasivos y activos. El sistema Damon, Vision LP y Time son los más utilizados e (more) ntre los pasivos y el Speed e In Ovation entre los activos. Se describen cuatro fases de tratamiento para usar la técnica con este tipo de soportes y a pesar de su alto costo, es más ventajosa que las técnicas precedentes. Abstract in english Background: the system bound to the orthodontic bracket arch must be safe, strong, rapid and comfortable for the patient, easy to use and must provoke little friction. Objective: to argue about the management of fixed techniques with the use of brackets. Conclusions: brackets constitute a newfangled option in orthodontics, but in Cuba it has been rarely used. They are classified into passive and active. Damon system, Vision LP and Time are the mostly used among the passiv (more) e ones and the Speed and In Ovation among the active ones. Four phases of treatment are described to use the technique of these orthodontic brackets and in spite of its high cost; it is more advantageous than the previous techniques.

Pérez García, Lizandro Michel; Reytor Saavedra, Eduardo

2013-04-01

13

Corrosion of orthodontic bracket bases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Attention has recently been focused on the development of black and green stains in association with directly bonded stainless steel brackets. Twelve clinical cases of staining were studied in this investigation. After intraoral photography of the stains, the brackets were removed for examination with the scanning electron microscope. Multiple voids were observed at the resin-bracket interface, especially at the periphery. Considerable deterioration of the alloy base and mesh structure was observed in the void areas. Preliminary analysis of the stains showed that chromium compounds were present. The findings suggested that the presence of voids, together with poor oral hygiene, led to crevice corrosion of the Type 304 stainless steel and formation of colored corrosion products which can result in enamel stains. The use of stainless steels of improved corrosion resistance is recommended to overcome this problem.

Maijer R; Smith DC

1982-01-01

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In vivo effects of amorphous calcium phosphate-containing orthodontic composite on enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo effects of an amorphous calcium phosphate-containing orthodontic composite in reducing enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets, and to compare it with the control. METHODS: Fourteen orthodontic patients were divided into two equal groups. They received brackets fitted to all first premolars, bonded with either Aegis Ortho® (The Bosworth Co.), an ACP-containing orthodontic composite (experimental group), or Concise® (3M Dental Products), a resin-based orthodontic composite (control group). After 30?days, the teeth were extracted and longitudinally sectioned, and evaluated by superficial-microhardness analysis. The determinations were made at the bracket edge cementing limits and at occlusal and cervical points 100 and 200??m away from the edge. In all of these positions, indentations were made at depths of 10, 20, 30, 50, 70, and 90??m from the enamel surface. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test was used. The statistical significance level was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: The ANOVA showed statistically significant differences for position, material, depth, and their interactions (p<0.001). The multiple comparison test showed that the ACP-containing orthodontic composite was significantly more efficient than the control composite, reducing enamel demineralization in almost all evaluations (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Present results indicated that ACP-containing orthodontic composite for bonding orthodontic brackets successfully inhibited demineralization in vivo. This effect was localized to the area around the brackets and was statistically significant after 30?days.

Uysal T; Amasyali M; Ozcan S; Koyuturk AE; Akyol M; Sagdic D

2010-09-01

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Retrieval analysis of different orthodontic brackets: the applicability of electron microprobe techniques for determining material heterogeneities and corrosive potential  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of micro-analytical methods with high spatial resolution to the characterization of the composition and corrosion behavior of two bracket systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The surfaces of six nickel-free brackets and six nickel-containing brackets were examined for signs of corrosion and qualitative surface analysis using an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), prior to bonding to patient's tooth surfaces and four months after clinical use. The surfaces were characterized qualitatively by secondary electron (SE) images and back scattered electron (BSE) images in both compositional and topographical mode. Qualitative and quantitative wavelength-dispersive analyses were performed for different elements, and by utilizing qualitative analysis the relative concentration of selected elements was mapped two-dimensionally. The absolute concentration of the elements was determined in specially prepared brackets by quantitative analysis using pure element standards for calibration and calculating correction-factors (ZAF). RESULTS: Clear differences were observed between the different bracket types. The nickel-containing stainless steel brackets consist of two separate pieces joined by a brazing alloy. Compositional analysis revealed two different alloy compositions, and reaction zones on both sides of the brazing alloy. The nickel-free bracket was a single piece with only slight variation in element concentration, but had a significantly rougher surface. After clinical use, no corrosive phenomena were detectable with the methods applied. Traces of intraoral wear at the contact areas between the bracket slot and the arch wire were verified. CONCLUSION: Electron probe microanalysis is a valuable tool for the characterization of element distribution and quantitative analysis for corrosion studies.

Alexandra Ioana Holst; Stefan Holst; Ursula Hirschfelder; Volker Von Seckendorff

2012-01-01

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Effect of bonding material, etching time and silane on the bond strength of metallic orthodontic brackets to ceramic  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar a resistência de união de bráquetes a cerâmica feldspática com diferentes tempos de condicionamento ácido, materiais de união, com ou sem aplicação do silano. Cilindros de cerâmica feldspática foram condicionados com ácido fluorídrico 10% por 20 ou 60 s. Para cada tempo de condicionamento, metade dos cilindros recebeu duas camadas de silano. Bráquetes metálicos foram fixados aos cilindros utilizando Transbond XT (3M Unite (more) k) ou Fuji Ortho LC (GC). A fotoativação foi realizada com tempo de exposição total de 40 s utilizando LED UltraLume 5. O ensaio de resistência ao cisalhamento foi realizado após 24 h de armazenagem. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância a três fatores e teste de Tukey (?=0,05). O Índice de Remanescente Adesivo (IRA) foi utilizado para avaliar a quantidade de adesivo remanescente na superfície cerâmica com magnificação de 8×. Os espécimes condicionados por 60 s apresentaram maior resistência de união comparado com 20 s. A aplicação do silano foi efetiva no aumento da resistência de união ao cisalhamento de bráquetes com a cerâmica para ambos os materiais. O Transbond XT mostrou resistência de união significativamente maior que Fuji Orth LC. O IRA mostrou predominância de escore 0 (ausência de resina na superfície cerâmica) para todos os grupos, com aumento de escores 1, 2 e 3 (aumento da presença de resina na superfície cerâmica) para o tempo de condicionamento de 60 s. Em conclusão, o tempo de condicionamento de 60 s, aplicação de silano e resina Transbond XT melhoraram significativamente a resistência de união ao cisalhamento de bráquetes a cerâmica feldspática. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of metallic orthodontic brackets to feldspathic ceramic with different etching times, bonding materials and with or without silane application. Cylinders of feldspathic ceramic were etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 or 60 s. For each etching time, half of the cylinders received two layers of silane. Metallic brackets were bonded to the cylinders using Transbond XT (3M Unitek) or Fuji Ortho LC (GC). Light-a (more) ctivation was carried out with total exposure time of 40 s using UltraLume 5. Shear bond strength testing was performed after 24 h storage. Data were submitted to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to evaluate the amount of adhesive remaining on the ceramic surface at ×8 magnification. Specimens etched for 60 s had significantly higher bond strength compared with 20 s. The application of silane was efficient in increasing the shear bond strength between ceramic and both fixed materials. Transbond XT showed significantly higher (p

Costa, Ana Rosa; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria; Vedovello, Silvia Amélia; Valdrighi, Heloísa Cristina; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Vedovello Filho, Mário

2012-01-01

17

Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. A great number of techniques have been used for bonding orthodontic brackets to the tooth surfaces. Glass ionomer cements are frequently used material for this purpose. The aim of this study was to measure the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement Ortho Fuji LC and remained adhesive on the enamel surface after brackets debonding. Material and methods. A total of 40 extracted premolars for orthodontic reasons in different gender patients, 10-16 years old, were randomly divided into four groups. Using glass ionomer cement Ortho Fuji LC (Tokyo, Japan) stainless steel brackets were bonded to the teeth with the average surface area of the bracket base of 14.7 mm2. The shear bond strengths were measured at a crosshead speed of 1 mm per minute, and the load applied at the time of fracture was recorded using electronic dynamometer. Remained adhesive on the enamel after bracket debonding was evaluated using the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Results. Shear bond strength had the highest value for the group where enamel was etched right before bonding bracket (9.14 MPa), than in the group 2 (7.43 MPa), while in the groups 1 (6.72 MPa) and 3 (6.22 MPa), where etching was not performed, bond strength was lower. Conclusion. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement Ortho Fuji LC had higher values when the enamel was etched than without etching.

Miti? Vladimir

2009-01-01

18

Selective laser sintering indirect manufacturing method of individuation tongue side orthodontic bracket  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a method for indirectly manufacturing an individualized lingual orthodontic bracket by selective laser sintering, which comprises the steps of measuring teeth data and obtaining outer structure parameters of the teeth building a three dimensional CAD model of the teeth by reverse engineering and storing the same in a computer designing the structural model (including designing a bottom plate through which the bracket is contacted with the surface of the teeth) for each bracket according to the orthodontic requirements, bracket manufacturing materials and the shape characteristics of the teeth determining a trough of the bracket according to the ideal position in which the bracket can be placed manufacturing an investment pattern required by the bracket according to the requirement of the structural model of the bracket and the investment casting by using the selective laser sintering rapid prototyping technology and adopting the layered manufacturing method and manufacturing the metal bracket by adopting investment casting. The method has the advantages of saved procedure, time and cost, wide application range and diversified manufacturing materials. Furthermore, the method can realize customized manufacture with high precision according to individual difference, and the bracket can be better attached to the surfaces of the teeth.

SHUFAN WANG; YONGQIANG YANG; DAWEI CHENG

19

Effect of recycling process on metal ion release from orthodontic brackets at different periods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Considering the application of recycled metallic brackets in orthodontic treatments and probably more resultant metal ion release, which can cause cytotoxic side effects, this study was set up to assess the effect of recycling process of orthodontic brackets on metal ion release."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, 80 Discovery direct bond brackets (Dentarum, Germany) were divided into 2 groups, new and recycled brackets (n = 40), then each group was divided into two subgroups (one-week and 6-months subgroups) (n=20). The specimens were maintained in buffered solution of NaNHNo3"n(pH=7) at 37°C in an incubator. After periods of one week and 6 months immersion, 0.5 mL of each solution was analyzed by spectrophotometry for the quantity of released Nickel (Ni), Chromium (Cr), and Cobalt (Co) ions. The data were analyzed using two way ANOVA analysis."nResults: After one week, the quantity of Ni, Cr, and Co ions released from new brackets were 0.65, 1.4, and 0.75 (ppb), respectively. The values for recycled brackets were 142, 2.61, and, 1.43 (ppb). These findings indicated significant difference between two groups (P<0.001). After six months, the quantity of Ni, Cr, and Co ions released from new brackets were 1200, 3.4, and 2.4 (ppb) and from recycled brackets were 2330, 6.9, and 10.8 (ppb), which showed significant difference between two groups (P<0.001)."nConclusion: Application of recycled brackets in long fixed orthodontic treatments can lead to metal ion release, specifically Nickel. Thus, the use of recycled brackets in long orthodontic treatments is not recommended.

Amini F; Soboti F; Shariati M; Noshad Haghighi Z

2011-01-01

20

Assessing near infrared optical properties of ceramic orthodontic brackets using cross-polarization optical coherence tomography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Secondary decay (caries) under ceramic orthodontic brackets remains a significant dental problem and near infrared cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) has the potential to detect underlying demineralization. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of crystalline structure and chemical composition of ceramic brackets on CP-OCT imaging. Four ceramic brackets types, which were divided into monocrystalline and polycrystalline, were examined using CP-OCT. The results of this study demonstrated that the crystallinity of the ceramic brackets affected the 1310 nm CP-OCT imaging with the greatest attenuation seen in polycrystalline alumina brackets. The alumina polycrystalline bracket materials had significantly higher attenuation and scattering than alumina monocrystalline brackets (p?bracket base morphology and composition affected NIR light attenuation. There was considerable attenuation in bracket bases that contained additive zirconium spheres (?30 µm) and this alteration was significantly greater than the jagged alumina crystallographic alterations found in the other bracket systems (p?brackets; however, further investigation into the optical effects of resin integration in the base portion of the brackets is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2013.

Isfeld DM; Aparicio C; Jones RS

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Shear bond strength of ceramic orthodontic brackets to enamel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The recent introduction of ceramic orthodontic brackets has generated interest among orthodontists. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the in vitro shear bond strengths to enamel of four ceramic orthodontic brackets and one stainless steel bracket in trials with two separate acid-etching times for enamel. Eighty extracted human central incisors were prepared for bonding to Starfire, Allure, Transcend, Quasar, and stainless steel (in the control group) orthodontic bracket systems. Enamel etching times of 15 seconds and 60 seconds were used. There was a total of 10 groups. After acid etching, one coat of low-viscosity bonding agent was applied and the brackets were bonded to etched enamel with Concise orthodontic bonding resin. The bonded test specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 14 days, after which they were thermocycled for 500 cycles (5 degrees C to 60 degrees C). The bonds were stressed to failure in an Instron machine at a crosshead speed of 0.02 inch per minute. The shear bond strengths were calculated and Weibull analysis was used to obtain a shape factor (the slope of the straight line and a measure of predictability) and the characteristic level (the 63.2% bond strength value of median rank on the strength line) for each group. Predictability and high bond strength, along with other factors, are important in the clinical selection of a bracket system. When either predictability or bond strength was considered independently, several bracket systems, coupled with a particular etch time, had either high predictability or high bond strength. The highest predictability and the highest bond strength were both found with the Allure bracket system.

Britton JC; McInnes P; Weinberg R; Ledoux WR; Retief DH

1990-10-01

22

Adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Biofilm Formation on Different Types of Orthodontic Brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives. To examine the interaction between Porphyromonas gingivalis and 3 different orthodontic brackets in vitro, focusing on the effect of an early salivary pellicle and other bacteria on the formation of biofilms. Material and Methods. Mono- and multi-species P. gingivalis biofilms were allowed to form in vitro, on 3 different bracket types (stainless steel, ceramic and plastic) with and without an early salivary pellicle. The brackets were anaerobically incubated for 3 days in Brain Heart Infusion Broth to form biofilms. Bacteria were quantified by trypsin treatment and enumeration of the total viable counts of bacteria recovered. Results. Saliva was found to significantly affect (P < 0.001) adhesion and biofilm formation of P. gingivalis, with higher numbers for the coated brackets. No significant effect was detected for the impact of the type of biofilm, although on stainless steel and plastic brackets there was a tendency for higher numbers of the pathogen in multi-species biofilms. Bracket material alone was not found to affect the number of bacteria. Conclusions. The salivary pellicle seems to facilitate the adhesion of P. gingivalis and biofilm formation on orthodontic brackets, while the material comprising the brackets does not significantly impact on the number of bacteria.

Papaioannou W; Panagopoulos A; Koletsi-Kounari H; Kontou E; Makou M

2012-01-01

23

Design of an Orthodontic Torque Simulator for Measurement of Bracket Deformation  

Science.gov (United States)

The design and testing of an orthodontic torque simulator that reproduces the effect of archwire rotation on orthodontic brackets is described. This unique device is capable of simultaneously measuring the deformation and loads applied to an orthodontic bracket due to archwire rotation. Archwire rotation is used by orthodontists to correct the inclination of teeth within the mouth. This orthodontic torque simulator will provide knowledge of the deformation and loads applied to orthodontic bracket that will aide clinicians by describing the effect of archwire rotation on brackets. This will also impact that design on new archwirebracket systems by providing an assessment of performance. Deformation of the orthodontic bracket tie wings is measured using a digital image correlation process to measure elastic and plastic deformation. The magnitude of force and moments applied to the bracket though the archwire is also measured using a six-axis load cell. Initial tests have been performed on two orthodontic brackets of varying geometry to demonstrate the measurement capability of the orthodontic torque simulator. The demonstration experiment shows that a Damon Q bracket had a final plastic deformation after a single loading of 0.022 mm while the Speed bracket deformed 0.071 mm. This indicates that the Speed bracket plastically deforms 3.2 times more than the Damon Q bracket for similar magnitude of applied moment. The demonstration experiment demonstrates that bracket geometry affect the deformation of orthodontic brackets and this difference can be detected using the orthodontic torque simulator.

Melenka, G. W.; Nobes, D. S.; Major, P. W.; Carey, J. P.

2013-08-01

24

Improvement of the orthodontic bracket bond strength with pre-heated composite restoratives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of pre-heated composite restoratives on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. METHODS: The following materials were tested: a microhybrid composite restorative (Filtek Z250), two nanofilled composite restoratives (Filtek Z350 and NT Premium), a nanohybrid composite restorative (Brilliant) and a conventional orthodontic adhesive (Transbond XT). All materials were stored for 1 h in the incubator either at 25°C (room temperature simulation) or 60°C before bonding 100 orthodontic brackets on bovine lower incisors (n = 10). One Coat Bond SL and Transbond XT were used to bond the composite restoratives and the Transbond XT adhesive paste, respectively. After storage in distilled water for 24 h, the brackets were subjected to SBS test at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until bracket debonding. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was assigned to the fractured specimens. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and the Tukey post-hoc test (p < 0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare ARI scores between the groups (p < 0.05). RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the materials at room temperature. Samples bonded with pre-heated materials showed a statistically higher SBS than those bonded with room temperature materials. Samples bonded with the pre-heated orthodontic adhesive showed the highest SBS among all the pre-heated materials. All preheated composite restoratives produced an SBS mean higher than that of Transbond XT stored at room temperature. CONCLUSION: The use of pre-heated composite restoratives and orthodontic adhesives might be an alternative approach to bond orthodontic brackets.

Borges BC; Gurgel MV; Figueiroa AF; Vilela AR; Pinheiro FH; Braz R; Montes MA

2013-05-01

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The influence of orthodontic bracket base design on shear bond strength.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many bracket base designs and adhesive materials are in clinical use today. Bases have evolved from perforated metal bases to the present foil mesh bases, and treatments range from none, to spraying metal alloy onto the base, to the most common treatment of microetching. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of orthodontic bracket base design on mean shear bond strength 1 hour or 24 hours after bonding. For each time group, 12 specimens of 6 types of metal brackets were bonded to bovine incisors with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) light-cured composite resin. Brackets were debonded 1 hour or 24 hours later, and the shear bond strength was recorded. Six debonded brackets of each type from each time group were selected at random and sandblasted. All the teeth were cleaned, and half were rebonded with used brackets, and half were rebonded with new brackets. Bond strength was measured again, 1 hour or 24 hours later. Representative specimens were inspected under the scanning electron microscope. Bracket base design significantly affected mean shear bond strength. Speed (60-gauge, microetched foil-mesh base; Strite Industries, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada) had the highest bond strength at 1 hour; followed by Time (machined, integral, microetched base with mechanical undercuts; American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, Wis); American Master Series (80-gauge foil-mesh base; American Orthodontics); Ovation Roth (80-gauge layered onto 150-gauge, microetched foil-mesh base; GAC, Central Islip, NY); Orthos Optimesh XRT (100-gauge microetched foil-mesh base; Ormco, Orange, Calif); and, finally, the nickel-free brackets (injection molded, 100-gauge, microetched, foil-mesh base; World Class Technology, McMinnville, Ore). The 24-hour results were similar except that Time had the highest mean shear bond strength (ANOVA, P <.05). Chairside sandblasting significantly affected the 1-hour, but not the 24-hour, mean shear bond strengths (ANOVA, P <.05). Sandblasting appears to be an effective method of cleaning bracket bases before rebonding.

Sharma-Sayal SK; Rossouw PE; Kulkarni GV; Titley KC

2003-07-01

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The influence of size and structure of metal orthodontic bracket base on bond strength on tooth enamel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The factors which may influence the bond strength of the applied orthodontic brackets on the tooth surface are the size and structure of the bracket base. Objective. The aim of the paper was to investigate the influence of size and shape of different types of brackets on bond strength on the enamel and analyze the remaining quality of adhesive material on the tooth surface after debonding of orthodontic brackets (adhesive remnant index - ARI). Methods. In this study, three types of metal brackets of different sizes and shapes of Dentaurum manufacturer were used (Utratrimm, Equilibrium 2, Discovery, Dentaurum, Inspringen, Germany). The brackets were applied onto the middle part of the anatomic crowns of buccal surfaces of 30 premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons. In addition, the pre-treatment of teeth by 37% orthophosphoric acid and adhesive material System1+ (Dentaurum, Germany) were used. Results. The mean value of the bonded brackets bond strength of Discovery type after debonding was 8.67±0.32 MPa, while the value of the bonded brackets bond strength of Equilibrium 2 type amounted to 8.62±0.22 MPa. The value of the bonded brackets bond strength of Ultratrimm type after debonding was 8.22±0.49 MPa. There were no statistical differences in the values of bond strength regarding all three groups of the investigated orthodontic brackets (F=4.56; p<0.05). Conclusion. The base size and design of metal orthodontic brackets did not play a significant role in bond strength, while the values of ARI index were identical in all three investigated groups.

Miti? Vladimir; Janoševi? Mirjana; Tani? Tatjana; Šaši? Mirjana

2009-01-01

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Fluoride releasing and enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets by fluoride-releasing composite containing nanoparticles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Fluoride-containing materials have been suggested to control enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets during the treatment with fixed appliances. The improvement of their properties has been made through innovations, such as the application of nanotechnology by incorporation of nanofillers. OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated the capacity of fluoride releasing and enamel demineralization inhibition of fluoride-releasing nanofilled cement around orthodontic brackets using an artificial caries biofilm model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty bovine enamel discs were selected by evaluating surface microhardness and randomized into four groups (n?=?10): non-fluoride-releasing microfilled composite, fluoride-releasing microfilled composite, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI), and fluoride-releasing nanofilled composite (FN). After brackets bonding in each disc, the specimens were subjected to a cariogenic challenge through a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. After the experimental period, the biofilm formed around the brackets was collected for fluoride analysis and the mineral loss around the brackets was determined by integrated demineralization via cross-sectional microhardness measurement at 20 and 70 ?m from the bracket margin. Additionally, samples of each group were subjected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis examined under a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ANOVA followed by Tukey test were applied for fluoride concentration and mineral loss data, respectively. RESULTS: At both distances, only RMGI statistically differed from the other groups presenting the lowest demineralization, although there was a trend to a lower demineralization of enamel around brackets in FN group. Similar condition was found to fluoride concentration and EDX/SEM analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Under the cariogenic exposure condition of this study, the fluoride-releasing nanofilled material had similar performance to fluoride-releasing microfilled materials. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The presence of nanofillers in the fluoride-releasing materials studied did not promote further benefits against caries lesion development around brackets and presented inferior demineralization inhibition than the resin-modified glass ionomer material.

Melo MA; Morais WA; Passos VF; Lima JP; Rodrigues LK

2013-08-01

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The efficacy of Er,Cr:YSGG laser in reconditioning of metallic orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser in removing adhesive from bracket bases, and its influence on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets, compared to several other recycling methods. BACKGROUND DATA: Reconditioning the dislodged attachments is frequently required in orthodontic practice to reduce treatment costs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-five premolar teeth were selected and divided into five groups. In groups 1 to 4, brackets recycled with different methods were bonded on the tooth surface, whereas in group 5, new brackets were used. The recycling methods were: silicon carbide stone grinding (group 1), aluminum oxide sandblasting (group 2), and Er,Cr:YSGG laser operated at 3.5?W (group 3) and at 4?W (group 4). The quantitative amount of remaining adhesive on the bracket base was determined after recycling using stereomicroscopic images, and the SBS values were measured. Results: The percentage of adhesive remnants was significantly lower in brackets cleaned with aluminum oxide sandblasting, and significantly higher in those grinded by silicon carbide stone (p<0.05). Brackets cleaned with silicon carbide stone produced the lowest, and those prepared by aluminum oxide blasting or Er,Cr:YSGG laser produced the highest SBS among the groups (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between changes in percentage of remaining adhesive on the base after recycling with changes in SBS (Pearson r=-0.41, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Under the study conditions, both aluminum oxide blasting and Er,Cr:YSGG laser were efficient in removing adhesive from bracket bases, and resulted in significantly higher bond strength than for new brackets.

Ahrari F; Basafa M; Fekrazad R; Mokarram M; Akbari M

2012-01-01

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Fitting assembly with aid and orthodontic bracket  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The structure has an oral-cavity orthodontic support (20) detachably connected with an auxiliary mounting tool (10). Two side plates of the tool are provided with a parallel long edge that is engaged with a guide slot (28) of the support. The tool is made of metal sheets with 0.15 to 0.8 mm thickness, and is formed into a narrow slot between two side plates. The narrow slot is externally extended along a symmetrical axis. Length and width of the narrow slot are 1.0 to 5.0 mm and 0.1 to 0.8 mm, respectively.

HEISER WOLFGANG

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Effects of different bleaching methods on shear bond strengths of orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of different bleaching methods on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-five freshly extracted premolars were randomly divided into three groups (n = 15 per group). In group I, bleaching was performed with the office bleaching method. In group II, bleaching was performed with the home bleaching method. Group III served as the control. Orthodontic brackets were bonded with a light cure composite resin and cured with an LED light. After bonding, the SBS of the brackets were tested with a Universal testing machine. RESULTS: Analysis of variance indicated a significant difference between groups (P < .001). The highest values for SBS were measured in group III (20.99 ± 2.32 MPa). The SBS was significantly lower in groups I and II than in group III (P < .001). The lowest values for SBS were measured in group II (6.42 ± 0.81 MPa). SBS was significantly higher in group I than in group II (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Both of the bleaching methods significantly affected the SBS of orthodontic brackets on human enamel. Bleaching with the home bleaching method affected SBS more adversely than did bleaching with the office bleaching method.

Gungor AY; Ozcan E; Alkis H; Turkkahraman H

2013-07-01

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Effects of different intracoronal bleaching methods on shear bond strengths of orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of different intracoronal bleaching methods on the shear bond strengths (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty freshly extracted mandibular incisors were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15 per group). After filling the root canals, root fillings were removed 2 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction, and a 2-mm-thick layer of zinc-phosphate cement base was applied. Group 1 served as the control. Intracoronal bleaching was performed with hydrogen peroxide (Opalacence Endo, Ultradent products Inc, South Jordan, Utah) in group 2, sodium perborate (Sultan Healthcare, Englewood, NJ) in group 3, and 37% carbamide peroxide (Whiteness Super Endo, Dentscare, ltda, Joinville, Brazil) in group 4. Orthodontic brackets were bonded with a light cure composite resin and cured with an LED light. After bonding, the SBS of the brackets was tested with a Universal testing machine. RESULTS: Analysis of variance indicated a significant difference between groups (P < .001). The highest values for SBS were measured in group 1 (10.15 ± 1.15 MPa). The SBS was significantly lower in groups 2, 3, and 4 than in group 1 (P < .001). The lowest values for SBS were measured in group 3 (6.17 ± 0.85 MPa). SBS was significantly higher in group 4 than in group 3 (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Intracoronal bleaching significantly affected the SBS of orthodontic brackets on human enamel. Bleaching with sodium perborate affects SBS more adversely than does bleaching with other agents.

Gungor AY; Ozcan E; Alkis H; Turkkahraman H

2012-09-01

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Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded with Nano-filled Composites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded with two types of nano-composites in comparison to a conventional orthodontic composite. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human first premolars were randomly divided into 3 groups each containing 20 teeth. In group I, a conventional orthodontic composite (Transbond XT) was used to bond the brackets, while two nano-composites (Filtek TM Supreme XT and AELITE Aesthetic Enamel) were used in groups II and III respectively. The teeth were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, thermocycled in distilled water and debonded with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was also evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Results: AELITE Aesthetic Enamel nano-composite revealed a SBS value of 8.44±2.09 MPa, which was higher than Transbond XT (6.91± 2.13) and Filtek TM Supreme XT (6.04± 2.01). Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference between groups II and III (P 0.05). Evaluation of ARI showed that Transbond XT left fewer adhesive remains on teeth after debonding. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that the aforementioned nano-composites can be successfully used for bonding orthodontic brackets.

Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad Akhoundi; Javad Chalipa; Sepideh Arab; Mohammad Javad Kharrazifard; Maryam Ahmadyar

2013-01-01

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The effect of phosphoric acid application time on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatment intervals (15, 30 and 45 s) of 37% phosphoric acid on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: Seventy extracted premolars, glass ionomer cement Ortho Fuji LC (GC Inc., Tokyo, Japan) and a conventional self-curing adhesive, System 1+ (Dentaurum, Inspringen, Germany) were used. Results: The obtained results suggested that the strongest bond was accomplished after enamel conditioning for 30 s and the weakest after 45 s treatment. Conclusion: The phosphoric acid application time has an effect on the quality and strength of the enamel - bracket bond.

Miti? Vladimir; Janoševi? Mirjana

2008-01-01

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Clinical and microbiological parameters in patients with self-ligating and conventional brackets during early phase of orthodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of different bracket designs (conventional brackets and self-ligating brackets) on periodontal clinical parameters and periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque. MATERIAL AND Methods: The following inclusion criteria were used: requirement of orthodontic treatment plan starting with alignment and leveling, good general health, healthy periodontium, no antibiotic therapy in the previous 6 months before the beginning of the study, and no smoking. The study sample totaled 38 patients (13 male, 25 female; mean age, 14.6 ± 2.0 years). Patients were divided into two groups with random distribution of brackets. Recording of clinical parameters was done before the placement of the orthodontic appliance (T0) and at 6 weeks (T1), 12 weeks (T2), and 18 weeks (T3) after full bonding of orthodontic appliances. Periodontal pathogens of subgingival microflora were detected at T3 using a commercially available polymerase chain reaction test (micro-Dent test) that contains probes for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant higher prevalence of A actinomycetemcomitans in patients with conventional brackets than in patients with self-ligating brackets, but there was no statistically significant difference for other putative periodontal pathogens. The two different types of brackets did not show statistically significant differences in periodontal clinical parameters. CONCLUSION: Bracket design does not seem to have a strong influence on periodontal clinical parameters and periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque. The correlation between some periodontal pathogens and clinical periodontal parameters was weak.

Pejda S; Varga ML; Milosevic SA; Mestrovic S; Slaj M; Repic D; Bosnjak A

2013-01-01

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Cytotoxicity of esthetic, metallic, and nickel-free orthodontic brackets: cellular behavior and viability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: In this study, we evaluated the cellular viability of various esthetic, metallic, and nickel-free orthodontic brackets. METHODS: The sample was divided into 11 groups (n = 8): cellular control, negative control, positive control, metallic, polycarbonate, 2 types of monocrystalline ceramic, 3 types of nickel free, and polycrystalline ceramic brackets. Cell culture (NIH/3T3-mice fibroblasts) was added to the plates of 96 wells containing the specimens and incubated in 5% carbon dioxide at 37°C for 24 hours. Cytotoxicity was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Cell growth was analyzed with an inverted light microscope, photomicrographs were obtained, and the results were recorded as response rates based on modifications of the parameters of Stanford according to the size of diffusion halo of toxic substances. Cell viability was analyzed (MTT assay); a microplate reader recorded the cell viability through the mitochondrial activity in a length of 570 nm. The values were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: All tested brackets had higher cytotoxicity values than did the negative control (P <0.05), with the exception Rematitan and Equilibrium (both, Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany) (P >0.05), suggesting low toxicity effects. The values showed that only polycarbonate brackets were similar (P >0.05) to the positive control, suggesting high toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: The brackets demonstrated different ranges of cytotoxicity; nickel-free brackets had better biocompatibility than the others. On the other hand, polycarbonate brackets were made of a highly cytotoxic material for the cells analyzed.

Retamoso LB; Luz TB; Marinowic DR; Machado DC; De Menezes LM; Freitas MP; Oshima HM

2012-07-01

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Orthodontic Bracket Manufacturing Tolerances and Dimensional Differences between Select Self-Ligating Brackets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In all manufacturing processes there are tolerances; however, orthodontic bracket manufacturers seldom state the slot dimensional tolerances. This experiment develops a novel method of analyzing slot profile dimensions using photographs of the slot. Five points are selected along each wall, and lines are fitted to define a trapezoidal slot shape. This investigation measures slot height at the slot's top and bottom, angles between walls, slot taper, and the linearity of each wall. Slot dimensions for 30 upper right central incisor self-ligating stainless steel brackets from three manufacturers were evaluated. Speed brackets have a slot height 2% smaller than the nominal 0.559?mm size and have a slightly convergent taper. In-Ovation brackets have a divergent taper at an average angle of 1.47 degrees. In-Ovation is closest to the nominal value of slot height at the slot base and has the smallest manufacturing tolerances. Damon Q brackets are the most rectangular in shape, with nearly 90-degree corners between the slot bottom and walls. Damon slot height is on average 3% oversized.

Thomas W. Major; Jason P. Carey; David S. Nobes; Paul W. Major

2010-01-01

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Effect of recycling process on metal ion release from orthodontic brackets at different periods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"nBackground and Aims: Considering the application of recycled metallic brackets in orthodontic treatments and probably more resultant metal ion release, which can cause cytotoxic side effects, this study was set up to assess the effect of recycling process of orthodontic brackets on metal ion ...

Amini F; Soboti F; Shariati M; Noshad Haghighi Z

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The use of single step adhesives in bonding orthodontic brackets.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that the new single-step adhesive systems used in operative dentistry and can bond to both enamel and dentin, require a shorter application time while maintaining adequate bond strength. In orthodontics, several repetitions of the bonding procedure are necessary, therefore, adhesive systems requiring less time for application are of particular interest. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of incorporating single step adhesives to a traditional bonding system, on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Sixty recently extracted human teeth were divided into three equal groups. Group I (control): brackets were bonded with the Transbond XT adhesive system (3M/Unitek) following the manufacturer's instructions; Group II: Single Bond (3M) adhesive was applied to the tooth surface and Transbond XT adhesive paste was used to bond the brackets; Group III: Optibond Solo (Kerr Co.) adhesive was applied to the enamel surface and Transbond XT adhesive was used to bond the brackets. Teeth were stored in deionized water at 37oC for 24 hours. A Zwick Universal Testing Machine was used to measure shear bond strength. The shear bond strengths for the three groups tested were; Group ?: 11.8+4.6 Mpa; Group ??: 12.5+3.9 Mpa; and Group ???: 9.7+4.3 Mpa. Analysis of Variance (F=2.37) indicated that there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the bond strengths among the three groups. In conclusion, the use of single step adhesives to replace the sealant did not significantly affect the shear bond strength of the adhesive system.

L. Von Wald; S.E. Bishara; J.R. Jacobsen

1999-01-01

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Enamel resistance to demineralization following Er:YAG laser etching for bonding orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that laser-etching of enamel for bonding orthodontic brackets could be an appropriate alternative for acid conditioning, since a potential advantage of laser could or might be caries prevention. This study compared enamel resistance to demineralization following etching with acid phosphoric or Er:YAG laser for bonding orthodontic brackets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty sound human premolars were divided into two equal groups. In the first group, enamel was etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. In the second group, Er:YAG laser (wavelength, 2 940 nm; 300 mJ/pulse, 10 pulses per second, 10 seconds) was used for tooth conditioning. The teeth were subjected to 4-day PH-cycling process to induce caries-like lesions. The teeth were then sectioned and the surface area of the lesion was calculated in each microphotographs and expressed in pixel. The total surface of each specimen was 196 608 pixels. RESULTS: Mean lesion areas were 7 171 and 7532 pixels for Laser-etched and Acid-etched groups, respectively. The two sample t-test showed that there was no significant difference in lesion area between the two groups (P = 0.914). CONCLUSION: Although Er:YAG laser seems promising for etching enamel before bonding orthodontic brackets, it does not reduce enamel demineralization when exposed to acid challenge.

Ahrari F; Poosti M; Motahari P

2012-07-01

40

The effect of two different bracket types on the salivary levels of S mutans and S sobrinus in the early phase of orthodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the difference in the levels of Streptococcus mutans and S sobrinus in stimulated saliva in orthodontic patients with different bracket types (stainless steel and esthetic brackets) using polymerase chain reaction and cultivation method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients, aged 13 to 30 years, were selected following these criteria: 1) orthodontic treatment indication, 2) systemic health, and 3) no tobacco and antibiotic consummation for three months prior to the commencement of the study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the bracket type; 16 patients formed the conventional bracket group (stainless steel brackets), and 16 patients formed the esthetic bracket group (plastic brackets). The levels of S mutans and S sobrinus in stimulated whole saliva samples were collected prior to fixed orthodontic appliance placement (T1) and 12 weeks after placement (T2), as were the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Surface Index (DMFS) and Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified (OHI-S). Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon, and chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Statistical analysis (chi-square test) showed no difference in S mutans and S sobrinus counts among patients with different brackets at either T1 or T2. There was no difference in total bacteria counts after fixed orthodontic appliance placement. CONCLUSION: The number of colony-forming units of S mutans and S sobrinus in stimulated saliva samples does not seem to be significantly different between patients with stainless steel brackets and patients with plastic brackets.

Jurela A; Repic D; Pejda S; Juric H; Vidakovic R; Matic I; Bosnjak A

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Rebonding of unused brackets with different orthodontic adhesives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare in vitro shear bond strength (SBS) of different orthodontic adhesives in bonding and repeatedly rebonding metal brackets, and to evaluate the bond failure site with the adhesive remnant index (ARI). METHODS: Specimens consisted of 90 extracted human first premolars, randomly divided into three groups (n=30). The adhesives Alpha Plast (AP), ConciseTM (CO) and TransbondTM XT (TB) were used in each group. Three SBS tests were performed, i.e., one at T0 (more) (initial) and the other two at T1 and T2 (first and second rebondings, respectively), observing a 24-hour interval. The tests were performed in a Shimadzu AG-I (10kN) SBS testing machine, at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: SBS data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test and Bonferroni test (p

Jimenez, Emigdio Enrique Orellana; Hilgenberg, Sérgio Paulo; Rastelli, Márcia Cristina; Pilatti, Gibson Luiz; Orellana, Bruno; Coelho, Ulisses

2012-04-01

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Shear bond strength of a novel silorane adhesive to orthodontic brackets and unprepared bovine enamel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the suitability of a novel epoxy-based resin, Filtek Silorane, for orthodontic bracket bonding on unprepared enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Shear forces to bovine enamel were measured for Filtek Silorane and Transbond XT in combination with steel, ceramic, and polymer brackets. For Filtek Silorane, etching was performed with the Silorane self-etching primer alone or an additional previous application of phosphoric acid. Transbond XT (conventional methacrylate) was used for the control group and the enamel was previously etched with 35% phosphoric acid. All samples were thermocycled (1000X, 5°to 55° C). Shear bond testing was done with an Instron 3344 at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. In addition, adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were evaluated. RESULTS: The shear forces showed a weak adhesion of Filtek Silorane to unprepared enamel both with the selfetching primer and conventional etching (0.87 to 4.28 MPa). The shear forces of the control group were significantly higher (7.6 to 16.5 MPa). The ARI scores showed a clear failure at the enamel/adhesive interface for all Filtek Silorane samples. For the combination of Transbond XT and different brackets, the failure was found at the adhesive/bracket interface. CONCLUSION: The novel epoxy-based resin Filtek Silorane is not appropriate for bonding of brackets to unprepared enamel.

Brauchli L; Steineck M; Ball J

2013-02-01

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Comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with halogen and plasma arc light curing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Reduced time and appropriate bond strength of brackets is one of the most important aspects of orthodontic treatments. Prolonged halogen light curing for bonding of brackets is undesirable, so the purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with halogen light and plasma arc system. MATERIALS AND MEHODS: This was an experimental in vitro study. A total of 60 intact premolar teeth were collected and divided into four groups. Stainless steel orthodontic brackets were bonded to them. In groups 1 and 2, curing was done using halogen light given for 20 seconds from two and four angles. In groups 3 and 4, curing was carried out using the plasma arc system for 6 seconds from two and four angles. The shear bond strength was recorded by Instron. The statistics of ANOVA, Tukey's test, and T-test were used in data analysis. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in shear bond strength among the four groups (P = 0.043) and between group 1 with group 2 (P = 0.035). Yet, there was no statistically significant difference between brackets bonded with plasma arc and those bonded with halogen light or between the two groups of plasma arc. CONCLUSION: Using the plasma arc system is superior to other methods due to reduced curing time. Also, since in using the halogen light system, an increase in curing periods from different angles resulted in a significant increase in shear bond strength; it is advisable to apply the halogen light from different angles.

Toodehzaeim MH; Kazemi AD; Aghili HA; Barzegar K; Fallahtafti T

2012-05-01

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Comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with halogen and plasma arc light curing  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Reduced time and appropriate bond strength of brackets is one of the most important aspects of orthodontic treatments. Prolonged halogen light curing for bonding of brackets is undesirable, so the purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with halogen light and plasma arc system. Materials and Mehods: This was an experimental in vitro study. A total of 60 intact premolar teeth were collected and divided into four groups. Stainless steel orthodontic brackets were bonded to them. In groups 1 and 2, curing was done using halogen light given for 20 seconds from two and four angles. In groups 3 and 4, curing was carried out using the plasma arc system for 6 seconds from two and four angles. The shear bond strength was recorded by Instron. The statistics of ANOVA, Tukey's test, and T-test were used in data analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in shear bond strength among the four groups (P = 0.043) and between group 1 with group 2 (P = 0.035). Yet, there was no statistically significant difference between brackets bonded with plasma arc and those bonded with halogen light or between the two groups of plasma arc. Conclusion: Using the plasma arc system is superior to other methods due to reduced curing time. Also, since in using the halogen light system, an increase in curing periods from different angles resulted in a significant increase in shear bond strength; it is advisable to apply the halogen light from different angles.

Toodehzaeim, Mohammad Hossein; Kazemi, Alireza Danesh; Aghili, Hossein Agha; Barzegar, Kazem; Fallahtafti, Taranom

2012-01-01

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Systematic ReviewClinical effects of pre-adjusted edgewise orthodontic brackets: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND:Fixed-appliance treatment is a major part of orthodontic treatment, but clinical evidence remains scarce.OBJECTIVES:Objective of this systematic review was to investigate how the therapeutic effects and side-effects of brackets used during the fixed-appliance orthodontic treatment are affected by their characteristics.SEARCH METHODS AND SELECTION CRITERIA:We searched MEDLINE and 18 other databases through April 2012 without restrictions for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials investigating any bracket characteristic.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:After duplicate selection and extraction procedures, risk of bias was assessed also in duplicate according to Cochrane guidelines and quality of evidence according to the Grades of Recommendation. Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Random-effects meta-analyses, subgroup analyses, and sensitivity analyses were performed with the corresponding 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI) and 95 per cent prediction intervals (PI).RESULTS:We included 25 trials on 1321 patients, with most comparing self-ligated (SL) and conventional brackets. Based on the meta-analyses, the duration of orthodontic treatment was on average 2.01 months longer among patients with SL brackets (95 per cent CI: 0.45 to 3.57). The 95 per cent PIs for a future trial indicated that the difference could be considerable (-1.46 to 5.47 months). Treatment characteristics, outcomes, and side-effects were clinically similar between SL and conventional brackets. For most bracket characteristics, evidence is insufficient. Some meta-analyses included trials with high risk of bias, but sensitivity analyses indicated robustness.CONCLUSIONS:Based on existing evidence, no clinical recommendation can be made regarding the bracket material or different ligation modules. For SL brackets, no conclusive benefits could be proven, while their use was associated with longer treatment durations.

Papageorgiou SN; Konstantinidis I; Papadopoulou K; Jäger A; Bourauel C

2013-09-01

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Bond strength of ceramic brackets bonded to enamel with amorphous calcium phosphate-containing orthodontic composite.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and failure modes of a conventional resin-based composite with a recently developed amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP)-containing orthodontic composite system. Forty freshly extracted human maxillary premolar teeth were randomly divided into two equal groups. Conventional composite (group 1; Transbond-XT; 3M Unitek) and ACP-containing orthodontic composite (group 2; Aegis-Ortho; Harry J. Bosworth Co.) were used for bonding ceramic orthodontic brackets. The SBS of these brackets were measured and recorded in megapascals (MPa). Adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined after bracket failure. Data were analysed with a Student's t-test for two independent variables and Pearson's chi-square tests. Statistical analysis showed that the bond strength of group 1 (mean: 36.7 +/- 6.8 MPa) was significantly higher than group 2 (mean: 24.2 +/- 5.4 MPa; P < 0.01). Although a greater percentage of the fractures were cohesive at the composite interface (Score 1 + Score 2 = 70 per cent in group 1 and 90 per cent in group 2), statistically significant differences were observed between the groups (P < 0.05). The ACP system is suitable for bonding ceramic orthodontic brackets due to the lower SBS values compared with conventional composite. The ACP-containing composite is recommended for use in clinical orthodontic practice in order to achieve lower decalcification scores under ceramic orthodontic brackets.

Uysal T; Ustdal A; Nur M; Catalbas B

2010-06-01

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Investigation of bracket bonding for orthodontic treatments using en-face optical coherence tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite good diagnosis and treatment planning, orthodontic treatment can fail if bonding fails. It is now common practice to address the aesthetic appearance of patients using aesthetic brackets instead of metal ones. Therefore, bonding aesthetic brackets has become an issue for orthodontists today. Orthodontic bonding is mainly achieved using composite resin but can also be performed with glass ionomer or resin cements. For improving the quality of bonding, the enamel is acid etched for 30 seconds with 38% phosphoric acid and then a bonding agent is applied. In our study we investigated and compared the quality of bonding between ceramic brackets, polymeric brackets and enamel, respectively using a new investigation method-OCT. The aim of our study was to evaluate the resin layer at the bracket base-tooth interface.

Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda L.; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Todea, Carmen; Rominu, Roxana; Dodenciu, Dorin; Laissue, Philippe L.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

2008-05-01

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The antimicrobial efficacy of Fructus mume extract on orthodontic bracket: a monospecies-biofilm model study in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Fructus mume on a monospecies-biofilm model established on orthodontic brackets in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the antimicrobial effect of Fructus mume aqueous extract on the planktonic Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) was tested by microdilution method (MIC). The cell viability of S. mutans biofilm on Damon3 MX bracket (Ormco, USA) after exposed to Fructus mume extract was quantified by XTT reduction assay. Visualization of the samples was performed by fluorescence microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). RESULTS: HPLC analysis revealed that the main compounds of Fructus mume are organic acids. The MIC of Fructus mume extract on the planktonic S. mutans was 50mg/mL. The optical density (OD) values, measured by XTT reduction assay from S. mutans biofilms after 1-min exposure to different test agents, demonstrated that the cell viability of S. mutans biofilms exposed to 250mg/mL Fructus mume extractbracket. CONCLUSION: Fructus mume extract showed antimicrobial effect on S. mutans biofilm on orthodontic bracket in vitro which may indicate its potential use as an oral antimicrobial agent for orthodontic patients.

Chen Y; Wong RW; Seneviratne CJ; Hägg U; McGrath C; Samaranayake LP; Kao R

2011-01-01

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Effect of fluoride on tooth erosion around orthodontic brackets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito do flúor na prevenção da erosão do esmalte circunjacente a braquetes ortodônticos sob desafio erosivo. Braquetes edgewise foram colados com resina TransbondTM XT na superfície vestibular de 40 incisivos bovinos. Os dentes foram divididos em 4 grupos (n = 10): G1: Saliva remineralizadora; G2: Desafio erosivo; G3: Grupo experimental submetido à aplicação tópica de flúor gel neutro (NaF a 2%) antes do desafio eros (more) ivo; G4: Grupo experimental submetido à três aplicações diárias de dentifrício fluoretado (1500 ppmF PFM) durante o desafio erosivo. Após 14 dias de desafio erosivo, foi realizado exame visual e táctil por dois examinadores calibrados e treinados (Kappa = 0,867). Os escores utilizados foram: 0 = Esmalte hígido, 1 = Esmalte desmineralizado sem cavidade, 2 = Esmalte desmineralizado com cavidade, 3 = Esmalte remineralizado sem cavidade, 4 = Esmalte remineralizado com cavidade. Foram utilizados os testes de Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney para determinar os níveis de erosão, estabelecendo um intervalo de confiança de 95% (p Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride in prevention of tooth erosion around orthodontic brackets under erosive challenge. Edgewise brackets were bonded with TransbondTM XT composite on vestibular surface of 40 bovine incisors. The teeth were assigned to 4 groups (n=10): G1: Remineralizing saliva; G2: Erosive challenge; G3: Experimental group submitted to topical application of neutral fluoride gel (2% NaF) before erosive challenge; G4: Experi (more) mental group submitted to three daily applications of fluoride dentifrice (PFM 1500 ppmF) during erosive challenge. After 14 days of erosive challenge, direct visual and tactile examination were performed by two calibrated and trained examiners (Kappa = 0.867). The following scores were used: 0 = Intact enamel, 1 = Demineralized enamel without cavity, 2 = Demineralized enamel with cavity, 3 = Remineralized enamel without cavity, 4 = Remineralized enamel with cavity. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were applied to determine erosion levels, establishing a confidence interval of 95% (p

Caldeira, Erika Machado; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; Passalini, Paula; Marquezan, Mariana; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves

2012-10-01

50

Coating and Surface Treatments on Orthodontic Metallic Materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials have been extensively used in orthodontics throughout history. Gold, stainless steel, cobalt-chromium alloys, titanium and its alloys, among other metallic biomaterials, have been part of the orthodontic armamentarium since the twentieth century. Metals and alloys possess outstanding properties and offer numerous possibilities for the fabrication of orthodontic devices such as brackets, wires, bands, ligatures, among others. However, these materials have drawbacks that can present problems for the orthodontist. Poor friction control, allergic reactions, and metal ionic release are some of the most common disadvantages found when using metallic alloys for manufacturing orthodontic appliances. In order to overcome such weaknesses, research has been conducted aiming at different approaches, such as coatings and surface treatments, which have been developed to render these materials more suitable for orthodontic applications. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the coating and surface treatment methods performed on metallic biomaterials used in orthodontics.

Santiago Arango; Alejandro Peláez-Vargas; Claudia García

2012-01-01

51

Trial production of titanium orthodontic brackets fabricated by metal injection molding (MIM) with sintering.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Safety and esthetics are two indispensable factors to consider when fabricating orthodontic brackets. However, these factors are not easily achieved when conventional techniques (including forging and casting) are used in the mass production of titanium brackets, albeit the brackets exhibit excellent biocompatibility. In the present study, orthodontic brackets were manufactured by metal powder injection molding with sintering. Brackets with three different base designs were made and subjected to compression shear tests for evaluation of their bonding strength to enamel substrate. The shapes given to the dimple of the base were spherical, oval, and grooved. The maximum shear forces for each type were 11.1 kgf, 7.6 kgf, and 18.5 kgf, respectively. The bonding strengths of the titanium bracket were equivalent to those obtained with conventional stainless steel brackets. Moreover, uniform distribution of Vickers hardness values (average, 240 +/- 40 Hv) measured at three locations indicated that the titanium bracket was uniformly sintered. Accordingly, titanium brackets thus fabricated exhibit a potential for clinical application.

Deguchi T; Ito M; Obata A; Koh Y; Yamagishi T; Oshida Y

1996-07-01

52

Evaluation of shear bond strength of orthodontic resin and resin modified glass ionomer cement on bonding of metal and ceramic brackets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of orthodontic resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement on bonding of metal and ceramic brackets. Material and methods: Forty bovine teeth were sectioned and embedded into PVC with chemically-cured acrylic resin. The labial surfaces were flattened and received prophylaxis with pumice and water. Then they were divided into four groups, according to the bonding material and the type of bracket. Group 1: metallic bracket + Transbond XT; Group 2: metallic bracket + Vitremer; Group 3: ceramic bracket + Transbond XT; Group 4: ceramic bracket + Vitremer. The bonding was performed according to the manufacturers’ recommendations. The shear bond strength test was conducted in a universal testing machine (TIRAtest 2420) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Then, the fractured surfaces were evaluated using a stereomicroscope (x15 magnification) to check the adhesive remnant index. Data was subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test for pairwise comparisons (? = 0.05). Results: The results suggested a non-significant effect of the interaction (p > 0.97), and only main factors were significant (p = 0.0001). The bond strength of Transbond XT was statistically higher than Vitremer. Ceramic brackets obtained the highest values of resistance when compared with metal brackets. Conclusion: The ceramic brackets bonded with Transbond XT orthodontic resin have excellent bond strength results.

Rosana Costa Casanovas de Carvalho; Natália Maria Porto de Carvalho; Synara Santos Herênio; José Roberto de Oliveira Bauer; Antonio Ernandes Macedo Paiva; José Ferreira Costa; Elizabeth Lima Costa

2012-01-01

53

Comparison of the initial orthodontic force systems produced by a new lingual bracket system and a straight-wire appliance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Over the last few years, lingual appliances have become an established orthodontic treatment technique. Many studies have concentrated on various esthetic aspects, on laboratory and clinical procedures, and on patient comfort and compliance. The orthodontic force systems of these appliances, however, have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was thus to determine the forces and moments produced by a new lingual bracket system during the leveling phase of orthodontic treatment and to compare those with the corresponding force system of a labial straight-wire appliance. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The intra-oral situation of ten patients undergoing orthodontic treatment was replicated in measurement casts fitted with lingual and labial brackets. Special care was taken to precisely reproduce each patient's interbracket geometry. We measured each tooth's force systems as generated by a leveling arch inserted into the lingual and labial brackets. RESULTS: The resulting force systems of both appliances were found to be quite similar with regard to the magnitude of most force and moment components. Only the first molars were subjected to considerably greater single forces with the lingual appliance. Tipping moments were found to be significantly smaller with the lingual technique, whereas the rotational moments were significantly smaller with the labial appliance. All in all we noted significant differences between the two techniques only in certain areas which upon closer examination were distributed over only a few tooth types. CONCLUSIONS: The initial force systems produced by the new lingual bracket system proved to be comparable with those delivered by a conventional straight-wire appliance. The actual levels of forces and moments, however, were found in certain cases to be too heavy with both techniques. We therefore recommend the development of leveling wires producing considerably lighter forces and moments.

Fuck LM; Wiechmann D; Drescher D

2005-09-01

54

Effects of different topical agents on enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets: an in vivo and in vitro study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo and in vitro effects of a casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and fluoride containing topical agents in reducing enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets, and to compare this with a control group. METHODS: Twenty-one patients and 60 extracted premolars were divided into three groups: two experimental and one control. Tooth Mousse® (CPP-ACP gel; GC-Corp, Tokyo, Japan) and Fluoridin N5® (Fluoride gel; Voco-GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany) were applied to tooth surfaces around orthodontic brackets in the experimental groups. Teeth were extracted after 60?days to evaluate the in vivo effects of the testing materials. For the in vitro experiment, samples were cycled for 14?days through a daily procedure of demineralization. All teeth were sectioned and evaluated by superficial microhardness analysis. An indentation was made from two positions (occlusal-cervical) and one depth (10??m). RESULTS: Comparisons of occlusal and cervical microhardness scores for all specimens showed no statistically significant side differences. A multiple comparison test showed that the use of CPP-ACP and fluoride containing topical gels were more significantly efficient than the control group (p<0.001). No significant differences were detected between CPP-ACP and the fluoride groups against demineralization. CONCLUSIONS: In vivo and in vitro evaluations indicated that CPP-ACP and fluoride containing agents successfully inhibited caries around orthodontic brackets.

Uysal T; Amasyali M; Koyuturk AE; Ozcan S

2010-09-01

55

Properties of composite materials used for bracket bonding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the shear bond strength to enamel, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and contraction stress of one orthodontic composite and two flowable composites. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to 45 human maxillary premolars with the composites Transbond XT, Filtek Z-350 flow and Opallis flow and tested for shear bond strength. For measurement of flexural strength and flexural modulus, specimens were fabricated and tested under flexion. For the contraction stress test, cylindrical specimens were tested and an extensometer determined the height of the specimens. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). The shear bond strength values were significantly lower (p<0.05) for the flowable composites compared with the orthodontic composite. For the flexural strength, no statistically significant difference was found among the composites (p>0.05) while the flexural modulus was significantly higher (p<0.05) for Transbond XT than for Filtek Z-350 flow and Opallis flow. The orthodontic composite presented significantly lower contraction stress values than the flowable composites (p<0.05). The light-activated orthodontic composite material presented higher flexural modulus and shear bond strength and lower contraction stress than both flowable composites.

Gama AC; Moraes AG; Yamasaki LC; Loguercio AD; Carvalho CN; Bauer J

2013-05-01

56

Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação da liberação iônica in vitro/ Biodegradation of orthodontic brackets: in vitro ion release  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar, in vitro, a biodegradação de aparelhos ortodônticos simulados constituídos de braquetes e fios de aço inoxidável. METODOLOGIA: a amostra foi dividida em 2 grupos, de acordo com a marca dos braquetes usados: grupo A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303); e grupo B - LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). Os corpos-de-prova permaneceram incubados em solução salina (0,05%) a 36ºC, sob agitação por um período de até 60 dias. A an? (more) ?lise da liberação iônica foi realizada por meio de espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. O peso em massa dos braquetes também foi medido antes e após o experimento. RESULTADOS: os resultados indicaram que o grupo A apresentou maior liberação de íons ferro, níquel e cromo do que o grupo B. Além disso, os braquetes do grupo A também mostraram perda de massa, considerada outro indicativo de corrosão. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que, nas condições deste experimento, os braquetes do grupo A apresentaram maior biodegradação que os acessórios do grupo B, o que pode estar associado à liga metálica e/ou ao processo de fabricação dos mesmos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the biodegradation of simulated orthodontic appliances consisting of stainless steel brackets and wires. MATERIALS AND METHODOS: The sample was divided in 2 groups, according to brackets brand: group A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/ Unitek (AISI 303); and group B - LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). The specimens (simulated orthodontic appliances) were incubated in saline solution (0.05%), in shake, a (more) t 36ºC, for 60 days. The ion release was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The weight of brackets was also measured before and after the test. RESULTS: The results indicated that group A released more ions iron, nickel and chromium than group B. Moreover, the brackets in group A also presented weight loss, which is considered an indicator of corrosion. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that, under the present study conditions, the brackets from group A presented a higher biodegradation than group?s B brackets, what could be associated to composition and manufacturing process of these brackets.

Dolci, Gabriel Schmidt; Menezes, Luciane Macedo de; Souza, Rodrigo Matos de; Dedavid, Berenice Anina

2008-06-01

57

Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação da liberação iônica in vitro Biodegradation of orthodontic brackets: in vitro ion release  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar, in vitro, a biodegradação de aparelhos ortodônticos simulados constituídos de braquetes e fios de aço inoxidável. METODOLOGIA: a amostra foi dividida em 2 grupos, de acordo com a marca dos braquetes usados: grupo A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303); e grupo B - LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). Os corpos-de-prova permaneceram incubados em solução salina (0,05%) a 36ºC, sob agitação por um período de até 60 dias. A análise da liberação iônica foi realizada por meio de espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. O peso em massa dos braquetes também foi medido antes e após o experimento. RESULTADOS: os resultados indicaram que o grupo A apresentou maior liberação de íons ferro, níquel e cromo do que o grupo B. Além disso, os braquetes do grupo A também mostraram perda de massa, considerada outro indicativo de corrosão. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que, nas condições deste experimento, os braquetes do grupo A apresentaram maior biodegradação que os acessórios do grupo B, o que pode estar associado à liga metálica e/ou ao processo de fabricação dos mesmos.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the biodegradation of simulated orthodontic appliances consisting of stainless steel brackets and wires. MATERIALS AND METHODOS: The sample was divided in 2 groups, according to brackets brand: group A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/ Unitek (AISI 303); and group B - LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). The specimens (simulated orthodontic appliances) were incubated in saline solution (0.05%), in shake, at 36ºC, for 60 days. The ion release was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The weight of brackets was also measured before and after the test. RESULTS: The results indicated that group A released more ions iron, nickel and chromium than group B. Moreover, the brackets in group A also presented weight loss, which is considered an indicator of corrosion. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that, under the present study conditions, the brackets from group A presented a higher biodegradation than group’s B brackets, what could be associated to composition and manufacturing process of these brackets.

Gabriel Schmidt Dolci; Luciane Macedo de Menezes; Rodrigo Matos de Souza; Berenice Anina Dedavid

2008-01-01

58

Bond strength of orthodontic brackets using different light and self-curing cements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets directly bonded to extracted human premolar teeth. Fifty teeth were randomly divided into ¿ve groups: (1) System One (chemically cured composite resin), (2) Light Bond (light-cured composite resi...

Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; Osorio, Estrella; Romeo Garcia, Alejandro; Higuera, Blanca de la; García-Godoy, Franklin

59

Effect of Topacal C-5 on enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets. An in vitro study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Enamel demineralisation leading to 'white spots' can occur during orthodontic treatment. Casein phosphopeptides may reduce demineralisation during orthodontic treatment. AIMS: To determine if a casein phosphopeptide preparation, Topacal C-5 (Enamel Improving Cream, NSI Dental Pty Ltd, Leighton, Hornsby, Australia), will inhibit demineralisation of enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Methods: Twenty-four pairs of human premolars from 24 subjects were used. One premolar in each pair was randomly assigned to the control group and the contralateral premolar was assigned to the experimental group. A stainless steel orthodontic bracket was bonded to the buccal surface of each tooth and a window of enamel (4 mm x 1 mm) left open to acid attack. The teeth were cycled alternately through an artificial saliva medium (11 hours) and an acid medium (1 hour) for 31 days. Topacal C-5 was applied to the exposed enamel windows in the experimental group after immersion in the acid medium. After 31 days the teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the depths of the enamel lesions measured by polarised light microscopy. RESULTS: Significantly deeper demineralisation occurred in the control teeth not protected by Topacal C-5 and at sites close to the brackets in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this in vitro system, Topacal C-5 partially reduced the depth of enamel demineralisation compared with teeth not covered with Topacal C-5. Topacal C-5 may reduce enamel demineralisation in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

Nasab NK; Kajan ZD; Balalaie A

2007-05-01

60

Orthodontic Molar Brackets: The Effect of Three Different Base Designs on Shear Bond Strength  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the relative base designs of three different maxillary molar stainless steel brackets with reference to the shear bond strength of three different adhesive resins. The molar brackets used were Victory series (3M Unitek), Upper Molar (GAC) and Optimesh XRT (Ormco). The adhesives used were Transbond XT (3M Unitek), Enlight (Ormco) and Sure Ortho Light Bond (Sure Orthodontics). The human enamel specimens (144) were randomly divided into nine groups and each group (n=16) was allocated to a bracket/adhesive combination. The contact surface of each of the bracket bases was measured three dimensionally using a reflex microscope. The base designs were also subjected to further microscopic investigations. The brackets were bonded to the enamel, temperature cycled and the shear bond strength was measured. The size and design of each of the brackets was different. The base size, surface treatment, mesh strand diameter and aperture size of the bracket base mesh have a significant effect on the shear bond strength at the bracket/adhesive interface. The shear bond strengths of all three Ormco bracket/adhesive resin combinations (5.8-6.8 MPa) were significantly lower (p<0.05; Kruskal-Wallis) than the other six bracket/adhesive combinations (9.4-12.1 MPa). The different adhesive types (3 types) could not be mainly responsible for the low shear bond values found for the Ormco bracket. The 3M Unitek combination of the Victory series bracket and Transbond XT adhesive proved to have a high shear bond strength without enamel damage.

Athol P. Hudson; Sias R. Grobler; Angela M. P. Harris

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Effect of early orthodontic force on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with different adhesive systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of applying early orthodontic force on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded with 4 adhesive systems. METHODS: Eighty stainless steel brackets were bonded to the enamel surfaces of extracted premolars with 4 adhesive systems. For each adhesive, 10 brackets were bonded without application of force (groups 1, 3, 5, and 7), and another 10 were subjected to a 120-g force with a coil spring (groups 2, 4, 6, and 8). This force was applied 30 minutes after bonding and maintained for 24 hours. Groups 1 and 2 had Rely-a-bond primer and Rely-a-bond adhesive (Reliance Orthodontic Products, Itasca, Ill). Groups 3 and 4 had Transbond XT primer and Transbond XT adhesive (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). Groups 5 and 6 had Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer and Transbond XT adhesive (3M Unitek). Groups 7 and 8 had RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany). After thermocycling, SBS testing was performed by using a universal testing machine (Type 500, Lloyd Instruments Ltd, Fareham Hants, UK). The results of SBS testing for all adhesives were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and the Duncan test. The unpaired Student t test was used to compare the effect of force on the SBS of each adhesive. RESULTS: Transbond XT primer and its adhesive had the highest values (without force, 11.2 +/- 3.1 MPa; with force, 10.7 +/- 2.7 MPa), and RelyX Unicem had the lowest (without force, 5.8 +/- 1.5MPa; with force, 5.7 +/- 1.6 MPa). Application of force yielded nonsignificant reductions in SBS for all adhesives; this reduction was less pronounced with RelyX Unicem. CONCLUSIONS: For all studied adhesive systems, orthodontic force up to 120 g can be applied within the first hour after bonding with no deleterious effects on bond strength.

Abdelnaby YL; Al-Wakeel Eel S

2010-08-01

62

Hypersensitivity reactions to orthodontic materials.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most allergic reactions that may be observed during orthodontic treatment are manifestations of hypersensitivity to potentially allergenic factors of orthodontic materials. These factors basically include the latex material of disposable elastic surgical gloves and of most elastic orthodontic materials and the nickel contained in the alloys of metal orthodontic appliances. Allergic hypersensitivity reactions may involve extra- and intra-oral clinical signs usually including localized manifestations, at the site of contact with the allergen, such as erythema, edema, itching of the skin or oral mucosa and more rarely systemic manifestations, such as generalized rash and dyspnea, whereas in extreme situations aphylactic reaction may be observed. In any case, when taking the patient’s medical history, it is necessary to record in detail all previous allergic episodes of any type. Where considered necessary, the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to specific materials is documented by the allergiologist following specialized dermatological or hematological tests. Although the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to orthodontic materials is not common in routine clinical practice, in cases where an allergic reaction is observed, the prompt diagnosis is of utmost importance, and it should be followed by the immediate interruption of exposure to the allergen along with the substitution of any suspected /potent allergens or/and modification of treatment planning. The aim of this review is to describe, on the basis of modern literature, the latest evidence-based scientific data concerning etiology, diagnosis and treatment of allergic reactions to materials most frequently used during orthodontic treatment.

Philippos N. Synodinos; Eleni Voulgari; Manolis I. Papagrigorakis

2005-01-01

63

CO2 laser conditioning of porcelain surfaces for bonding metal orthodontic brackets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bonding to porcelain remains to be a challenge in orthodontic treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CO2 laser conditioning of porcelain surfaces on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Eighty feldspathic porcelain specimens were divided into four groups of 20. In each group, half of the porcelain surfaces were deglazed, while the others remained glazed. The specimens in groups 1 to 3 were treated with a fractional CO2 laser for 10 s using 10 mJ of energy, frequency of 200 Hz and powers of 10 W (group 1), 15 W (group 2) and 20 W (group 3). In group 4, a 9.6 % hydrofluoric (HF) acid gel was used for 2 min. A silane coupling agent was applied before bracket bonding, and the SBS was measured with a universal testing machine after 24 h. Deglazing caused significant increase in SBS of laser treated porcelain surfaces (p?porcelain. PMID:22948257

Ahrari, Farzaneh; Heravi, Farzin; Hosseini, Mohsen

2012-09-05

64

Effect of enamel laser irradiation at different pulse settings on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Objective: To compare the effect of laser irradiation at two different pulse settings and acid etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets to enamel. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six premolars were allocated to three groups (n ?=? 12): (1) 37% phosphoric acid etching, (2) erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser etching with medium-short pulse mode (MSP; 100 µs, 120 mj, 10 Hz, 1.2 W), and (3) Er:YAG laser etching with quantum-square pulse mode (QSP; 120 mj, 10 Hz, 1.2 W). Metallic brackets were bonded with Transbond XT. After photopolymerization, the samples were subjected to 5000 thermal cycles and debonded with a universal testing machine, and the SBS values were recorded. Surface morphology was evaluated with profilometric examination, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was evaluated to assess the remaining adhesive. Results: The results of SBS testing were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey honestly significant diffference tests. The mean SBS values of QSP and MSP laser groups were 11.80 ± 2.7 MPa and 10.10 ± 4.5 MPa, respectively, and the QSP group demonstrated significantly higher SBS (P < .01) than that of the acid-etched group (6.6 ± 2.4 MPa). No significant difference was observed between the SBS values of the two laser groups (P < .05). The difference between the ARI scores of the laser groups and the acid-etched group was statistically significant (P < .05). Conclusion: Laser etching at MSP and QSP modes present successful alternatives to acid etching; however, long-term clinical studies are required to verify clinical success.

Sa??r S; Usumez A; Ademci E; Usumez S

2013-06-01

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Enamel Surface Roughness after Debonding of Orthodontic Brackets and Various Clean-Up Techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate enamel roughness after adhesive removal using different burs and an Er:YAG laser.Materials and Methods: The buccal surfaces of forty human premolars were sealed by two layers of nail varnish, except for a circular area of 3 mm in diameter on the middle third. The enamel surfaces were initially subjected to profilometry analysis and four parameters of surface irregularity (Ra, Rq, Rt and Rz) were recorded. Following bracket bonding and debonding, adhesive remnants were removed by tungsten carbide burs in low- or high- speed handpieces (group 1 and 2, respectively), an ultrafine diamond bur (group 3) or an Er:YAG laser (250 mJ, long pulse, 4 Hz) (group 4), and surface roughness parameters were measured again. Then, the buccal surfaces were polished and the third profilometry measurements were performed.Results: The specimens that were cleaned with a low speed tungsten carbide bur showed no significant difference in surface irregularity between the different treatment stages (p>0.05). Surface roughness increased significantly after clean-up with the diamond bur and the Er:YAG laser (p<0.01). In comparison between groups, adhesive removal with tungsten carbide burs at slow- or high-speed handpieces produced the lowest, while enamel clean-up with the Er:YAG laser caused the highest values of roughness measurements (P<0.05).Conclusion: Under the study conditions, application of the ultrafine diamond bur or the Er:YAG laser caused irreversible enamel damage on tooth surface, and thus these methods could not be recommended for removing adhesive remnants after debonding of orthodontic brackets.

Farzaneh Ahrari; Majid Akbari; Javad Akbari; Ghahraman Dabiri

2013-01-01

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Oral bacterial adhesion forces to biomaterial surfaces constituting the bracket-adhesive-enamel junction in orthodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacterial adhesion to biomaterial surfaces constituting the bracket-adhesive-enamel junction represents a growing problem in orthodontics, because bacteria can adversely affect treatment by causing demineralization of the enamel surface around the brackets. It is important to know the forces with which bacteria adhere to the surfaces of these junction materials, as the strength of these forces will determine how easy it will be to remove the bacteria. We compared the adhesion forces of five initially colonizing and four cariogenic strains of bacteria to an orthodontic adhesive, stainless steel, and enamel, with and without a salivary conditioning film. Adhesion forces were determined using atomic force microscopy and a bacterial probe. In the absence of a salivary conditioning film, the strongest bacterial adhesion forces occurred to the adhesive surface (-2.9 to -6.9 nN), while adhesion forces to the enamel surfaces were lowest (-0.8 to -2.7 nN). In the presence of a salivary conditioning film, adhesion forces were reduced strongly, to less than 1 nN, and the differences between the various materials were reduced. Generally, however, initial colonizers of dental hard surfaces presented stronger adhesion forces to the different materials (-4.7 and -0.6 nN in the absence and presence of a salivary conditioning film, respectively) than cariogenic strains (-1.8 and -0.5 nN).

Mei L; Busscher HJ; van der Mei HC; Chen Y; de Vries J; Ren Y

2009-08-01

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Evaluation of acquired acid resistance of enamel surrounding orthodontic brackets irradiated by laser and fluoride application.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Demineralization of enamel around orthodontic brackets is a clinical problem which can lead to some esthetic concerns like white spot lesions. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the Er, Cr:YSGG laser and fluoride application on the acid resistance of enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets. A total of 60 healthy, permanent, human premolars were selected and bonded with brackets, then they were randomly assigned to four groups (n?=?15): topical APF gel (1.23 % F, pH 3.5, for 4 min); Er,Cr:YSGG laser (P:0.25 W, E:12.5 mJ, RR:20 Hz, PD:140 ?s, 11 % air, without water, for 10 s); fluoride + laser group (F + L), and control group (C). All specimens were demineralized for 10 days in a 0.2 M acetate buffer solution, and the calcium content were subsequently determined with atomic absorption spectrometry. There were significant differences between the calcium content of F + L and F group in comparison to control group. The least concentration of calcium was seen in F + L group, and the most value was observed in C group. Combination of Er, Cr:YSGG laser with fluoride and fluoride alone decreased enamel solubility significantly more than laser alone. In addition, combination of laser and fluoride leads to less consumption of fluoride amount. And patients can use it at the beginning of treatment instead of daily use of fluoride. So we suggest using it in preventing enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets.

Fekrazad R; Ebrahimpour L

2013-04-01

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In-vitro evaluation of various treatments to prevent demineralization next to orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: One common negative side effect of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is the development of incipient caries lesions around brackets, particularly in patients with poor oral hygiene. Bio-available minerals from cement containing amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) might facilitate remineralization and inhibit lesion development. Our objective was to compare the potential of ACP-containing resin cement, fluoride varnish, resin sealer, and MI Paste (GC America, Alsip, Ill) under similar in-vitro conditions to prevent incipient caries lesions next to brackets on teeth. METHODS: One hundred extracted premolars were randomly allocated to 5 groups (n = 20). Brackets were bonded with ACP cement (Aegis-Ortho, Bosworth, Skokie, Ill), resin (Transbond XT [3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif], control), or resin followed by application of fluoride varnish (Vanish, 3M, St Paul, Minn), resin sealer (Pro-seal, Reliance Orthodontic Products, Itasca, Ill), or casein phosphopeptide-ACP paste (MI Paste). All groups were cycled for 15 days in demineralization solution for 8 hours a day, rinsed, placed in artificial saliva (30 minutes), brushed, and stored overnight in artificial saliva. The extent of demineralization in each group was assessed by using quantitative light-induced fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: Only the Pro-seal and Vanish groups showed significantly smaller lesions than the controls (Kruskal-Wallis test, P <0.05) for both quantitative light-induced fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy measurements. Fluorescence loss of Aegis-Ortho was similar to Vanish; Aegis-Ortho, MI Paste, and the controls were not different from each other. CONCLUSIONS: Both light-cured filled resin (Pro-seal) and fluoride varnish (Vanish) might prevent enamel demineralization next to orthodontic brackets exposed to cariogenic conditions, but the observed positive effects of Aegis-Ortho and MI Paste were not significant.

Behnan SM; Arruda AO; González-Cabezas C; Sohn W; Peters MC

2010-12-01

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Analysis of surface roughness and surface free energy characteristics of various orthodontic materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in surface characteristics of various orthodontic materials; this might provide valuable information on bacterial adhesion to orthodontic materials. METHODS: Surface roughness (SR) and surface free energy (SFE) characteristics of 5 orthodontic adhesives (2 composites resins, 2 resin-modified glass ionomer cements, and 1 compomer), 5 bracket materials (2 stainless steel, 1 monocrystalline sapphire, 1 polycrystalline alumina, and 1 plastic) and bovine incisors were investigated by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the sessile drop method. RESULTS: There were significant differences in SR and SFE characteristics among orthodontic materials. Bovine incisors showed the roughest surface, and monocrystalline sapphire showed the smoothest surface. However, there were only small variations in SR (less than 0.3 mum) among the materials, except for bovine incisors. In contrast to SR, there were big differences in SFE characteristics among materials. Generally, bracket materials showed lower SFE--specifically, dispersive and polar components on their surfaces--than orthodontic adhesives. Resin-modified glass ionomer cements had the highest SFE, dispersive component, and polarity; these conditions are more favorable for bacterial adhesion. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that SFE characteristics can influence bacterial adhesion to orthodontic materials more than SR, and bracket materials might have less favorable SFE characteristics for bacterial adhesion than orthodontic adhesives.

Ahn HB; Ahn SJ; Lee SJ; Kim TW; Nahm DS

2009-11-01

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Evaluation of different flowable materials for bonding brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To compare the shear bond strength and the adhesive remnant on the tooth after debonding of brackets bonded with a traditional orthodontic resin (Transbond XT), a flowable composite (X-Flow), a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow) and a flowable giomer (Beautifil Flow). METHODS: 105 extracted human premolars were used. They were divided into four groups: (1) Transbond XT, (2) X-Flow, (3) Dyract Flow, and (4) Beautifil Flow. Shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine with a cross-head speed of 1 mm/minute. The adhesive remnant on the tooth after debonding was quantified using image analysis. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the shear bond strengths of the different groups evaluated (P > 0.05). Transbond XT left significantly more adhesive on the tooth than the three flowable materials, and among the flowable materials, X-Flow left significantly less adhesive than Beautifil Flow (P < 0.008).

Vicente A; Bravo LA

2009-04-01

71

Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to enamel under different surface treatment conditions  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the shear bond strength to enamel and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) of both metallic and polycarbonate brackets bonded under different conditions. Ninety bovine permanent mandibular incisors were embedded in acrylic resin using PVC rings as molds and assigned to 6 groups (n=15). In Groups 1 (control) and 3, metallic and polycarbonate orthodontic brackets were, respectively, bonded to the enamel surfaces using Transbond XT composite according to the manufacturer's recommendations. In Groups 2 and 4, both types of brackets were bonded to enamel with Transbond XT composite, but XT primer was replaced by the OrthoPrimer agent. In Groups 5 and 6, the polycarbonate bracket bases were sandblasted with 50-mm aluminum-oxide particle stream and bonded to the enamel surfaces prepared under the same conditions described in Groups 3 and 4, respectively. After bonding, the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours and then submitted to shear bond strength test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results (MPa) showed no statistically significant difference between Groups 4 and 6 (p>0.05). Likewise, no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found among Groups 1, 2, and 5, although their results were significantly lower than those of Groups 4 and 6 (p<0.05). Group 3 had statistically significant lower bond strength than Groups 2, 4, and 6, but no statistically significant differences were found on comparison to Groups 1 and 5. A larger number of fractures at the bracket/composite interface were evidenced by the ARI scores. OrthoPrimer bonding agent yielded higher bond strength in the groups using either conventional or sandblasted polycarbonate brackets, which was not observed in the groups using metallic brackets.

Matheus Melo Pithon; Márlio Vinícius de Oliveira; Antonio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas; Ana Maria Bolognese; Fábio Lourenço Romano

2007-01-01

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Effect of toothbrushing with different manual toothbrushes on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of brushing with a Colgate 360º or Oral B Indicator 35 toothbrush on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to extracted human teeth. The bristle wear and bristle tip morphology were also examined after simulated tooth-brushing. Orthodontic brackets (Roth-P/1st and 2nd premolar S/D- Slot 0.18") were bonded (Transbond XT®) to the smoothest surface of each of 45 extracted human molar and premolar teeth. Test (more) specimens were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1, control group with no brushing; Group 2, brushing with the Oral B Indicator 35; Group 3, brushing with the Colgate 360º. Samples were adapted to a machine that simulated tooth-brushing. The bond strength of each bracket to each tooth was assessed with a mechanical testing machine. The bristle wear and bristle tip morphology indices were also assessed. Statistically significant differences were defined for p

Oliveira, Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de; Pavone, Chaine; Costa, Maurício Ribeiro; Marcantonio, Rosemary Adriana Chiérici

2010-09-01

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Effect of fluoride solutions on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets after pre-treatment with different fluoride solutions. This study used 48 freshly extracted sound bovine incisors that were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups (n=12). CG: (control) without treatment; NF: 4 min application of neutral fluoride; APF: application of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) for 4 min; and SFV: application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish for 6 h. For each group, after surface treatment, prophylaxis of enamel and bracket bonding with Transbond XT composite resin (3M) were performed following the manufacturer's specifications. The shear bond strength was performed with a universal testing machine 24 h after fixing the brackets. The tooth surfaces were analyzed to verify the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). There was statistically significant difference among the groups (p0.05). The analysis of ARI scores revealed that most failures occurred at the enamel-resin interface. It may be concluded that the pre-treatment of enamel with 1.23% APF and 5% SFV prior to fixing orthodontic brackets reduces shear bond strength values. PMID:23338263

Leódido, Gabriela da Rocha; Fernandes, Hianna Oliveira; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Presoto, Cristina Dupim; Bandéca, Matheus Coêlho; Firoozmand, Leily Macedo

2012-01-01

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Properties of Composite Materials Used for Bracket Bonding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento no esmalte, resistência flexural, módulo flexural, tensão de contração de polimerização de duas resinas flow e uma resina ortodôntica. Os bráquetes ortodônticos foram colados em 45 pré-molares humanos e divididos: Transbond XT, Filtek Z-350 flow, Opallis flow e testado para resistência ao cisalhamento (n=15). Para a resistência e mód (more) ulo flexural espécimes foram confeccionados e testados sob flexão. Para o teste de tensão de contração de polimerização, espécimes cilíndricos foram confeccionados e monitorados com um extensômetro (Instron). Os dados foram submetidos aos testes ANOVA a um critério e Tukey (?=0,05) para contraste de média. (n=15). A resistência de união das resinas flow foram significantemente menos que o da resina ortodôntica (p>0,05). A resistência flexural não demonstrou diferença significante entre os grupos testados (p>0,05). O módulo flexural da resina ortodôntica foi significantemente maior que o grupo das resinas flow (p<0,05). A tensão de contração de polimerização da resina ortodôntica foi significantemente menor (p<0,05). A resina ortodôntica obteve os maiores valores de resistência de união ao cisalhamento, resistência flexural e a menor tensão de contração de polimerização quando comparada as resinas flow testadas. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the shear bond strength to enamel, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and contraction stress of one orthodontic composite and two flowable composites. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to 45 human maxillary premolars with the composites Transbond XT, Filtek Z-350 flow and Opallis flow and tested for shear bond strength. For measurement of flexural strength and flexural modulus, specimens were fabricated and tested under (more) flexion. For the contraction stress test, cylindrical specimens were tested and an extensometer determined the height of the specimens. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). The shear bond strength values were significantly lower (p<0.05) for the flowable composites compared with the orthodontic composite. For the flexural strength, no statistically significant difference was found among the composites (p>0.05) while the flexural modulus was significantly higher (p<0.05) for Transbond XT than for Filtek Z-350 flow and Opallis flow. The orthodontic composite presented significantly lower contraction stress values than the flowable composites (p<0.05). The light-activated orthodontic composite material presented higher flexural modulus and shear bond strength and lower contraction stress than both flowable composites.

Gama, Ana Caroline Silva; Moraes, Andre Guaraci de Vito; Yamasaki, Lilyan Cardoso; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Bauer, Jose

2013-06-01

75

Biofilm retention by 3 methods of ligation on orthodontic brackets: a microbiologic and optical coherence tomography analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate biofilm retention around orthodontic brackets related to the method of ligation by using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and microbiologic sampling. METHODS: Seventy-five plastic central incisors for dentures were divided into 3 groups and used with metal brackets with a 0.022-in slot with elastomeric ligature (n = 25), metal brackets with a 0.022-in slot with steel wire ligature (n = 25), and self-ligating brackets with a 0.022-in slot (n = 25). The samples were submersed in a suspension of Streptococcus mutans, genetically engineered to express green fluorescent protein, at 37°C for 72 hours to allow biofilm formation. The samples were then submitted to microbiologic analysis and OCT imaging. RESULTS: The microbiologic analysis and the OCT showed significant differences in biofilm formation depending on the ligating method. Brackets ligated with elastomeric rings held more S mutans biofilm, and steel wire ligation had less biofilm retention compared with the other brackets. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided validation that OCT can be used as a potential qualitative marker of total plaque bacteria that can be rapidly and reliably visualized around orthodontic brackets.

Garcez AS; Suzuki SS; Ribeiro MS; Mada EY; Freitas AZ; Suzuki H

2011-10-01

76

Evaluation of different LED light-curing devices for bonding metallic orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different light-emitting diodes (LED) light-curing devices for bonding orthodontic brackets, using the shear bond strength and analysis of adhesive remnant index (ARI). Crowns from 60 bovine incisors received brackets bonded with Transbond XT. Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n=15) according to the light-curing procedures: HL = control, halogen light; OR = Ortholux LED; UL = Ultraled XP, and RD = Radii LED. All light-curing procedures were performed for 40 s. Shear bond strength test was evaluated using an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test. The ARI scores were evaluated with a stereoscopic magnifying glass and analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test. A significance level of 5% was set for all analyses. Shear bond strength means in MPa and standard deviations were 9.82 (3.28), 12.70 (3.35), 9.04 (2.80) and 11.22 (2.36) for HL, OR, UL and RD, respectively. OR presented the highest shear bond strength mean value. HL differed significantly (p<0.05) from Groups OR and RD. However, these groups did not differ significantly from each other (p>0.05). Regarding the ARI scores, no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05) among the groups. In conclusion, Ortholux LED and Radii LED units provided the highest values of bracket adhesive strength.

Pinto CM; Ferreira JT; Matsumoto MA; Borsatto MC; Silva RA; Romano FL

2011-01-01

77

The effects of lubrication on the static frictional resistance of orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Difficulties are experienced with the collection and storage of freshly harvested human saliva to use as a lubricant for the laboratory testing of the frictional resistance of orthodontic brackets. In order to overcome these difficulties, researchers have suggested the use of saliva substitutes due to their ease of storage and consistency of properties throughout testing. Others have criticized the use of artificial saliva and prefer the dry state. The present study aimed to compare the effects of human saliva and an artificial saliva (Saliva Orthana) with the dry state for the static frictional resistance testing of orthodontic brackets. METHODS: The static frictional resistance and the lubrication effect of human saliva, Saliva Orthana and the dry state were investigated using upper central incisor stainless steel brackets and 0.019 x 0.025 inch stainless steel wires in an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Static frictional resistance was measured 100 times for each lubrication state. The 'wettability' of each lubricant was determined by measuring the contact angle against a stainless steel surface using the CAM 200 Optical Contact Angle Meter. Distilled water acted as a control. The viscosity of each lubricant and their Newtonian or non-Newtonian fluid behaviour under stress was measured using a Brookfield Digital Rheometer Model DV-III+. RESULTS: The differences in static frictional resistance between the three lubricants when examined as a group did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.059). The difference between human saliva and Saliva Orthana was considered to be of weak statistical significance and clinical relevance (Means: 0.917 N; 0.819 N: p = 0.053). Human saliva and the dry state revealed very similar mean frictional values (Means: 0.917 N; 0.875 N: p = 0.932). The contact angle tests indicated a statistically significant difference between the lubricants with Saliva Orthana having the smallest angle and therefore the highest 'wettability'. Human saliva had the highest initial viscosity and behaved as a non-Newtonian fluid, contrasting with Saliva Orthana and distilled water, both of which behaved as Newtonian fluids. CONCLUSION: The current results indicate that artificial saliva is not an ideal alternative to human saliva for friction testing in the laboratory The results therefore support the proposal that, when human saliva is not available, it may be preferable to test orthodontic frictional resistance in the dry state.

Al-Mansouri N; Palmer G; Moles DR; Jones SP

2011-11-01

78

Bonding Orthodontic Ceramic Brackets to Ceramic Restorations: Evaluation of Different Surface Conditioning Methods  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength and Adhesive Remnant Index of four different veneering ceramic materials to ceramic brackets. Additionallly, a further aim of this study was to overcome the etching using hydrofluoric acid which is noxious and could seriously damage the corneas of the eyes. Two surface conditioning methods of four ceramic materials before bonding brackets were examined: in group 1 an air particle abrasion with 25 ?m aluminium trioxide (4 seconds at a pressure of 2.5 bars) and subsequently a silane coupling agent (Espe Sil, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA) was applicated on one side of each ceramic specimen (10 per group). In group 2 one side of each sample (20 per group) was etched with 37.0 per cent orthophosphoric acid for two minutes and was followed by a silane application (Espe Sil, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA). After this procedure the self-ligating ceramic brackets Clarity SL (3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA) brackets were bonded to the ceramic blocks and a thermocycling process started (5°C - 55°C, 6000 cycles). Then, shear bond strength and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) were measured. To determine statistical differences Oneway-ANOVA and Tukey Post-hoc test were performed. Hydrofluoric acid seems not to be justifiable anymore for preparing the surface of dental ceramic restorations before bracket bonding. Sandblasting with 25 ?m aluminium trioxide and the use of orthophosphoric acid (37.0 per cent) seem to prepare the surface of ceramic restoration sufficiently before ceramic bracket bonding. The found level of shear bond strength values seems to be sufficient for bonding ceramic brackets to ceramic restorations.

Andreas Faltermeier; Claudia Reicheneder; Peter Götzfried; Peter Proff

2013-01-01

79

Effect of applying a sustained force during bonding orthodontic brackets on the adhesive layer and on shear bond strength.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of applying a sustained seating force during bonding on the adhesive layer and on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Forty human premolars divided into two groups were included in the study. Stainless steel brackets were bonded to the premolars with Transbond XT light cure adhesive and Transbond Plus Self Etch Primer (SEP). The brackets in both groups were subjected to an initial seating force of 300 g for 3 seconds, sufficient to position the bracket. The seating force was maintained throughout the 40 seconds of light curing in group 2. SBS was tested 24 hours after bracket bonding with a shear blade using an Instron testing unit at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/minute. A Student's t-test was used to compare the bond strength of the two groups and a chi-square test to compare the frequencies of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. The mean SBS was significantly different between the two groups (P=0.025). The bond strength was higher (mean 8.15±0.89 MPa) in group 2 compared with group 1 (mean 7.39±1.14 MPa). There was no significant difference (P=0.440) in the ARI scores between the two groups. Applying a sustained seating force during orthodontic bracket bonding improves bond strength but does not change the distribution of the ARI scores. PMID:21030470

Montasser, Mona A

2010-10-28

80

Effect of applying a sustained force during bonding orthodontic brackets on the adhesive layer and on shear bond strength.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of applying a sustained seating force during bonding on the adhesive layer and on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Forty human premolars divided into two groups were included in the study. Stainless steel brackets were bonded to the premolars with Transbond XT light cure adhesive and Transbond Plus Self Etch Primer (SEP). The brackets in both groups were subjected to an initial seating force of 300 g for 3 seconds, sufficient to position the bracket. The seating force was maintained throughout the 40 seconds of light curing in group 2. SBS was tested 24 hours after bracket bonding with a shear blade using an Instron testing unit at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/minute. A Student's t-test was used to compare the bond strength of the two groups and a chi-square test to compare the frequencies of the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores. The mean SBS was significantly different between the two groups (P=0.025). The bond strength was higher (mean 8.15±0.89 MPa) in group 2 compared with group 1 (mean 7.39±1.14 MPa). There was no significant difference (P=0.440) in the ARI scores between the two groups. Applying a sustained seating force during orthodontic bracket bonding improves bond strength but does not change the distribution of the ARI scores.

Montasser MA

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effect of Fast Curing Lights, Argon Laser, and Plasma Arc on Bond Strengths of Orthodontic Brackets: An In Vitro Study  

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Full Text Available Objective: Nowadays light-cured composites are used widely by orthodontists to bond brackets. As these composites require 20-40 seconds time per tooth to be light cured, more chair-time in needed compared to self-cured composites. In recent years, the argon laser and plasma arc lights have been introduced in dentistry to reduce this curing time. The purpose of this study was to compare bond strength of brackets bonded with the argon la-ser and plasma arc light with those bonded with the conventional halogen light.Materials and Methods: Fifty-one intact human premolars were randomly divided into three groups of 17 teeth each. Stainless steel twin premolar brackets (018- in Dyna lock, 3M Unitek) were bonded to the teeth using one of these curing devices in each group: the halogen unit (Coltolux 75, Switzerland), the argon laser unit (Bo-5, Iran ), and the plasma arc unit (Remecure 15, Belgium). The orthodontic adhesive was the same in the three groups (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek). After thermal cycling, the diametral tensilebond strength of specimens was measured using a debonding plier in a Zwick Universal Testing machine (Z/100, Germany).Results: The mean bond strengths was 17.344 MPa (SD=4.567) for halogen 19.172 MPa(SD=6.328) for laser and 19.322 MPa (SD=4.036) for plasma arc groups. No statistically significant difference existed in the mean bond strengths among three groups.Conclusion: Argon laser lights, significantly reducing the curing time of orthodonticbrackets without affecting bond strength, have the potential to be considered as advanta-geous alternatives to conventional halogen light.

M. Hashem-Hoseini; H. Mahmood-Hashemi; F. Soltan-Moradi; T. Hooshmand; I. Haririan; P. Motahhary; J. Chalipa

2008-01-01

82

A Comparison of the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded With Light-Emitting Diode and Halogen Light-Curing Units  

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Full Text Available Statement of the problem: Various methods such as light emitting diode (LED) have been used to enhance the polymerization of resin-based orthodontic adhesives. There is a lack of information on the advantages and disadvantages of different light curing systems.Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of LED and halogen light curing systems on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human premolars were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and cleansed with water spray and air dried. The sealant was applied on the tooth surface and the brackets were bonded using Transbond adhesive (3M Unitek,Monrovia, Calif). Adhesives were cured for 40 and 20 seconds with halogen (Blue Light, APOZA, Taiwan) and LED (Blue dent, Smart, Yugoslavia) light-curing systems,respectively. Specimens were thermocycled 2500 times (from 5 to 55 °C) and the shear bond strength of the adhesive system was evaluated with an Universal testing machine (Zwick GmbH, Ulm, Germany) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until the bracketswere detached from the tooth. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined after bracket failure. The data were submitted to statistical analysis, using Mann-Whitney analysis and t-test.Results: No significant difference was found in bond strength between the LED and halogen groups (P=0.12). A significant difference was not observed in the adhesive remnant index scores between the two groups (P=0.97).Conclusion: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the shear bond strength of resin-based orthodontic adhesives cured with a LED was statistically equivalent to those cured with a conventional halogen-based unit. LED light-curing units can be suggested for the polymerization of orthodontic bonding adhesives.

SM. Abtahi; Z. Khamverdy

2006-01-01

83

The effect of using a new experimental self-etch primer/adhesive on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets: a comparative study.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conventional adhesive systems use three different agents, an enamel conditioner, a primer solution, and an adhesive resin during the bonding of orthodontic brackets to enamel. A unique characteristic of some new bonding systems in operative dentistry, is that they combine the conditioning and priming agents into a single application. Combining conditioning and priming saves time and should be more cost-effective to the clinician and indirectly to the patient. AIM: To assess and compare the effects of using two self-etch primers including an experimental one, on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. DESIGN: In vitro study. SETTING: College of Dentistry, University of Iowa. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The brackets were bonded to extracted human teeth according to one of three protocols; Group I (Control): Teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid. After applying the sealant, the brackets were bonded with Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, California, USA) and light cured for 20 seconds. Group II: A self-etch acidic primer (ESPE Dental AG, Seefeld, Germany) was placed on the enamel for 15 seconds and gently evaporated with air as suggested by the manufacturer. The brackets were then bonded with Transbond XT as in the first group. Group III: A new experimental self-etch primer EXL# 547 (3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA), was rubbed on the enamel for 10 seconds and left to stand for 20 seconds before it was air-dried and then light cured for 10 seconds. The brackets were then bonded as in groups I and II RESULTS: The present in vitro findings indicated that the shear bond strengths of the three groups were significantly different (P=0.018). Duncan multiple range tests indicated that Prompt L-Pop had a significantly lower (mean = 7.1 ± 4.4 MPa) shear bond strength than both the new EXL# 547 self- etch primer (mean = 9.7 ± 3.7 MPa) or phosphoric acid and the conventional adhesive system ( mean = 10.4 ± 2.8 MPa). CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicated that the newly introduced self-etch primers, containing both the enamel etchant and primer have the potential to be successfully used in bonding orthodontic brackets.

S. E. Bishara; R. Ajlouni; G. E. Denehy; J. F. Laffoon; J. J. Warren

2002-01-01

84

Comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with light emitting diode (LED).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Light-emitting diode (LED) light curing units (LCU) have recently been used to polymerize resin-based orthodontic adhesives and preliminary studies indicate their use has been successful. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) oforthodontic brackets bonded to enamel with a LED LCU (LEDMAX 4, Hilux, Kulzer comp.) at 10, 20 and 40 seconds and comparing them with that of 40 seconds light exposure from a conventional halogen-based LCU (Hilux unit, Heraeus Kulzer comp.). Also to assess the amount of adhesive remaining on the tooth after debonding using Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). 120 extracted human premolars were divided into 4 groups of 30 each. After photo polymerization, all the samples were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and then subjected to a shear force with universal testing machine until bracket failure. All the recordings were evaluated statistically ANOVA and Turkey tests revealed that, no statistically significant differences were found among the shear bond strengths of 40 sec halogen (10.15 +/- 1.55), 20 sec LED (9.58 +/- 1.71) and 40 sec LED (10.34 +/- 1.83) cured groups; but the bond strength of 10 sec cure LED group (7.56 +/- 1.47) showed significantly lower than the other groups. Chi-square comparisons indicated that there were no significant differences in the ARI scores between the 4 groups tested. The results of this study are promising for orthodontic application of LED curing units in clinics, but further in vivo trials should be performed before validation.

Rachala MR; Yelampalli MR

2010-01-01

85

Comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with light emitting diode (LED).  

Science.gov (United States)

Light-emitting diode (LED) light curing units (LCU) have recently been used to polymerize resin-based orthodontic adhesives and preliminary studies indicate their use has been successful. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) oforthodontic brackets bonded to enamel with a LED LCU (LEDMAX 4, Hilux, Kulzer comp.) at 10, 20 and 40 seconds and comparing them with that of 40 seconds light exposure from a conventional halogen-based LCU (Hilux unit, Heraeus Kulzer comp.). Also to assess the amount of adhesive remaining on the tooth after debonding using Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). 120 extracted human premolars were divided into 4 groups of 30 each. After photo polymerization, all the samples were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and then subjected to a shear force with universal testing machine until bracket failure. All the recordings were evaluated statistically ANOVA and Turkey tests revealed that, no statistically significant differences were found among the shear bond strengths of 40 sec halogen (10.15 +/- 1.55), 20 sec LED (9.58 +/- 1.71) and 40 sec LED (10.34 +/- 1.83) cured groups; but the bond strength of 10 sec cure LED group (7.56 +/- 1.47) showed significantly lower than the other groups. Chi-square comparisons indicated that there were no significant differences in the ARI scores between the 4 groups tested. The results of this study are promising for orthodontic application of LED curing units in clinics, but further in vivo trials should be performed before validation. PMID:21314086

Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Yelampalli, Muarlidhar Reddy

2010-01-01

86

CO2 laser conditioning of porcelain surfaces for bonding metal orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bonding to porcelain remains to be a challenge in orthodontic treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CO2 laser conditioning of porcelain surfaces on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Eighty feldspathic porcelain specimens were divided into four groups of 20. In each group, half of the porcelain surfaces were deglazed, while the others remained glazed. The specimens in groups 1 to 3 were treated with a fractional CO2 laser for 10 s using 10 mJ of energy, frequency of 200 Hz and powers of 10 W (group 1), 15 W (group 2) and 20 W (group 3). In group 4, a 9.6 % hydrofluoric (HF) acid gel was used for 2 min. A silane coupling agent was applied before bracket bonding, and the SBS was measured with a universal testing machine after 24 h. Deglazing caused significant increase in SBS of laser treated porcelain surfaces (p?

Ahrari F; Heravi F; Hosseini M

2013-07-01

87

Effect of an acidic primer on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A unique characteristic of some new etching systems is that they combine the conditioning and priming agents into a single acidic primer solution. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects on the shear bond strength and the bracket/adhesive failure mode when an acidic primer and other enamel etchants were used to condition the enamel surface before bonding. The brackets were bonded to extracted human teeth according to one of four protocols following the manufacturers instructions. Group I, teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid, the brackets were then bonded with System 1+ adhesive (Ormco Corporation. Orange, Calif.); group II, teeth were etched with 10% maleic acid, the brackets were also bonded with System 1+ adhesive; group III, an acidic primer that contains both the acid (phenyl-P) and the primer (hema and dimethacrylate) were placed on the enamel for 30 seconds. The adhesive used on this group was a lightly filled resin that contains Bis-GMA and HEMA. (Clearfil Liner Bond 2. J.C. Moritta, Kuraway, Japan); Group IV, the same acidic primer was used as in group II, the adhesive used was highly filled (Panavia 21. J.C. Moritta) and contains Bis-GMA. The present in vitro findings indicated that the use of acidic primers to bond orthodontic brackets to the enamel surface could provide clinically acceptable shear bond forces (x = 10.4 +/- 4.4 MPa) when used with a highly (77%) filled adhesive (Panavia 21). These debonding forces were comparable to those obtained when the enamel was conditioned with either Phosphoric (x = 11.8 +/- 4.1 MPa) or Maleic (x = 10.9 +/- 4.4 MPa) acids. With the use of a lightly (10%) filled adhesive (Clearfil Liner Bond 2), the shear bond strength was significantly lower (x = 5.9 +/- 5.6 MPa). It is of interest to note that there was a tendency to have less residual adhesive remaining on the tooth when an acid primer was used than when phosphoric and maleic acids were used. This might be of advantage to the clinician because it will require less time to clean the teeth after debonding.

Bishara SE; Gordan VV; VonWald L; Olson ME

1998-09-01

88

Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to aged resin composite surfaces: effect of surface conditioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of surface conditioning protocols on the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal brackets to aged composite resin surfaces in vitro. Ninety composite resin discs, 6 mm in diameter and 2 mm in height, were prepared and treated with an ageing procedure. After ageing, the specimens were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) control with no surface treatment, (2) 38 per cent phosphoric acid gel, (3) 9.6 per cent hydrofluoric acid gel, (4) airborne aluminium trioxide particle abrasion, (5) sodium bicarbonate particle abrasion, and (6) diamond bur. The metal brackets were bonded to composite surfaces by means of an orthodontic adhesive (Transbond XT). All specimens were stored in water for 1 week at 37°C and then thermocycled (1000 cycles, 5-55°C) prior to SBS testing. SBS values and residual adhesive on the composite surface were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference (P = 0.000) between the groups. Group 6 had the highest mean SBS (10.61 MPa), followed by group 4 (10.29 MPa). The results of this study suggest that a clinically acceptable bond strength can be achieved by surface conditioning of aged resin composite via the application of hydrofluoric acid, aluminium trioxide particle abrasion, sodium bicarbonate particle abrasion, or a diamond bur.

Bayram M; Yesilyurt C; Kusgöz A; Ulker M; Nur M

2011-04-01

89

The effect of herbal teas on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of some types of herbal tea on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets to enamel surfaces. The brackets were bonded with Transbond XT to 90 extracted human premolar teeth and divided equally into six groups, that is, black, mint-mate herbal, mint-lemon herbal, and rosehip fruit tea and two control groups, Coca-Cola and distilled water. All groups were conditioned for three 5-minute sessions with equal intervening intervals for 90 days. The initial pH, SBS, and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of the groups were evaluated and the data were analysed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests, one-way analysis of variance, and Duncan and Z-tests, respectively. Rosehip fruit tea (2.4 +/- 0.07) and Coca-Cola (2.5 +/- 0.05) had the lowest pH values. Coca-Cola (6.04 +/- 1.11 MPa) and rosehip fruit tea (7.26 +/- 1.11 MPa) significantly reduced the SBS to enamel (P < 0.001). The SBS results for the other groups were similar (P > 0.05). Except for the Coca-Cola group (ARI score = 0), fracture sites for all other groups were similar with the majority of bond failures at the enamel-adhesive interface (ARI score = 1). Although this experiment could not completely replicate the complex oral environment, it seems to confirm that Coca-Cola and rosehip fruit tea may be a causative factor in bracket-enamel bonding failure.

Ulusoy C; Müjdeci A; Gökay O

2009-08-01

90

24-hour shear bond strength of metal orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain using various adhesion promoters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinically, orthodontists are often faced with the difficulties of bonding to porcelain crowns, veneers, or bridges. Traditional methods of dealing with this are often time-consuming and generally esthetically unacceptable to patients. Current interest involves the use of organosilane primers with or without NTG-GMA and BPDM resins to aid in chemically bonding porcelain with traditional orthodontic adhesives. This study compared the bond strength of three types of adhesion promoters: Ormco Porcelain Primer (OR) (Ormco Corp., Glendora, Calif.), All-Bond2 (AB2) (Bisco Dental Products, Inc., Itasca, Ill.), and Scotchprime Ceramic Primer (SP) (3M, St. Paul, Minn.) with two orthodontic adhesives: Phase II (Reliance, Inc., Itasca, Ill.) and Rely-a-bond (Reliance, Inc., Itasca, Ill.). Eighty ceramometal samples were fabricated and hydrated for 1 week in distilled water before bonding. Next, the samples were etched with 2.5 % HF acid for 90 seconds, rinsed and upper central incisor metal orthodontic brackets were bonded with the various primers and adhesives. After 24 hours they were sheared off with an MTS machine at at rate of 0.5 mm/min, and the bond strength was measured. The mean shear bond strengths (MPa) with Phase II were as follows; Control 0.44 (sigma = 0.22), AB2 8.40 (sigma = 3.61), OR 13.31 (sigma = 5.79), SP 13.53 (sigma = 3.34). With Rely-a-bond, the shear bond strengths were Control 0.41 (sigma = 0.67), AB2 4.34 (sigma = 1.88), OR 9.73 (sigma = 4.58), and SP 12.40 (sigma = 3.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Major PW; Koehler JR; Manning KE

1995-09-01

91

Measurement of Orthodontic Bracket Tie Wing Elastic and Plastic Deformation by Arch Wire Torque Expression Utilizing an Optical Image Correlation Technique  

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Full Text Available Orthodontic lingual root movement (torque) is an important aspect of treatment biomechanics and is typically achieved by torsion of a rectangular wire within the orthodontic bracket slot which introduces a force couple. The magnitude of the force moment achieved by wire torsion may be influenced by deformation of the orthodontic bracket. A device utilizing an optical image correlation technique has been developed to accurately quantify bracket slot dimensional changes during application of wire torsion. Simultaneous torque moment magnitude, degrees of wire twist, and bracket slot dimension data can be gathered. Bracket tie wing elastic deformation when loaded was demonstrated and plastic deformation was also observed with a single rotation of the wire.

Ryan A. Lacoursiere; David S. Nobes; Darren L. N. Homeniuk; Jason P. Carey; Hisham H. Badawi; Paul W. Major

2010-01-01

92

Molecular detection of in-vivo microbial contamination of metallic orthodontic brackets by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Knowing the microbiota that colonizes orthodontic appliances is important for planning strategies and implementing specific preventive measures during treatment. The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate in vivo the contamination of metallic orthodontic brackets with 40 DNA probes for different bacterial species by using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization (CDDH) technique. METHODS: Eighteen patients, 11 to 29 years of age having fixed orthodontic treatment, were enrolled in the study. Each subject had 2 new metallic brackets bonded to different premolars in a randomized manner. After 30 days, the brackets were removed and processed for analysis by CDDH. Data on bacterial contamination were analyzed descriptively and with the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post tests (? = 0.05). Forty microbial species (cariogenic microorganisms, bacteria of the purple, yellow, green, orange complexes, "red complex +Treponema socranskii," and the cluster of Actinomyces) were assessed. RESULTS: Most bacterial species were present in all subjects, except for Streptococcus constellatus, Campylobacter rectus, Tannerella forsythia, T socranskii, and Lactobacillus acidophillus (94.4%), Propionibacterium acnes I and Eubacterium nodatum (88.9%), and Treponema denticola (77.8%). Among the cariogenic microorganisms, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were found in larger numbers than L acidophillus and Lactobacillus casei (P <0.001). The periodontal pathogens of the orange complex were detected in larger numbers than those of the "red complex +T socranskii" (P <0.0001). Among the bacteria not associated with specific pathologies, Veillonella parvula (purple complex) was the most frequently detected strain (P <0.0001). The numbers of yellow and green complex bacteria and the cluster of Actinomyces were similar (P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Metallic brackets in use for 1 month were multi-colonized by several bacterial species, including cariogenic microorganisms and periodontal pathogens, reinforcing the need for meticulous oral hygiene and additional preventive measures to maintain oral health in orthodontic patients.

Andrucioli MC; Nelson-Filho P; Matsumoto MA; Saraiva MC; Feres M; de Figueiredo LC; Martins LP

2012-01-01

93

Does the bracket-ligature combination affect the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months? A randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of bracket-ligature combination on the amount of orthodontic space closure over three months. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial with three parallel groups. SETTING: A hospital orthodontic department (Chesterfield Royal Hospital, UK). PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five patients requiring upper first premolar extractions. METHODS: Informed consent was obtained and participants were randomly allocated into one of three groups: (1) conventional pre-adjusted edgewise brackets and elastomeric ligatures; (2) conventional pre-adjusted edgewise brackets and Super Slick(®) low friction elastomeric ligatures; (3) Damon 3MX(®) passive self-ligating brackets. Space closure was undertaken on 0·019×0·025-inch stainless steel archwires with nickel-titanium coil springs. Participants were recalled at four weekly intervals. Upper alginate impressions were taken at each visit (maximum three). The primary outcome measure was the mean amount of space closure in a 3-month period. RESULTS: A one-way ANOVA was undertaken [dependent variable: mean space closure (mm); independent variable: group allocation]. The amount of space closure was very similar between the three groups (1 mm per 28 days); however, there was a wide variation in the rate of space closure between individuals. The differences in the amount of space closure over three months between the three groups was very small and non-significant (P?=?0·718). CONCLUSION: The hypothesis that reducing friction by modifying the bracket/ligature interface increases the rate of space closure was not supported. The major determinant of orthodontic tooth movement is probably the individual patient response.

Wong H; Collins J; Tinsley D; Sandler J; Benson P

2013-06-01

94

Comparative in vitro study of the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with restorative and orthodontic resins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with different restorative systems and compare it with that afforded by an established orthodontic bonding system. Seventy human bicuspids were used, divided into five different groups with 14 teeth each. Whereas a specific orthodontic bonding resin (TransbondTM XT) was used in the control group, the restorative systems Charisma, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum and Z100 were used in the other four (more) groups. Seven days after bonding the brackets to the samples, shear forces were applied under pressure in a universal testing machine. The data collected was evaluated using the ANOVA test and, when a difference was identified, the Tukey test was applied. A 5% level of significance was adopted. The mean results of the shear bond strength tests were as follows: Group 1 (Charisma), 14.98 MPa; Group 2 (Tetric Ceram), 15.16 MPa; Group 3 (TPH), 17.70 MPa; Group 4 (Z100), 13.91 MPa; and Group 5 or control group (TransbondTM XT), 17.15 MPa. No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. It was concluded that all tested resins have sufficient bond strength to be recommended for bonding orthodontic brackets.

Isber, Hassan; Ambrosio, Aldrieli Regina; Carvalho, Paulo Eduardo Guedes; Valle-Corotti, Karyna Martins do; Siqueira, Danilo Furquim

2011-02-01

95

Comparative in vitro study of the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with restorative and orthodontic resins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with different restorative systems and compare it with that afforded by an established orthodontic bonding system. Seventy human bicuspids were used, divided into five different groups with 14 teeth each. Whereas a specific orthodontic bonding resin (TransbondTM XT) was used in the control group, the restorative systems Charisma, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum and Z100 were used in the other four groups. Seven days after bonding the brackets to the samples, shear forces were applied under pressure in a universal testing machine. The data collected was evaluated using the ANOVA test and, when a difference was identified, the Tukey test was applied. A 5% level of significance was adopted. The mean results of the shear bond strength tests were as follows: Group 1 (Charisma), 14.98 MPa; Group 2 (Tetric Ceram), 15.16 MPa; Group 3 (TPH), 17.70 MPa; Group 4 (Z100), 13.91 MPa; and Group 5 or control group (TransbondTM XT), 17.15 MPa. No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. It was concluded that all tested resins have sufficient bond strength to be recommended for bonding orthodontic brackets.

Hassan Isber; Aldrieli Regina Ambrosio; Paulo Eduardo Guedes Carvalho; Karyna Martins do Valle-Corotti; Danilo Furquim Siqueira

2011-01-01

96

Influence of surface treatment on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to micro-hybrid and micro-particulate resins under different surface treatment methods was assessed. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty test samples were divided into 28 groups (n = 10), where 140 specimens were filled with Durafill micro-particulate resin and 140 with Charisma composite. In 140 samples, a coupling agent (silane) was applied. The surface treatment methods were: Phosphoric and hydrofluoric acid etching, sodium bicarbonate and aluminum oxide blasting, stone and burs. A Universal Instron Machine was used to apply an occlusal shear force directly to the resin composite bracket surface at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The means were compared using analysis of variance and multivariate regression to assess the interaction between composites and surface treatment methods. RESULTS: Means and standard deviations for the groups were: Sodium bicarbonate jet 11.27 ± 2.78; burs 9.26 ± 3.01; stone 7.95 ± 3.67; aluminum oxide blasting 7.04 ± 3.21; phosphoric acid 5.82 ± 1.90; hydrofluoric acid 4.54 ± 2.87, and without treatment 2.75 ± 1.49. An increase of 1.94 MPa in shear bond strength was seen in Charisma groups. Silane agent application reduced the Charisma shear bond strength by 0.68 Mpa, but increased Durafill means for bicarbonate blasting (0.83), burs (0.98) and stone drilling (0.46). CONCLUSIONS: The sodium bicarbonate blasting, burs and stone drilling methods produced adequate shear bond strength and may be suitable for clinical use. The Charisma micro hybrid resin composite showed higher shear bond means than Durafill micro particle composite.

Brunharo IH; Fernandes DJ; Miranda MS; Artese F

2013-05-01

97

Systemic consumption of probiotic curd and use of probiotic toothpaste to reduce Streptococcus mutans in plaque around orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The objectives of the study were to evaluate and compare the effects of the systemic consumption of probiotic curd and the topical application of probiotic toothpaste on the Streptococcus mutans levels in the plaque of orthodontic patients. METHODS: The study consisted of 60 orthodontic patients divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group 1 was the control group. The patients in group 2 were given probiotic curd, and those in group 3 were asked to brush twice daily with probiotic toothpaste (GD toothpaste; Dental Asia Manufacturing, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia). Samples were collected at 2 times: before the study began and after 30 days. Plaque specimens were collected from the labial surfaces immediately surrounding the orthodontic brackets of the maxillary lateral incisors using a 4-pass technique. The presence of S mutans was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis was performed, and comparisons were made using a 2-tailed chi-square test for categorical data (P <0.05). RESULTS: At the end of the study, there were reductions in S mutans concentration in groups 2 and 3 that were statistically significant compared with group 1, but there was no statistically significant difference between groups 2 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of probiotic curd and the use of probiotic toothpaste cause a significant decrease in the S mutans levels in the plaque around brackets in orthodontic patients. Although the probiotic toothpaste was more effective than systemic consumption, this was not statistically significant.

Jose JE; Padmanabhan S; Chitharanjan AB

2013-07-01

98

Assessment of the dimensions and surface characteristics of orthodontic wires and bracket slots  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo é avaliar as dimensões e as características superficiais de fios retangulares e slots de braquetes de diferentes marcas comerciais. MÉTODOS: trinta braquetes metálicos (0,022" x 0,028" e 0,022" x 0,030") foram divididos em três grupos: Grupo DYN/3M = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek, aço inoxidável (AI); Grupo STD/MO = Slim Morelli (AI); e Grupo NiFree/MO = Slim Morelli (Ni-Free). Já os fios retangulares (0,019" x 0,025"), de aço inoxidáve (more) l, foram divididos em 2 grupos: Grupo MO = Morelli; Grupo 3M = 3M/Unitek. As mensurações dos slots dos braquetes e dos fios foram realizadas por dois métodos: (a) microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), e (b) projeção de perfil. A análise da topografia superficial foi realizada qualitativamente, baseada em imagens microscópicas (MEV) e/ou por meio de um rugosímetro. Os resultados quantitativos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA) com o teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dimensions and surface characteristics of orthodontic wires and bracket slots of different commercial brands. METHODS: Thirty metallic brackets (0.022 x 0.028-in and 0.022 x 0.030-in) were divided in three groups: DYN/3M group = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (stainless steel, or SS); STD/MO group = Slim Morelli (SS); and Ni-Free/MO group = Slim Morelli (Ni-Free). The stainless steel wires (0.019 x 0.025in) were divided into (more) two groups: MO group = Morelli; and 3M group = 3M/Unitek. The bracket and wire measurements were done by two methods: (a) Surface Electron Microscopy (SEM), and (b) Profile projection. The surface analysis was done qualitatively, based on SEM images and/or by a rugosimeter. The quantitative results were analyzed by ANOVA with Tukey's test (p

Dolci, Gabriel Schmidt; Spohr, Ana Maria; Zimmer, Eduardo Rigon; Marchioro, Ernani Menezes

2013-04-01

99

Effects of fluorosis on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with a self-etching primer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets bonded to fluorosed and non-fluorosed teeth with self-etching primer (SEP) and phosphoric acid (PA). The study involved 40 mildly fluorosed [Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TFT) Index = 1-3] and 40 non-fluorosed human premolar teeth. The fluorosed and non-fluorosed teeth were randomly divided into two subgroups. In the first subgroup, 37 per cent PA was applied for 30 seconds and in the second, a SEP (Transbond Plus) was used. The brackets were bonded with light-cure adhesive paste (Transbond XT) and cured for 20 seconds. The SBSs were measured after 1000 thermocyclies. Two-way analysis of variance, Tukey's multiple comparison test, and Weibull analysis were used for the evaluation of SBS values. Bond failure locations were determined with the adhesive remnant index (ARI) and were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The mean SBS was 9.01 MPa for the fluorosed teeth bonded with SEP. This value was significantly different from those of fluorosed teeth etched with PA (15.22 MPa) and non-fluorosed teeth conditioned with SEP (12.95 MPa) and PA (15.37 MPa). The ARI scores of the fluorosed teeth conditioned with SEP were significantly lower than those of non-fluorosed teeth conditioned with SEP or PA. The results of this in vitro study suggest that there are no differences in the SBS of orthodontic brackets between mildly fluorosed and non-fluorosed enamel etched with 37 per cent PA for 30 seconds. The SEP showed lower SBS values for orthodontic brackets bonded to mildly fluorosed enamel. The findings provide some evidence that routine clinical use of a SEP to bond brackets to mildly fluorosed teeth cannot be supported. PMID:20841314

Isci, Devrim; Sahin Saglam, Aynur Medine; Alkis, Huseyin; Elekdag-Turk, Selma; Turk, Tamer

2010-09-13

100

Effects of fluorosis on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with a self-etching primer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets bonded to fluorosed and non-fluorosed teeth with self-etching primer (SEP) and phosphoric acid (PA). The study involved 40 mildly fluorosed [Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TFT) Index = 1-3] and 40 non-fluorosed human premolar teeth. The fluorosed and non-fluorosed teeth were randomly divided into two subgroups. In the first subgroup, 37 per cent PA was applied for 30 seconds and in the second, a SEP (Transbond Plus) was used. The brackets were bonded with light-cure adhesive paste (Transbond XT) and cured for 20 seconds. The SBSs were measured after 1000 thermocyclies. Two-way analysis of variance, Tukey's multiple comparison test, and Weibull analysis were used for the evaluation of SBS values. Bond failure locations were determined with the adhesive remnant index (ARI) and were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. The mean SBS was 9.01 MPa for the fluorosed teeth bonded with SEP. This value was significantly different from those of fluorosed teeth etched with PA (15.22 MPa) and non-fluorosed teeth conditioned with SEP (12.95 MPa) and PA (15.37 MPa). The ARI scores of the fluorosed teeth conditioned with SEP were significantly lower than those of non-fluorosed teeth conditioned with SEP or PA. The results of this in vitro study suggest that there are no differences in the SBS of orthodontic brackets between mildly fluorosed and non-fluorosed enamel etched with 37 per cent PA for 30 seconds. The SEP showed lower SBS values for orthodontic brackets bonded to mildly fluorosed enamel. The findings provide some evidence that routine clinical use of a SEP to bond brackets to mildly fluorosed teeth cannot be supported.

Isci D; Sahin Saglam AM; Alkis H; Elekdag-Turk S; Turk T

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain following etching with Er:YAG laser versus hydrofluoric acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain following etching with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser compared with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (HF). METHODS: A total of 100 porcelain disk samples were divided into four groups, and after removing their glazed layer, the first group was etched with 9.6% HF, and the other three groups were etched with Er:YAG lasers of 1.6, 2, and 3.2 W, respectively. After application of silane on the disk surfaces, central incisor brackets were bonded with composite on the disks. The disks were mounted on an acrylic stand for measuring the shear bond strengths. The shear bond strengths were measured by a testing machine. RESULTS: The mean shear bond strength in the laser group with power of 1.6 W (7.88 MPa) was more than that of the HF (7.4MPa), 2-W power (7.52 MPa), and 3.2-W power (7.45 MPa) groups, but this difference was not statistically significant. Examination with an electron microscope showed different patterns of etching by HF and laser. Also, etching by laser and HF had not resulted in cracks on the porcelain surface. CONCLUSION: Er:YAG laser can be a suitable method for bonding of orthodontic brackets to porcelain surfaces.

Yassaei S; Moradi F; Aghili H; Kamran MH

2013-01-01

102

The effect of air abrasion preparation on the shear bond strength of an orthodontic bracket bonded to enamel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to determine the method of preparation of enamel which best retains a bonded orthodontic bracket against a shear force. Two hundred and twelve human lower premolars were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group 1 underwent no air abrasion, group 2 received treatment with 25 microm aluminium oxide particles, group 3 with 50 microm particles, and group 4 with 100 microm particles. All groups were treated with a self-etching primer before bonding of an orthodontic bracket. Each tooth was tested in a JJ Lloyd M30K machine to determine the maximum shear force required to dislodge the bracket from the tooth. A one-way analysis of variance test conducted at a 95 percent confidence level (CL) demonstrated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.01) with respect to the four methods of preparation of the enamel surface. An unpaired t-test was then applied at a 95 percent CL. There was no statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2. There was, however, a statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 3 (P < 0.01), as well as between groups 1 and 4 (P < 0.01). In addition, there was significant difference found between groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.05), groups 2 and 4 (P < 0.01), and groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.05).

Halpern RM; Rouleau T

2010-04-01

103

Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded using halogen light and light-emitting diode at different debond times  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the photoactivation effects of QTH (Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen) and LED (Light-Emitting Diode) on the SBS (Shear Bond Strength) of orthodontic brackets at different debond times. Seventy-two bovine lower incisors were randomly divided into two groups according to the photoactivation system used (QTH or LED). The enamel surfaces were conditioned with Transbond self-etching primer, and APC (Adhesive Pre-Coated) brackets were used i (more) n all specimens. Group I was cured with QTH for 20 s and Group II with LED for 10 s. Both groups were subdivided according to the different experimental times after bonding (immediately, 24 h and 7 days). The specimens were tested for SBS and the enamel surfaces were analyzed according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). The statistical analysis included the Tukey's test to evaluate the main effects of photoactivation and debond time on SBS. The Chi-square test was used to compare the ARI values found for each group, and no statistically significant difference was observed. The debond time of 7 days for QTH photoactivation showed statistically greater values of SBS when compared to the immediate and 24 h periods. There was no statistically significant difference between the QTH and LED groups immediately and after the 24 h period. In conclusion, bonding orthodontic brackets with LED photoactivation for 10 s is suggested because it requires a reduced clinical chair time.

Di Nicoló, Rebeca; Araujo, Maria Amelia Maximo de; Alves, Levy Anderson César; Souza, Rodrigo Othavio de Assunção e; Rocha, Daniel Maranha da

2010-03-01

104

Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded using halogen light and light-emitting diode at different debond times  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the photoactivation effects of QTH (Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen) and LED (Light-Emitting Diode) on the SBS (Shear Bond Strength) of orthodontic brackets at different debond times. Seventy-two bovine lower incisors were randomly divided into two groups according to the photoactivation system used (QTH or LED). The enamel surfaces were conditioned with Transbond self-etching primer, and APC (Adhesive Pre-Coated) brackets were used in all specimens. Group I was cured with QTH for 20 s and Group II with LED for 10 s. Both groups were subdivided according to the different experimental times after bonding (immediately, 24 h and 7 days). The specimens were tested for SBS and the enamel surfaces were analyzed according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). The statistical analysis included the Tukey's test to evaluate the main effects of photoactivation and debond time on SBS. The Chi-square test was used to compare the ARI values found for each group, and no statistically significant difference was observed. The debond time of 7 days for QTH photoactivation showed statistically greater values of SBS when compared to the immediate and 24 h periods. There was no statistically significant difference between the QTH and LED groups immediately and after the 24 h period. In conclusion, bonding orthodontic brackets with LED photoactivation for 10 s is suggested because it requires a reduced clinical chair time.

Rebeca Di Nicoló; Maria Amelia Maximo de Araujo; Levy Anderson César Alves; Rodrigo Othavio de Assunção e Souza; Daniel Maranha da Rocha

2010-01-01

105

Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura/ Analysis of biodegradation of orthodontic brackets using scanning electron microscopy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: analisar, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, as alterações químicas e estruturais de braquetes metálicos submetidos a um processo de biodegradação in vitro. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a marca comercial dos acessórios - Grupo A = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303) e Grupo B = LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). Os corpos de prova, aparelhos ortodônticos simulados, permaneceram imersos em (more) solução salina (0,05%) por um período de 60 dias, a 37ºC, sob agitação. As alterações decorrentes da exposição dos acessórios à solução salina foram investigadas através da observação com microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV) e análise da composição química (EDX), realizadas antes e após o período de imersão (T0 e T5, respectivamente). RESULTADOS: em T5, houve formação de produtos de corrosão sobre a superfície dos braquetes, especialmente no Grupo A, além disso, houve alterações na composição da liga metálica dos braquetes de ambos os grupos, sendo que, no Grupo A, houve redução dos íons ferro e cromo e, no Grupo B, redução de íons cromo. CONCLUSÃO: os acessórios do Grupo A apresentaram-se menos resistentes à biodegradação in vitro, o que poderia estar associado ao tipo de aço utilizado em sua fabricação (AISI 303). Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze, with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the chemical and structural changes in metal brackets subjected to an in vitro biodegradation process. METHODS: The sample was divided into three groups according to brackets commercial brand names, i.e., Group A = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303) and Group B = LG standard edgewise, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). The specimens were simulated orthodontic appliances, (more) which remained immersed in saline solution (0.05%) for a period of 60 days at 37°C under agitation. The changes resulting from exposure of the brackets to the saline solution were investigated by microscopic observation (SEM) and chemical composition analysis (EDX), performed before and after the immersion period (T0 and T5, respectively). RESULTS: The results showed, at T5, the formation of products of corrosion on the surface of the brackets, especially in Group A. In addition, there were changes in the composition of the bracket alloy in both groups, whereas in group A there was a reduction in iron and chromium ions, and in Group B a reduction in chromium ions. CONCLUSIONS: The brackets in Group A were less resistant to in vitro biodegradation, which might be associated with the type of steel used by the manufacturer (AISI 303).

Menezes, Luciane Macedo de; Souza, Rodrigo Matos de; Dolci, Gabriel Schmidt; Dedavid, Berenice Anina

2010-06-01

106

Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura Analysis of biodegradation of orthodontic brackets using scanning electron microscopy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, as alterações químicas e estruturais de braquetes metálicos submetidos a um processo de biodegradação in vitro. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a marca comercial dos acessórios - Grupo A = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303) e Grupo B = LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). Os corpos de prova, aparelhos ortodônticos simulados, permaneceram imersos em solução salina (0,05%) por um período de 60 dias, a 37ºC, sob agitação. As alterações decorrentes da exposição dos acessórios à solução salina foram investigadas através da observação com microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV) e análise da composição química (EDX), realizadas antes e após o período de imersão (T0 e T5, respectivamente). RESULTADOS: em T5, houve formação de produtos de corrosão sobre a superfície dos braquetes, especialmente no Grupo A, além disso, houve alterações na composição da liga metálica dos braquetes de ambos os grupos, sendo que, no Grupo A, houve redução dos íons ferro e cromo e, no Grupo B, redução de íons cromo. CONCLUSÃO: os acessórios do Grupo A apresentaram-se menos resistentes à biodegradação in vitro, o que poderia estar associado ao tipo de aço utilizado em sua fabricação (AISI 303).OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze, with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the chemical and structural changes in metal brackets subjected to an in vitro biodegradation process. METHODS: The sample was divided into three groups according to brackets commercial brand names, i.e., Group A = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303) and Group B = LG standard edgewise, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). The specimens were simulated orthodontic appliances, which remained immersed in saline solution (0.05%) for a period of 60 days at 37°C under agitation. The changes resulting from exposure of the brackets to the saline solution were investigated by microscopic observation (SEM) and chemical composition analysis (EDX), performed before and after the immersion period (T0 and T5, respectively). RESULTS: The results showed, at T5, the formation of products of corrosion on the surface of the brackets, especially in Group A. In addition, there were changes in the composition of the bracket alloy in both groups, whereas in group A there was a reduction in iron and chromium ions, and in Group B a reduction in chromium ions. CONCLUSIONS: The brackets in Group A were less resistant to in vitro biodegradation, which might be associated with the type of steel used by the manufacturer (AISI 303).

Luciane Macedo de Menezes; Rodrigo Matos de Souza; Gabriel Schmidt Dolci; Berenice Anina Dedavid

2010-01-01

107

Packing box for mouth orthodontic material  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a packing box used for an orthodontics material, which comprises a box body, wherein, two turnover covers are articulated with the box body hinges of the two turnover covers are arranged at the middle part of the box body a plurality of grooves used for holding upper jaw orthodontics material are formed inside the box body on one side of the hinges and a plurality of the grooves used for holding lower jaw orthodontics material are formed inside the box body on the other side of the hinges. The technical scheme adopts a manner that the two turnover covers are provided and the hinges are arranged at the middle part of the box body so as to divide the packing box into two parts, the upper jaw orthodontics material and the lower jaw orthodontics material are held on two sides respectively, the two turnover covers can be opened respectively but cannot be opened at the same time, and all products are prevented from exposing and intermingling with each other when coming out together after one cover is opened.

ZHENGPU ZHANG; YUZHU SHI; YIMIN YANG

108

The effect of tooth bleaching on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using self-etching primer systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 10% carbamide peroxide and 38% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using self-etching primer systems. METHODS: Forty five freshly extracted human premolar teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 15 teeth each: control (group 1), 10% carbamide peroxide at-home bleached (group 2), and 38% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleached (group 3). Three weeks later, all brackets were bonded using a self-etching primer system. The shear bond strength of these brackets was measured and recorded in MPa. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were determined after the brackets failed. Data were analyzed using Kruskal- Wallis test, pairwise comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney U test and ARI scores were analyzed using a chi-square test at a significance level of P<.05. RESULTS: The shear bond strengths of group 1 (mean: 17.7 ± 9.7 MPa) were significantly higher (P<.05) than those of group 3 (mean: 9.9 ± 5.4 MPa). No significant differences were found between group 2 (mean: 12.3 ± 4.7) and either group 1 or group 3 (P>.05). ARI scores did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching does not significantly reduce shear bond strength values. In contrast, use of 38% hydrogen peroxide bleaching significantly reduces these values.

Akin M; Aksakalli S; Basciftci FA; Demir A

2013-01-01

109

The effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate on the in vitro shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on the shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets bonded to non-demineralized teeth with either phosphoric acid etching or self-etching primer. METHODS: Sixty human premolars were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups (n = 15 each): phosphoric acid etching (group 1); self-etching primer (group 2); CPP-ACP for 2 weeks + phosphoric acid etching (group 3), and CPP-ACP for 2 weeks + self-etching primer (group 4). After bonding of the maxillary premolar metal brackets, specimens were subjected to shear forces in a testing machine. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe etching patterns on the enamel surfaces of all teeth. A 2-way analysis of variance was used to test for effects of CPP-ACP and etching system on SBS. RESULTS: Significantly higher mean SBSs were observed in groups subjected to phosphoric acid etching (i.e., groups 1 and 3; p < 0.05). On the other hand, SBSs did not appear to be influenced by CPP-ACP (i.e., groups 3 and 4; p > 0.05). We observed a uniform and clear etched pattern on the enamel surface of the phosphoric acid etching groups. CONCLUSIONS: CPP-ACP does not significantly affect the SBS of orthodontic brackets bonded to non-demineralized teeth, regardless of which adhesive method is used to bond the brackets.

Park SY; Cha JY; Kim KN; Hwang CJ

2013-02-01

110

An evaluation of slot size in orthodontic brackets--are standards as expected?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The slots of five upper left central incisor brackets from 11 commercially available bracket systems (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif: Twin Torque Roth, Clarity MBT, and Victory Series MBT; Dentarum, Pforzheim, Germany: Discovery Roth (0.56 mm) and Elegance Plastic Roth; Forestadent, Pforzheim, Germany: Mini Mono MBT; TP LaPorte, Indiana: Nu-Edge Roth and Mxi Advant-Edge Roth; Ormco Corp., Orange, Calif: Damon II SL Roth; Ortho Organizers, San Marcos, Calif: Elite Mini Opti-MIM Roth and Elite Mini Opti-MIM MBT) were measured in the 0.022-inch (0.5588 mm) dimension. Measurements were taken after operator calibration, and a digital readout was produced. Results indicate that all bracket slots are oversized. Three bracket systems slots (Twin Torque, Clarity, and Mini Mono) were within 5% (+/-1.08, 1.655, 1.75) of their stated dimensions with essentially parallel slot walls. The Elegance Plastic slot was parallel sided but oversized by 12% (+/-1.15). The geometry of bracket slots was also variable. The Victory Series slot was slightly divergent with the top oversized by 6% (+/-1.035). The Nu-Edge slot was divergent and slot top oversized by 14% (+/-1.32). The Mxi Advant-Edge, Damon II SL, Elite Mini Opti-MIM Roth, and MBT were all convergent, and the base of the Damon slot was oversized by 17% (+/-1.79). The Discovery bracket was convergent, and the slot base was oversized by 24% (+/-1.255), which was the largest recorded variance. This bracket also had a 7% difference between the widths of the slot top and the base. Inaccurate machining of bracket slot dimensions and the use of undersized archwires may directly and adversely affect three-dimensional tooth positioning.

Cash AC; Good SA; Curtis RV; McDonald F

2004-08-01

111

Comparison of the shear bond strengths of conventional mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to compare in vitro the shear bond strength between metallic brackets (Abzil) with conventional mesh bases and metallic brackets with bases industrially sandblasted with aluminum oxide using three adhesive systems, in order to assess the influence of sandblasting on adhesiveness and to compare 3 different bonding systems. Two hundred and forty bovine incisors were used and randomly divided into 6 groups (40 teeth in each group), according to the bracket base and to the bonding system. The brackets were direct-bonded in bovine teeth with 3 adhesive systems: System A - conventional TransbondTM XT (3M - Unitek); System B - TransbondTM Plus Self Etching Primer + TransbondTM XT (3M - Unitek) and System C - Fuji ORTHO LC resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement in capsules (GC Corp.). Shear bond strength tests were performed 24 hours after bonding, in a DL-3000 universal testing machine (EMIC), using a load cell of 200 kgf and a speed of 1 mm/min. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and showed no significant difference between conventional and sandblasted bracket bases. However, comparison between the bonding systems presented significantly different results. System A (14.92 MPa) and system C (13.24 MPa) presented statistically greater shear bond strength when compared to system B (10.66 MPa). There was no statistically significant difference between system A and system C.

Isabel Cristina Prado Torres Lugato; Lilian Maria Brisque Pignatta; Flávia de Moraes Arantes; Eduardo César Almada Santos

2009-01-01

112

Comparison of the shear bond strengths of conventional mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study aimed to compare in vitro the shear bond strength between metallic brackets (Abzil) with conventional mesh bases and metallic brackets with bases industrially sandblasted with aluminum oxide using three adhesive systems, in order to assess the influence of sandblasting on adhesiveness and to compare 3 different bonding systems. Two hundred and forty bovine incisors were used and randomly divided into 6 groups (40 teeth in each group), according to the bracket b (more) ase and to the bonding system. The brackets were direct-bonded in bovine teeth with 3 adhesive systems: System A - conventional TransbondTM XT (3M - Unitek); System B - TransbondTM Plus Self Etching Primer + TransbondTM XT (3M - Unitek) and System C - Fuji ORTHO LC resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement in capsules (GC Corp.). Shear bond strength tests were performed 24 hours after bonding, in a DL-3000 universal testing machine (EMIC), using a load cell of 200 kgf and a speed of 1 mm/min. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and showed no significant difference between conventional and sandblasted bracket bases. However, comparison between the bonding systems presented significantly different results. System A (14.92 MPa) and system C (13.24 MPa) presented statistically greater shear bond strength when compared to system B (10.66 MPa). There was no statistically significant difference between system A and system C.

Lugato, Isabel Cristina Prado Torres; Pignatta, Lilian Maria Brisque; Arantes, Flávia de Moraes; Santos, Eduardo César Almada

2009-12-01

113

Influência da secção transversa de fios ortodônticos na fricção superficial de braquetes autoligados/ Influence of the cross-section of orthodontic wires on the surface friction of self-ligating brackets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a força de atrito estático entre braquetes de aço inoxidável autoligados com sistema de fechamento resiliente e fios ortodônticos redondos e retangulares do mesmo material. MÉTODOS: empregaram-se 30 braquetes referentes aos caninos superiores divididos em 6 grupos formados por braquetes autoligados Smartclip, In-Ovation R e convencionais Gemini amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. A hipótese testada neste trab (more) alho foi quanto à possibilidade dos braquetes autoligados ativos serem suscetíveis à elevação da força de atrito com o aumento e alteração da secção transversal dos fios ortodônticos. Os ensaios foram realizados com tração de 30s em fios de aço inoxidável 0,020" e 0,019"X0,025" na máquina de ensaios Emic DL 10000, com uma célula de carga de 20 newtons. Cada conjunto braquete/fio foi responsável pela geração de quatro corpos de prova, totalizando 120 leituras. As comparações entre as médias foram realizadas através da Análise de Variância (one way ANOVA) com correções pelo coeficiente de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: os braquetes autoligados apresentaram maior força de atrito do que os braquetes convencionais amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. O grupo Smartclip foi o mais efetivo no controle do atrito (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the surface friction produced by self-ligating stainless steel brackets equipped with a resilient closure system and compare the friction generated during traction of round and rectangular orthodontic wires made from the same material. METHODS: Thirty maxillary canine brackets were divided into six groups comprising SmartClip and In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets, and conventional Gemini brackets tied with elastomeric (more) ligatures. This investigation tested the hypothesis that self-ligating brackets are susceptible to increases in friction that are commensurate with increases and changes in the cross-section of orthodontic wires. Traction was performed with the aid of thirty segments of 0.020" and 0.019" x 0.025" stainless steel wires in an EMIC DL 10000 testing machine with a 2N load cell. Each set of bracket/wire generated four samples, totaling 120 readings. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (one way ANOVA) corrected with the Bonferroni coefficient. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The self-ligating brackets exhibited lower friction than conventional brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. The SmartClip group was the most effective in controlling friction (p

Buzzoni, Roberta; Elias, Carlos N.; Fernandes, Daniel J.; Miguel, José Augusto M.

2011-08-01

114

Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following commercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines (more) , was measured by an operator using an optical microscope coupled to a computer. The values were compared to those established by the MBT prescription. RESULTS: The results showed that for the maxillary canine brackets, only the Morelli torque (-3.33º) presented statistically significant difference from the proposed values (-7º). For the mandibular canines, American Orthodontics (-6.34º) and Ortho Organizers (-6.25º) presented statistically significant differences from the standards (-6º). Comparing the brands, Morelli presented statistically significant differences in comparison with all the other brands for maxillary canine brackets. For the mandibular canine brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the brands. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant variations in torque values of some of the brackets assessed, which would clinically compromise the buccolingual positioning of the tooth at the end of orthodontic treatment.

Streva, Alessandra Motta; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Carvalho, Paulo Eduardo Guedes

2011-08-01

115

Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following commercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines, was measured by an operator using an optical microscope coupled to a computer. The values were compared to those established by the MBT prescription. RESULTS: The results showed that for the maxillary canine brackets, only the Morelli torque (-3.33º) presented statistically significant difference from the proposed values (-7º). For the mandibular canines, American Orthodontics (-6.34º) and Ortho Organizers (-6.25º) presented statistically significant differences from the standards (-6º). Comparing the brands, Morelli presented statistically significant differences in comparison with all the other brands for maxillary canine brackets. For the mandibular canine brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the brands. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant variations in torque values of some of the brackets assessed, which would clinically compromise the buccolingual positioning of the tooth at the end of orthodontic treatment.

Alessandra Motta Streva; Flávio Augusto Cotrim-Ferreira; Daniela Gamba Garib; Paulo Eduardo Guedes Carvalho

2011-01-01

116

Avaliação da superfície da porcelana após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos Porcelain surface evaluation after debonding of orthodontic brackets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tempo de condicionamento ácido em superfície de porcelana e o estado desta após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizadas 20 amostras de porcelana feldspática para esmalte (Duceram-LFC) divididas em 2 grupos de acordo com o tempo de condicionamento com ácido fluorídico 10% (15 segundos e 1 minuto). Após o ataque ácido, foi aplicado silano (3M Scotchbond), adesivo resinoso (Optibond Solo Plus) e resina (Fill Magic) nestas superfícies. A descolagem foi realizada através de força de cisalhamento numa máquina universal de ensaios (DL 500 - EMIC) calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/minuto. O índice do adesivo remanescente (ARI) nas superfícies cerâmicas e o estado destas após a remoção dos braquetes foram avaliados através de fotos digitais. RESULTADOS: no grupo 15 segundos, a força de adesão média foi de 3,63MPa, significantemente inferior à do grupo 1 minuto, que foi de 7,18MPa (pAIM: the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acid conditioning time in porcelain surface and its characteristics after debonding of orthodontic brackets. METHODS: twenty samples of feldspathic porcelain for enamel (Duceram-LFC) were divided in 2 groups according with the amount of time of acid conditioning with hydrofluoric acid 10% (15 seconds and 1 minute). After acid etching, it was applied silane (3M Scotchbond), adhesive (Optibond Solo Plus) and resin (Fill Magic) in these surfaces. The debonding was done with shear strength through a universal testing machine (DL 500 - EMIC) calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5mm/minute. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) in the porcelain surfaces and their characteristics after removal of the brackets were evaluated through digital pictures. RESULTS: in the 15 seconds group, the mean bond strength was 3.63Mpa, significantly lower than the 1 minute group, that was 7.18Mpa (p<0.0001). All fractures during debonding were cohesive in the composite resin layer (70%) or bond between the bracket and the resin (30%). In relation to the ARI analysis, the Chi-square test showed no statistically significant difference between both groups. CONCLUSION: conditioning with hydrofluoric acid 10% for 1 minute, followed by the application of silane, adhesive and resin was considered the best porcelain preparation method before orthodontic bonding.

André Moreira Mattos; Jonas Capelli Júnior

2006-01-01

117

Preparation of an orthodontic bracket coated with an nitrogen-doped TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film and examination of its antimicrobial performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A bracket coated with a nitrogen-doped (N-doped) TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film was prepared using the RF magnetron sputtering method. The physicochemical properties of the thin film were measured using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, while the antimicrobial activity of the bracket against common oral pathogenic microbes was assessed on the basis of colony counts. The rate of antimicrobial activity of the bracket coated with nano-TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces viscous, and Candida albicans was 95.19%, 91.00%, 69.44%, and 98.86%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that fewer microbes adhered to the surface of this newly designed bracket than to the surface of the normal edgewise bracket. The brackets coated with the N-doped TiO(2-x)N(y) thin film showed high antimicrobial and bacterial adhesive properties against normal oral pathogenic bacterial through visible light, which is effective in prevention of enamel demineralization and gingivitis in orthodontic patients.

Cao B; Wang Y; Li N; Liu B; Zhang Y

2013-01-01

118

The effect of acidulated phosphate fluoride incorporated phosphoric acid etchant on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) to phosphoric acid etchant on shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of orthodontic brackets bonded to etched teeth. METHODS: In this in vitro experimental study, 40 human premolars were etched with 37% phosphoric acid solution (Dentsply) blended with 0, 25%, 50%, and 75% fractions of 1.23% APF (Dentsply). The brackets (Mini Dyna Lock, 3M) were bonded (Transbond XT, 3M) and were subjected to 96 hours of 37°C incubation and thermocycling procedures (2000 cycles, 5-55°C, dwell time = 30 s). Then, they were debonded at 1-mm crosshead speed to measure the SBS. The ARI was estimated at 10× magnification. The data were analyzed using the tests one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey, chi-square, one-sample t-test, and Spearman correlation. RESULTS: The SBS of the groups control, 25%, 50%, and 75% APF were 11.90±2.72, 8.01±3.13, 5.40±2.51, and 3.27±2.01 MPa, respectively. Mean ARI scores of these groups were 2.4 (control), 4.3, 4.7, and 4.8, respectively. According to the Tukey's test, only the mean SBS of the second group (25%) was not different from the control group (P=0.091). CONCLUSION: Adding about 20-25% of 1.23% APF to the phosphoric acid etchant might considerably reduce the amount of residual adhesive, without compromising the SBS.

Khosravanifard B; Yazdani R; Rakhshan H; Rakhshan V

2011-10-01

119

Plaque retention by self-ligating vs elastomeric orthodontic brackets: quantitative comparison of oral bacteria and detection with adenosine triphosphate-driven bioluminescence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Enamel decalcification is a common problem in orthodontics. The objectives of this randomized clinical study were to enumerate and compare plaque bacteria surrounding 2 bracket types, self-ligating (SL) vs elastomeric ligating (E), and to determine whether adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-driven bioluminescence could be used for rapid assessment of bacterial load in plaque. METHODS: Patients (ages, 11-17 years) were bonded with SL and E brackets in 14 maxillary and 12 mandibular arches by using a split-mouth design. Recall visits were at 1 and 5 weeks after bonding. Plaque specimens were assayed for oral bacteria and subjected to ATP-driven bioluminescence determinations with a luciferin-based assay. RESULTS: In most patients, teeth bonded with SL attachments had fewer bacteria in plaque than did teeth bonded with E brackets. At 1 and 5 weeks after bonding, the means for SL vs E brackets were statistically lower for total bacteria and oral streptococci (P <0.05). ATP bioluminescence values were statistically correlated to the total oral bacteria and oral streptococci, with correlation coefficients of 0.895 and 0.843, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SL appliances promote reduced retention of oral bacteria, and ATP bioluminescence might be a useful tool in the rapid quantification of bacterial load and the assessment of oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment.

Pellegrini P; Sauerwein R; Finlayson T; McLeod J; Covell DA Jr; Maier T; Machida CA

2009-04-01

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Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement or resin-based composite  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU (colony forming units) in the saliva and plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with a glass ionomer cement - GIC (Fuji Ortho) or a resin-based composite - RC (Concise). Twenty male and female patients, aged 12 to 20 years, participated in the study. Saliva was collected before and after placement of appliances. Plaque was collected from areas adjacent to brackets and saliva was again collected on the 15th, 30th, and 45th day after placement. On the 30th day, 0.4% stannous fluoride gel was applied for 4 minutes. No significant modification in the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU in saliva was observed after placement of the fixed orthodontic appliances. On the 15th day, the percentage of Streptococcus mutans CFU in plaque was statistically lower in sites adjacent to GIC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.365) than in those adjacent to RC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.935). No evidence was found of a contribution of GIC to the reduction of CFU in plaque after the 15th day. Topical application of stannous fluoride gel on the 30th day reduced the number of CFU in saliva, but not in plaque. This study suggests that the antimicrobial activity of GIC occurs only in the initial phase and is not responsible for a long-term anticariogenic property.

Solange Machado Mota; Carla Enoki; Izabel Yoko Ito; Ana Maria Elias; Mírian Aiko Nakane Matsumoto

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Microbial adhesion on different bracket types in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that there are differences in total bacterial counts and capacity for biofilm formation between seven different bracket types. MATERIAL AND METHODS: By means of an in vitro experiment, seven commercially available bracket systems (Damon [A], Clarity [B], Mystique [C], Speed [D], Victory MBT [E], Micro-loc [F], and Generus [G]) were compared. A total of 25 premolar brackets of each bracket system were incubated in brain heart infusion medium containing the saliva and bacteria of two orthodontic patients. After 72 hours, the amounts of aerobe and anaerobe bacteria were determined by counting the colony-forming units (CFU). The CFU ratio (aerobe/anaerobe) also was calculated, and the black pigmented bacteria were analyzed. RESULTS: Significant differences between the different bracket types in terms of biofilm formation were found. Bracket types can be arbitrarily divided into low, intermediate, and high plaque-retaining brackets. The group with low adhesion consists of bracket types E, F, and G; the group with high adhesion of bracket types A, B, and C; and type D exhibits intermediate adhesion. The group with high microbial adhesion (A, B, and C) did present significantly lower CFU ratios (aerobe/anaerobe) than were exhibited by the other bracket systems (P < .05). CONCLUSION: The hypothesis is accepted. Orthodontic brackets serve as different loci for biofilm formation; in this in vitro study, significant differences were noted between the different types of brackets.

van Gastel J; Quirynen M; Teughels W; Pauwels M; Coucke W; Carels C

2009-09-01

122

Clinical evaluation of the failure rates of metallic brackets  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo the bonding of metallic orthodontic brackets with different adhesive systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients (10.5-15.1 years old) who had sought corrective orthodontic treatment at a University Orthodontic Clinic were evaluated. Brackets were bonded from the right second premolar to the left second premolar in the upper and lower arches using: Orthodontic Concise, conventional Transbond XT, Transbond XT without primer, and Transbond XT associated with Transbond Plus Self-etching Primer (TPSEP). The 4 adhesive systems were used in all patients using a split-mouth design; each adhesive system was used in one quadrant of each dental arch, so that each group of 5 patients received the same bonding sequence. Initial archwires were inserted 1 week after bracket bonding. The number of bracket failures for each adhesive system was quantified over a 6-month period. RESULTS: The number of debonded brackets was: 8- Orthodontic Concise, 2- conventional Transbond XT, 9- Transbond XT without primer, and 1- Transbond XT + TPSEP. By using the Kaplan-Meier methods, statistically significant differences were found between the materials (p=0.0198), and the Logrank test identified these differences. Conventional Transbond XT and Transbond XT + TPSEP adhesive systems were statistically superior to Orthodontic Concise and Transbond XT without primer (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the dental arches (upper and lower), between the dental arch sides (right and left), and among the quadrants. CONCLUSIONS: The largest number of bracket failures occurred with Orthodontic Concise and Transbond XT without primer systems and few bracket failures occurred with conventional Transbond XT and Transbond XT+TPSEP. More bracket failures were observed in the posterior region compared with the anterior region.

Fábio Lourenço Romano; Américo Bortolazzo Correr; Lourenço Correr-Sobrinho; Maria Beatriz Borges de Araújo Magnani; Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas

2012-01-01

123

Effect of fluoride solutions on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar in vitro a resistência adesiva de bráquetes após o pré-tratamento do esmalte com diferentes soluções fluoretadas. Foram utilizados 48 incisivos bovinos hígidos recém-extraídos que foram aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos experimentais (n=12). CG (controle): sem tratamento; FN: aplicação de flúor neutro por 4 min; FFA: aplicação de flúor fosfato acidulado (FFA) a 1,23% por 4 min; e VFS: aplicação de verniz de fluo (more) reto de sódio a 5% por 6 h. Após o tratamento dos grupos, foi realizada a profilaxia do esmalte e os bráquetes foram fixados utilizando o compósito Transbond XT (3M), seguindo as especificações do fabricante. A resistência adesiva foi verificada através do teste de cisalhamento, realizado na Máquina de Ensaio Universal DL-2000 24 h após a fixação dos bráquetes. As superfícies dos dentes foram analisadas para verificação do índice de adesivo remanescente (IAR). Por meio dos testes estatísticos ANOVA e Tukey (?=5%), observou-se diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos estudados (p Abstract in english The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets after pre-treatment with different fluoride solutions. This study used 48 freshly extracted sound bovine incisors that were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups (n=12). CG: (control) without treatment; NF: 4 min application of neutral fluoride; APF: application of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) for 4 min; and SFV: application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish for 6 h. For each (more) group, after surface treatment, prophylaxis of enamel and bracket bonding with Transbond XT composite resin (3M) were performed following the manufacturer's specifications. The shear bond strength was performed with a universal testing machine 24 h after fixing the brackets. The tooth surfaces were analyzed to verify the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). There was statistically significant difference among the groups (p

Leódido, Gabriela da Rocha; Fernandes, Hianna Oliveira; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Presoto, Cristina Dupim; Bandéca, Matheus Coêlho; Firoozmand, Leily Macedo

2012-01-01

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Gram-negative periodontal pathogens and bacterial endotoxin in metallic orthodontic brackets with or without an antimicrobial agent: an in-vivo study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: High levels of periodontal pathogens can cause periodontal alterations. The presence of endotoxin might be responsible for the occurrence and progression of tissue inflammation and bone resorption. The aims of this study were to use checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization and limulus amebocyte lysate assay to evaluate in metallic orthodontic brackets (1) the presence of 16 gram-negative periodontal pathogenic microorganisms of the orange complex and red complex +Treponema socranskii, (2) the amount of bacterial endotoxin, and (3) the efficacy of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in reducing bacterial contamination and endotoxin amount. METHODS: Thirty-three patients (ages, 11-33 years) under orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances had 3 new metallic brackets bonded to 3 different premolars. Sixteen patients used a 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash (Periogard, Colgate-Palmolive, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil) (experimental group), and 17 patients used a placebo mouthwash (control group) twice a week. After 30 days, the brackets were removed, and the samples were obtained. The data were analyzed statistically by Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (? = 0.05). RESULTS: The 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate group accumulated significantly lower levels of microorganisms than did the placebo group (P = 0.01). When each microbial complex was analyzed separately, a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups was found for the orange complex (P = 0.04). A greater amount of bacterial endotoxin was detected in the 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate group than in the control group (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate oral rinses can be useful to reduce the levels of gram-negative periodontal pathogenic microorganisms in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Considering the increased amount of bacterial endotoxin after chlorhexidine gluconate use, further research is necessary to develop clinical procedures or antimicrobial agents with action against bacterial endotoxin adhering to metallic brackets.

Nelson-Filho P; Valdez RM; Andrucioli MC; Saraiva MC; Feres M; Sorgi CA; Faccioli LH

2011-12-01

125

In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metálicas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN). Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corr (more) osão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5) e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5) contendo flúor (2g/l), todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chromium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliv (more) a (pH 6.5) and four in saliva (pH 6.5) containing fluoride (2 g/l), all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.

Saporeti, Mônica Pereira; Mazzieiro, Enio Tonani; Sales, Wisley Falcco

2012-12-01

126

In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chromium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four in saliva (pH 6.5) containing fluoride (2 g/l), all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metálicas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN). Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5) e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5) contendo flúor (2g/l), todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão.

Mônica Pereira Saporeti; Enio Tonani Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco Sales

2012-01-01

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Avaliação da superfície da porcelana após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos/ Porcelain surface evaluation after debonding of orthodontic brackets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tempo de condicionamento ácido em superfície de porcelana e o estado desta após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizadas 20 amostras de porcelana feldspática para esmalte (Duceram-LFC) divididas em 2 grupos de acordo com o tempo de condicionamento com ácido fluorídico 10% (15 segundos e 1 minuto). Após o ataque ácido, foi aplicado silano (3M Scotchbond), adesivo resinoso (more) (Optibond Solo Plus) e resina (Fill Magic) nestas superfícies. A descolagem foi realizada através de força de cisalhamento numa máquina universal de ensaios (DL 500 - EMIC) calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/minuto. O índice do adesivo remanescente (ARI) nas superfícies cerâmicas e o estado destas após a remoção dos braquetes foram avaliados através de fotos digitais. RESULTADOS: no grupo 15 segundos, a força de adesão média foi de 3,63MPa, significantemente inferior à do grupo 1 minuto, que foi de 7,18MPa (p Abstract in english AIM: the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acid conditioning time in porcelain surface and its characteristics after debonding of orthodontic brackets. METHODS: twenty samples of feldspathic porcelain for enamel (Duceram-LFC) were divided in 2 groups according with the amount of time of acid conditioning with hydrofluoric acid 10% (15 seconds and 1 minute). After acid etching, it was applied silane (3M Scotchbond), adhesive (Optibond Solo Plus) and resin (more) (Fill Magic) in these surfaces. The debonding was done with shear strength through a universal testing machine (DL 500 - EMIC) calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5mm/minute. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) in the porcelain surfaces and their characteristics after removal of the brackets were evaluated through digital pictures. RESULTS: in the 15 seconds group, the mean bond strength was 3.63Mpa, significantly lower than the 1 minute group, that was 7.18Mpa (p

Mattos, André Moreira; Capelli Júnior, Jonas

2006-10-01

128

Influência da secção transversa de fios ortodônticos na fricção superficial de braquetes autoligados Influence of the cross-section of orthodontic wires on the surface friction of self-ligating brackets  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a força de atrito estático entre braquetes de aço inoxidável autoligados com sistema de fechamento resiliente e fios ortodônticos redondos e retangulares do mesmo material. MÉTODOS: empregaram-se 30 braquetes referentes aos caninos superiores divididos em 6 grupos formados por braquetes autoligados Smartclip, In-Ovation R e convencionais Gemini amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. A hipótese testada neste trabalho foi quanto à possibilidade dos braquetes autoligados ativos serem suscetíveis à elevação da força de atrito com o aumento e alteração da secção transversal dos fios ortodônticos. Os ensaios foram realizados com tração de 30s em fios de aço inoxidável 0,020" e 0,019"X0,025" na máquina de ensaios Emic DL 10000, com uma célula de carga de 20 newtons. Cada conjunto braquete/fio foi responsável pela geração de quatro corpos de prova, totalizando 120 leituras. As comparações entre as médias foram realizadas através da Análise de Variância (one way ANOVA) com correções pelo coeficiente de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: os braquetes autoligados apresentaram maior força de atrito do que os braquetes convencionais amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. O grupo Smartclip foi o mais efetivo no controle do atrito (pOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the surface friction produced by self-ligating stainless steel brackets equipped with a resilient closure system and compare the friction generated during traction of round and rectangular orthodontic wires made from the same material. METHODS: Thirty maxillary canine brackets were divided into six groups comprising SmartClip and In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets, and conventional Gemini brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. This investigation tested the hypothesis that self-ligating brackets are susceptible to increases in friction that are commensurate with increases and changes in the cross-section of orthodontic wires. Traction was performed with the aid of thirty segments of 0.020" and 0.019" x 0.025" stainless steel wires in an EMIC DL 10000 testing machine with a 2N load cell. Each set of bracket/wire generated four samples, totaling 120 readings. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (one way ANOVA) corrected with the Bonferroni coefficient. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The self-ligating brackets exhibited lower friction than conventional brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. The SmartClip group was the most effective in controlling friction (p <0.01). The hypothesis under test was confirmed to the extent that the traction performed with rectangular 0.019" x 0.025" cross-section wires resulted in higher friction forces than those observed in the 0.020" round wire groups (p<0.01). The SmartClip system was more effective even when the traction produced by rectangular wires was compared with the In-Ovation R brackets combined with round wires (p<0.01).

Roberta Buzzoni; Carlos N. Elias; Daniel J. Fernandes; José Augusto M. Miguel

2011-01-01

129

Friction between different wire bracket combinations in artificial saliva--an in vitro evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective this work was to assess the friction coefficient between brackets and wires of different materials under conditions simulating the oral environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stainless steel (SS) and titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA) wires of 0.019x0.025-in diameter (American Orthodontics) and polycarbonate bracket (American Orthodontics), ceramic bracket (American Orthodontics), and metal bracket (3M Unitek) with slots of 0.022x0.030-in were used. The friction coefficient was assessed by means of mechanical traction with the system immersed in artificial saliva. The mean roughness of both wire surface and bracket slots was evaluated by using a surface profilometer. RESULTS: The system using TMA wire and polycarbonate bracket had the highest roughness (p<0.05). SS wire with ceramic bracket had the highest friction coefficient, whereas the use of metallic bracket yielded the lowest (p<0.05). However, it was observed a statistically significant difference in the system using TMA wire and ceramic bracket compared to that using TMA wire and polycarbonate bracket (p=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Ceramic brackets in association with SS wire should be judiciously used, since this system showed a high friction coefficient.

Fidalgo TK; Pithon MM; Maciel JV; Bolognese AM

2011-01-01

130

Estudo comparativo de seis tipos de braquetes ortodônticos quanto à força de adesão/ A comparative study of six types of orthodontic brackets with regard to bond strength  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: a realização de um diagnóstico acurado, assim como a correta seleção de materiais, especificamente dos braquetes, são requisitos importantes para o êxito da terapia ortodôntica. OBJETIVOS: investigar a influência de variados tipos de desenho da base de braquetes na força de adesão. METODOLOGIA: seis modelos foram avaliados mediante ensaio de cisalhamento - Discovery (Dentaurum) - metálico com retenções por laser e 13,12mm² de área da base; Mo (more) nobloc (Morelli) - metálico em corpo único com protuberâncias e 10,22mm² de área; Edgewise Standard (Ortho Organizers) - metálico com base MIM (Metal Injection Molding) e 12,02mm² de área; Illusion Plus (Ortho Organizers) - porcelana com sulcos de retenção e 13,49mm² de área; Composite (Morelli) - policarbonato com protuberâncias para retenção mecânica e 14,68mm² de área; e Edgewise Standard (Morelli) - metálico com tela de retenção e 14,31mm² de área. Os braquetes foram colados em dentes bovinos (incisivos) com o sistema adesivo Fill Magic Ortodôntico (Vigodent), para a realização do teste. O ensaio foi executado em uma máquina de ensaios universal (EMIC), e a força de adesão foi computada, no momento da cisão, pelo software TESC, versão 3.01, medida em Newtons (N) e em Megapascal (Mpa). RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: não houve diferença estatística entre os braquetes testados, sendo que o grupo que apresentou a maior média de força de adesão foi o Discovery com 10,12Mpa. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: An accurate diagnosis as well as the correct selection of materials, brackets in particular, are important pre-requisites for success in orthodontic therapy. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of various brackets-base designs on bond strength. METHODS: Six models were evaluated by a test of sheer bond strength: Discovery (Dentaurum) - metallic with laser grooves and 13.12mm² of base area; Monobloc (Morelli) - metallic one-piece with rai (more) sed bumps and 10.22mm² of area; Edgewise Standard (Ortho Organizers) - metallic with MIM (Metal Injection Molding) and 12.02mm² of area; Illusion Plus (Ortho Organizers) - ceramic with retention ridges and 13.49mm² of area; Composite (Morelli) - polycarbonate with raised bumps for mechanical retention with 14.68mm² of area; and Edgewise Standard (Morelli) - metallic with single mesh and 14.31mm² of area. The brackets were bonded on bovine teeth with Fill Magic Ortodôntico (Vigodent) bond agent, for testing. The study was conduced in a universal test machine (EMIC), and the bond strength was recorded at the moment of split by TESC software, 3.01 version; it was calculated in newtons (N) and megapascal (Mpa). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: No statistical difference among tested brackets was found, and the group with the greatest average bond strength was Discovery with 10,12Mpa.

Fleischmann, Leonardo de Aquino; Sobral, Márcio Costa; Santos Júnior, Gildo Coelho; Habib, Fernando

2008-08-01

131

Estudo comparativo de seis tipos de braquetes ortodônticos quanto à força de adesão A comparative study of six types of orthodontic brackets with regard to bond strength  

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Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a realização de um diagnóstico acurado, assim como a correta seleção de materiais, especificamente dos braquetes, são requisitos importantes para o êxito da terapia ortodôntica. OBJETIVOS: investigar a influência de variados tipos de desenho da base de braquetes na força de adesão. METODOLOGIA: seis modelos foram avaliados mediante ensaio de cisalhamento - Discovery (Dentaurum) - metálico com retenções por laser e 13,12mm² de área da base; Monobloc (Morelli) - metálico em corpo único com protuberâncias e 10,22mm² de área; Edgewise Standard (Ortho Organizers) - metálico com base MIM (Metal Injection Molding) e 12,02mm² de área; Illusion Plus (Ortho Organizers) - porcelana com sulcos de retenção e 13,49mm² de área; Composite (Morelli) - policarbonato com protuberâncias para retenção mecânica e 14,68mm² de área; e Edgewise Standard (Morelli) - metálico com tela de retenção e 14,31mm² de área. Os braquetes foram colados em dentes bovinos (incisivos) com o sistema adesivo Fill Magic Ortodôntico (Vigodent), para a realização do teste. O ensaio foi executado em uma máquina de ensaios universal (EMIC), e a força de adesão foi computada, no momento da cisão, pelo software TESC, versão 3.01, medida em Newtons (N) e em Megapascal (Mpa). RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: não houve diferença estatística entre os braquetes testados, sendo que o grupo que apresentou a maior média de força de adesão foi o Discovery com 10,12Mpa.INTRODUCTION: An accurate diagnosis as well as the correct selection of materials, brackets in particular, are important pre-requisites for success in orthodontic therapy. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of various brackets-base designs on bond strength. METHODS: Six models were evaluated by a test of sheer bond strength: Discovery (Dentaurum) - metallic with laser grooves and 13.12mm² of base area; Monobloc (Morelli) - metallic one-piece with raised bumps and 10.22mm² of area; Edgewise Standard (Ortho Organizers) - metallic with MIM (Metal Injection Molding) and 12.02mm² of area; Illusion Plus (Ortho Organizers) - ceramic with retention ridges and 13.49mm² of area; Composite (Morelli) - polycarbonate with raised bumps for mechanical retention with 14.68mm² of area; and Edgewise Standard (Morelli) - metallic with single mesh and 14.31mm² of area. The brackets were bonded on bovine teeth with Fill Magic Ortodôntico (Vigodent) bond agent, for testing. The study was conduced in a universal test machine (EMIC), and the bond strength was recorded at the moment of split by TESC software, 3.01 version; it was calculated in newtons (N) and megapascal (Mpa). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: No statistical difference among tested brackets was found, and the group with the greatest average bond strength was Discovery with 10,12Mpa.

Leonardo de Aquino Fleischmann; Márcio Costa Sobral; Gildo Coelho Santos Júnior; Fernando Habib

2008-01-01

132

The Shear Bond Strengths of Metal and Ceramic Brackets: An in-Vitro Comparative Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim: This study has compared the Shear Bond Strengths (SBSs) of ceramic brackets and metal brackets. Materials and Method: Forty freshly extracted, human maxillary first premolars were selected for bonding. They were equally bonded with ceramic brackets (Transcend series 6000) and metal brackets (Mini Dynalock Straight wire brackets). A no - mix orthodontic adhesive system was used. Their shear bond strengths were measured by using the Instron universal machine. Results: The mean bond strength of the ceramic brackets was 20.68 ± 3.89 Mpa and that of the metal brackets was 12.15 ± 1.32 MPa. Conclusion: The shear bond strength of the ceramic brackets was found to be superior than that of the metal brackets.

Reddy YG; Sharma R; Singh A; Agrawal V; Agrawal V; Chaturvedi S

2013-07-01

133

The Shear Bond Strengths of Metal and Ceramic Brackets: An in-Vitro Comparative Study  

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Aim: This study has compared the Shear Bond Strengths (SBSs) of ceramic brackets and metal brackets. Materials and Method: Forty freshly extracted, human maxillary first premolars were selected for bonding. They were equally bonded with ceramic brackets (Transcend series 6000) and metal brackets (Mini Dynalock Straight wire brackets). A no – mix orthodontic adhesive system was used. Their shear bond strengths were measured by using the Instron universal machine. Results: The mean bond strength of the ceramic brackets was 20.68 ± 3.89 Mpa and that of the metal brackets was 12.15 ± 1.32 MPa. Conclusion: The shear bond strength of the ceramic brackets was found to be superior than that of the metal brackets.

Reddy, Y G; Sharma, Rohit; Singh, Ammandeep; Agrawal, Vishal; Agrawal, Vijay; Chaturvedi, Saurab

2013-01-01

134

Suitability of orthodontic brackets for rebonding and reworking following removal by air pressure pulses and conventional debracketing techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To test the null hypothesis that there are no significant differences in the reusability of debonded brackets with regard to debonding technique and adhesive used. METHOD: Ninety-six osteotomed third molars were randomly assigned to two study groups (n = 48) for bonding of a 0.018-inch bracket (Ormesh, Ormco) with either a composite adhesive (Mono-Lok2; RMO) or a glass ionomer cement (GIC; Fuji Ortho LC;GC). Each of these two groups were then randomly divided into four subgroups (n = 12) according to the method of debonding using (1) bracket removal pliers (BRP; Dentaurum), (2) a side cutter (SC; Dentaurum), (3) a lift-off debracketing instrument (LODI; 3M-Unitek), or (4) an air pressure pulse device (CoronaFlex; KaVo). The brackets were subsequently assessed visually for reusability and reworkability with 2x magnification and by pull testing with a 0.017- x 0.025-inch steel archwire. The proportions of reusable brackets were individually compared in terms of mode of removal and with regard to adhesives using the Fisher exact test (alpha = 5%). RESULTS: The null hypothesis was rejected. Not taking into account the debonding method, brackets bonded with GIC were judged to a significant extent (81%; n = 39; P < .01) to be reworkable compared with those bonded with composite (56%; n = 27). All brackets in both adhesive groups removed with either the LODI or the CoronaFlex were found to be reusable, whereas 79% (46%) of the brackets removed with the BRP (SC) were not. The proportion of reusable brackets differed significantly between modes of removal (P < .01). CONCLUSION: With regard to bracket reusability, the SC and the BRP cannot be recommended for debonding brackets, especially in combination with a composite adhesive.

Knösel M; Mattysek S; Jung K; Kubein-Meesenburg D; Sadat-Khonsari R; Ziebolz D

2010-07-01

135

The role of friction in orthodontics  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sliding mechanics is widely used during orthodontic treatment. One of the disadvantages of this mechanics is the friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface, which may reduce the amount of desired orthodontic movement obtained. Due to the application and great acceptance of this type of mechanics, the role of friction in Orthodontics has been of interest for both clinicians and scientists. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, this article discussed how friction affects orthodontic tooth movement, with an approach to its clinical implications as well as the evolution of dental materials and its properties regarding resistance to sliding.

Mariana Ribeiro Pacheco; Wellington Corrêa Jansen; Dauro Douglas Oliveira

2012-01-01

136

Intraoral aging of orthodontic materials: the picture we miss and its clinical relevance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this editorial is to systematically analyze the variety and potency of various aging variables affecting the morphology, structure, and mechanical properties of polymeric and metallic orthodontic materials. The effects of aging on the longevity of the bond strength and mechanotherapy were analyzed: aging-induced plasticization of resin adhesives might lead to bond failure at forces of magnitude lower than those sustained at the initiation of treatment. Standard in vitro methodologies cannot show this effect, and thus laboratory bond strength protocols require modification to become clinically meaningful. Also, the force transferred from an activated archwire to a preadjusted bracket slot, as well as friction during free sliding, seems to be affected by the intraorally induced alteration of materials. Although the effect of intraoral environmental conditions on the superelastic properties of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires and coil springs requires further research to establish the true spectrum of effects, it has been suggested that intraoral temperature variations might transiently affect their properties and that the fracture resistance of used Ni-Ti wires is reduced. Clinical implications are discussed for (1) in vivo-aged elastomeric ligatures and chains, which can be postulated to express much higher creep than their in vitro-aged counterparts; (2) the largely unknown effect of aging on the spring component of self-ligated brackets and the associated effect on ligation force; and (3) the intraorally induced alterations in the structural conformation of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif). The objective of future research efforts in the field of orthodontic materials should include the development of clinically relevant methodologies. A clear definition of limitations of laboratory experimental configurations might be instrumental in confining the clinical impact of research findings to their actual extent. PMID:15821684

Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph

2005-04-01

137

Intraoral aging of orthodontic materials: the picture we miss and its clinical relevance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this editorial is to systematically analyze the variety and potency of various aging variables affecting the morphology, structure, and mechanical properties of polymeric and metallic orthodontic materials. The effects of aging on the longevity of the bond strength and mechanotherapy were analyzed: aging-induced plasticization of resin adhesives might lead to bond failure at forces of magnitude lower than those sustained at the initiation of treatment. Standard in vitro methodologies cannot show this effect, and thus laboratory bond strength protocols require modification to become clinically meaningful. Also, the force transferred from an activated archwire to a preadjusted bracket slot, as well as friction during free sliding, seems to be affected by the intraorally induced alteration of materials. Although the effect of intraoral environmental conditions on the superelastic properties of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) archwires and coil springs requires further research to establish the true spectrum of effects, it has been suggested that intraoral temperature variations might transiently affect their properties and that the fracture resistance of used Ni-Ti wires is reduced. Clinical implications are discussed for (1) in vivo-aged elastomeric ligatures and chains, which can be postulated to express much higher creep than their in vitro-aged counterparts; (2) the largely unknown effect of aging on the spring component of self-ligated brackets and the associated effect on ligation force; and (3) the intraorally induced alterations in the structural conformation of Invisalign appliances (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif). The objective of future research efforts in the field of orthodontic materials should include the development of clinically relevant methodologies. A clear definition of limitations of laboratory experimental configurations might be instrumental in confining the clinical impact of research findings to their actual extent.

Eliades T; Bourauel C

2005-04-01

138

Hypersensitivity to conventional and to nickel-free orthodontic brackets/ Hipersensibilidade a bráquetes ortodônticos convencionais e a bráquetes "nickel-free"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade alergênica provocada pelos bráquetes ortodônticos, comparando a sensibilidade cutânea provocada pelos metais presentes nos bráquetes metálicos convencionais com a provocada por bráquetes com baixa concentração de níquel ("nickel-free"). A amostra foi selecionada dos 400 pacientes em tratamento da clínica de Ortodontia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil), no per? (more) ?odo compreendido entre o início de 2002 e o final de 2003. A amostra consistiu de 58 pacientes (30 homens e 28 mulheres), com idades variando de 11 a 30 anos, os quais eram portadores de aparelho ortodôntico fixo Morelli® em ambos os arcos. Estes pacientes foram diagnosticados quanto à sensibilidade ao níquel, por meio da aplicação do "patch test" com sulfato de níquel a 5%. Em uma segunda fase, trinta dias após o "patch test", comparou-se a sensibilidade cutânea provocada pelos metais presentes nos bráquetes convencionais e nos "Nickel Free", por meio de um teste de sensibilidade cutânea utilizando-se dois tipos de corpos-de-provas, em formato de disco, com a mesma composição destes bráquetes. A área de eleição para realização deste teste foi a parte interna do antebraço, sendo aplicados vinte corpos-de-prova de cada experimento (referente a uma boca completa de bráquetes). Dos 58 pacientes avaliados, 16 deles foram sensíveis ao "patch test" com sulfato de níquel a 5%. Dentre estes 16 pacientes, 12 deles desenvolveram reação alérgica ao Experimento 1 (corpo-de-prova com níquel), enquanto que no Experimento 2 (corpo-de-prova "Niquel Free") apenas 5 pacientes apresentaram sensibilidade a esta amostra. O teste de McNemar revelou que os corpos-de-prova "nickel-free" provocaram menor reação alérgica quando comparados aos convencionais (p = 0.016). Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the allergenic potential of orthodontic brackets, comparing the cutaneous sensitivity provoked by metals present in conventional metallic brackets to that provoked by brackets with a low concentration of nickel, known as "nickel-free". A sample was selected from 400 patients undergoing treatment in the orthodontic clinic of the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil), in the period from the beginnin (more) g of 2002 to the end of 2003. A cutaneous sensitivity patch test containing 5% nickel sulphate was used in 58 patients (30 males and 28 females), aged between 11 and 30, which were using fixed appliances with Morelli® brackets in both arches. In a second phase, 30 days later, a comparative test of cutaneous sensitivity was applied to the whole sample with two types of test specimens, in the form of a disc. Two alloys were tested: discs composed of the alloy used in the construction of conventional brackets and discs composed of a nickel-free alloy. The internal part of the forearm was chosen for testing, and 20 test specimens of each experiment (corresponding to the twenty brackets of a complete fixed appliance) were applied. Of the 58 patients evaluated, 16 patients were sensitive to the patch test with 5% nickel sulphate. Out of these 16 patients, 12 developed an allergic reaction to experiment 1 (test specimen with nickel), while in experiment 2, only 5 patients showed sensitivity to that sample. The McNemar test revealed that the nickel-free test specimens provoked less allergic reaction when compared with the conventional alloy (p = 0.016).

Pantuzo, Mariele Cristina Garcia; Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Marigo, Helenice de Andrade; Zenóbio, Madelon Aparecida Fernandes

2007-12-01

139

Hypersensitivity to conventional and to nickel-free orthodontic brackets Hipersensibilidade a bráquetes ortodônticos convencionais e a bráquetes "nickel-free"  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allergenic potential of orthodontic brackets, comparing the cutaneous sensitivity provoked by metals present in conventional metallic brackets to that provoked by brackets with a low concentration of nickel, known as "nickel-free". A sample was selected from 400 patients undergoing treatment in the orthodontic clinic of the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil), in the period from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2003. A cutaneous sensitivity patch test containing 5% nickel sulphate was used in 58 patients (30 males and 28 females), aged between 11 and 30, which were using fixed appliances with Morelli® brackets in both arches. In a second phase, 30 days later, a comparative test of cutaneous sensitivity was applied to the whole sample with two types of test specimens, in the form of a disc. Two alloys were tested: discs composed of the alloy used in the construction of conventional brackets and discs composed of a nickel-free alloy. The internal part of the forearm was chosen for testing, and 20 test specimens of each experiment (corresponding to the twenty brackets of a complete fixed appliance) were applied. Of the 58 patients evaluated, 16 patients were sensitive to the patch test with 5% nickel sulphate. Out of these 16 patients, 12 developed an allergic reaction to experiment 1 (test specimen with nickel), while in experiment 2, only 5 patients showed sensitivity to that sample. The McNemar test revealed that the nickel-free test specimens provoked less allergic reaction when compared with the conventional alloy (p = 0.016).Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade alergênica provocada pelos bráquetes ortodônticos, comparando a sensibilidade cutânea provocada pelos metais presentes nos bráquetes metálicos convencionais com a provocada por bráquetes com baixa concentração de níquel ("nickel-free"). A amostra foi selecionada dos 400 pacientes em tratamento da clínica de Ortodontia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil), no período compreendido entre o início de 2002 e o final de 2003. A amostra consistiu de 58 pacientes (30 homens e 28 mulheres), com idades variando de 11 a 30 anos, os quais eram portadores de aparelho ortodôntico fixo Morelli® em ambos os arcos. Estes pacientes foram diagnosticados quanto à sensibilidade ao níquel, por meio da aplicação do "patch test" com sulfato de níquel a 5%. Em uma segunda fase, trinta dias após o "patch test", comparou-se a sensibilidade cutânea provocada pelos metais presentes nos bráquetes convencionais e nos "Nickel Free", por meio de um teste de sensibilidade cutânea utilizando-se dois tipos de corpos-de-provas, em formato de disco, com a mesma composição destes bráquetes. A área de eleição para realização deste teste foi a parte interna do antebraço, sendo aplicados vinte corpos-de-prova de cada experimento (referente a uma boca completa de bráquetes). Dos 58 pacientes avaliados, 16 deles foram sensíveis ao "patch test" com sulfato de níquel a 5%. Dentre estes 16 pacientes, 12 deles desenvolveram reação alérgica ao Experimento 1 (corpo-de-prova com níquel), enquanto que no Experimento 2 (corpo-de-prova "Niquel Free") apenas 5 pacientes apresentaram sensibilidade a esta amostra. O teste de McNemar revelou que os corpos-de-prova "nickel-free" provocaram menor reação alérgica quando comparados aos convencionais (p = 0.016).

Mariele Cristina Garcia Pantuzo; Elton Gonçalves Zenóbio; Helenice de Andrade Marigo; Madelon Aparecida Fernandes Zenóbio

2007-01-01

140

Evaluation of the influence of dental bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide in orthodontic bracket shear bond strength.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the bond strength of brackets bonded to premolars previously subjected to bleaching with a 35% hydrogen peroxide. METHODS: Twenty one healthy premolars were selected and randomly divided into three groups (n = 7). Group I (G1) included teeth that were not submitted to bleaching. The enamel surfaces of Groups II (G2) and III (G3) were submitted to a bleaching process with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP Maxx). On Group II (G2), after bleaching, the teeth were stored for 24 hours in distilled water at 98.6 °F, and then, premolar metallic brackets were bonded using Transbond XT (3M) resin. Group III (G3) was submitted to the same procedure seven days after bleaching. After bonding, all teeth were stored in distilled water at 98.6 °F for 24 hours. All groups were submitted to a traction test using an EMIC DL2000 universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The bracket resistance to debonding was compared between the groups by the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test (p < 0.05) and it was verified that the bleaching agent significantly reduced bracket adhesion when bonded 24 hours after bleaching. However, seven days after bleaching, there was no significant difference on the resistance to debonding among groups G1 (19,52 kgf) and G3 (18,44 kgf), meaning that it is necessary to wait longer after bleaching to bond brackets.

do Rego MV; dos Santos RM; Leal LM; Braga CG

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
141

Force levels in complex tooth alignment with conventional and self-ligating brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The force applied to the teeth is a variable of orthodontic treatment that can be controlled. Poor control of the applied force can lead to adverse biologic effects as well as undesirable tooth movements. The selected archwire-bracket combination is a primary determining factor in the force level applied to a tooth during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this research was to use an experimental biomechanical setup to measure forces generated during complex orthodontic tooth movements with various archwire-bracket combinations. METHODS: The materials consisted of 3 types of 0.022-in slot orthodontic brackets: (1) conventional brackets (Victory Series [3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif] and Mini-Taurus [Rocky Mountain Orthodontics, Denver, Colo]), (2) self-ligating brackets (SmartClip [3M Unitek] and Time3 [American Orthodontics, Shegoygan, Wis]), and (3) a conventional low-friction bracket (Synergy [Rocky Mountain Orthodontics]); and 4 archwire types: (1) 0.012-in stainless steel (3M Unitek), (2) 0.0155-in coaxial (Advanced Orthodontics [Näpflein, Düsseldorf, Germany]), (3) 0.012-in Orthonol (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics), and (4) 0.012-in Thermalloy (Rocky Mountain Orthodontics). Stainless steel ligatures and elastomeric rings were used. The materials were used in different combinations in a simulated malocclusion that represented a maxillary central incisor displaced 2 mm gingivally (x-axis) and 2 mm labially (z-axis). RESULTS: The lowest forces were measured when the brackets were combined with either the coaxial or the Thermalloy archwires; the forces ranged from 3.4 ± 0.2 to 0.7 ± 0.1 N in the x-axis direction, and from 4.5 ± 0.3 to 0.5 ± 0.1 N in the z-axis direction. The highest forces were measured in combination with stainless steel archwires; the forces ranged from 6.3 ± 0.3 to 3.0 ± 0.1 N in the x-axis direction, and from 6.3 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.1 N in the z-axis direction. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend 0.0155-in coaxial and 0.012-in Thermalloy archwires for leveling and alignment. Elastomeric rings, when used with conventional brackets, increased the force applied to the teeth.

Montasser MA; El-Bialy T; Keilig L; Reimann S; Jäger A; Bourauel C

2013-04-01

142

Avaliação da influência dos tipos de tratamento superficial da porcelana glazeada na colagem de braquetes ortodônticos Evaluation of the influence of porcelain conditioning techniques in orthodontic brackets bonding  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tipo de tratamento superficial da porcelana na resistência adesiva da colagem de braquetes ortodônticos e o modo de fratura após a descolagem. METODOLOGIA:foram confeccionados 80 corpos-de-prova de porcelana, divididos em quatro grupos (n = 18) de acordo com os diferentes tratamentos de superfície: (G1) ponta diamantada; (G2) ponta diamantada e silano; (G3) ácido hidrofluorídrico e (G4) ácido hidrofluorídrico e silano. Após o preparo das superfícies, braquetes Edgewise (Morelli) foram colados com resina (Transbond XT, 3M) e submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento. Os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTADO: o grupo G1 apresentou uma média de resistência de 3,35, o G2 3,97, o G3 2,56 e o G4 3,10. CONCLUSÃO: constatou-se que não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na resistência adesiva do braquete entre os tipos de tratamentos estudados (p > 0,05) e os modos de fratura ocorreram, em sua grande maioria, na interface braquete/resina. Este estudo indica que todos os tipos de tratamentos apresentados são eficientes para a colagem.AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of various porcelain surface treatments on the strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain and the fracture mode after debonding. METHODS: Eighty samples of porcelain were randomly divided into four groups according to their surface preparation, as follows: (G1) diamond bur, (G2) diamond bur with silane, (G3) hydrofluoridic acid and (G4) hydrofluoridic acid with silane. After surface treatment the Edgewise brackets (Morelli) were bonded with resin (Transbond XT, 3M) and sheared off. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test were applied on the data. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in bond strength between the groups (p > 0.05) and the fracture mode in most of the porcelain occurred in the composite/bracket interface. The G1 had an resistance average of 3.35, G2 = 3.97, G3 = 2.56 and G4 = 3.10.

Camila Belo Falcão; Adriano Marques Brito; Fernando Jorge Mendes Ahid

2009-01-01

143

Colonization of Streptococcus mutans on esthetic brackets: self-ligating vs conventional.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Self-ligating orthodontic brackets rely on clips, rather than ligatures, to hold the archwire in place. It is unknown whether replacing ligatures with clips affects the adherence of Streptococcus mutans. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether self-ligating brackets have an advantage over conventional brackets as determined by the adherence of S mutans. METHODS: The sample consisted of 50 esthetic brackets, divided into 3 experimental groups and 2 control groups of 10 brackets each. Two experimental groups were active self-ligating brackets (QuicKlear; Forestadent, Pforzheim, Germany; and In-Ovation C; Dentsply GAC, Bohemia, NY); the other was a passive self-ligating bracket (Damon 3; Ormco, Glendora, Calif). The 2 control groups were conventional brackets (Mystique; Dentsply GAC; and Clarity; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). The brackets were randomly bonded to the canines, first and second premolars, and first and second molars in the mandibular left hemiarch of 10 male participants. Biofilm was collected from the tooth surfaces before bonding and from the brackets on day 21 and placed in Petri dishes containing Mitis salivarius agar. The brackets were removed on day 28 and examined by using scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis, analysis of variance, and the Tukey correction with a P value of 0.05 were used. RESULTS: The greatest numbers of colonies were found in an active self-ligating bracket group (In-Ovation C), and the fewest colonies were in a conventional bracket group (Clarity). The largest colonies formed on active self-ligating brackets. In the slot, the greatest formation was in a control group (Mystique). CONCLUSIONS: Self-ligating esthetic brackets do not promote greater or lesser S mutans colonization when compared with conventional brackets. Differences were found to be related to the material composition of the bracket.

do Nascimento LE; Pithon MM; dos Santos RL; Freitas AO; Alviano DS; Nojima LI; Nojima MC; Ruellas AC

2013-04-01

144

Evaluation of the influence of dental bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide in orthodontic bracket shear bond strength  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o propósito do presente estudo in vitro foi avaliar a resistência de união de braquetes colados em pré-molares previamente submetidos ao clareamento com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35%. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 21 dentes pré-molares hígidos, divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos (n = 7). O grupo I (G1) incluiu os dentes que não foram submetidos ao clareamento. As superfícies de esmalte dos grupos II (G2) e III (G3) foram submetidas ao processo de clar (more) eamento com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35% (Whiteness HP Maxx). No grupo II (G2), após o clareamento, os dentes foram armazenados por 24 horas em água destilada a 37ºC e, em seguida, braquetes metálicos para pré-molares foram colados utilizando resina Transbond XT (3M). O grupo III (G3) também foi submetido ao mesmo procedimento, sete dias após o clareamento. Após a colagem, todos os dentes foram armazenados em água destilada a 37ºC por 24 horas. Todos os grupos foram submetidos ao teste de tração utilizando-se máquina universal de ensaios Emic DL2000 a uma velocidade 0,5mm/min. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: a resistência à descolagem dos braquetes foi comparada entre os grupos por meio da utilização do teste não paramétrico Kruskall Wallis (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the bond strength of brackets bonded to premolars previously subjected to bleaching with a 35% hydrogen peroxide. METHODS: Twenty one healthy premolars were selected and randomly divided into three groups (n = 7). Group I (G1) included teeth that were not submitted to bleaching. The enamel surfaces of Groups II (G2) and III (G3) were submitted to a bleaching process with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP Ma (more) xx). On Group II (G2), after bleaching, the teeth were stored for 24 hours in distilled water at 98.6 ºF, and then, premolar metallic brackets were bonded using Transbond XT (3M) resin. Group III (G3) was submitted to the same procedure seven days after bleaching. After bonding, all teeth were stored in distilled water at 98.6 ºF for 24 hours. All groups were submitted to a traction test using an EMIC DL2000 universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The bracket resistance to debonding was compared between the groups by the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test (p

Rego, Marcus Vinicius Neiva Nunes do; Santos, Roanselli Marllon Lima dos; Leal, Leanne Matias Portela; Braga, Carlos Gustavo Silva

2013-04-01

145

Resistência à remoção de braquetes ortodônticos sob ação de diferentes cargas contínuas Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using different static loading application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: testar se existe alteração na resistência adesiva de dois cimentos utilizados na colagem de acessórios ortodônticos ao esmalte dentário bovino, sendo um de polimerização química (Concise ortodôntico) e outro fotopolimerizável (Transbond XT), após a aplicação de cargas contínuas. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados para este estudo 80 dentes bovinos e 80 braquetes metálicos. O esmalte bovino foi condicionado com ácido fosfórico a 37% por 1 minuto e depois lavado e seco. A aplicação dos adesivos, manipulação e aplicação dos dois cimentos foram feitas de acordo com as instruções dos fabricantes. Após 24 horas, todos os braquetes foram submetidos a cargas contínuas de 30g, 70g e 120g, menos o grupo controle, que não recebeu carga alguma. Os espécimes ficaram imersos em água filtrada por 28 dias dentro de uma estufa a 37°C. Depois deste período, as amostras foram submetidas a testes de cisalhamento em uma Máquina de Ensaios Universal Kratos. Os resultados foram registrados e enviados para análise estatística. CONCLUSÕES: (1) o cimento Concise apresentou maior resistência à remoção que o cimento Transbond XT para todas as cargas utilizadas, (2) não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na resistência adesiva frente às três cargas utilizadas para os dois cimentos testados; (3) no momento da fratura, conforme ocorreu o aumento da carga, a porcentagem de fratura do esmalte diminuiu para o Concise, ao contrário do cimento Transbond XT, onde a porcentagem de fratura de esmalte se manteve constante com o aumento das cargas.AIM: The purpose of this study was to test differences on bond strength between auto-cured (Concise) and light-cured (Transbond XT) cements after static loading and shear test. METHODS: Eighty bovine teeth and metallic orthodontic brackets (Morelli Ortodontia Braquete Edgewise/Rickets) were tested after static loads of 30, 70 and 120grs. Bovine enamel was conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid gel for one minute, rinsed and dried. Adhesives were applied and brackets were bonded according to manufacturer’s instructions. Cement thickness was standardized with the use of a heavier Gilmore needle. After 24 hours, half of the specimens were submitted to the static loads of 30, 70 and 120grs. Control group remained unloaded. Then, specimens were immersed in distilled water for 28 days at 37ºC. Afterwards, orthodontic brackets were attached to a loop wire and submitted to a shear force (Máquina de Ensaios Kratos Universal Kratos) under a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min and load cell of 500Kgf. A two-way ANOVA test (alpha = 0.05) was used to detect significant interactions between cements and static loads. CONCLUSIONS: (1) The Concise cement showed more statistically significant bond strength values than the Transbond XT cement for all static loads; (2) No statistically significant differences were observed regarding static loads for all cements tested and (3) Higher static loads provided less enamel fracture in the Concise group after shear test, whereas in the Transbond XT the rate of enamel fracture remained unchanged regardless of previous load applied.

Carla Giannini; Paulo Afonso Silveira Francisconi

2008-01-01

146

Resistência à remoção de braquetes ortodônticos sob ação de diferentes cargas contínuas/ Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using different static loading application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: testar se existe alteração na resistência adesiva de dois cimentos utilizados na colagem de acessórios ortodônticos ao esmalte dentário bovino, sendo um de polimerização química (Concise ortodôntico) e outro fotopolimerizável (Transbond XT), após a aplicação de cargas contínuas. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados para este estudo 80 dentes bovinos e 80 braquetes metálicos. O esmalte bovino foi condicionado com ácido fosfórico a 37% por 1 minuto e de (more) pois lavado e seco. A aplicação dos adesivos, manipulação e aplicação dos dois cimentos foram feitas de acordo com as instruções dos fabricantes. Após 24 horas, todos os braquetes foram submetidos a cargas contínuas de 30g, 70g e 120g, menos o grupo controle, que não recebeu carga alguma. Os espécimes ficaram imersos em água filtrada por 28 dias dentro de uma estufa a 37°C. Depois deste período, as amostras foram submetidas a testes de cisalhamento em uma Máquina de Ensaios Universal Kratos. Os resultados foram registrados e enviados para análise estatística. CONCLUSÕES: (1) o cimento Concise apresentou maior resistência à remoção que o cimento Transbond XT para todas as cargas utilizadas, (2) não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na resistência adesiva frente às três cargas utilizadas para os dois cimentos testados; (3) no momento da fratura, conforme ocorreu o aumento da carga, a porcentagem de fratura do esmalte diminuiu para o Concise, ao contrário do cimento Transbond XT, onde a porcentagem de fratura de esmalte se manteve constante com o aumento das cargas. Abstract in english AIM: The purpose of this study was to test differences on bond strength between auto-cured (Concise) and light-cured (Transbond XT) cements after static loading and shear test. METHODS: Eighty bovine teeth and metallic orthodontic brackets (Morelli Ortodontia Braquete Edgewise/Rickets) were tested after static loads of 30, 70 and 120grs. Bovine enamel was conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid gel for one minute, rinsed and dried. Adhesives were applied and brackets were bo (more) nded according to manufacturer?s instructions. Cement thickness was standardized with the use of a heavier Gilmore needle. After 24 hours, half of the specimens were submitted to the static loads of 30, 70 and 120grs. Control group remained unloaded. Then, specimens were immersed in distilled water for 28 days at 37ºC. Afterwards, orthodontic brackets were attached to a loop wire and submitted to a shear force (Máquina de Ensaios Kratos Universal Kratos) under a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min and load cell of 500Kgf. A two-way ANOVA test (alpha = 0.05) was used to detect significant interactions between cements and static loads. CONCLUSIONS: (1) The Concise cement showed more statistically significant bond strength values than the Transbond XT cement for all static loads; (2) No statistically significant differences were observed regarding static loads for all cements tested and (3) Higher static loads provided less enamel fracture in the Concise group after shear test, whereas in the Transbond XT the rate of enamel fracture remained unchanged regardless of previous load applied.

Giannini, Carla; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira

2008-06-01

147

Treatment time, outcome, and anchorage loss comparisons of self-ligating and conventional brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the treatment time, outcome, and anchorage loss among orthodontic patients treated by self-ligating brackets (SLBs) and conventional brackets (CBs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study compared 34 patients (SLB group) treated by SmartClip brackets (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) to 35 patients (CB group) treated by conventional preadjusted Victory series brackets (3M Unitek) and ligated by stainless steel wire ligatures. Pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed using Pancherz sagittal-occlusion analysis to obtain skeletal and dental changes in the maxilla and the mandible. The dental cast models were assessed by the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) Index for the treatment outcomes. RESULTS: The mean treatment time for SLBs (19.19 months) did not show a statistically significant difference from 21.25 months of CBs; the treatment time and pretreatment PAR scores were strongly correlated. There was no difference in anchorage loss between the SLB and CB groups. There were significant dental and skeletal changes among adolescent orthodontic patients regardless of the bracket used. The lingual inclination of the mandibular incisors in the CB group was 3.62° more than in the SLB group (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: The treatment time and anchorage loss are not influenced by the type of bracket used. There are significant dental and skeletal changes among adolescent orthodontic patients regardless of the bracket used. There is significantly greater lingual inclination of mandibular incisors in the CB group than in the SLB group.

Machibya FM; Bao X; Zhao L; Hu M

2013-03-01

148

A comparative clinical study of the failure rate of orthodontic brackets bonded with two adhesive systems: conventional and self-etching primer (SEP)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desempenho clínico da colagem de braquetes ortodônticos com resina Transbond (3M Unitek) associada a dois sistemas adesivos: convencional em duas etapas (ataque ácido + Transbond XT adhesive Primer) e Self-Etching Primer (SEP), em etapa única (Transbond Plus). MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída de 480 braquetes metálicos (Victory, 3M Unitek), colados em 24 pacientes, que foram tratados durante um período de 36 (more) a 48 meses. A colagem foi feita por meio do sistema split-mouth, utilizando os dois sistemas de colagem em cada paciente. Foi analisada a taxa de queda dos braquetes para cada sistema de colagem, descrita a causa da queda conforme relato do paciente e a posição dos dentes nas arcadas. RESULTADOS: o sistema adesivo convencional apresentou taxa de queda de 5,41%, enquanto a do SEP foi de 4,58%. O sistema convencional apresentou 5 quedas (38,4%) no quadrante superior direito, 2 (15,4%) no quadrante superior esquerdo, 4 (30,8%) no quadrante inferior direito e 2 (15,4%) no quadrante inferior esquerdo. O SEP apresentou 4 quedas (36,4%) no quadrante superior direito, 1 (9%) no quadrante superior esquerdo, 3 (27,3%) no quadrante inferior direito e 3 (27,3%) no quadrante inferior esquerdo. Por meio da análise estatística descritiva e do teste Odds Ratio, constatou-se que não houve diferença significativa entre essas taxas (p = 0,67). CONCLUSÃO: com base nesses resultados, pode-se concluir que o sistema adesivo SEP apresentou eficácia clínica semelhante à do sistema adesivo convencional. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study compared the clinical performance of orthodontic brackets bonded with Transbond adhesive paste after two priming systems: a two-stage conventional system (acid etching + Transbond XT adhesive primer) and a singlestage self-etching primer (SEP) (Transbond Plus). METHODS: The sample comprised 480 metal brackets bonded to the teeth of 24 consecutive patients treated for 36 to 48 months. A split-mouth design was used for bonding, and both systems were us (more) ed in each patient. Bracket failure rates for each system were analyzed; and failure causes as reported by the patients and the quadrant of teeth for which brackets failed were recorded. RESULTS: The conventional system group had a failure rate of 5.41%, whereas the rate for SEP was 4.58%. In this group, there were 5 failures (38.4%) in the right maxillary quadrant, 2 (15.4%) in the left maxillary quadrant, 4 (30.8%) in the right mandibular quadrant, and 2 (15.4%) in the left mandibular quadrant. In the SEP group, there were 4 (36.4%) failures in the right maxillary quadrant, 1 (9%) in the left maxillary quadrant, 3 (27.3%) in the right mandibular quadrant, and 3 (27.3%) in the left mandibular quadrant. Results of descriptive statistical analysis and odds ratio did not show any significant differences between rates (p = 0.67). CONCLUSION: The clinical efficiency of SEP was similar to that of the conventional system.

Dominguez, Gladys Cristina; Tortamano, André; Lopes, Luiz Vicente de Moura; Catharino, Priscilla Campanatti Chibebe; Morea, Camillo

2013-04-01

149

Microbial contamination of "as received" and "clinic exposed" orthodontic materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to determine whether components of fixed orthodontic appliances as received from the manufacturers and after exposure to the clinical environment are free from microbial contamination before clinical use. A pilot molecular microbiologic laboratory study was undertaken at a dental hospital in the United Kingdom. METHODS: A range of orthodontic materials "as received" from the manufacturers and materials "exposed" to the clinical environment were studied for bacterial contamination. After growth on blood-rich media, cultured bacteria were identified by 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequence phylogeny. RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated from "as received" bands, archwires, and impression trays, but the level of contamination was low (0.5 × 10(1) to 1.825 × 10(2) CFU/mL(-1)). Various bacterial species were isolated from "clinic exposed" bands, archwires, impression trays, coil springs, and elastomeric modules, but the level of contamination was low (0.5 × 10(1) to 8.0 × 10(1) CFU/mL(-1)). The most commonly identified bacterial species was Staphylococcus epidermidis, followed by Kocuria, Moraxella, and Micrococcus species. CONCLUSIONS: New materials "as received" from the manufacturers and those exposed to the clinical environment are not free from bacterial contamination before use in patients, but this contamination is low considering the potential for aerosol and operator contamination and could be considered insignificant. Further studies would be required to determine the level of risk that this poses.

Barker CS; Soro V; Dymock D; Sandy JR; Ireland AJ

2013-03-01

150

Weld characteristics of orthodontic archwire materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Welding attachments to archwires can produce change in their physical as well as mechanical properties. This study evaluated three archwire alloy materials-stainless steel, Beta titanium, and Timolium for their weld characteristics. The study was divided into tensile-shear test using instron universal testing machine, surface evaluation with the help of scanning electron microscope, and metallographic examination with optical microscope. Six specimens were used for evaluation of each parameter. Increased strength in tensile-shear test and smooth surface and characteristic nugget formation in scanning and optical micrographs, respectively, clearly indicated superior weld characteristics for Beta titanium alloys when compared with the other two archwire alloys. Stainless steel was found to be intermediate in nature, whereas Timolium exhibited poor weld characteristics.

Krishnan V; Kumar KJ

2004-08-01

151

Shear bond strength comparison of RelyX Unicem with six other orthodontic resin adhesive systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Orthodontic bracket adhesion involves multistep procedures which are technique sensitive to various factors within the oral environment. RelyX Unicem is a restorative/prosthodontic adhesive material which by virtue of its one step adhesion procedure may prove to be suitable for efficient orthodontic bonding. The objective of this study was to compare the SBS of RelyX Unicem with six other known orthodontic bonding materials. Seventy extracted human premolar teeth were divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each. On each group, metal orthodontic brackets were bonded using one of the seven bonding materials: (A) Transbond XT primer and Transbond XT luting cement (B) F2000 compomer primer/adhesive (C) Transbond Plus and Transbond XT luting cement (D) RelyX Unicem (E) Prime & Bond NT and Calibra cement (F) Xeno III and Calibra cement (G) NRC + Prime & Bond NT and Calibra cement. Shear bond strength evaluation of each tooth was tested and recorded using the Instron materials testing machine. The results show that the mean SBS for RelyX Unicem is 5.38 MPa and NRC is 4.70 MPa which rates weak compared to all the other materials where the means for the SBS are within the acceptable range of 5.9 to 7.8 MPa. It appears that by reducing the number steps followed for orthodontic bracket adhesion, the SBS of the orthodontic adhesive materials becomes significantly compromised to the extent where such materials can be rejected as suitable for orthodontic bracket adhesion. RelyX Unicem and NRC were found to be unsuitable for orthodontic bracket adhesion.

Sethusa MP; Seedat AK; du Preez IC; Hlongwa P

2009-03-01

152

Shear bond strength comparison of RelyX Unicem with six other orthodontic resin adhesive systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orthodontic bracket adhesion involves multistep procedures which are technique sensitive to various factors within the oral environment. RelyX Unicem is a restorative/prosthodontic adhesive material which by virtue of its one step adhesion procedure may prove to be suitable for efficient orthodontic bonding. The objective of this study was to compare the SBS of RelyX Unicem with six other known orthodontic bonding materials. Seventy extracted human premolar teeth were divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each. On each group, metal orthodontic brackets were bonded using one of the seven bonding materials: (A) Transbond XT primer and Transbond XT luting cement (B) F2000 compomer primer/adhesive (C) Transbond Plus and Transbond XT luting cement (D) RelyX Unicem (E) Prime & Bond NT and Calibra cement (F) Xeno III and Calibra cement (G) NRC + Prime & Bond NT and Calibra cement. Shear bond strength evaluation of each tooth was tested and recorded using the Instron materials testing machine. The results show that the mean SBS for RelyX Unicem is 5.38 MPa and NRC is 4.70 MPa which rates weak compared to all the other materials where the means for the SBS are within the acceptable range of 5.9 to 7.8 MPa. It appears that by reducing the number steps followed for orthodontic bracket adhesion, the SBS of the orthodontic adhesive materials becomes significantly compromised to the extent where such materials can be rejected as suitable for orthodontic bracket adhesion. RelyX Unicem and NRC were found to be unsuitable for orthodontic bracket adhesion. PMID:19517858

Sethusa, M P S; Seedat, A K; du Preez, I C; Hlongwa, P

2009-03-01

153

O efeito do jateamento do esmalte na força de adesão na colagem de braquetes The effect of air abrasion in enamel adhesion of orthodontic bracket  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o propósito deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar o efeito do jateamento com óxido de alumínio na adesão de braquetes ortodônticos e compará-lo à tradicional técnica de condicionamento ácido do esmalte. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados 80 dentes bovinos distribuídos aleatoriamente entre quatro grupos, sendo que a superfície do esmalte foi tratada da seguinte maneira: grupo 1 (somente jateamento com óxido de alumínio), grupo 2 (profilaxia com pedra-pomes e condicionamento com ácido), grupo 3 (jateamento com óxido de alumínio e condicionamento ácido) e grupo 4 (somente condicionamento ácido). Após, foi aplicado sistema adesivo e o braquete colado com resina. Os corpos-de-prova foram submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento e análise do IAR. Aos resultados foram aplicados o teste de variância múltipla (ANOVA) e a comparação entre pares (Tukey). Para a análise do IAR foi aplicado o teste Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: o grupo 1 apresentou a menor resistência ao cisalhamento (3,6MPa) e o 3 a maior (13,27MPa). A análise Qui-quadrado do IAR demonstrou que o tratamento da superfície do esmalte tem influência sobre a quantidade de remanescente de resina sobre o esmalte e os grupos 3 e 4 apresentaram a maior quantidade de resina aderida. CONCLUSÕES: o jateamento de óxido de alumínio não deve ser o único procedimento utilizado no preparo da superfície do esmalte na colagem de braquetes, porém, quando associado ao condicionamento ácido, mostrou-se eficaz no aumento da retenção entre esmalte e resina. Novos estudos são necessários visando menor dano do esmalte e adesão satisfatória.AIM: The purpose of this study in vitro was to evaluate the effect of the air abrasion with Al-oxide in the adhesion of orthodontic brackets and compare with traditional technique of acid conditioning of the enamel. METHODS: Eighty bovine teeth distributed randomly between four groups had been used and the surface of the enamel was prepared in the following way: group 1 (only air abrasion), group 2 (enamel pumiced and acid conditioning), group 3 (air abrasion and acid conditioning) and group 4 (only acid conditioning). After, adhesive system was applied and bracket was bonded with resin. Shear bond was assessed and analysis of the IAR was performed. Test of multiple variance (ANOVA) and the comparison between pairs had been applied (Tukey) on the results. For the analysis of the IAR the Qui-square test was applied. RESULTS: Group 1 presented the lowest shear strength (3,6MPa) and 3 the greater (13,27MPa). The Qui-square analysis of the IAR demonstrated that the treatment of the enamel surface has influence on the amount of resin remainder on the enamel and groups 3 and 4 had presented the biggest amount of adhered resin. CONCLUSIONS: The air abrasion doesn’t have to be the only procedure used in the preparation of the enamel surface in the brackets bonding, however, when associated to the acid conditioning it revealed efficient in adhesion increase. New studies are necessary aiming at lesser damage of the enamel and satisfactory adhesion.

Carla D'Agostini Derech; Juliana da Silva Pereira; Margareth Maria Gomes de Souza

2008-01-01

154

O efeito do jateamento do esmalte na força de adesão na colagem de braquetes/ The effect of air abrasion in enamel adhesion of orthodontic bracket  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o propósito deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar o efeito do jateamento com óxido de alumínio na adesão de braquetes ortodônticos e compará-lo à tradicional técnica de condicionamento ácido do esmalte. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados 80 dentes bovinos distribuídos aleatoriamente entre quatro grupos, sendo que a superfície do esmalte foi tratada da seguinte maneira: grupo 1 (somente jateamento com óxido de alumínio), grupo 2 (profilaxia com pedra-pomes e (more) condicionamento com ácido), grupo 3 (jateamento com óxido de alumínio e condicionamento ácido) e grupo 4 (somente condicionamento ácido). Após, foi aplicado sistema adesivo e o braquete colado com resina. Os corpos-de-prova foram submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento e análise do IAR. Aos resultados foram aplicados o teste de variância múltipla (ANOVA) e a comparação entre pares (Tukey). Para a análise do IAR foi aplicado o teste Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: o grupo 1 apresentou a menor resistência ao cisalhamento (3,6MPa) e o 3 a maior (13,27MPa). A análise Qui-quadrado do IAR demonstrou que o tratamento da superfície do esmalte tem influência sobre a quantidade de remanescente de resina sobre o esmalte e os grupos 3 e 4 apresentaram a maior quantidade de resina aderida. CONCLUSÕES: o jateamento de óxido de alumínio não deve ser o único procedimento utilizado no preparo da superfície do esmalte na colagem de braquetes, porém, quando associado ao condicionamento ácido, mostrou-se eficaz no aumento da retenção entre esmalte e resina. Novos estudos são necessários visando menor dano do esmalte e adesão satisfatória. Abstract in english AIM: The purpose of this study in vitro was to evaluate the effect of the air abrasion with Al-oxide in the adhesion of orthodontic brackets and compare with traditional technique of acid conditioning of the enamel. METHODS: Eighty bovine teeth distributed randomly between four groups had been used and the surface of the enamel was prepared in the following way: group 1 (only air abrasion), group 2 (enamel pumiced and acid conditioning), group 3 (air abrasion and acid con (more) ditioning) and group 4 (only acid conditioning). After, adhesive system was applied and bracket was bonded with resin. Shear bond was assessed and analysis of the IAR was performed. Test of multiple variance (ANOVA) and the comparison between pairs had been applied (Tukey) on the results. For the analysis of the IAR the Qui-square test was applied. RESULTS: Group 1 presented the lowest shear strength (3,6MPa) and 3 the greater (13,27MPa). The Qui-square analysis of the IAR demonstrated that the treatment of the enamel surface has influence on the amount of resin remainder on the enamel and groups 3 and 4 had presented the biggest amount of adhered resin. CONCLUSIONS: The air abrasion doesn?t have to be the only procedure used in the preparation of the enamel surface in the brackets bonding, however, when associated to the acid conditioning it revealed efficient in adhesion increase. New studies are necessary aiming at lesser damage of the enamel and satisfactory adhesion.

Derech, Carla D'Agostini; Pereira, Juliana da Silva; Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes de

2008-06-01

155

In vitro effects of several surface preparation methods on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to caries-like lesions of enamel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of several surface preparation methods for improving shear bond strength of brackets to demineralised enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study design: in vitro study. Eighty premolars were selected and divided into 5 groups. Group 1 served as the control, while the remaining 4 groups were immersed in a demineralising solution (pH 4.8) for 12 weeks. In groups 1 (control) and 2 (demineralised/control) conventional acid etching was used. In group 3, a solution of 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) was applied on enamel surface for one minute after acid etching. The brackets in group 4 were bonded with Transbond Plus self-etching primer, and group 5 underwent treatment with a 2% sodium fluoride (NaF) gel, which was applied on the enamel surface for 4 minutes before etching. Shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) were determined in all groups, and surface morphology was examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). RESULTS: The mean SBS of acid-etched demineralised enamel was significantly lower than that of acid-etched sound enamel (p<0.05). Treatment of caries-like lesions with 5% NaOCl or self-etching primer failed to improve the bond strength. After NaF treatment and acid etching of demineralised enamel, both type 1 and type 2 etching patterns were observed and the resulting SBS was comparable to that of sound enamel (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The application of 2% NaF on enamel caries before bracket bonding is an effective way for enhancing the bond strength.

Shahabi M; Moosavi H; Gholami A; Ahrari F

2012-09-01

156

Comparison of static friction with self-ligating, modified slot design and conventional brackets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the static frictional forces generated at the bracket/wire interface of stainless steel brackets with different geometries and angulations, combined with orthodontic wires of different diameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The frictional forces were evaluated with three different types of metal brackets: a passive self-ligating (SmartClipTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA), w (more) ith a modified slot design (Mini Uni TwinTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA) and conventional (Kirium, Abzil, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil). The samples were mounted in a testing device with three different angulations and tested with 0.014" and 0.018" stainless steel wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA). The static frictional force was measured using a universal testing machine (DL 500, EMIC®, São José dos Pinhais, Brazil) with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. RESULTS: There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in static friction when the three types of brackets were tested with the same wire size. The wire diameter influenced friction only when the brackets had a 10º angulation (p<0.05). The angulation influenced friction (p<0.05) when the brackets were associated with a 0.018" wire. CONCLUSION: Brackets with a modified slot design showed intermediate static frictional force values between the conventional and self-ligating brackets tested.

Castro, Raquel Morais; Smith Neto, Perrin; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

2013-07-01

157

Comparison of static friction with self-ligating, modified slot design and conventional brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the static frictional forces generated at the bracket/wire interface of stainless steel brackets with different geometries and angulations, combined with orthodontic wires of different diameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The frictional forces were evaluated with three different types of metal brackets: a passive self-ligating (SmartClipTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA), with a modified slot design (Mini Uni TwinTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA) and conventional (Kirium, Abzil, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil). The samples were mounted in a testing device with three different angulations and tested with 0.014" and 0.018" stainless steel wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA). The static frictional force was measured using a universal testing machine (DL 500, EMIC®, São José dos Pinhais, Brazil) with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. RESULTS: There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in static friction when the three types of brackets were tested with the same wire size. The wire diameter influenced friction only when the brackets had a 10º angulation (p<0.05). The angulation influenced friction (p<0.05) when the brackets were associated with a 0.018" wire. CONCLUSION: Brackets with a modified slot design showed intermediate static frictional force values between the conventional and self-ligating brackets tested.

Castro RM; Neto PS; Horta MC; Pithon MM; Oliveira DD

2013-07-01

158

Effects of a fluoride-containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate complex on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of enamel pre-treatment with a new fluoride-containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) complex on the shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets bonded with etch-and-rinse or self-etching adhesive systems. The material comprised 66 extracted human premolars randomly divided into six equal groups with respect to the enamel pre-treatment and adhesive system employed: 1. No pre-treatment and brackets bonded with the etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Transbond XT). 2. Pre-treatment with fluoride-containing CPP-ACP paste (MI Paste Plus) and Transbond XT. 3. Pre-treatment with non-fluoride CPP-ACP paste (MI Paste) and Transbond XT.4. No pre-treatment and brackets bonded with the self-etching adhesive system (Transbond Plus). 5 and 6. Enamel pre-treated as for groups 2 and 3, respectively, and the Transbond Plus. Bonded specimens were subjected to thermal cycling (×1000) before SBS testing. The residual adhesive on the enamel surface was evaluated after debonding with the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Data evaluation was made using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test for SBS results, and Kruskal-Wallis test for ARI results. The results showed that enamel pre-treatment with either fluoride or non-fluoride CPP-ACP paste had no significant effect on the SBS of the self-etching adhesive system (P > 0.05). Enamel pre-treatment with non-fluoride CPP-ACP in group 3 significantly reduced the SBS of the etch-and-rinse adhesive (P < 0.001), while pre-treatment with fluoride-containing CPP-ACP paste (groups 2 and 5) did not affect debonding values (P > 0.05). The fluoride-containing CPP-ACP did not compromise the SBS of brackets bonded with the tested etch-and-rinse and self-etching systems, but its non-fluoride version significantly decreased the SBS of the etch-and-rinse adhesive system.

Cehreli SB; Sar C; Polat-Özsoy O; Unver B; Ozsoy S

2012-04-01

159

Comparison of the effect of hydrogel and solution forms of sodium ascorbate on orthodontic bracket-enamel shear bond strength immediately after bleaching: An in vitro study  

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Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the effects of hydrogel and solution forms of sodium ascorbate (SA) with two different application times on bracket bond strength subsequent to bleaching. Materials and Methods: A total of 72 sound premolars were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12): An unbleached control group (group one) and five experimental groups of carbamide peroxide. Specimens in group two were bonded immediately after bleaching; specimens in groups three and four were bleached, then treated with SA solution for ten minutes and three hours, respectively, and then bonded. In groups five and six, SA hydrogel was used and the specimens were prepared similar to groups three and four, respectively. Following debonding, bond strengths were recorded in MPa. To evaluate the amount of resin left on the enamel surfaces, adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were used. Statistical Analysis: The bond strength data were analyzed with ANOVA and pairwise comparisons were made by Tukey test. The ARI data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis test and two-by-two comparisons were made by the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There were significant differences in bond strengths between the groups ( P P P = 0.004). Conclusion: Bleaching significantly decreased the bracket bond strength. Compromised bonding was reversed with a three-hour application of both forms of SA.

Kimyai Soodabeh; Oskoee Siavash; Rafighi Ali; Valizadeh Hadi; Ajami Amir; Helali Zahra Norooz

2010-01-01

160

Interferência dos diferentes glazeamentos na colagem de bráquetes ortodônticos em superfícies cerâmicas Effects of the different glazed ceramic surfaces on the bond of orthodontic brackets  

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Full Text Available Foram avaliadas diferentes formas de glazeamento da superfície de porcelana quanto à resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes metálicos colados com diferentes cimentos. Quarenta e dois corpos de prova de metalocerâmica foram confeccionados (2 controles) e divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com o tipo de glazeamento, com camada extra de glaze (G) ou auto-glazeados (AG), e o cimento utilizado, resina fotopolimerizável (r) ou ionômero de vidro resinosos (i), formando os seguintes grupos: Gr, Gi, AGr e AGi com 10 corpos de prova cada grupo. Todas as superfícies dos corpos de prova receberam tratamento com ácido fosfórico 35% por 30 s seguidos de uma camada de silano. Quarenta bráquetes metálicos foram colados. Os corpos de prova foram submetidos a termociclagem e ao teste de resistência ao cisalhamento com uma máquina universal de ensaios mecânicos. Uma amostra de cada grupo após descolagem, remoção da resina e polimento, foi avaliado em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O índice de fratura coesiva da porcelana foi também avaliado. Os resultados mostram valores acima da média aceitável na literatura para todos os grupos, sendo que o grupo AGr apresentou valor menor (10,38 MPa) e estatisticamente significativo em relação aos demais. A análise no microscópio eletrônico de varredura mostrou que as superfícies, após polimento, não readquirem as características de antes da colagem, apesar de se apresentarem aceitáveis clinicamente. Houve fratura da porcelana em todos os grupos. Conclui-se que é possível se conseguir colagem adequada de bráquetes metálicos em superfícies metalocerâmicas auto-glazeadas e com camada extra de glaze, preservando-o, não necessitando reconhecer previamente a forma de glazeamento.Different glazing techniques for porcelain surface were evaluated in terms of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with different cements. Forty-two metal-ceramic samples were made (2 controls) and then divided into four groups according to type of glazing technique, either using extra glaze layer (G) or self-glazing material (SG), and type of adhesive material, that is, self-curing resin (r) or resin glass-ionomer cement (i), thus forming the following groups: Gr, Gi, SGr, and SGi with 10 samples each. The whole surface of all samples was treated with 35% phosphoric acid for 30 s, followed by application of silane layer. Forty metallic brackets were bonded. The samples were submitted to thermocycling process and shear bond strength test with a universal testing machine. After bracket debonding, removal of resin, and polishing, one sample from each group was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The index of cohesive porcelain fracture was also assessed. The results show that all the groups had, on average, values higher than those found in the literature, with AGr presenting the lowest value (10.38 MPa) compared to other groups. SEM analysis showed that the porcelain surfaces did not recover their original characteristics before the bracket debonding procedure, although they were considered acceptable for clinical use. Porcelain fracture was observed in all groups. One can conclude that it is possible to bond metallic brackets adequately to metal-ceramic porcelain surfaces previously treated with either self-glazing material or extra glaze layer without having to recognise the glazing technique originally employed.

A. C Dalvi; A. M Bolognese

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Interferência dos diferentes glazeamentos na colagem de bráquetes ortodônticos em superfícies cerâmicas/ Effects of the different glazed ceramic surfaces on the bond of orthodontic brackets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliadas diferentes formas de glazeamento da superfície de porcelana quanto à resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes metálicos colados com diferentes cimentos. Quarenta e dois corpos de prova de metalocerâmica foram confeccionados (2 controles) e divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com o tipo de glazeamento, com camada extra de glaze (G) ou auto-glazeados (AG), e o cimento utilizado, resina fotopolimerizável (r) ou ionômero de vidro resinosos (i), forman (more) do os seguintes grupos: Gr, Gi, AGr e AGi com 10 corpos de prova cada grupo. Todas as superfícies dos corpos de prova receberam tratamento com ácido fosfórico 35% por 30 s seguidos de uma camada de silano. Quarenta bráquetes metálicos foram colados. Os corpos de prova foram submetidos a termociclagem e ao teste de resistência ao cisalhamento com uma máquina universal de ensaios mecânicos. Uma amostra de cada grupo após descolagem, remoção da resina e polimento, foi avaliado em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O índice de fratura coesiva da porcelana foi também avaliado. Os resultados mostram valores acima da média aceitável na literatura para todos os grupos, sendo que o grupo AGr apresentou valor menor (10,38 MPa) e estatisticamente significativo em relação aos demais. A análise no microscópio eletrônico de varredura mostrou que as superfícies, após polimento, não readquirem as características de antes da colagem, apesar de se apresentarem aceitáveis clinicamente. Houve fratura da porcelana em todos os grupos. Conclui-se que é possível se conseguir colagem adequada de bráquetes metálicos em superfícies metalocerâmicas auto-glazeadas e com camada extra de glaze, preservando-o, não necessitando reconhecer previamente a forma de glazeamento. Abstract in english Different glazing techniques for porcelain surface were evaluated in terms of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with different cements. Forty-two metal-ceramic samples were made (2 controls) and then divided into four groups according to type of glazing technique, either using extra glaze layer (G) or self-glazing material (SG), and type of adhesive material, that is, self-curing resin (r) or resin glass-ionomer cement (i), thus forming the following groups: (more) Gr, Gi, SGr, and SGi with 10 samples each. The whole surface of all samples was treated with 35% phosphoric acid for 30 s, followed by application of silane layer. Forty metallic brackets were bonded. The samples were submitted to thermocycling process and shear bond strength test with a universal testing machine. After bracket debonding, removal of resin, and polishing, one sample from each group was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The index of cohesive porcelain fracture was also assessed. The results show that all the groups had, on average, values higher than those found in the literature, with AGr presenting the lowest value (10.38 MPa) compared to other groups. SEM analysis showed that the porcelain surfaces did not recover their original characteristics before the bracket debonding procedure, although they were considered acceptable for clinical use. Porcelain fracture was observed in all groups. One can conclude that it is possible to bond metallic brackets adequately to metal-ceramic porcelain surfaces previously treated with either self-glazing material or extra glaze layer without having to recognise the glazing technique originally employed.

Dalvi, A. C; Bolognese, A. M

2010-06-01

162

Coating and Surface Treatments on Orthodontic Metallic Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metallic biomaterials have been extensively used in orthodontics throughout history. Gold, stainless steel, cobalt-chromium alloys, titanium and its alloys, among other metallic biomaterials, have been part of the orthodontic armamentarium since the twentieth century. Metals and alloys possess outst...

Santiago Arango; Alejandro Peláez-Vargas; Claudia García

163

Caries risk factors in children under treatment with sectional brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To longitudinally investigate the caries risk levels in children undergoing orthodontic treatment with sectional brackets. Materials and METHODS: A total of 42 children scheduled for orthodontic treatment with sectional orthodontic appliances participated in this study. They were divided into two groups based on decayed, missing, and filled permanent and deciduous teeth (DMFT/dmft) scores and counts of mutans streptococci (MS) prior to treatment. One was the low caries risk group (n = 26) and the other was the high caries risk group (n = 16). Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva was collected for examination of salivary flow rate, buffer capacity, and MS and lactobacilli (LB) levels before treatment, 2 and 4 months after appliance placement, and 2, 4, and 8 months after appliance removal. RESULTS: The pretreatment salivary flow rates, buffer capacity, and MS levels remained statistically unchanged during and after active orthodontic treatment in both groups. The levels of LB in the high caries risk group were significantly elevated by appliance placement, but upon appliance removal started to fall significantly and came a little short of the pretreatment levels. In the low caries risk group, the pretreatment levels of LB remained statistically unchanged during and after treatment. There were no significant differences in salivary flow rate or buffer capacity, but there were significant differences in MS and LB scores between the two groups at every measurement time. CONCLUSIONS: In children undergoing orthodontic treatment with sectional brackets, LB levels are an important part in making caries risk assessment.

Sanpei S; Endo T; Shimooka S

2010-05-01

164

Avaliação do uso do Self Etching Primer na colagem de braquetes ortodônticos metálicos Assessment of the Self-Etching Primer on bonding of metallic orthodontic brackets  

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Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa laboratorial foi avaliada a resistência de união ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos colados ao esmalte dentário bovino, utilizando um sistema adesivo convencional, composto de ácido fosfórico + primer + resina adesiva, e de um sistema SEP (self-etching primer) que combina ácido e primer em uma única solução, avaliado em ambiente seco e úmido (com água). Quarenta e oito incisivos inferiores bovinos foram divididos em três grupos de 16 unidades, que foram assim preparados: grupo 1 (controle) ácido fosfórico 37% + primer + resina Transbond XT; o grupo 2 Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer em ambiente seco + resina Transbond XT e no grupo 3 o Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer foi aplicado em ambiente úmido com água + Transbond XT. Efetuada a colagem, procedeu-se o ensaio mecânico em uma máquina Instron, a uma velocidade de 1mm/min. As médias da resistência de união ao cisalhamento encontradas foram: 9,29MPa para o grupo 1; 10,57MPa para o grupo 2 e 7,45MPa para o grupo 3, sendo que os três grupos apresentaram resistência compatível com o uso clínico. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre o sistema convencional e o SEP em ambiente seco, nem em ambiente úmido. Houve redução significativa na resistência de união ao cisalhamento para o SEP em ambiente úmido quando comparado ao SEP em ambiente seco. Concluímos que o Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer apresenta resistência de união ao esmalte similar ao ácido fosfórico 37% + primer, sendo indicado para uso clínico na colagem de braquetes ortodônticos.This research evaluated the shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to bovine teeth, using conventional adhesive system consisting of phosphoric acid + primer + adhesive resin, and a system SEP (self-etching primer) that combines acid and primer in one solution. The SEP system was evaluated in either dry and moist (water) environments. Forty-eight lower bovine incisors teeth were divided in three groups of sixteen units each one, prepared as following: group 1(control) phosphoric acid 37% + primer + Transbond XT resin; group 2 Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer in dry environment + Transbond XT resin, and group 3 the Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer applied in moist environment + Transbond XT.After bonding, the mechanical test was performed with an Instron machine (crosshead speed of 1mm/min). The shear bond strength were: 9,29 MPa for group 1;10,57 MPa for group 2 and 7,45 MPa for group 3.All groups showed clinical acceptable resistance. There wasn't significant difference between conventional system and the SEP in dry environment, neither in moist environment. However, there was a significant reduction in the shear bond strength for the SEP in moist environment when compared with SEP in dry environment. It was concluded that Transbond + Self Etching Primer showed shear bond strength to enamel similar to phosphoric acid 37% + primer, therefore it is indicated to clinically bond orthodontic brackets.

Adriane Regina Sponchiado; Afonso E. Wunderlich Júnior; Paulo Sérgio Galletta; Murilo Rosa

2005-01-01

165

Scanning electron microscopic examination of enamel surface after fixed orthodontic treatment: In-vivo study  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Therapy with fixed orthodontic appliances starts with bracket bonding and ends with debonding of brackets, leaving enamel surface varied. Objective. The aim of this pilot study was to examine enamel surface before and after debonding of orthodontic brackets by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods. Epoxy replicas of four patients’ premolars indicated for therapy with fixed orthodontic appliances were made and brackets were bonded to their teeth with a different adhesives (Enlight, No-mix, Fuji Ortho LC and Heliosit Orthodontic) (n=4). Two months later, brackets on premolars were debonded and amounts of adhesive left on the tooth surfaces and the bracket bases were evaluated with the adhesive remnant index (ARI). After resin removal, epoxy replicas were made and the surface of premolars was evaluated with the enamel surface index (ESI). All replicas of premolars (n=32) were prepared for SEM examination and compared under different magnifications. Tooth damage was estimated based on correlation between ARItooth and ESI. Results. Pearson’s ?2 test showed no significant differences between ARItooth and ARIbracket of four materials used. Nonparametric correlations showed significant differences between ARItooth and ARIbracket, ESI and ARItooth, and between ESI and ARIbracket. Increasing of ARItooth is followed with the descent of ARIbracket and the ascent of ESI. Multivariate regression analysis showed a significant correlation between ESI and ARItooth. Conclusion. Most bond failures took place at enamel-adhesive interface. ARItooth was a predictor to enamel surface damage. The type of material did not affect enamel surface damage.

Sessa Tijana; ?ivovi? Jelena; Pajevi? Tina; Juloski Jovana; Beloica Miloš; Pavlovi? Vladimir; Gliši? Branislav

2012-01-01

166

Cytotoxic effects of the nickel release from the stainless steel brackets: An in vitro study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The purpose of the study is to determine whether the nickel released from the stainless steel brackets have any cytotoxic effects on gingival fibroblast. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brackets are an important component of fixed orthodontics. Orthodontists are mainly concerned about the brands and various systems incorporated into the brackets. The manufactures claim bracket superiority without valid research. Since we are dealing with a biologic system factors like biocompatibility, cytotoxic potential should be taken into consideration before selecting an appliance to the patient. The cytotoxic activity of the media was investigated with MTT and comet assay. RESULTS: The results of the study show that the amount of nickel leached is capable of bringing damage to the fibroblast. CONCLUSION: Our study concludes that nickel solution at minimal concentration of 1.18 ?g could damage human gingival fibroblast and the nickel released from the different brands of the brackets are not uniform.

Pillai AR; Gangadharan A; Gangadharan J; Kumar NV

2013-06-01

167

Orthodontic brackets with pivotal fastenings  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The wings on one side of a slot for an arch wire have slanting, oblong openings to receive a pivotal side of a generally rectangular fastening. The fastening is pivotally mounted in the openings; the pivotal side slides inwardly within the openings to allow the opposite latching side of the fastening to be passed over opposite latching wings; and then the pivotal side slides outwardly to retain the latching side within hook-shaped inner surfaces of the latching wings. The ends of the fastening cross over and retain an arch wire in a slot intermediate the wings. Auxiliary springs to provide rotational force on torque may be integral parts of the fastening.

NONNENMANN MICHAEL J

168

The essential work of fracture of thermoplastic orthodontic retainer materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether oral cleansing agents affect the essential work of fracture (EWF) and plastic work of fracture (PWF) for two types of orthodontic thermoplastic retainer materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Polyethylene-terephthalate-glycol (PETG; Tru-Tain Splint) and polypropylene/ethylene-propylene rubber (PP-EPR) blend (Essix-C+) sheets were compared. For each material, six sets of 25 sheets were thermoformed into double-edge-notched-tension specimens; subsets of five specimens were formed with internotch distances (L) equal to 6, 8, 10, 12, or 14 mm, respectively. Sets were stored (160 hours, 25 degrees C) in air (DRY), distilled water (DW), Original Listerine (LIS), mint Crest ProHealth (CPH), 3% hydrogen peroxide (HP), or Polident solution (POL). Specimens were fractured in tension at 2.54 mm/min. Areas under load-elongation curves were measured to determine total work of fracture (W(f)). Linear regressions (W(f) vs L [n = 25]) yielded intercepts (EWF) and slopes (PWF). Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were used to evaluate differences in EWF and PWF estimates. RESULTS: PP-EPR blends showed higher EWFs after storage in HP vs storage in DW. PP-EPR blend showed higher EWFs after storage in CPH vs PETG. After HP storage, PP-EPR exhibited lower PWFs than with any other storage conditions. PP-EPR exhibited higher PWFs than PETG after storage in DRY, DW, and LIS. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with DW, none of the cleansers decreased the energy to initiate fracture. With one exception, no cleanser decreased the energy to continue plastic fracture extension. In PP-EPR blend, increased resistance to fracture initiation was observed with CPH and HP, yet, surprisingly, HP decreased resistance to plastic fracture growth.

Pascual AL; Beeman CS; Hicks EP; Bush HM; Mitchell RJ

2010-05-01

169

Immediate versus Delayed Force Application after Orthodontic Bonding; An In Vitro Study  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Bracket de-bonding during initial orthodontic archwire placement immediately after bracket set up or following re-bonding a single bracket can be a clinical concern.Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of time on the shear bond strength of a no-mix orthodontic composite adhesive.Materials and Methods: Seventy freshly extracted human upper first premolars were collected and stored in normal saline solution. The teeth were cleaned, polished, and randomly separated into 7 groups of 10. First premolar mesh-backed standard edgewise brackets were bonded to all specimens using a no-mix orthodontic composite adhesive.In the first 6 groups, the brackets were de-bonded 2, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the primary setting time and the shear bond strengths were determined with the Universal testing machine. The teeth in group 7 were stored in 100% humidity at 37oCfor 24 hours before de-bonding. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Duncan multiple range analyses via SPSS software.Results: The minimum shear bond strength of 14.03 MPa was observed in group 1. A statistically significant difference was found between the shear bond strength of group 1 and the other groups (P<0.05). The shear bond strength increased significantly with time up to the first 5 minutes after bonding, but did not change afterwards.Conclusion: The bracket and composite adhesive used in this study demonstrated initial bond strengths of sufficient magnitude to withstand the immediate application of orthodontic forces, even 2 minutes after the primary setting time. Therefore, the operator should not be concerned with bracket de-bonding due to primary arch wire placement during the first minutes after bracket set up or following re-bonding a single bracket.

M. Basafa; F. Farzanegan

2006-01-01

170

AGRICULTURAL BRACKET  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An agricultural bracket (10) shaped to receive, in use, a livestock feed item. The bracket (10) comprises a frame (12) and a mounting (14). The bracket (10) is arranged to maintain the frame (12) in a predetermined orientation with respect to the mounting (14).

LAWRIE PETER JAMES; MYATT PHILIP

171

Evaluación in vitro de la resistencia friccional entre brackets cerámicos y arcos de acero inoxidable con y sin recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método Sol-Gel/ In vitro evaluation of frictional resistance between ceramic brackets and orthodontic steel wires with and without glass coatings applied by Sol-Gel method  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: comparar la resistencia friccional estática y dinámica in vitro entre brackets cerámicos y alambres de acero inoxidable con recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método Sol-Gel y sin él. MÉTODOS: se prepararon 58 alambres de acero inoxidable AISI 304 de 0.016 x 0.016 con recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por Sol-Gel y sin él. Posteriormente se evaluó la resistencia a la fricción estática y dinámica in vitro de los alambres sobre brackets cerámicos (more) de zafiro monocristalino y se caracterizaron las superficies en contacto por microscopia óptica y electrónica de barrido (SEM). RESULTADOS: se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos tanto para la fuerza de fricción estática (p = 0,000) como dinámica (p = 0,001). El grupo de los alambres recubiertos presentó una fuerza de fricción estática y dinámica mayor (estática: 1,78 ± 0,44 N, dinámica: 1,75 ± 0,49 N) que el grupo sin recubrimientos (estática: 1,37 ± 0,31 N, dinámica: 1,41 ± 0,27 N). La caracterización por SEM mostró que se producen defectos superficiales en los recubrimientos después de las pruebas de fricción. CONCLUSIÓN: los recubrimientos evaluados no mostraron mejor comportamiento friccional sobre brackets de zafiro monocristalino cuando son comparados con el grupo control. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: to compare the in vitro static and dynamic frictional resistance between ceramic brackets and stainless steel wires with and without glass coatings applied by sol-gel method. METHODS: 58 commercial stainless steel orthodontic wires AISI 304 (0.016 x 0.016 inch) were prepared with and without vitreous coating applied by Sol- Gel method. The in vitro static and dynamic frictional resistance of the wires on the mono-crystalline ceramic brackets were evaluated; (more) also, the wire surfaces were characterized by means of Optical Microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: statistically significant differences were found between both groups under static (p = 0.000) as well as dynamic (p = 0.001) friction test. The friction values found in the coated group were higher (Static friction: 1.78 ± 0.44 N, Dynamic friction: 1.75 ± 0.49 N) than the group with no coating (Static friction: 1.37 ± 0.31 N, Dynamic friction: 1.41 ± 0.27 N). Characterization by SEM showed surface defects in both groups after the friction tests. CONCLUSION: the evaluated coatings did not perform better in terms of frictional behavior on sapphire mono-crystalline ceramic brackets when compared with the control group.

Rendón Arias, Luz Adriana; Cano Correa, Gustavo Adolfo; peláez Vargas, Alejandro; Jaramillo Vallejo, Pedro M; García Garcia, Claudia; Montoya Góez, Yessid

2008-12-01

172

Evaluación in vitro de la resistencia friccional entre brackets cerámicos y arcos de acero inoxidable con y sin recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método Sol-Gel In vitro evaluation of frictional resistance between ceramic brackets and orthodontic steel wires with and without glass coatings applied by Sol-Gel method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: comparar la resistencia friccional estática y dinámica in vitro entre brackets cerámicos y alambres de acero inoxidable con recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método Sol-Gel y sin él. MÉTODOS: se prepararon 58 alambres de acero inoxidable AISI 304 de 0.016 x 0.016 con recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por Sol-Gel y sin él. Posteriormente se evaluó la resistencia a la fricción estática y dinámica in vitro de los alambres sobre brackets cerámicos de zafiro monocristalino y se caracterizaron las superficies en contacto por microscopia óptica y electrónica de barrido (SEM). RESULTADOS: se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos tanto para la fuerza de fricción estática (p = 0,000) como dinámica (p = 0,001). El grupo de los alambres recubiertos presentó una fuerza de fricción estática y dinámica mayor (estática: 1,78 ± 0,44 N, dinámica: 1,75 ± 0,49 N) que el grupo sin recubrimientos (estática: 1,37 ± 0,31 N, dinámica: 1,41 ± 0,27 N). La caracterización por SEM mostró que se producen defectos superficiales en los recubrimientos después de las pruebas de fricción. CONCLUSIÓN: los recubrimientos evaluados no mostraron mejor comportamiento friccional sobre brackets de zafiro monocristalino cuando son comparados con el grupo control.INTRODUCTION: to compare the in vitro static and dynamic frictional resistance between ceramic brackets and stainless steel wires with and without glass coatings applied by sol-gel method. METHODS: 58 commercial stainless steel orthodontic wires AISI 304 (0.016 x 0.016 inch) were prepared with and without vitreous coating applied by Sol- Gel method. The in vitro static and dynamic frictional resistance of the wires on the mono-crystalline ceramic brackets were evaluated; also, the wire surfaces were characterized by means of Optical Microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: statistically significant differences were found between both groups under static (p = 0.000) as well as dynamic (p = 0.001) friction test. The friction values found in the coated group were higher (Static friction: 1.78 ± 0.44 N, Dynamic friction: 1.75 ± 0.49 N) than the group with no coating (Static friction: 1.37 ± 0.31 N, Dynamic friction: 1.41 ± 0.27 N). Characterization by SEM showed surface defects in both groups after the friction tests. CONCLUSION: the evaluated coatings did not perform better in terms of frictional behavior on sapphire mono-crystalline ceramic brackets when compared with the control group.

Luz Adriana Rendón Arias; Gustavo Adolfo Cano Correa; Alejandro peláez Vargas; Pedro M Jaramillo Vallejo; Claudia García Garcia; Yessid Montoya Góez

2008-01-01

173

Fracture strength of different soldered and welded orthodontic joining configurations with and without filling material.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength of different joints made by conventional brazing, TIG and laser welding with and without filling material. Five standardized joining configurations of orthodontic wire in spring hard quality were used: round, cross, 3 mm length, 9 mm length and 7 mm to orthodontic band. The joints were made by five different methods: brazing, tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding with and without filling material. For the original orthodontic wire and for each kind of joint configuration or connecting method 10 specimens were carefully produced, totalizing 240. The fracture strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). Data were analyzed by ANOVA (p=0.05) and Bonferroni post hoc test (p=0.05). In all cases, brazing joints were ruptured on a low level of fracture strength (186-407 N). Significant differences between brazing and TIG or laser welding (plaser welding with filling material and 3 mm joint length (998 N). Using filling materials, there was a clear tendency to higher mean values of fracture strength in TIG and laser welding. However, statistically significant differences were found only in the 9-mm long joints (plaser welding except for the impossibility of joining orthodontic wire with orthodontic band. PMID:19089229

Bock, Jens Johannes; Bailly, Jacqueline; Gernhardt, Christian Ralf; Fuhrmann, Robert Andreas Werner

174

Comparison of bond strength of lingual brackets under different composite base forming method.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the shear bond strength of indirectly bonded Ormco lingual brackets, using different composite bracket base preparation. DESIGN: Prospective random study SETTING: This study was conducted at Department of Orthodontics of the School of Dentistry of the University of Istanbul in 2004 MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty mandibular premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were selected and divided into two equal groups. Group 1: (n=10) 1 mm composite base was constructed directly on the intact bracket base. Group 2: (n=10) the bracket bases were first sandblasted with a microetcher using 50 ?m aluminium oxide particles and then the 1 mm composite base was constructed. INTERVENTION: The universal Lloyd testing instrument used for the application of shear forces. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results were compared statistically using analysis of variance and chi-square tests. RESULTS: The mean of shear bond strength test was 9.46±0.78 MPa and 12.11±0.82 MPa for group 1 and group 2 respectively. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.001). The analysis of variance demonstrated that there were also statistically significant differences in adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores between the groups (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Sandblasting of the bracket bases increased the shear bond strength and the redundant between the bracket and the composite base.

Burak Aksu; M. Cem Caniklio?lu; Y?ld?z Öztürk

2005-01-01

175

Operation bracket  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses an operation bracket, which comprises a base, a liftable support rod and a tray bracket, wherein the tray bracket comprises a bottom bracket, a front fixing plate, a back fixing plate, a left fixing plate and a right fixing plate, and all fixing plates can be drawn or propelled from the bottom bracket. The front fixing plate is connected with a front bracket which can be folded or opened. The utility model adopts the tray bracket as the foundation, the front bracket and an aseptic single support rod are folded to form an ordinary tray bracket, an anesthesia bracket is formed by bracing, and one bracket has multiple purposes. Patients feel comfortable when the pedo-operation for shoulders, necks and arms are carried out. The operation field is broad, a doctor can operate the utility model easily, and the utility model is convenient to for a physician to observe and manage a patient. An aseptic area is hard to be polluted. In addition, owing to simple structure, manufacture is easy.

YANG FANG

176

Effect of fluoride on friction between bracket and wire.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Friction is usually encountered during sliding technique for orthodontic space closure. This study aims to investigate the effect of fluoride on frictional resistance between stainless steel orthodontic brackets and steel and NiTi arch wires. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 144 standard 022 stainless steel brackets were used in this experimental study. 0.016 and 0.019 × 0.025 inch steel and NiTi arch wires were tested. The frictional resistance between wires and brackets immersed in the following three solutions were measured: Sultan fluoride gel containing 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride at pH 3.5 for 4 minutes, aquafresh mouth wash containing 0.05% sodium fluoride at pH of 5.1 for 1 minute twice a day for 8 weeks and physiologic serum (pH=7) as the control group. Static and dynamic frictional forces were measured using Testometric machine. Surface topography of wires and brackets was qualitatively assessed using electron microscopy. Three-way and two-way variance analysis and complementary Tuckey analysis were applied to compare the groups for any significant differences (P<0.05). RESULTS: The average static and dynamic frictional forces for all bracket-wire combinations immersed in Sultan fluoride gel were higher than those immersed in NAF and control groups (P<0.001).The forces measured for rectangular wires were higher than round wires (P<0.001). Frictional resistance of 0.016 inch NiTi wire was more than that of the steel one but the difference between steel and NiTi 0.019 × 0.25 arch wires was not significant. CONCLUSION: Friction between steel brackets and nickel titanium and steel wires is affected by prophylactic agents containing high doses of fluoride and acidity.

Alavi S; Farahi A

2011-12-01

177

Three-dimensional deformation comparison of self-ligating brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Archwire rotation is used in orthodontic treatment to alter the labiolingual orientation of a tooth. Measurement of the 3-dimensional (3D) motion of the orthodontic brackets requires a new configuration of the orthodontic torque simulator. METHODS: The orthodontic torque simulator was coupled with a stereo microscope and 2 cameras to allow for the 3D bracket motion to be determined during wire twisting. The stereo camera images were processed with a 3D digital image correlation technique to determine the 3D deformation of the orthodontic brackets. Three self-ligating brackets (Damon Q, Ormco, Orange, Calif; In-Ovation R, GAC, Bohemia, NY; and Speed, Strite Industries, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada) were compared by using the 3D digital image correlation method to demonstrate the difference in 3D motion of self-ligating brackets components. RESULTS: Contour plots of the 3 brackets demonstrate the 3D motion of the bracket tie-wings and the archwire retentive component. The 3D motion of the bracket tie-wings and archwire retentive component were quantified. The displacement values of the archwire retentive component measured with the 3D orthodontic torque simulator were found to be 2.0 and 3.5 times less for the In-Ovation and Damon Q brackets than the values in previous studies that examined the compliance of the archwire retentive component. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D digital image correlation method used to quantify bracket deformation showed the 3D motion of the bracket tie-wings and the motion of the archwire retentive component. The use of a 3D optical measurement system is useful to understand the motion of the archwire retentive component but is not necessary to quantify bracket tie-wing motion. This measurement technique can be used to evaluate brackets of varying designs.

Melenka GW; Nobes DS; Carey JP; Major PW

2013-05-01

178

Bonding brackets to porcelain: in vitro study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, in vitro, the effect of various porcelain surface treatments on the shear strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain and the mode of fracture after debonding. Eighty-eight samples of metallic supported feldspathic porcelain were randomly divided into four groups according to their surface preparation as follows: the porcelain was maintained intact (GI), roughened with a diamond bur (GII), etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid (GIII), or sandblasted with aluminum oxide (GIV). The specimens were treated with silane (Scothprime) and brackets were bonded with Concise. Each sample was subjected to a shear load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min and a recording was made at the point of failure. Bond strengths, adequate to withstand the application of orthodontic forces, were achieved in all groups. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test showed no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (p>0.05). However, many more porcelain fractures occurred on deglazed porcelain. This study indicates that with the appropriate material selection, the silane/composite procedure alone may be adequate for bonding.

Sant'Anna Eduardo Franzotti; Monnerat Maria Evangelina; Chevitarese Orlando; Stuani Maria Bernadete Sasso

2002-01-01

179

Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes colados com resinas ortodônticas fluoretadas Evaluation of shear bond strength of brackets bonded with orthodontic fluoride-releasing composite resins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos colados com resinas que contêm flúor, comparando-as a uma resina convencional; e analisar a quantidade de adesivo remanescente na superfície do esmalte. MÉTODOS: sessenta pré-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos: Grupo I - Concise (3M), Grupo II - Ultrabond (Aditek do Brasil) e Grupo III - Rely-a-Bond (Reliance). Após a colagem dos braquetes, as amostras foram termocicladas (500 ciclos) nas temperaturas de 5°C e 55°C. Após 48 horas, foram submetidas aos ensaios mecânicos de cisalhamento na direção oclusocervical, com velocidade de carga de 0,5mm/min, em uma máquina MTS 810. RESULTADOS: foram observadas resistências médias ao cisalhamento de 24,54±6,98MPa para o Grupo I, de 11,53±6,20MPa para o Grupo II e de 16,46±5,72MPa para o Grupo III. A Análise de Variância determinou diferença estatística entre as médias de resistência ao cisalhamento entre os grupos (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets bonded with fluoride releasing composite resins, comparing them with a conventional resin and to analyze the amount of resin left on the enamel surface. METHODS: Sixty premolars were randomly divided into three groups: Group I - Concise (3M), Group II - Ultrabond (Aditek do Brasil) and Group III - Rely-a-Bond (Reliance). After bonding, the samples were thermocycled (500 cycles) at 5ºC and 55ºC temperatures. After 48 hours they were subjected to shear bond strength testing, in the occluso-gingival direction, using an MTS 810 Universal Testing Machine with load speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The results demonstrated a mean shear bond strength of 24.54 ± 6.98 MPa for Group I, 11.53 ± 6.20 MPa for Group II, and 16.46 ± 5.72 MPa for Group III. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) determined a statistical difference in the mean shear bond strengths between groups (p < 0.001). The Tukey test evidenced that the averages of the three groups were significantly different (p < 0.05), with the highest values for Group I and the lowest for Group II. The Kruskal-Wallis test did not show significant differences in the amount of resin left on the enamel in any of the three groups (p = 0.361). CONCLUSION: All materials exhibited adequate adhesive bond strength for clinical use. Concise exhibited the highest degree of shear bond strength but no significant differences were found in Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) between the groups.

Marcia Cristina Rastelli; Ulisses Coelho; Emígdio Enrique Orellana Jimenez

2010-01-01

180

Fracture strength of different soldered and welded orthodontic joining configurations with and without filling material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength of different joints made by conventional brazing, TIG and laser welding with and without filling material. Five standardized joining configurations of orthodontic wire in spring hard quality were used: round, cross, 3 mm length, 9 mm length and 7 mm to orthodontic band. The joints were made by five different methods: brazing, tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding with and without filling material. For the original orthodontic wire and for each kind of joint configuration or connecting method 10 specimens were carefully produced, totalizing 240. The fracture strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). Data were analyzed by ANOVA (p=0.05) and Bonferroni post hoc test (p=0.05). In all cases, brazing joints were ruptured on a low level of fracture strength (186-407 N). Significant differences between brazing and TIG or laser welding (p<0.05, Bonferroni post hoc test) were found in each joint configuration. The highest fracture strength means were observed for laser welding with filling material and 3 mm joint length (998 N). Using filling materials, there was a clear tendency to higher mean values of fracture strength in TIG and laser welding. However, statistically significant differences were found only in the 9-mm long joints (p<0.05, Bonferroni post hoc test). In conclusion, the fracture strength of welded joints was positively influenced by the additional use of filling material. TIG welding was comparable to laser welding except for the impossibility of joining orthodontic wire with orthodontic band.

Jens Johannes Bock; Jacqueline Bailly; Christian Ralf Gernhardt; Robert Andreas Werner Fuhrmann

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Systematic review on self-ligating vs. conventional brackets: initial pain, number of visits, treatment time.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Meta-analysis of differences between conventional and self-ligating brackets concerning pain during tooth movement, number of patient visits, total treatment duration, and ligation times. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online search in Medline, Embase, and Central focused on randomized clinical trials and controlled clinical studies published between 1996 and 2012. RESULTS: Four studies on pain met our inclusion criteria, two on the number of appointments, two on overall treatment time but none on ligation times. Pain levels did not differ significantly between patients treated with conventional or self-ligating brackets after 4 h, 24 h, 3 and 7 days. The number of appointments and total treatment times revealed no significant differences between self-ligating and conventional brackets. CONCLUSION: The lack of significant overall effects apparent in this meta-analysis contradicts evidence-based statements on the advantages of self-ligating brackets over conventional ones regarding discomfort during initial orthodontic therapy, number of appointments, and total treatment time. Due to the limited number of studies included, further randomized controlled clinical trials are required to deliver more data and to substantiate evidence-based conclusions on differences between the two bracket types considering orthodontic pain, number of visits, treatment, and ligation times.

?elar A; Schedlberger M; Dörfler P; Bertl M

2013-01-01

182

Shear bond strength of metallic and ceramic brackets using color change adhesives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using color change adhesives that are supposed to aid in removing excess of bonding material and compare them to a traditional adhesive. METHODS: Ninety metallic and ninety ceramic brackets were bonded to bovine incisors using two color change adhesives and a regular one. A tensile stress was applied by a universal testing machine. The teeth were observed in a microscope after debonding in order to determine the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). RESULTS: The statistical analysis (ANOVA, Tukey, and Kruskall-Wallis tests) demonstrated that the mean bond strength presented no difference when metallic and ceramic brackets were compared, but the bond resistance values were significantly different for the three adhesives used. The most common ARI outcome was the entire adhesive remaining on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: The bond strength was similar for metallic and ceramic brackets when the same adhesive system was used. ARI scores demonstrated that bonding with these adhesives is safe even when ceramic brackets were used. On the other hand, bond strength was too low for orthodontic purposes when Ortho Lite Cure was used.

Stumpf AS; Bergmann C; Prietsch JR; Vicenzi J

2013-03-01

183

Bonding brackets to porcelain: in vitro study/ Colagem de brackets em porcelana: estudo in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this research was to verify, in vitro, the effect of various porcelain surface treatments on the shear strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain and the mode of fracture after debonding. Eighty-eight samples of metallic supported feldspathic porcelain were randomly divided into four groups according to their surface preparation as follows: the porcelain was maintained intact (GI), roughened with a diamond bur (GII), etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid (more) (GIII), or sandblasted with aluminum oxide (GIV). The specimens were treated with silane (Scothprime) and brackets were bonded with Concise. Each sample was subjected to a shear load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min and a recording was made at the point of failure. Bond strengths, adequate to withstand the application of orthodontic forces, were achieved in all groups. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test showed no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (p>0.05). However, many more porcelain fractures occurred on deglazed porcelain. This study indicates that with the appropriate material selection, the silane/composite procedure alone may be adequate for bonding.

Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti; Monnerat, Maria Evangelina; Chevitarese, Orlando; Stuani, Maria Bernadete Sasso

2002-01-01

184

Influência do agente clareador peróxido de carbamida a 10% na resistência mecânica da colagem de braquetes ortodônticos Influence of 10% carbamide peroxide gel on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo in vitro foi determinar a influência do agente clareador peróxido de carbamida a 10% na resistência mecânica da colagem de braquetes ortodônticos. Foram estudados três grupos denominados G1 (não submetido ao clareamento), G2 (com clareamento e colagem realizada 1 semana após) e G3 (com clareamento e colagem realizada 24h após). O teste de cisalhamento foi conduzido na máquina de ensaios mecânicos Emic, com a velocidade de deformação de 0,5 mm/min.A resitência ao cisalhamento em relação à área de colagem foi calculada para cada dente e expressa em MPa. Os resultados mostraram aumento estatisticamente significante (pThe purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the influence of 10% carbamide peroxide gel on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Three group were studied: G1 (without bleaching), G2 (bleaching and bonding after 1 week) and G3 (bleaching and bonding after 24h). The shear test was conduced in a Emic testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0,5 mm/min. The shear bond strength was calculated for each tooth and expressed in MPa. The results show enhance statistical significant (p<0,001) on the shear bond strength after bleaching and encreased with the time interval between bleaching and bonding, significantily.

Edgard Norões R. da Matta; José de Albuquerque Calasans Maia; Orlando Chevitarese

2005-01-01

185

A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C02, Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm2 on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

2001-01-01

186

Influência do tempo pós-fixação na resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes colados com diferentes materiais Influence of post-fixation time on shear bond strength of brackets fixed with different bonding materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a resistência ao cisalhamento da união, nos tempos pós-fixação de 10 minutos e 24 horas, de quatro materiais para colagem de bráquetes e os tipos de falhas na fratura. Foram utilizados 64 pré-molares humanos recém-extraídos embutidos em resina. As faces vestibulares de 32 pré-molares foram condicionadas com ácido fosfórico a 35%, por 30 segundos e em 16 deles, os bráquetes foram colados com Concise Ortodôntico (3M) e nos demais com resina composta Z100 (3M). Em 32 dentes, os bráquetes foram colados sem condicionamento do esmalte, com ionômeros de vidro Fuji I (GC) e Fuji Ortho LC (GC). Após a fixação, 32 corpos-de-prova foram armazenados em água destilada a 37ºC, por 10 minutos e o restante por 24 horas e submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento numa máquina com velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Os resultados submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Tukey (5%) mostraram que os maiores valores de resistência ao cisalhamento aos 10 minutos e 24 horas foram observados com o Concise Ortodôntico, com diferença estatística significativa em relação ao Fuji Ortho LC, Z100 e Fuji I. Nenhuma diferença estatística foi observada entre Fuji Ortho LC, Z100 e Fuji I. Os autores concluíram que o Concise Ortodôntico apresentou maiores valores de resistência ao cisalhamento em relação aos outros materiais, nos tempos de 10 minutos e 24 horas, os valores obtidos no período de 24 horas foram superiores em relação aos de 10 minutos, para todos materiais e um grande número de falhas adesivas foi observada para o Fuji I, Concise Ortodôntico e Z100.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of four bonding materials for brackets, 10 minutes and 24 hours after their fixation, as well as the kinds of fracture observed. The buccal surfaces of 32 premolars were etched for 30 seconds with 35% phosphoric acid, and brackets were bonded using Orthodontic Concise (3M) and Z100 (3M). In other 32 premolars, brackets were bonded with Fuji I (GC) and Fuji Ortho LC (GC) on the buccal surfaces, without acid etching. After the bonding procedures, 32 samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 10 minutes, and 32 samples were stored at the same temperature for 24 hours. The samples were then submitted to shear bond strength testing in an Instron testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). The results indicated that, for 10 minutes and 24 hours, Orthodontic Concise showed shear bond strength values (6.22 and 7.73 MPa, respectively) higher than Fuji Ortho LC (3.32 and 5.10 MPa), Z100 (2.72 and 4.51 MPa) and Fuji I (2.52 and 4.54 MPa). No statistical difference was verified between Fuji Ortho LC, Z100 and Fuji I (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Orthodontic Concise showed better shear bond strength values than the other three bonding materials, for both 10-minute and 24-hour storage periods; the shear bond strength averages were higher for the storage time of 24 hours, for all tested materials, and a great number of adhesive fractures were observed in the specimens which received Fuji I, Orthodontic Concise and Z100.

Lourenço CORRER SOBRINHO; Gisele Maria CORRER; Simonides CONSANI; Mário Alexandre Coelho SINHORETI; Rafael Leonardo Xediek CONSANI

2002-01-01

187

Accuracy of positioning three types of self-ligating brackets compared with a conventionally ligating bracket.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether the morphology of three different self-ligating brackets affects the accuracy of their positioning when compared with a conventionally ligating bracket. DESIGN: An ex vivo prospective comparison of the accuracy of positioning self-ligating brackets with conventionally ligating brackets. SETTING: Orthodontic Department, Eastman Dental Institute, London, UK. Subjects and methods: Twenty-five clinicians with 2 or more years experience of bracket placement bonded four identical typodont malocclusions with Damon MX(TM), In-Ovation System R(TM) and SmartClip(TM) self-ligating brackets and also Victory Series(TM) conventionally ligating brackets. Four hundred brackets of each type were positioned. Vertical, horizontal and angular bracket position errors were assessed by reference to the FA point and FACC respectively, using digital images and image analysis software. RESULTS: Method error analysis showed no evidence of bias and minimal random error. The Victory Series brackets were the most accurately positioned. Although the amount of positioning error for all the self-ligating brackets was small, a greater number were positioned outside vertical and horizontal tolerance limits compared to the conventionally ligated brackets (P<0·001). The Damon MX bracket type was nearly 10 times more likely to be inaccurately placed relative to the FA point compared with the Victory Series bracket. The differences relating to angular positioning error were not statistically significant (P>0·05). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the positioning of three types of self-ligating brackets was less accurate than the conventional pre-adjusted edgewise bracket, when using a direct bonding technique. This may have implications for their clinical application.

Birdsall J; Hunt NP; Sabbah W; Moseley HC

2012-03-01

188

Bracket with improved arch wire slot liner  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A ceramic orthodontic bracket assembly for attaching an arch wire to a tooth of the invention includes a bracket body made of a first transparent or translucent ceramic which consists essentially of a monocrystalline alumina. The bracket body has a mesial-distal channel formed therein, and a generally rectangular liner made of a second transparent or translucent ceramic is disposed in the channel. The liner has occlusal and gingival side walls forming an archwire slot therebetween. Means such as brazing or adhesive are provided for bonding the liner in the channel in which it is configured to closely fit.

TUNEBERG LEE H; BRASSER BRADLEY J

189

BRACKET WITH IMPROVED ARCH WIRE SLOT LINER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A ceramic orthodontic bracket assembly for attaching an arch wire to a tooth of the invention includes a bracket body made of a first transparent or translucent ceramic which consists essentially of a monocrystalline alumina. The bracket body has a mesial-distal channel formed therein, and a generally rectangular liner made of a second transparent or translucent ceramic is disposed in the channel. The liner has occlusal and gingival side walls forming an archwire slot therebetween. Means such as brazing or adhesive are provided for bonding the liner in the channel in which it is configured to closely fit.

TUNEBERG LEE H; BRASSER BRADLEY J

190

Comparative evaluation of ceramic bracket base designs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since the initial introduction of ceramic brackets, base designs have been modified to reduce tooth damage during debonding. The purpose of this study was to compare shear and tensile bond strengths and fracture sites of four second-generation ceramic brackets: Allure IV (A) (GAC International, Inc., Central Islip, N.Y.), Ceramaflex (C) (TP Orthodontics, Inc., LaPorte, Ind.), Intrigue (I) (Lancer Orthodontics, Carlsbad, Calif.), Transcend 2000 (T) (Unitek Corp., Monrovia, Calif.), and a foil-mesh base stainless steel bracket, DynaBond II (D) (Unitek Corp., Monrovia, Calif.). Twenty brackets of each type were bonded to 100 mandibular bovine incisor teeth with Concise bonding adhesive. The samples were thermocycled for 24 hours and the brackets were debonded with an Instron universal testing machine (Instron Corp., Canton, Mass.). A modified Transcend debonding instrument was used for tensile debonding, whereas a chisel was used for shear debonding. An analysis of variance was performed with a 0.05 level of confidence. Mean shear strengths (kg/cm2) necessary to debond were 174.0 (A), 71.0 (C), 189.0 (I), 228.0 (T), and 160.0 (D). Mean tensile strengths (kg/cm2) were 27.0 (A), 26.7 (C), 51.3 (I), 56.5 (T), and 48.6 (D). Fracture sites examined with a light microscope showed no enamel damage with any of the ceramic brackets. Intrigue was the only bracket to fracture and had 30% bracket fracture in the tensile mode and 20% bracket fracture in the shear mode. The percentage of fractures at the adhesive-bracket base interface for shear and tensile modes, respectively, were 80, 100 (A); 100, 90 (C); 10, 60 (I); 60, 90 (T); and 90, 80 (D).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Bordeaux JM; Moore RN; Bagby MD

1994-06-01

191

Comparative evaluation of ceramic bracket base designs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the initial introduction of ceramic brackets, base designs have been modified to reduce tooth damage during debonding. The purpose of this study was to compare shear and tensile bond strengths and fracture sites of four second-generation ceramic brackets: Allure IV (A) (GAC International, Inc., Central Islip, N.Y.), Ceramaflex (C) (TP Orthodontics, Inc., LaPorte, Ind.), Intrigue (I) (Lancer Orthodontics, Carlsbad, Calif.), Transcend 2000 (T) (Unitek Corp., Monrovia, Calif.), and a foil-mesh base stainless steel bracket, DynaBond II (D) (Unitek Corp., Monrovia, Calif.). Twenty brackets of each type were bonded to 100 mandibular bovine incisor teeth with Concise bonding adhesive. The samples were thermocycled for 24 hours and the brackets were debonded with an Instron universal testing machine (Instron Corp., Canton, Mass.). A modified Transcend debonding instrument was used for tensile debonding, whereas a chisel was used for shear debonding. An analysis of variance was performed with a 0.05 level of confidence. Mean shear strengths (kg/cm2) necessary to debond were 174.0 (A), 71.0 (C), 189.0 (I), 228.0 (T), and 160.0 (D). Mean tensile strengths (kg/cm2) were 27.0 (A), 26.7 (C), 51.3 (I), 56.5 (T), and 48.6 (D). Fracture sites examined with a light microscope showed no enamel damage with any of the ceramic brackets. Intrigue was the only bracket to fracture and had 30% bracket fracture in the tensile mode and 20% bracket fracture in the shear mode. The percentage of fractures at the adhesive-bracket base interface for shear and tensile modes, respectively, were 80, 100 (A); 100, 90 (C); 10, 60 (I); 60, 90 (T); and 90, 80 (D).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8198079

Bordeaux, J M; Moore, R N; Bagby, M D

1994-06-01

192

Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de adesivo ortodôntico associado a verniz de clorexidina e timol na colagem de braquetes/ Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of orthodontic adhesive associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish in bracket bonding  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana da associação de um adesivo ortodôntico com um verniz de clorexidina e timol. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 32 pré-molares humanos divididos em 4 grupos. O grupo 1 consistiu do grupo controle, no qual o adesivo utilizado para a colagem do braquete não estava associado a nenhum agente antimicrobiano. Os grupos 2, 3 e 4 foram colados com um sistema adesivo associado a um verniz de clorexidina e timol. Os grupos 3 e 4 foram arma (more) zenados em água por 7 dias e 30 dias, respectivamente, enquanto os corpos de prova do grupo 2 foram, logo depois da colagem, colocados em ágar semeado com Streptococcus mutans por 48h a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os grupos experimentais, com exceção do grupo controle, apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana com tendência de redução do seu potencial de ação com maior tempo de imersão em água. CONCLUSÃO: a associação do verniz de clorexidina a um sistema adesivo utilizado em Ortodontia apresenta-se vantajosa pela sua atividade antimicrobiana. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the antimicrobial activity resulting from the association of an orthodontic adhesive with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. METHODS: Thirty-two extracted human premolars were used, divided into four groups. In Group 1, the control group, the adhesive used to bond the bracket was not associated with any antimicrobial agent. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were bonded with an adhesive system associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. Groups 3 and 4 were stored in wate (more) r for 7 days and 30 days, respectively, while the specimens from group 2 were, soon after bonding, placed on agar seeded with Streptococcus mutans for 48 hours, at 37º C. RESULTS: The experimental groups, with the exception of the control group, showed antimicrobial activity whose action tended to decline commensurately with the amount of time that they remained immersed in water. CONCLUSIONS: The association of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish with an adhesive system used in orthodontics proved to be advantageous due to its antimicrobial activity.

Calabrich, Carolina Freire de Carvalho; Barbosa, Marcelo de Castellucci e; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti; Ferreira, Rogério Frederico Alves

2010-08-01

193

Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de adesivo ortodôntico associado a verniz de clorexidina e timol na colagem de braquetes Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of orthodontic adhesive associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish in bracket bonding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana da associação de um adesivo ortodôntico com um verniz de clorexidina e timol. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 32 pré-molares humanos divididos em 4 grupos. O grupo 1 consistiu do grupo controle, no qual o adesivo utilizado para a colagem do braquete não estava associado a nenhum agente antimicrobiano. Os grupos 2, 3 e 4 foram colados com um sistema adesivo associado a um verniz de clorexidina e timol. Os grupos 3 e 4 foram armazenados em água por 7 dias e 30 dias, respectivamente, enquanto os corpos de prova do grupo 2 foram, logo depois da colagem, colocados em ágar semeado com Streptococcus mutans por 48h a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os grupos experimentais, com exceção do grupo controle, apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana com tendência de redução do seu potencial de ação com maior tempo de imersão em água. CONCLUSÃO: a associação do verniz de clorexidina a um sistema adesivo utilizado em Ortodontia apresenta-se vantajosa pela sua atividade antimicrobiana.OBJECTIVE: To assess the antimicrobial activity resulting from the association of an orthodontic adhesive with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. METHODS: Thirty-two extracted human premolars were used, divided into four groups. In Group 1, the control group, the adhesive used to bond the bracket was not associated with any antimicrobial agent. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were bonded with an adhesive system associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. Groups 3 and 4 were stored in water for 7 days and 30 days, respectively, while the specimens from group 2 were, soon after bonding, placed on agar seeded with Streptococcus mutans for 48 hours, at 37º C. RESULTS: The experimental groups, with the exception of the control group, showed antimicrobial activity whose action tended to decline commensurately with the amount of time that they remained immersed in water. CONCLUSIONS: The association of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish with an adhesive system used in orthodontics proved to be advantageous due to its antimicrobial activity.

Carolina Freire de Carvalho Calabrich; Marcelo de Castellucci e Barbosa; Maria Regina Lorenzetti Simionato; Rogério Frederico Alves Ferreira

2010-01-01

194

Microbiological analysis of gingivitis in pediatric patients under orthodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gingival inflammation and changes in bacteria of the gingival sulcus in children in orthodontic treatment with brackets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study design: this prospective study assessed gingival and plaque index of two groups: children with brackets (Group 1) and without brackets (Group 2). The sample was selected from patients treated at the Faculty of Dentistry, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. Microbiological assessment was performed in every child and all data were statistically analysed. RESULTS: Group 1 showed significantly higher microbiological values and the difference was greater in lower teeth. Comparing the total plaque percentage, it was significantly higher in Group 1. Statistics: there was no significant correlation between gingival and plaque indexes in any group. No significant correlation was found between plaque index and bacteria. CONCLUSION: Children using brackets showed significantly higher gingival and plaque indices than children without brackets. No direct relationship was found between the increase in gingival and plaque indices and the presence and quantity of bacteria; therefore it was not possible to identify specific bacteria as responsible for the high gingival index in patients with brackets.

Cardoso-Silva C; Barbería E; Ramos Atance JA; Maroto M; Hernández A; García-Godoy F

2011-12-01

195

Invisible orthodontics part 1: invisalign.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: This paper discusses the invisible orthodontic treatment modalities of Invisalign aligners, lingual appliances and aesthetic brackets. The first part of this three-part series will discuss Invisalign aligner treatment. The second part will discuss lingual appliance treatment and the third part will focus on aesthetic brackets. The benefits and drawbacks of Invisalign treatment are considered in detail, including examples of treated cases and a review of the literature to date. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Patients are increasingly requesting more aesthetic forms of orthodontic treatment. Clinicians need to be aware of the indications and limitations of such invisible therapies so that they can fully inform their patients.

Malik OH; McMullin A; Waring DT

2013-04-01

196

Is there a need for orthodontic plaque indices?-diagnostic accuracy of four plaque indices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance and accuracy of four plaque indices for orthodontic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The plaque accumulation of 140 maxillary incisors with bonded brackets was recorded using intra-oral photographs and assessed using four different plaque indices: the orthodontic plaque (OP) index, the modified orthodontic plaque (MOP) index, the Quigley and Hein (QHP) index and the modified Navy plaque (MNP) index. The assessment was performed twice within a time interval of 4 weeks by four different examiner groups: orthodontists, dentists, students and orthodontic assistants. RESULTS: No significant differences were detected for the OP and MOP indices among the examiner groups. A significant difference was found for the QHP and MNP indices. The inter- and intra-examiner reliability of the OP and MOP indices was good. In contrast, the reliability for the QHP and MNP indices was moderate to poor with few exceptions. The discrimination performance of the OP and MOP indices was excellent. The sum of the sensitivity and specificity was generally lower for the QHP and MNP indices compared with the OP and MOP indices. CONCLUSION: OP and MOP indices showed good performance. The QHP and MNP indices are not appropriate for orthodontic purposes. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional plaque indices reflect the typical pattern of plaque accumulation for patients without multi-bracket appliances. The performance of these indices for orthodontic patients has never been investigated. Orthodontic plaque indices that focus on the surface along the gingival margin and areas around the bracket exhibit higher diagnostic performance and accuracy compared with traditional indices.

Paschos E; Bücher K; Huth KC; Crispin A; Wichelhaus A; Dietel T

2013-08-01

197

Light curing in orthodontics; should we be concerned?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Light cured materials are increasingly used in orthodontic clinical practice and concurrent with developments in materials have been developments in light curing unit technology. In recent years the irradiances of these units have increased. The aim of this study was to determine the safe exposure times to both direct and reflected light. METHODS: The weighted irradiance and safe exposure times of 11 dental curing lights (1 plasma arc, 2 halogen and 8 LED lights) were determined at 6 distances (2-60 cm) from the light guide tip using a spectroradiometer. In addition, using the single most powerful light, the same two parameters were determined for reflected light. This was done at a distance of 10 cm from the reflected light, but during simulated bonding of 8 different orthodontic brackets of three material types, namely stainless steel, ceramic and composite. RESULTS: The results indicate that the LED Fusion lamp had the highest weighted irradiance and the shortest safe exposure time. With this light the maximum safe exposure time without additional eye protection for the patient (at 10 cm), the operator (at 30 cm) and the assistant (at 60 cm) ranged from 2.5 min, 22.1 min and 88.8 min respectively. This indicates a relatively low short term risk during normal operation of dental curing lights. For reflected light at a distance of 10 cm the risk was even lower, but was affected by the material and shape of the orthodontic bracket under test. SIGNIFICANCE: The short term risks associated with the use of dental curing lights, halogen, LED or plasma, appear to be low, particularly if as is the case adequate safety precautions are employed. The same is true for reflected light from orthodontic brackets during bonding. What is still unclear is the potential long term ocular effects of prolonged exposure to the blue light generated from dental curing lights.

McCusker N; Lee SM; Robinson S; Patel N; Sandy JR; Ireland AJ

2013-06-01

198

Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes colados com resinas ortodônticas fluoretadas/ Evaluation of shear bond strength of brackets bonded with orthodontic fluoride-releasing composite resins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos colados com resinas que contêm flúor, comparando-as a uma resina convencional; e analisar a quantidade de adesivo remanescente na superfície do esmalte. MÉTODOS: sessenta pré-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos: Grupo I - Concise (3M), Grupo II - Ultrabond (Aditek do Brasil) e Grupo III - Rely-a-Bond (Reliance). Após a colagem dos braquetes, as amostras foram termocicladas (500 c (more) iclos) nas temperaturas de 5°C e 55°C. Após 48 horas, foram submetidas aos ensaios mecânicos de cisalhamento na direção oclusocervical, com velocidade de carga de 0,5mm/min, em uma máquina MTS 810. RESULTADOS: foram observadas resistências médias ao cisalhamento de 24,54±6,98MPa para o Grupo I, de 11,53±6,20MPa para o Grupo II e de 16,46±5,72MPa para o Grupo III. A Análise de Variância determinou diferença estatística entre as médias de resistência ao cisalhamento entre os grupos (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets bonded with fluoride releasing composite resins, comparing them with a conventional resin and to analyze the amount of resin left on the enamel surface. METHODS: Sixty premolars were randomly divided into three groups: Group I - Concise (3M), Group II - Ultrabond (Aditek do Brasil) and Group III - Rely-a-Bond (Reliance). After bonding, the samples were thermocycled (500 cycles) at 5ºC and 55ºC te (more) mperatures. After 48 hours they were subjected to shear bond strength testing, in the occluso-gingival direction, using an MTS 810 Universal Testing Machine with load speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The results demonstrated a mean shear bond strength of 24.54 ± 6.98 MPa for Group I, 11.53 ± 6.20 MPa for Group II, and 16.46 ± 5.72 MPa for Group III. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) determined a statistical difference in the mean shear bond strengths between groups (p

Rastelli, Marcia Cristina; Coelho, Ulisses; Jimenez, Emígdio Enrique Orellana

2010-06-01

199

An innovative approach for investigating the ceramic bracket-enamel interface - optical coherence tomography and confocal microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Bonding has become a routine procedure in several dental specialties - from prosthodontics to conservative dentistry and even orthodontics. In many of these fields it is important to be able to investigate the bonded interfaces to assess their quality. All currently employed investigative methods are invasive, meaning that samples are destroyed in the testing procedure and cannot be used again. We have investigated the interface between human enamel and bonded ceramic brackets non-invasively, introducing a combination of new investigative methods - optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscopy (CM). Brackets were conventionally bonded on conditioned buccal surfaces of teeth The bonding was assessed using these methods. Three dimensional reconstructions of the detected material defects were developed using manual and semi-automatic segmentation. The results clearly prove that OCT and CM are useful in orthodontic bonding investigations.

Romînu, Roxana Otilia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Romînu, Mihai; Negrutiu, Meda; Laissue, Philippe; Mihali, Sorin; Cuc, Lavinia; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian

2008-12-01

200

Antimicrobial and fluoride release capacity of orthodontic bonding materials  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and fluoride releasing capacity of 3 bonding materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty nine specimens with standardized surface smoothness and dimensions were prepared. The antimicrobial capacity of the materials against S. mutans, L. casei and C. albicans was evaluated by determining the percentage of growth inhibition of these microorganisms in an inoculated medium, obtained by optical density readouts (more) on a spectrophotometer. The potential to interfere in microbial growth on the surface of the studied materials was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluoride release capacity in ultrapure water for 14 days was analyzed by means of ion chromatography. RESULTS: The PLUS group presented the highest percentage of microbial inhibition and the most contamination-free surface. The FUJI group presented the best fluoride release capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The TransbondTM Plus Color Change was the one that presented the best general behavior considering the evaluated aspects.

Caldeira, Erika Machado; Osorio, Amanda; Oberosler, Edna Lucia Couto; Vaitsman, Delmo Santiago; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Nojima, Matilde da Cunha Goncalves

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Ceramic bracket design: an analysis using the finite element method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This investigation was designed to generate finite element models for selected ceramic brackets and graphically display the stress distribution in the brackets when subjected to arch wire torsion and tipping forces. Six commercially available ceramic brackets, one monocrystalline and five polycrystalline alumina, of twin bracket design for the permanent maxillary left central incisor were studied. Three-dimensional computer models of the brackets were constructed and loading forces, similar to those applied by a full-size (0.0215 x 0.028 inch) stainless steel arch wire in torsion and tipping necessary to fracture ceramic brackets, were applied to the models. Stress levels were recorded at relevant points common among the various brackets. High stress levels were observed at areas of abrupt change in geometry and shape. The design of the wire slot and wings for the Contour bracket (Class One Orthodontic Products, Lubbock, Texas) and of the outer edges of the wire slot for the Allure bracket (GAC, Central Islip, N.Y.) were found to be good in terms of even stress distribution. The brackets with an isthmus connecting the wings seemed to resist stresses better than the one bracket that did not have this feature. The design of the isthmus for the Transcend (Unitek/3M, Monrovia, Calif.) and Lumina (Ormco, Glendora, Calif.) brackets were found to be acceptable as well. The Starfire bracket ("A" Company, San Diego, Calif.) showed high stresses and irregular stress distribution, because it had sharp angles, no rounded corners, and no isthmus. The finite element method proved to be a useful tool in the stress analysis of ceramic orthodontic brackets subjected to various forces.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Ghosh J; Nanda RS; Duncanson MG Jr; Currier GF

1995-12-01

202

Influence of different implant materials on the primary stability of orthodontic mini-implants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study evaluates the influence of different implant materials on the primary stability of orthodontic mini-implants by measuring the resonance frequency. Twenty-five orthodontic mini-implants with a diameter of 2 mm were used. The first group contained stainless steel mini-implants with two different lengths (10 and 12 mm). The second group included titanium alloy mini-implants with two different lengths (10 and 12 mm) and stainless steel mini-implants 10 mm in length. The mini-implants were inserted into artificial bones with a 2-mm-thick cortical layer and 40 or 20 lb/ft(3) trabecular bone density at insertion depths of 2, 4, and 6 mm. The resonance frequency of the mini-implants in the artificial bone was detected with the Implomates(®) device. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey honestly significant difference test (? = 0.05). Greater insertion depth resulted in higher resonance frequency, whereas longer mini-implants showed lower resonance frequency values. However, resonance frequency was not influenced by the implant materials titanium alloy or stainless steel. Therefore, the primary stability of a mini-implant is influenced by insertion depth and not by implant material. Insertion depth is extremely important for primary implant stability and is critical for treatment success.

Pan CY; Chou ST; Tseng YC; Yang YH; Wu CY; Lan TH; Liu PH; Chang HP

2012-12-01

203

The accuracy of brackets placement in direct bonding technique: a comparison between the pole-like bracket positioning gauge and the star-like bracket positioning gauge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The accuracy of brackets placement is a key factor in successful orthodontic therapy. An in vitro study was conducted in ten models from a natural maxillary teeth model in order to compare the accuracy of brac- kets placement between two direct bonding instru- ments: the Pole-like Bracket Positioning Gauge and the Star-like Bracket Positioning Gauge. Our results have shown that: The Star-like Bracket Positioning Gauge is more precise in placing brackets vertically, whereas the Pole-like Bracket Positioning Gauge al-lows a better angulation of the bracket. Considering each tooth separately, there is no statistically signifi-cant difference between the two positioning gauges, except that the Star-like gauge gives better results in bracket’s height for the second premolar and the ca-nine, whereas the Pole-like gauge allows for a better positioning and a better vertical angulation of the brackets for the lateral incisor. No statistically signi- ficant difference was found between the two gauges on the mesiodistal position. Overall, the Star-like gau- ge showed a better accuracy in positioning brackets.

Lahcen Ousehal; Laila Lazrak

2011-01-01

204

Influence of lingual bracket position on microbial and periodontal parameters in vivo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Lingual orthodontics is becoming more popular in dental practice. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare plaque formation on teeth bonded with the same bracket onto buccal or lingual surface, with non-bonded control teeth, via an in vivo growth experiment over a 30-day period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with split-mouth design was set up enrolling 20 dental students. Within each subject sites with buccal and lingual brackets and control sites were followed. Clinical periodontal parameters (periodontal pocket depth: PPD; bleeding on probing: BOP) were recorded at baseline and on days 1, 7 and 30. Microbiological samples were taken from the brackets and the teeth on days 1, 7 and 30 to detect colony-forming units (CFU). Total CFU, streptococci CFU and anaerobe CFU were measured. RESULTS: No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between buccal and lingual brackets in terms of clinical periodontal parameters and microbiological values. Conclusion: Bracket position does not have significant impact on bacterial load and on periodontal parameters.

Sfondrini MF; Debiaggi M; Zara F; Brerra R; Comelli M; Bianchi M; Pollone SR; Scribante A

2012-05-01

205

Influence of lingual bracket position on microbial and periodontal parameters in vivo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lingual orthodontics is becoming more popular in dental practice. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare plaque formation on teeth bonded with the same bracket onto buccal or lingual surface, with non-bonded control teeth, via an in vivo growth experiment over a 30-day period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with split-mouth design was set up enrolling 20 dental students. Within each subject sites with buccal and lingual brackets and control sites were followed. Clinical periodontal parameters (periodontal pocket depth: PPD; bleeding on probing: BOP) were recorded at baseline and on days 1, 7 and 30. Microbiological samples were taken from the brackets and the teeth on days 1, 7 and 30 to detect colony-forming units (CFU). Total CFU, streptococci CFU and anaerobe CFU were measured. RESULTS: No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between buccal and lingual brackets in terms of clinical periodontal parameters and microbiological values. Conclusion: Bracket position does not have significant impact on bacterial load and on periodontal parameters.

Maria Francesca Sfondrini; Maurizia Debiaggi; Francesca Zara; Roberto Brerra; Mario Comelli; Marco Bianchi; Sara Ramella Pollone; Andrea Scribante

2012-01-01

206

Cytomorphometric analysis for Metal Bracket Effects on Human Buccal Mucosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To find out effect of metal brackets on the epithelial cells of the buccal mucosa as compared to normal mucosa without any brackets. Patients and Methods: Oral mucosal smears were obtained for patients visited for orthodontic treatment using a cytobrush. The study group consisted of P1: patients with no brackets, P2: 60 days after placement of metal brackets, P3: 30 days after removal of brackets. 30 individuals of both sexes who are undergoing fixed appliance theropy with bonded brackets were selected. With the use of exfoliative cytology, morphometric and morphologic changes in buccal mucosa cells adjacent to these brackets were determined and were compared at three points. Results: A decrease in nuclear area and an increase in cytoplasmic area occurred in the buccal mucosa cells adjacent to the brackets at P2 . At P3, this altered morphometry persisted only in cells adjacent to the metal brackets, although to a lesser degree than at P2 . A greater decrease in nuclear area was noted in cells adjacent to the metal brackets than in those for patients P1 . At all time points, smears of cells appeared normal or normal with some inflammatory changes. Conclusion: Placement of metal brackets in the buccal cavity induces cellular alterations. These alterations do not suggest malignancy.

Santosh kumar Goje; Rashmi G

2010-01-01

207

Shear bond strength of new and recycled brackets to enamel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the shear bond strength of recycled orthodontic brackets. S2C-03Z brackets (Dental Morelli, Brazil) were bonded to the buccal surfaces of 50 extracted human premolars using Concise Orthodontic chemically cured composite resin (3M, USA). The teeth were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=10), as follows. In group I (control), the bonded brackets remained attached until shear testing (i.e., no debonding/rebonding). In groups II, III and IV, the bonded brackets were detached and rebonded after recycling by 90-microm particle aluminum oxide blasting, silicon carbide stone grinding or an industrial process at a specialized contractor company (Abzil-Lancer, Brazil), respectively. In group V, the bonded brackets were removed and new brackets were bonded to the enamel surface. Shear bond strength was tested in an Instron machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the control brackets (0.52 kgf/mm2), brackets recycled by aluminum oxide blasting (0.34 kgf/mm2) and new brackets attached to previously bonded teeth (0.43 kgf/mm2). Brackets recycled by the specialized company (0.28 kgf/mm2) and those recycled by silicon carbide stone grinding (0.14 kgf/mm2) showed the lowest shear strength means and differed statistically from control brackets (0.52 kgf/mm2) (p<0.05). In conclusion, the outcomes of this study showed that bracket recycling using 90-microm aluminum oxide particle air-abrasion was efficient and technically simple, and might provide cost reduction for orthodontists and patients alike.

Tavares SW; Consani S; Nouer DF; Magnani MB; Nouer PR; Martins LM

2006-01-01

208

Shear bond strength of new and recycled brackets to enamel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the shear bond strength of recycled orthodontic brackets. S2C-03Z brackets (Dental Morelli, Brazil) were bonded to the buccal surfaces of 50 extracted human premolars using Concise Orthodontic chemically cured composite resin (3M, USA). The teeth were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=10), as follows. In group I (control), the bonded brackets remained attached until shear testing (i.e., no debonding/rebonding). In groups II, III and IV, the bonded brackets were detached and rebonded after recycling by 90-microm particle aluminum oxide blasting, silicon carbide stone grinding or an industrial process at a specialized contractor company (Abzil-Lancer, Brazil), respectively. In group V, the bonded brackets were removed and new brackets were bonded to the enamel surface. Shear bond strength was tested in an Instron machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the control brackets (0.52 kgf/mm2), brackets recycled by aluminum oxide blasting (0.34 kgf/mm2) and new brackets attached to previously bonded teeth (0.43 kgf/mm2). Brackets recycled by the specialized company (0.28 kgf/mm2) and those recycled by silicon carbide stone grinding (0.14 kgf/mm2) showed the lowest shear strength means and differed statistically from control brackets (0.52 kgf/mm2) (p<0.05). In conclusion, the outcomes of this study showed that bracket recycling using 90-microm aluminum oxide particle air-abrasion was efficient and technically simple, and might provide cost reduction for orthodontists and patients alike. PMID:16721464

Tavares, Stenyo Wanderley; Consani, Simonides; Nouer, Darcy Flávio; Magnani, Maria Beatriz Borges de Araújo; Nouer, Paulo Roberto Aranha; Martins, Laura Moura

2006-05-02

209

Comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets bonded to porcelain surface using different surface conditioning methods: an in vitro study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of metal brackets bonded to ceramic surfaces using different conditioning methods and to assess the site of bond failure after debonding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 70 ceramic surfaces were produced with uniform shape, size and composition. The samples were divided into 7 groups (each of 10 samples). Group 1 was the control group (untreated surface); in group 2 the surface were roughened with a diamond bur; in group 3 the surface were etched with hydrofluoric acid; in group 4 the surfaces were sandblasted; in group 5 the surfaces roughened with bur and silane applied; in group 6 the surfaces were etched with hydrofluoric acid and silane applied and in group 7 the surfaces were sandblasted and silane applied. To all the above groups, metal orthodontic brackets were bonded with light cure adhesive. The brackets were later stored in artificial saliva and incubated at 37°C (24 hours). The samples were then subjected to shear bond strength test using an Instron universal testing machine. The debonded porcelain surfaces were then studied under stereomicroscope to assess site of bond failure. RESULTS: Sandblasting the ceramic surface and silane application showed the highest bond strength. Stereomicroscope examination after debonding showed that the bond failure is at bracket-adhesive interface in four groups namely hydrofluoric acid, sandblasting, hydrofluoric acid with silane and sandblasting with silane. CONCLUSION: Sandblasting with silane combination produced the highest shear bond strength, so it is a clinically suitable method for bonding orthodontic metal brackets onto ceramic surface. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Bonding orthodontic brackets to ceramic crowns of patients has been a tough task. In this study, different conditioning methods were used to treat the ceramic surfaces before bonding. The results showed that sandblasting the ceramic surface prior to application of silane produced the highest shear bond strength which is clinically suitable to reduce bond failures.

Girish PV; Dinesh U; Bhat CS; Shetty PC

2012-07-01

210

MIXED DENTITION BRACKET SYSTEMS AND RELATED METHODS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A bracket system (100) including an orthodontic bracket (102) including a channel (108) formed within the bracket body (106), and two or more interchangeable inserts (104a, 104b, 104c) configured to mate within the channel (108) of the bracket body (106). Each insert (104a, 104b, 104c) includes a slot (114a, 114b, 114c) configured to receive an arch wire therein. The configurations of the slots (114a, 114b, 114c) are different so that during use, one insert provides movement of the tooth in a first direction (e.g., so as to rotate the root of a lateral incisor away from an adjacent erupting adult canine) while another insert provides movement in another direction. The system advantageously provides for a first movement of the tooth, followed by a second movement of the tooth (which may be opposite in direction), without requiring removal of the bracket (102). The bracket system (100) and method may be used with mixed dentition patients where rotation of a tooth root away from an adjacent unerupted adult tooth is desirable.

LEWIS PAUL E

211

Increase in detectable opportunistic bacteria in the oral cavity of orthodontic patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to detect the opportunistic bacteria and fungi from the oral cavities of orthodontic patients and examine the ability of the organisms to adhere to saliva-coated metallic brackets. METHODS: Opportunistic bacteria and fungi were isolated from 58 patients (orthodontic group: 42; non-orthodontic group: 16) using culture methods and were identified based on their biochemical and enzymatic profiles. Seven opportunistic and four streptococcal strains were tested for their ability to adhere to saliva-coated metallic brackets. RESULTS: More opportunistic bacteria and fungi were detected in the orthodontic group than in the non-orthodontic group (P < 0.05). Opportunistic bacteria adhered to saliva-coated metallic brackets to the same degree as oral streptococci. CONCLUSIONS: The isolation frequencies of opportunistic bacteria and fungi increase during orthodontic treatment, suggesting the importance of paying special attention to oral hygiene in orthodontic patients to prevent periodontal disease and the aggravation of systemic disease in immunocompromised conditions.

Kitada K; de Toledo A; Oho T

2009-05-01

212

A posttreatment evaluation of direct bonding in orthodontics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A long-term evaluation was made of results achieved in direct bonding of metal attachments with a chemically polymerized composite material. A total of 705 attachments were bonded to different teeth, including premolars and molars, in forty-six children. Slim bracket bases, small quantities of adhesive paste, and trimming of the excess material were used to improve esthetics and to benefit in respect of gingival condition. The same person bonded all brackets and performed the orthodontic treatment by a friction-free edgewise light-wire technique. Mean treatment time was 17 months. The clinical appearance before, during, and after treatment is shown in Figs. 3 to 5. The failure rates for the whole treatment period were 4 to 10 per cent for central and lateral incisors, canines, and first premolars in both dental arches. The second premolars, which were often in various stages of eruption at the time of bonding, and the molars had higher failure rates (Table I). An evident individual variation was noted, as a few children had a high number of loose brackets. Clinical and scanning electron microscopic studies of tooth surfaces following removal of the brackets demonstrated normal surface appearance when plain-cut tungsten carbide burs rotated at low speed were used to remove remnants of adhesive that could not easily be scraped off. Precoating etched enamel with sealant, in combination with daily fluoride mouth rinses and good oral hygiene, virtually eliminated the caries problem, but regular inspection for interproximal cavities was needed. There were no signs of enamel damage or discoloration for periods of up to 12 months subsequent to bracket removal. Further details of the technical operative procedure, failure analysis, bracket type and design, gingival health, and other aspects of direct bonding were also discussed.

Zachrisson BJ

1977-02-01

213

Halogen light versus LED for bracket bonding: shear bond strength.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: LED light-curing devices seek to provide a cold light activator which allows protocols of material polymerization with shorter duration. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength of bracket bonding using three types of light-curing devices: One with halogen light (Optilight Plus - Gnatus) and two with LEDs (Optilight CL - Gnatus and Elipar Freelight - 3M/ESPE). RESULTS: Comparing the results by analysis of variance, the Gnatus LED device showed an inferior statistical behavior in relation to other light sources, when activated by a short time. But, when it was used for 40 seconds, the polymerization results were consistent with the other evaluated sources. The device with the best average performance was the halogen light, followed by the 3M/ESPE LED. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the LEDs may be indicated in orthodontic practice, as long as a protocol is used for the application of light with the activation time of 40 seconds.

Carvalho PE; dos Santos VM; Isber H; Cotrim-Ferreira FA

2013-01-01

214

Individualized orthodontic treatment: The Insignia system.  

Science.gov (United States)

This clinical report presents a case treated by a currently available customized orthodontic treatment system. The use of patient-specific brackets, indirect bonding transfer devices, and customized archwires decreases treatment and chairside time, making orthodontic cases more predictable, accurate, and efficient. The need for time-consuming adjustments is greatly reduced, and appliance customization further facilitates the achievement of the final desired occlusion from the first day of treatment. PMID:23646343

Gracco, Antonio; Stellini, Edoardo; Parenti, Serena Incerti; Bonetti, Giulio Alessandri

2013-01-01

215

Individualized orthodontic treatment: The Insignia system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This clinical report presents a case treated by a currently available customized orthodontic treatment system. The use of patient-specific brackets, indirect bonding transfer devices, and customized archwires decreases treatment and chairside time, making orthodontic cases more predictable, accurate, and efficient. The need for time-consuming adjustments is greatly reduced, and appliance customization further facilitates the achievement of the final desired occlusion from the first day of treatment.

Gracco A; Stellini E; Parenti SI; Bonetti GA

2013-01-01

216

Influence of lingual bracket position on microbial and periodontal parameters in vivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Lingual orthodontics is becoming more popular in dental practice. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare plaque formation on teeth bonded with the same bracket onto buccal or lingual surface, with non-bonded control teeth, via an in vivo growth experiment over a 30-day period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial with split-mouth design was set up enrolling 20 dental students. Within each subject sites with buccal and lingual bra (more) ckets and control sites were followed. Clinical periodontal parameters (periodontal pocket depth: PPD; bleeding on probing: BOP) were recorded at baseline and on days 1, 7 and 30. Microbiological samples were taken from the brackets and the teeth on days 1, 7 and 30 to detect colony-forming units (CFU). Total CFU, streptococci CFU and anaerobe CFU were measured. RESULTS: No significant differences (P>0.05) were found between buccal and lingual brackets in terms of clinical periodontal parameters and microbiological values. Conclusion: Bracket position does not have significant impact on bacterial load and on periodontal parameters.

Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Debiaggi, Maurizia; Zara, Francesca; Brerra, Roberto; Comelli, Mario; Bianchi, Marco; Pollone, Sara Ramella; Scribante, Andrea

2012-06-01

217

Bonding techniques in lingual orthodontics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bonding techniques in lingual orthodontics differ slightly from their counterparts in labial treatment, although there are many shared features. If protocols are followed correctly, bonding outcomes are very predictable and lingual bracket bonding can be integrated into a mixed orthodontic practice with the minimum of disruption. Here, we highlight the fundamentals of both chemical and light/dual cure bonding procedures using lingual appliances, and discuss special bonding circumstances. Although not exhaustive, this article will provide essential information for those operators embarking on the bonding of lingual appliances.

Paul W

2013-09-01

218

[An in-vitro study of the interference of orthodontic banding and filling materials  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Discoloring and layers on bands and restorations during fixed orthodontic therapy are well known clinical phenomenon. Because of the complexity of etiological factors an in-vitro model was used in this study. Aim of the study was to examine the amounts and sort of metals which are dissolved. Therefore, respectively 25 normed MOD-cavities in Frasaco-teeth were filled with a non-gamma-2-amalgam (Amalcap plus, Vivadent) and condensed manually or mechanically. In addition, ten crowns of a high golden (Maingold SG, Heraeus) as well as a palladium basis alloy (Albabond A, Heraeus) were casted. Then they were banded with stainless steel bands (Dentaurum) and cemented with a glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem, Espe). The probes were given into a 0.1 molar lactic acid for seven days at 37 degrees C. Using ICP (ion coupled plasma) analysis the corrosion solution was examined for elements. High levels of Zn- and Al-ion contents were found, which are components of the used cements. The filling materials themselves mainly set free small amounts of Ag, Sn or Cu. The steel band released Fe, Cr, Ni and Ti. The combination of filling material and band resulted in a higher release of most ions.

Baumann MA; Samanek K; Ruppenthal T

1992-08-01

219

Identification and quantification of leachable substances from polymer-based orthodontic base-plate materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to analyse leachable monomers, additives, and degradation products from polymer-based orthodontic base-plate materials. One heat-cured resin (Orthocryl), one light-cured (Triad VLC), and three thermoplastic materials (Biocryl C, Essix A+, and Essix Embrace) were investigated. Elution was performed in water at 37°C for 10 days. The extract medium was changed and analysed daily. Chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify the leachables. In addition, the content of residual methyl methacrylate (MMA) was quantified in the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based materials. Statistical analysis of the quantitative results was performed using a t-test for comparison of two independent samples. Monomers and additives leached from the materials polymerized in situ and from the thermoplastic PMMA-based material. No leachable substances were found in the extracts from the other thermoplastic materials. Accumulated over 10 days, a larger amount of MMA leached from the powder-and-liquid material, Orthocryl (42 ?g/cm(2)), than from the thermoplastic material, Biocryl C (0.49 ?g/cm(2)). The accumulated amounts of monomers leached from Triad VLC were 91 ?g/cm(2) of urethane dimethacrylate and 2.2 ?g/cm(2) of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate. Formaldehyde was found to leach from methacrylate-based materials: 3.2 ?g/cm(2) from Orthocryl and 0.16 ?g/cm(2) from Triad VLC. However, formaldehyde was not detectable in extracts from Biocryl C. Residual MMA was 5.4 wt % in Orthocryl and 0.4 wt % in Biocryl C. No phthalates were detected in the tested materials. In this in vitro study, minimal leaching was found from the thermoplastic materials, while leaching of methacrylates and formaldehyde was observed from the powder-and-liquid type and the paste material. Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that prefabricated thermoplastic plates should be preferred for patients with an allergy to methacrylates.

Kopperud HM; Kleven IS; Wellendorf H

2011-02-01

220

Shear bond strength of metallic brackets: influence of saliva contamination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III) on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000) running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. RESULTS: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91) was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73) and XS (10.39±4.06) groups (p<0.05). Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI) used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

Luciana Borges Retamoso; Fabrício Mezzomo Collares; Eduardo Silveira Ferreira; Susana Maria Werner Samuel

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Effects of bracket design on critical contact angle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT Objective: To explore how the position of the bracket slots relative to the archwire influences the friction between them, and how bracket design affects the critical contact angle (?c). Materials and Methods: Two kinds of stainless steel archwires (0.016 and 0.019 × 0.025-inch) were tested against four kinds of brackets (Transmission Straight Archwire bracket, Domestic MBT bracket, Tip-Edge Plus bracket, and BioQuick self-ligation bracket) in the dry state. Resistance to sliding (RS) was measured as an increase in contact angle (?). The value of ?c was calculated by two linear regression lines. Results: Friction remained stable when ? < ?c, then increased linearly when ? > ?c. The ?c values of the Tip-Edge Plus bracket and Transmission Straight Archwire bracket were significantly larger than those for the Domestic MBT bracket and BioQuick self-ligation bracket. Conclusions: The relationship between the archwire and bracket slot significantly affects the resistance to sliding. The "edge-off" structure of the Tip-Edge Plus bracket and Transmission Straight Archwire bracket could help to increase the ?c value, and to expand the passive configuration range.

Liu X; Ding P; Lin J

2013-09-01

222

Effects of bracket design on critical contact angle.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Objective: To explore how the position of the bracket slots relative to the archwire influences the friction between them, and how bracket design affects the critical contact angle (?c). Materials and Methods: Two kinds of stainless steel archwires (0.016 and 0.019 × 0.025-inch) were tested against four kinds of brackets (Transmission Straight Archwire bracket, Domestic MBT bracket, Tip-Edge Plus bracket, and BioQuick self-ligation bracket) in the dry state. Resistance to sliding (RS) was measured as an increase in contact angle (?). The value of ?c was calculated by two linear regression lines. Results: Friction remained stable when ? ?c. The ?c values of the Tip-Edge Plus bracket and Transmission Straight Archwire bracket were significantly larger than those for the Domestic MBT bracket and BioQuick self-ligation bracket. Conclusions: The relationship between the archwire and bracket slot significantly affects the resistance to sliding. The "edge-off" structure of the Tip-Edge Plus bracket and Transmission Straight Archwire bracket could help to increase the ?c value, and to expand the passive configuration range. PMID:23570249

Liu, Xiaomo; Ding, Peng; Lin, Jiuxiang

2013-04-09

223

Activation time and material stiffness of sequential removable orthodontic appliances. Part 1: Ability to complete treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent advances in technology have led to the availability of sequential removable orthodontic appliances (aligners) to move teeth in a stepwise fashion (Invisalign, Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif). This study was undertaken to compare 2 distinctly different materials (hard and soft) and 2 activation frequencies (1 week and 2 weeks) for this technique. Fifty-one subjects, stratified by peer assessment rating (PAR) and need for extractions, were randomly assigned to a hard or a soft plastic appliance, and a 1-week or 2-week activation time. The primary endpoint was the completion of the initially prescribed series of aligners. Changing aligners every other week was more likely to lead to completion of the initial series of aligners than changing aligners weekly (37% vs 21%). No substantial difference in the completion rate was observed for the soft versus the hard appliance (27% vs. 32%). The completion rate was highest (46%) among patients with PAR scores less than 15 and no planned extractions, and lowest (0%) among subjects who had 2 or more premolars extracted. All who completed their initial series of aligners required an additional series of aligners or fixed appliances to achieve the original treatment goals. This exploratory study suggests that subjects with a 2-week activation regimen, no extractions, and a low PAR score are more likely to complete their initial series of aligners.

Bollen AM; Huang G; King G; Hujoel P; Ma T

2003-11-01

224

Activation time and material stiffness of sequential removable orthodontic appliances. Part 1: Ability to complete treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in technology have led to the availability of sequential removable orthodontic appliances (aligners) to move teeth in a stepwise fashion (Invisalign, Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif). This study was undertaken to compare 2 distinctly different materials (hard and soft) and 2 activation frequencies (1 week and 2 weeks) for this technique. Fifty-one subjects, stratified by peer assessment rating (PAR) and need for extractions, were randomly assigned to a hard or a soft plastic appliance, and a 1-week or 2-week activation time. The primary endpoint was the completion of the initially prescribed series of aligners. Changing aligners every other week was more likely to lead to completion of the initial series of aligners than changing aligners weekly (37% vs 21%). No substantial difference in the completion rate was observed for the soft versus the hard appliance (27% vs. 32%). The completion rate was highest (46%) among patients with PAR scores less than 15 and no planned extractions, and lowest (0%) among subjects who had 2 or more premolars extracted. All who completed their initial series of aligners required an additional series of aligners or fixed appliances to achieve the original treatment goals. This exploratory study suggests that subjects with a 2-week activation regimen, no extractions, and a low PAR score are more likely to complete their initial series of aligners. PMID:14614415

Bollen, Anne-Marie; Huang, Greg; King, Greg; Hujoel, Philippe; Ma, Tsun

2003-11-01

225

Comparative study of frictional forces generated by NiTi archwire deformation in different orthodontic brackets: In vitro evaluation Estudo comparativo da força de atrito produzida pela deformação de arco NiTi em diferentes braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the frictional forces between 0.014-in NiTi wires (Aditek) with 4 mm horizontal deflection and brackets with different archwire ligation systems. METHODS: Four types of self-ligating brackets (Damon MX, Easy Clip, Smart Clip and In-Ovation), a triple bracket (Synergy) and a twin bracket with 8-shaped ligature (Tecnident) were tested. Twin brackets with conventional elastomeric ligatures (Morelli) were used as control group. Tests were repeated 10 times for each bracket/archwire combination. Frictional forces were measured in an Instron universal tensile machine at 3 mm/minute speed and a total displacement of 6 mm. Statistical analysis comprised ANOVA and Dunnett's multiple comparison post hoc test. RESULTS: Deflection-induced frictional (DIF) forces increased in the following order: Synergy, Damon, 8-shaped Ligature, Easy Clip, In-Ovation, Smart-Clip and conventional ligatures. The differences among groups were significant, with the exception of the 8-shaped ligature groups which was equal to the Damon and Easy Clip groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional ligatures, all ligation systems tested reduced frictional forces. However, such reduction varied according to the ligation system employed.OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar as forças de atrito entre fios NiTi 0,014" (Aditek) com deformações horizontais de 4mm, e braquetes com diferentes sistemas de ligação dos arcos. MÉTODOS: foram testados 4 tipos de braquetes autoligáveis (Damon MX, Easy Clip, Smart Clip e In-Ovation), um braquete triplo (Synergy) e um braquete gêmeo com amarrilho 8 (Tecnident). Como grupo controle, foi utilizado braquete gêmeo com ligadura elástica convencional (Morelli). Foram executadas 10 repetições em cada combinação arco/braquete. As forças de atrito foram medidas em máquina de tração universal Instron, com velocidade de 3mm/minuto e deslocamento total de 6mm. Para análise estatística, usou-se a ANOVA e o Teste de Comparações Múltiplas de Dunnett. RESULTADOS: as forças de atrito por deformação do fio se mostraram crescentes na seguinte ordem: Synergy, Damon, amarrilho 8, Easy Clip, In-Ovation, Smart-Clip e ligadura convencional. As diferenças entre todos os grupos foram estatisticamente significantes, com exceção do Amarrilho 8 em relação aos grupos Damon e Easy Clip. CONCLUSÃO: em relação à ligadura convencional, todos os sistemas de fechamento das canaletas testados são eficientes em reduzir a força de atrito, porém, tal redução varia significativamente de acordo com o sistema de fechamento da canaleta selecionado.

Gilberto Vilanova Queiroz; Rafael Yagüe Ballester; João Batista De Paiva; José Rino Neto; Giselle Mara Galon

2012-01-01

226

Comparative study of frictional forces generated by NiTi archwire deformation in different orthodontic brackets: In vitro evaluation/ Estudo comparativo da força de atrito produzida pela deformação de arco NiTi em diferentes braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar as forças de atrito entre fios NiTi 0,014" (Aditek) com deformações horizontais de 4mm, e braquetes com diferentes sistemas de ligação dos arcos. MÉTODOS: foram testados 4 tipos de braquetes autoligáveis (Damon MX, Easy Clip, Smart Clip e In-Ovation), um braquete triplo (Synergy) e um braquete gêmeo com amarrilho 8 (Tecnident). Como grupo controle, foi utilizado braquete gêmeo com ligadura elástica convencional (M (more) orelli). Foram executadas 10 repetições em cada combinação arco/braquete. As forças de atrito foram medidas em máquina de tração universal Instron, com velocidade de 3mm/minuto e deslocamento total de 6mm. Para análise estatística, usou-se a ANOVA e o Teste de Comparações Múltiplas de Dunnett. RESULTADOS: as forças de atrito por deformação do fio se mostraram crescentes na seguinte ordem: Synergy, Damon, amarrilho 8, Easy Clip, In-Ovation, Smart-Clip e ligadura convencional. As diferenças entre todos os grupos foram estatisticamente significantes, com exceção do Amarrilho 8 em relação aos grupos Damon e Easy Clip. CONCLUSÃO: em relação à ligadura convencional, todos os sistemas de fechamento das canaletas testados são eficientes em reduzir a força de atrito, porém, tal redução varia significativamente de acordo com o sistema de fechamento da canaleta selecionado. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the frictional forces between 0.014-in NiTi wires (Aditek) with 4 mm horizontal deflection and brackets with different archwire ligation systems. METHODS: Four types of self-ligating brackets (Damon MX, Easy Clip, Smart Clip and In-Ovation), a triple bracket (Synergy) and a twin bracket with 8-shaped ligature (Tecnident) were tested. Twin brackets with conventional elastomeric ligatures (Morelli) were used as control (more) group. Tests were repeated 10 times for each bracket/archwire combination. Frictional forces were measured in an Instron universal tensile machine at 3 mm/minute speed and a total displacement of 6 mm. Statistical analysis comprised ANOVA and Dunnett's multiple comparison post hoc test. RESULTS: Deflection-induced frictional (DIF) forces increased in the following order: Synergy, Damon, 8-shaped Ligature, Easy Clip, In-Ovation, Smart-Clip and conventional ligatures. The differences among groups were significant, with the exception of the 8-shaped ligature groups which was equal to the Damon and Easy Clip groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional ligatures, all ligation systems tested reduced frictional forces. However, such reduction varied according to the ligation system employed.

Queiroz, Gilberto Vilanova; Ballester, Rafael Yagüe; De Paiva, João Batista; Rino Neto, José; Galon, Giselle Mara

2012-08-01

227

Root resorption during orthodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, LILACS, The Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register) Web of Science, EBM Reviews, Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Project (CRISP, www.crisp.cit.nih.gov), On-Line Computer Library Center (www.oclc.org), Google Index to Scientific and Technical Proceedings, PAHO (www.paho.org), WHOLis (www.who.int/library/databases/en), BBO (Brazilian Bibliography of Dentistry), CEPS (Chinese Electronic Periodical Services), Conference materials (www.bl.uk/services/bsds/dsc/conference.html), ProQuest Dissertation Abstracts and Thesis database, TrialCentral (www.trialscentral.org), National Research Register (www.controlled-trials.com), www.Clinicaltrials.gov and SIGLE (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe). STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials including split mouth design, recording the presence or absence of external apical root resorption (EARR) by treatment group at the end of the treatment period. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted independently by two reviewers using specially designed and piloted forms. Quality was also assessed independently by the same reviewers. RESULTS: After evaluating titles and abstracts, 144 full articles were obtained of which 13 articles, describing 11 trials, fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Differences in the methodological approaches and reporting results made quantitative statistical comparisons impossible. Evidence suggests that comprehensive orthodontic treatment causes increased incidence and severity of root resorption, and heavy forces might be particularly harmful. Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption is unaffected by archwire sequencing, bracket prescription, and self-ligation. Previous trauma and tooth morphology are unlikely causative factors. There is some evidence that a two- to three-month pause in treatment decreases total root resorption. CONCLUSIONS: The results were inconclusive in the clinical management of root resorption, but there is evidence to support the use of light forces, especially with incisor intrusion.

Walker S

2010-01-01

228

Avaliação da resistência à tração de artifícios ortodônticos - braquete, botão e tela - colados em pré-molares com resina autopolimerizável. estudo "in vitro" Evaluation of the resistance to traction of orthodontic devices - bracket, bouton and frame - bonded in premolar with autopolimerizable resin. "in vitro" study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retenção dentária é a condição fisiopatológica em que o dente, uma vez chegado o seu momento fisiológico de erupção, apresenta algum impedimento para realizá-lo. O tratamento, com envolvimento cirúrgico-ortodôntico, visa deslocar o elemento dental para a correta posição na arcada dentária, sem causar danos aos elementos dentais adjacentes, restabelecendo a estética e a função. A colagem direta de botões e braquetes ortodônticos para tração de dentes inclusos transformou-se na técnica preferida, pois exige menor extensão cirúrgica e remoção de tecido para acesso à coroa dental. A pesquisa objetivou analisar a intensidade da força aplicada ao conjunto dente/artifício/fio de amarrilho, pelo tracionamento, e observar o local do rompimento. Utilizaram-se 45 pré-molares, conservados em soro fisiológico 0,9%, que foram divididos em 3 grupos (15 com braquetes, 15 com botões e 15 com telas). Os dentes foram fixados em canos de PVC preenchidos com resina acrílica e os acessórios fixados ao dente com resina autopolimerizável. Após a colagem dos acessórios ortodônticos, os dentes voltaram a ser conservados em soro fisiológico e o teste realizado após 72 horas, com a utilização de um sensor de força e um programa de computador (Logger Pro). Com os resultados, observou-se que o braquete resistiu a uma força média de 36,0N, sendo a junção fio/braquete o local menos resistente; o botão resistiu a uma força média de 41,2N, a junção fio/botão ortodôntico foi o local menos resistente e a tela resistiu a uma força média de 28,8N, sendo a junção dente/tela o local menos resistente.Restrained is the tooth which, reached its physiological moment of eruption, shows some obstruction to accomplish it. The treatment, with orthodontic-surgical involvement, type drives at to dislocate the dental element for right position in the dental arch, without to cause damages for adjacent dental element, re-establishing the aesthetics and function. Therefore, the direct bonding of orthodontic bracket and bouton for retained teeth traction became the preferred technic for, besides more clear, it demands smaller surgical amplitude and tissue removal to grant access to the dental crown. The research intended analyse the intensity of applied force to the entirety teeth/device/tie-wire, tractioning through, and to observe the splot rupture. Maked use of 45 premolar, conserved in 0.9%¹ physiological serum, that was divided into three groups (15 with brackets, 15 with boutons and 15 with frames). The tooth was filled in PVC pipe filled with acrylic resin and the devices was bonded to the teeth with autopolimerizable resin. After the bonding realization of the orthodontic devices, the tooth was be preserved in physiological serum and the tests was be realized after 72 hours of the bonding by means of a computer program. The bracket endured to medium force of 36,0N, being the junction wire-device the spot less resistant; the bouton endured to medium force of 41,2N, the juncion wire-bouton was the plot less resistant and the frame was endured to medium force of 28,8N, being the junction teeth/frame the plot less resistant.

Walter Leal de Moura; Thaís Cristina Araújo Moreira; João Batista Mendes Teles

2004-01-01

229

Three-dimensional quantification of pretorqued nickel-titanium wires in edgewise and prescription brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the three-dimensional moments and forces produced by pretorqued nickel-titanium (NiTi) rectangular archwires fully engaged in 0.018- and 0.022-inch slots of central incisor and molar edgewise and prescription brackets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten identical acrylic dental models with retroclined maxillary incisors were fabricated for bonding with various bracket-wire combinations. Edgewise, Roth, and MBT brackets with 0.018- and 0.022-inch slots were bonded in a simulated 2 × 4 clinical scenario. The left central incisor and molar were sectioned and attached to load cells. Correspondingly sized straight and pretorqued NiTi archwires were ligated to the brackets using 0.010-inch ligatures. Each load cell simultaneously measured three force (Fx, Fy, Fz) and three moment (Mx, My, Mz) components. The faciolingual, mesiodistal, and inciso-occluso/apical axes of the teeth corresponded to the x, y, and z axes of the load cells, respectively. Each wire was removed and retested seven times. Three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) examined the effects of wire type, wire size, and bracket type on the measured orthodontic load systems. Interactions among the three effects were examined and pair-wise comparisons between significant combinations were performed. RESULTS: The force and moment components on each tooth were quantified according to their local coordinate axes. The three-way ANOVA interaction terms were significant for all force and moment measurements (P < .05), except for Fy (P > .05). CONCLUSION: The pretorqued wire generates a significantly larger incisor facial crown torquing moment in the MBT prescription compared to Roth, edgewise, and the straight NiTi wire.

Mittal N; Xia Z; Chen J; Stewart KT; Liu SS

2013-05-01

230

Direct light transmittance through ceramic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to investigate the degree of direct light transmittance (%T) of various types of esthetic brackets and to correlate these values with their structure, morphologic factors, and composition. Eight types of brackets were used in the study; six brackets of each type were tested. An ultraviolet-visible spectroscopic direct transmission analysis was performed at 320 to 700 nm wavelength range. From each spectrum, the %T corresponded to the peak absorbance wavelength of the photoinitiator of the polymerization was recorded (468 nm). Recorded data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's test at alpha = 0.05 significance level. In addition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were used to reveal the structure and morphologic factors of the brackets tested. Highest %T values (Mean +/- 1 SD) were obtained from a monocrystal type of bracket (Starfire ["A" Company, San Diego, Calif.] 35.02 +/- 1.59%), followed by a polycrystalline (Fascination [Dentaurum, Pforzhein, Germany] 5.70 +/- 1.41%) and a ceramic/polycarbonate base one (Ceramaflex [TP Orthodontics, Inc., La Porte, Ind.] 4.02 +/- 0.96%). Also other brands presented the following data: Allure (GAC, Central Islip, N.Y.) 3.62 +/- 0.5%; Transcend 2000 (Unitek/3M, Monrovia, Calif.) 2.62 +/- 0.5%; Fascination (edgewise) (Dentaurum, Pforzhein, Germany) 1.97 +/- 0.69%; Lumina (Ormco, Glendora, Calif.) 1.57 +/- 0.5%; Signature (RMO, Denver, Colo.) 1.22 +/- 0.5%. The results showed that the structure, morphologic factors, and composition of the brackets tested were found to affect direct light transmission significantly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Eliades T; Johnston WM; Eliades G

1995-01-01

231

Shear bond strength of orthodontic resins after caries infiltrant preconditioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of caries infiltrant preconditioning on the shear bond strength of orthodontic resin cements on sound and demineralized enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ?Stainless-steel brackets were bonded to sound or artificially demineralized (14 d, acidic buffer, pH 5.0) bovine enamel specimens using a resin cement or a combination of caries infiltrant preconditioning (Icon, DMG) and the respective resin cement (light-curing composite: Heliosit Orthodontic, Transbond XT, using either Transbond XT Primer or Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer; light-curing resin-modified glass ionomer cement: Fuji Ortho; or self-curing composite: Concise Orthodontic Bonding System). Each group consisted of 15 specimens. Shear bond strength was evaluated after thermo-cycling (10,000×, 5°C to 55°C) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min, and data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney test, and Weibull statistics. Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores and enamel fractures were determined at 25× magnification and were statistically analyzed by regression analyses (P < .05). RESULTS: The caries infiltrant system significantly increased the shear bond strength of Transbond XT Primer, Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer, and Fuji Ortho in sound specimens, and of all resin cements except for the Concise Orthodontic Bonding System in demineralized enamel. Overall, caries infiltrant preconditioning decreased significantly the number of enamel fractures, but it did not affect ARI scores. CONCLUSION: Preconditioning of sound and demineralized enamel with the caries infiltrant system did not impair but rather increased the shear bond strength of most orthodontic resin cements while decreasing the risk of enamel fracture at debonding.

Naidu E; Stawarczyk B; Tawakoli PN; Attin R; Attin T; Wiegand A

2013-03-01

232

Effect of the precrack preparation with an ultrasonic instrument on the ceramic bracket removal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: In terms of fracture mechanics, a precrack preparation may facilitate the propagation of a break through the expected fracture plane during the bracket debonding process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ultrasonic precrack preparation on the debonding force and failure modes of ceramic bracket removal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty extracted premolars were assigned to four groups: Inspire, precrack Inspire, Clarity, and precrack Clarity groups, with each group containing 20 teeth. The precrack preparations were made at the mesial gingival line angle of Inspire brackets and on the mesial side of Clarity brackets with an ultrasonic tip. Debonding force, failure modes, and bracket breakage score were measured and recorded. Fracture surfaces after bracket debonding were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: We found that the ultrasonic precrack preparation could significantly decrease the average debonding force and the mean bracket breakage scores of both kinds of ceramic brackets. After bracket debonding, 80% of brackets in the precrack Inspire group and 100% of brackets in the precrack Clarity group showed no bracket failure. However, only 25% of brackets in the Inspire group and 75% of brackets in the Clarity group showed no bracket failure. SEM micrographs showed a precrack notch at the adhesive resin after precrack preparation, and no enamel damage was noted after the bracket debonding. CONCLUSION: The ultrasonic precrack preparation can significantly decrease the debonding force and may guide the bracket debonding through a favorable fracture plane without damage to either the bracket or the enamel.

Chen YL; Chen HY; Chiang YC; Chang HH; Lin CP

2013-07-01

233

Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure.

2008-11-15

234

Shear bond strength of metallic and ceramic brackets using color change adhesives  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: determinar a resistência adesiva à tração de braquetes ortodônticos usando resinas coloridas que se propõem a ajudar na remoção do excesso de material adesivo e compará-las com um adesivo tradicional. MÉTODOS: Noventa braquetes metálicos e 90 cerâmicos foram colados com dois adesivos coloridos e com um adesivo tradicional em incisivos inferiores bovinos, sendo aplicada tração com uma máquina de ensaios universal. Após a descolagem, os dentes fora (more) m observados em microscópio para a determinação do índice de adesivo remanescente (ARI). RESULTADOS: a análise estatística (testes ANOVA, de Tukey e de Kruskall-Wallis) demonstrou que a força de união média foi significativa entre os adesivos usados. Os ARIs mais comuns foram aqueles onde o adesivo permaneceu no esmalte. CONCLUSÃO: a resistência adesiva foi similar entre braquetes metálicos e cerâmicos quando o mesmo adesivo foi usado. Os resultados do ARI demonstraram que esses adesivos são seguros, mesmo com o uso de braquetes cerâmicos. A resistência adesiva foi muito baixa para Ortodontia no grupo colado com Ortho Lite Cure. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To determine the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets using color change adhesives that are supposed to aid in removing excess of bonding material and compare them to a traditional adhesive. METHODS: Ninety metallic and ninety ceramic brackets were bonded to bovine incisors using two color change adhesives and a regular one. A tensile stress was applied by a universal testing machine. The teeth were observed in a microscope after debonding in order to de (more) termine the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). RESULTS: The statistical analysis (ANOVA, Tukey, and Kruskall-Wallis tests) demonstrated that the mean bond strength presented no difference when metallic and ceramic brackets were compared but the bond resistance values were significantly different for the three adhesives used. The most common ARI outcome was the entire adhesive remaining on the enamel. CONCLUSIONS: The bond strength was similar for metallic and ceramic brackets when the same adhesive system was used. ARI scores demonstrated that bonding with these adhesives is safe even when ceramic brackets were used. On the other hand, bond strength was too low for orthodontic purposes when Ortho Lite Cure was used.

Stumpf, Aisha de Souza Gomes; Bergmann, Carlos; Prietsch, José Renato; Vicenzi, Juliane

2013-04-01

235

A comparative evaluation of the retention of metallic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement under different enamel preparations: A pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: For orthodontists, the ideal bonding material should be less moisture-sensitive and should release fluoride, thereby reducing unfavorable iatrogenic decalcification. Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cements (RMGICs), due to their ability to bond in the presence of saliva and blood can be a very good bonding agent for orthodontic attachments especially in the areas of mouth, which are difficult to access. Moreover, their fluoride releasing property makes them an ideal bonding agent for patients with poor oral hygiene. However, their immediate bond strength is said to be too low to immediately ligate the initial wire, which could increase the total number of appointments. The effect of sandblasting and the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) on the immediate bond failure of RMGIC clinically have not been reported in the literature until the date. This investigation intended to assess the effect of sandblasting (of the bracket base and enamel) and NaOCL on the rate of bond failure (with immediate ligation at 30 min) of Fuji Ortho LC and its comparison with that of conventional light cured composite resin over a period of 1 year. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 400 sample teeth were further divided into 4 groups of 100 each and bonded as follows: (1) Group 1: Normal metallic brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (2) Group 2: Sandblasted bracket base and enamel surface, brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (3) Group 3: Deproteinized enamel surface using sodium hypochlorite and brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (4) Group 4: Normal metallic bracket bonded with Transbond XT after etching enamel with 37% phosphoric acid. This group served as control group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Results showed that sandblasting the bracket base and enamel, can significantly reduce the bond failure rate of RMGIC.

Sharma P; Valiathan A; Arora A; Agarwal S

2013-04-01

236

A comparative evaluation of the retention of metallic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement under different enamel preparations: A pilot study  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: For orthodontists, the ideal bonding material should be less moisture-sensitive and should release fluoride, thereby reducing unfavorable iatrogenic decalcification. Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cements (RMGICs), due to their ability to bond in the presence of saliva and blood can be a very good bonding agent for orthodontic attachments especially in the areas of mouth, which are difficult to access. Moreover, their fluoride releasing property makes them an ideal bonding agent for patients with poor oral hygiene. However, their immediate bond strength is said to be too low to immediately ligate the initial wire, which could increase the total number of appointments. The effect of sandblasting and the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) on the immediate bond failure of RMGIC clinically have not been reported in the literature until the date. This investigation intended to assess the effect of sandblasting (of the bracket base and enamel) and NaOCL on the rate of bond failure (with immediate ligation at 30 min) of Fuji Ortho LC and its comparison with that of conventional light cured composite resin over a period of 1 year. Materials and Methods: 400 sample teeth were further divided into 4 groups of 100 each and bonded as follows: (1) Group 1: Normal metallic brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (2) Group 2: Sandblasted bracket base and enamel surface, brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (3) Group 3: Deproteinized enamel surface using sodium hypochlorite and brackets bonded with Fuji Ortho LC. (4) Group 4: Normal metallic bracket bonded with Transbond XT after etching enamel with 37% phosphoric acid. This group served as control group. Results and Conclusion: Results showed that sandblasting the bracket base and enamel, can significantly reduce the bond failure rate of RMGIC.

Sharma, Padmaja; Valiathan, Ashima; Arora, Ankit; Agarwal, Sachin

2013-01-01

237

Orthodontic forces generated by a simulated archwire appliance evaluated by the finite element method.  

Science.gov (United States)

The finite element method has been used to determine the stress distribution generated by the initial placement of a simulated preset bracket-type orthodontic appliance utilizing titanium-nickel alloy archwire. PMID:2256565

Fotos, P G; Spyrakos, C C; Bernard, D O

1990-01-01

238

Surface characteristics of retrieved coated and nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oral fluids and archwire-bracket friction on the surface characteristics of NiTi alloy orthodontic archwires with/without aesthetic coating, in vivo for 2-3 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different cross-sections of NiTi Archwires (DENTSPLY GAC International) and Titanol Cosmetic Archwires (FORESTADENT® USA Inc.) were examined by electron microscopy with dual-beam and spectroscopy analysis, before and after a collecting protocol from patients with multi-technique. RESULTS: Initially, the orthodontic archwires showed microscopic manufacturing and coating defects in the physiognomic layer. After intra-oral exposure, amorphous organic matter deposits were observed on the surface of the NiTi Archwires and the wire coating presented exfoliation on the oral areas of friction with brackets. X-ray microanalysis revealed changes in all atomic and mass percentages of chemical elements from the surface of all retrieved dental archwires, nickel and titanium ion depletion and the occurrence of additional elements due to interactions with saliva. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-oral exposure of NiTi Archwires and the archwire-bracket friction of coated wire altered the morphology and changed the elemental composition of the surface due to the process of corrosion, adhesion of organic matters and ionic exchange with oral fluids.

Zegan G; Sodor A; Munteanu C

2012-01-01

239

Temperature increase during orthodontic bonding with different curing units using an infrared camera.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Aim. To evaluate the effects of different curing units and light-tip tooth surface distances on the temperature increase generated during orthodontic bonding, using an infrared camera (IR) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Materials and methods. Fifty-two freshly extracted human premolar teeth were used. Metallic orthodontic brackets were bonded to the buccal surfaces of the teeth and thermal records were taken using an IR camera and ANN. Brackets were cured with a light-emitting diode (LED) and high intensity halogen (HQTH). Teeth were divided into four groups according to the curing units (LED and HQTH) and curing distances (from tooth surface and 10 mm away from tooth surface). The results were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey HSD test. Results. The ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests revealed that temperature changes were influenced by the type of light source and exposure times. All groups revealed significant differences between each other (p < 0.001). The highest surface temperature increase was gained from curing with a LED unit from the tooth surface (11.35°C ± 0.91°C). The lowest surface temperature increase was gained from curing with a HQTH unit 10 mm away from the tooth surface (2.57°C ± 0.6°C). Conclusion. The LED unit induced significantly higher temperature changes than did the HQTH. The temperature increase during orthodontic bonding was increased with long exposure time. A shorter light-tip tooth surface distance leads to greater increases in temperature.

Aksakalli S; Demir A; Selek M; Tasdemir S

2013-05-01

240

Fracture resistance of ceramic brackets during arch wire torsion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to determine the fracture resistance of commercially available ceramic brackets during arch wire torsion. Lingual root torque was applied at the distal side of upper central incisor brackets with 0.022-inch slots by means of a 0.0215 x 0.028-inch arch wire. A specially designed apparatus was used to test six types of ceramic bracket in sample groups of 30. The amount of torque and degrees of torsional rotation at fracture were measured. The ceramic brackets could be separated into three statistically different groups with mean torques at fracture ranging from 3,706 to 6,177 gm-mm. The mean torsional rotation at fracture ranged from 9.5 degrees to 17.8 degrees. The single-crystal alumina bracket had the most intragroup variation. Eight to ten degrees of torsional rotation of the arch wire produced sufficient orthodontic force to achieve the torque. The fracture resistance of the ceramic brackets appears to be adequate for clinical use. The Starfire, Allure III, and Transcend brackets had the highest fracture resistance values.

Holt MH; Nanda RS; Duncanson MG Jr

1991-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Torque deformation characteristics of plastic brackets: a comparative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare the torque deformation characteristics of seven commercially available plastic brackets, both amongst each other and with stainless steel brackets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten brackets each of (1) pure polycarbonate, (2) ceramic reinforced polycarbonate, (3) fiberglass reinforced polycarbonate, (4) ceramic reinforced polycarbonate with metal slot, (5) fiberglass reinforced polycarbonate with metal slot, (6) polyurethane, and (7) polyurethane with metal slot were exposed to torsion in a torquemeter, following an aging process according to ISO 10477. Ten stainless steel brackets served as a control group. Torsion was applied continuously using a material testing machine (Zwick Z2.5, Zwick Materialprüfung, Ulm, Germany). RESULTS: The results showed within the group of plastic brackets that metal slot reinforced brackets were subject to the lowest degree of deformation, followed by the brackets made of pure polyurethane, pure polycarbonate and fiberglass reinforced polycarbonate. The ceramic reinforced polycarbonate brackets showed the highest deformation under torque stress. The plastic deformation of the ceramic reinforced, fiberglass reinforced and pure polycarbonate brackets started even in the recommended torque range of 10-20 Nmm. The additional ceramic and fiberglass in the plastic brackets investigated in this study did not improve the torque stability of the polycarbonate brackets. The pure polyurethane brackets showed no significant difference from the pure polycarbonate brackets at the moment of 15 Nmm which is the optimal torque for a maxillary incisor. CONCLUSION: A comparison with the stainless steel brackets illustrated that plastic brackets are suited for clinical application only if they have a metal slot.

Sadat-Khonsari R; Moshtaghy A; Schlegel V; Kahl-Nieke B; Möller M; Bauss O

2004-01-01

242

A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets; Um estudo in vitro sobre os efeitos da irradiacao pelo laser de Er:YAG combinado com a terapia com fluor na resistencia acida do esmalte de dentes submetidos a aparelho ortodontico fixo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C0{sub 2}, Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2} on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

Yoshiyasu, Roseli Y.A

2001-07-01

243

[Influence of different porcelain surface treatment method on the bonding of metal brackets to porcelain].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of different porcelain surface treatment methods on the shear bond strength of metal brackets bonded to porcelain. METHODS: 80 porcelain facets were divided randomly into two groups according to different adhesive material that was used to bond metal brackets. Adhesive material were Jing-Jin enamel adhesive and light-cured composite resin. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to different surface treatment methods, which were acid etching with 37% phosphoric acid (H3PO4), acid etching with 9.6% hydrofluoric acid (HF), deglazing by grinding and silanating the porcelain surface. All specimens were stored in 37 degrees C water for 24 hours and then the shear bond strength and the porcelain fracture after debonding was determined. The porcelain surfaces after HF etching, H3PO4 etching and deglazing by grinding were examined by scanning electron microscopy respectively. RESULTS: The shear bond strengths in the HF etching groups, the deglazing groups and the silanating groups were much greater than that in the phosphoric etching groups (P < 0.01). Adequate orthodontic bonding strength was achieved both when bonded with light-cured composite resin after deglazing by grinding and when bonded with either of these adhesives after HF etching or surface silanating. There were no differences in the rates of porcelain fractures among groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: HF etching, deglazing by grinding and silanating can all increase the shear bond strength between metal bracket and porcelain. Surface silanating of porcelain is a better surface treatment when metal brackets bonded to porcelain.

Fan CH; Chen J; Liu XQ; Ma X

2005-08-01

244

Stripped article cutting brackets  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a bar-shaped article cutting bracket device. The center wheel of the rotary disk of the bar-shaped article cutting bracket device is a fixing gear, the rotary disk is symmetrically provided with n groups of planetary gear transmission mechanisms which use the fixing gear as a central shaft, and two stages of the planetary gear transmission mechanisms are associated. The output shafts pf the transmitting mechanisms are provided with brackets, and the gears in the planetary gear transmitting mechanisms whose two stages are associated are provided with dual gears which comprise X<-1> and X<-2>. The dual gears are a pair of gears whose transmission parameters are identical, and the dual gears are installed in a coaxial and interlocking tooth mode. The bar-shaped article cutting bracket device adopts the planetary gear transmission mechanisms whose two stages are associated and the interlocking teeth of the gears to eliminate the transmission gaps and to cause the brackets to form an elliptical motion trace without the transmission gaps. When bar-shaped articles (tobacco bars, cigarette mouths, etc.) are cut, the brackets guides and holds the bar-shaped articles. The bar-shaped article cutting bracket device can solve the problems that the notches of cigarettes incline, the operation has noise, etc.

YANG QIUBO

245

[Clinical problems of orthodontics and orofacial orthopedics at the turn of the millennium  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The author gives an overview of orthodontic profession among the dental specialties. Educational problems of orthodontics in the new age are also discussed as well as treatment quality assurance possibilities and conditions. Future treatment possibilities of retrospectively rehabilitative adult orthodontics and interceptively prospective early treatment of children are referred. The article also cover the 3D imaging of the human face, animation of the craniofacial complex, and Cephalometric 3D analysis as areas of scientific research and realities. The need for restandardizing of orthodontic slot size to simplify and to minimize changeover problems in orthodontics basic hardware--the wires and brackets--are also addressed.

Végh A

2001-12-01

246

Complexities associated with orthodontic services in the National Health Service.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To detail orthodontic provision in Wales. BACKGROUND: In 2006 the new orthodontic contract was introduced in the NHS in England and Wales. Since the introduction of the new contract there have been recent reports of inefficiencies in orthodontic provision in Wales in terms of: orthodontic provision reaching those who need it, type of orthodontic activities undertaken, who is providing orthodontic care, the relative cost-efficiency of the orthodontic services, contracting and performance management of the services and robustness of the orthodontic database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2008/09 orthodontic data on contracted services were analysed. Data from the salaried services was collected through a questionnaire. Normative orthodontic treatment need was estimated from mid-year population estimates. RESULTS: In 2008/09, there were considerable inefficiencies in the orthodontic services in Wales with varied level of access by children living in 22 former local health boards, co-terminus with local authorities in Wales. Total spend on orthodontics in Wales was around £12,718,370. It was estimated that 11,539 (30%) of 12-17-year-olds required orthodontic treatment. In 2008/09, 11,031 children received orthodontic treatment in all NHS services in Wales indicating a potential shortfall of 508 treatments. Out of 135 GDS/PDS orthodontic contracts, 27 provided no active treatment (only assessments) and 62 provided less than 50 treatments annually. Cost per units of orthodontic activity (UOA) ranged from £58 to £74. With improved contracts and efficiency, the orthodontic budget seems sufficient to meet the orthodontic need of the population. CONCLUSIONS: As with any type of NHS provision, it is important that orthodontic services are competitive, highly efficient and provided on the basis of need. Performance management of orthodontic services should focus on the number of successful orthodontic treatments delivered annually. The personal dental services (PDS) orthodontic contract will need to be modified accordingly.

Richmond S; Karki A

2012-02-01

247

Force systems in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment -- a comparison of different leveling arch wires.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The determination of orthodontically-effective forces and moments places great demands on the technical equipment. Many patients report severe pain after fixed appliance insertion. Since it is assumed that pain from orthodontic appliances is associated with the force and moment levels applied to the teeth and since the occurrence of root resorption is a common therapeutic side effect, it would seem important to know the actual magnitudes of the components of the active orthodontic force systems. The aim of the present study was therefore to measure initial force systems produced by different leveling arch-wires in a complete multi-bracket appliance and to assess whether force and moment levels can be regarded as biologically acceptable or not. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The actual bracket position in 42 patients was transferred onto a measurement model. Forces and moments produced by a super-elastic nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwire, a 6-strand stainless steel archwire, and a 7-strand super-elastic NiTi archwire were determined experimentally on different teeth. RESULTS: Average forces and moments produced by the super-elastic NiTi arch wires were found to be the highest. In spite if their larger diameter, the stranded arch wires' average force and moment levels were lower, especially that of the stranded super-elastic archwire. Nevertheless, maximum force levels sometimes exceeded recommended values in the literature and must be considered as too high. CONCLUSIONS: The measured arch wires' initial force systems differed significantly depending on the type of archwire and its material structure. Stranded arch wires produced lower force and moment levels, and we recommend their use in the initial phase of orthodontic treatment.

Fuck LM; Drescher D

2006-01-01

248

The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles deposition for friction reduction on orthodontic wires.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the sliding technique, the reduced frictional forces are associated with rapid tooth movements and better control of the anchorage. Recently, wire coating with different nanoparticles has been proposed to decrease frictional forces. This in vitro study was carried out to coat stainless steel (SS) wires with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in order to determine the effect of this coating on friction between wires and orthodontic brackets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty 0.016 inch and 0.019 inch × 0.025 inch SS wires with and without ZnO nanoparticles were used in 80 orthodontic brackets (0.018 and 0.022 systems). The coated wires were analyzed by SEM and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) observations. Kinetic friction between the wires and orthodontic brackets were calculated using a universal testing machine. Frictional forces were statistically analyzed using three-way ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, Student's t-test and Tukey multiple comparison tests. RESULTS: Coating with ZnO nanoparticles significantly influenced frictional force values (P < 0.0001). In 0.019 inch × 0.025 inch wires, the frictional forces were 1.6912 ± 0.18868 and 3.4485 ± 0.32389 N in the coated and uncoated wires respectively, (51% reductions). In the 0.016 inch wires, the friction values were estimated to be 1.5668 ± 0.10703 and 2.56 ± 0.34008 N in the coated and uncoated conditions, respectively, (39% reductions). CONCLUSION: Due to the positive effects of ZnO nanoparticle coating on decreasing frictional forces, these nanoparticles might offer a novel opportunity to significantly reduce friction during tooth movement.

Kachoei M; Eskandarinejad F; Divband B; Khatamian M

2013-07-01

249

Invisible orthodontics part 2: lingual appliance treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this second article of the three part series is to sum up the current developments in lingual orthodontics. This article attempts to review the development, advantages and disadvantages, bonding techniques, bracket mechanics, patient factors and types of lingual appliance systems available. In addition, the article shows examples of treated cases with lingual appliances. Clinical Relevance: Lingual appliances are a useful addition to the armamentarium of invisible orthodontic appliances, with significant developments over the last few years. Clinicians need to be aware of the advances and predictable results achievable with lingual appliances.

McMullin A; Waring D; Malik O

2013-06-01

250

Long-term changes in microbiology and clinical periodontal variables after completion of fixed orthodontic appliances.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective study was to monitor patients' microbiological and clinical periodontal parameters prior and up to 2 years after orthodontic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four adolescents were treated with brackets. Fourteen of them received bands on upper first molars for extra-oral force application before bonding brackets to the remaining teeth. Microbiology, periodontal probing depth, bleeding on probing (BOP), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) flow were assessed at baseline (T1), bracket removal (T2), and 2 years post-treatment (T3). A statistical comparison was made over time and between bands and brackets. RESULTS: A significant increase from T1 to T2 and a decrease from T2 to T3 in pathogenicity of plaque were noted. No significant difference was observed concerning supragingival colony-forming units (CFU) ratio (aerobe/anaerobe) between T3 and T1. However, the subgingival CFU ratio (aerobe/anaerobe) at T3 did significantly differ from the ratio at T1. Periodontal probing depth, BOP and GCF flow showed a significant increase between T1 and T2 and a reduction between T2 and T3, resulting in the absence of significant differences between T3 and T1, except for BOP at banded sites. CONCLUSION: Placement of fixed appliances has an impact on periodontal parameters. The results showed that not all parameters were normalized at T3, indicating that the changes are only partially reversible.

Ghijselings E; Coucke W; Verdonck A; Teughels W; Quirynen M; Pauwels M; Carels C; van Gastel J

2013-09-01

251

Surgical orthodontic treatment of a severe open bite malocclusion with cleft palate and neuropathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This case demonstrates an orthodontic and surgical approach to a severe open bite malocclusion with cleft palate and neuropathy. METHODS: Pre- and postsurgical orthodontic treatment involved a multi-bracket appliance, Le Fort I osteotomy, and sagittal split mandibular ramus osteotomy. The diagnostic background and the treatment procedures are sequentially presented. CONCLUSION: The combined orthognathic surgery and orthodontic treatment resulted in a significant correction of the occlusion.

Nomura S; Kuroda T

2004-01-01

252

The use of a flowable ormocer for bonding brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the ormocer Admira Flow for bonding brackets. METHODS: 45 extracted human premolars were used. They were divided into two groups: (1) Brackets cemented with the traditional resin orthodontic bonding system Transbond XT, and (2) Brackets bonded with Admira Flow. Shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine with a cross-head speed of 1 mm/minute. The adhesive remnant on the tooth after debonding was quantified using image analysis equipment. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in bond strength for Transbond XT and that of Admira Flow, nor were there significant differences in the quantity of adhesive remnant left on the teeth after debonding (P < 0.05).

Vicente A; Bravo LA

2007-10-01

253

Impact resistance of ceramic brackets according to ophthalmic lenses standards.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The overall resistance to accidental blows of the many ceramic brackets that are sold today has not been explored. Facing a similar diversity, the eyeglasses industry has chosen to standardize the testing of lenses by subjecting them to the drop of a steel ball. By slightly modifying this test, 10 brands of ceramic brackets were examined. In most cases, the findings coincided with those found by other authors when duplicating debonding. Thus, polycrystalline ceramics with bulkier structures and glazed surfaces were found to be more resistant to impact than the monocrystalline brackets, the loftier real "twins," and the less dense attachments. Protruding tie wings and bases were liabilities, and domed configurations seemed to deflect the blows. Bulkier "single" designs alone did not offer a guarantee of impact resistance when not accompanied by an appropriate microstructure and a smooth surface. The ceramic brackets most resistant to impact were found to be 20/20 by American Orthodontics and Fascination by Dentaurum. Medium resistance was displayed by Lumina by Ormco, Allure III and Allure by GAC, Transcend 2000 and Transcend by Unitek/3M; the last was not as good as the other four. The least resistant were Illusion by Ortho-Organizers, Intrigue by Lancer Orthodontics, and Starfire TMB by "A"-Co. Probably because of its real twin design, the last bracket lends itself to the highest probability for accidental breakage. Although resistance to impact and accidental debonding is desirable from the point of view of treatment, the advantage should be weighted against the chance of enamel fracture. Indeed a weak bracket attached with a soft adhesive may be preferable when the chance of an increased exposure to accidental blows is probable. In such cases, the ceramic may take the brunt of the force, instead of the tooth.

Matasa CG

1999-02-01

254

Impact resistance of ceramic brackets according to ophthalmic lenses standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall resistance to accidental blows of the many ceramic brackets that are sold today has not been explored. Facing a similar diversity, the eyeglasses industry has chosen to standardize the testing of lenses by subjecting them to the drop of a steel ball. By slightly modifying this test, 10 brands of ceramic brackets were examined. In most cases, the findings coincided with those found by other authors when duplicating debonding. Thus, polycrystalline ceramics with bulkier structures and glazed surfaces were found to be more resistant to impact than the monocrystalline brackets, the loftier real "twins," and the less dense attachments. Protruding tie wings and bases were liabilities, and domed configurations seemed to deflect the blows. Bulkier "single" designs alone did not offer a guarantee of impact resistance when not accompanied by an appropriate microstructure and a smooth surface. The ceramic brackets most resistant to impact were found to be 20/20 by American Orthodontics and Fascination by Dentaurum. Medium resistance was displayed by Lumina by Ormco, Allure III and Allure by GAC, Transcend 2000 and Transcend by Unitek/3M; the last was not as good as the other four. The least resistant were Illusion by Ortho-Organizers, Intrigue by Lancer Orthodontics, and Starfire TMB by "A"-Co. Probably because of its real twin design, the last bracket lends itself to the highest probability for accidental breakage. Although resistance to impact and accidental debonding is desirable from the point of view of treatment, the advantage should be weighted against the chance of enamel fracture. Indeed a weak bracket attached with a soft adhesive may be preferable when the chance of an increased exposure to accidental blows is probable. In such cases, the ceramic may take the brunt of the force, instead of the tooth. PMID:9971927

Matasa, C G

1999-02-01

255

Orthodontic Repositioning Applicance  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An invisible removable orthodontic repositioning appliance with a lower modulus inner lining for systematically aligning teeth from an initial tooth arrangement to a final tooth arrangement while minimizing propensity for root and bone resorption due to the lower modulus is disclosed. The aligning of the teeth may be accomplished by taking impressions at various intervals for greater accuracy in the event of a distorted impression. Patient impression and/or model may then be digitally scanned. Using 3D software, tooth position may be incrementally modified toward idealized position and associated stress analyzed. Final modified model and associated appliance may be fabricated for orthodontic movement using 3D printing. Each appliance may be numerically identified to maintain uniformity of application from start of treatment to completion. The forces required for the alignment may be from polymeric material used to fabricate the orthodontic appliances, the shape memory alloy, and/or micro-implants to accomplish optimal tooth movement.

KALILI THOMAS

256

Effect of dental bleaching after bracket bonding and debonding using three different adhesive systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of bonding and debonding of orthodontic brackets on dental in-home bleaching, taking into account three different adhesive systems. METHODS: Forty-four bovine incisors were divided into four groups according to the primer system used for orthodontic bracket bonding. Following the debonding of orthodontic brackets, the teeth were stored in staining solution for 96 hours. Then, teeth were whitened using 10% carbamide peroxide for two weeks at a 6-hour-a-day regime. Standardized digital photographs were taken at the following intervals: T? (initial); T? (after debonding); T? (after pigmentation); T?, T? and T? representing 1, 7, and 14 days of bleaching. Repeatability and stability tests were carried out to check the method accuracy. Images were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software considering (L*a*b*) color coordinate values and a modified color difference total (?E'). RESULTS: The results of this study (ANOVA and Tukey; p < 0.01) demonstrated that after 7 days of bleaching, experimental groups showed significantly less teeth whitening compared to the control group. However, there were no significant color differences between the groups after 14 days, according to values of lightness (L*). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the adhesive primer system applied, bonding and debonding of orthodontic brackets alters the outcome of tooth whitening in the first 7 days of bleaching, however it has no influence on the whitening of the dental structure after 14 days of in-home dental bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide.

Gomes Lde O; Mathias P; Rizzo P; de Araújo TM; Cangussu MC

2013-03-01

257

Evaluation of the orthodontic application of two new restorative systems.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: As new adhesives, composite resins and bonding techniques were introduced, orthodontists adopted some of these innovations and added them to their armamentarium. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of three adhesive systems used in dentistry; one with an organically modified matrix, Admira (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany), another that contains the traditional Bis GMA matrix namely Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA), and a nano-filled composite resin Grandio (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty freshly extracted human molars were randomly divided into 3 groups; 20 teeth were bonded with Transbond XT, 20 teeth with Admira, and 20 teeth with Grandio. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The analysis of variance was used to compare the SBS of the three groups. If significant differences were present, Tukey’s posterior tests for harmonic mean sample size were used to determine which of the means were significantly different from each other. Significance for all statistical tests was predetermined at p?0.05. RESULTS: The results of the Analysis of Variance (F-value = 0.545) of the SBS indicated that there was no significant (p=0.583) differences between the three groups tested. The mean SBS for Admira was 5.1±3.3 MPa, for Grandio 4.1±2.6 MPa and that for Transbond XT was 4.6±3.2 MPa. During debonding 3 of 20 brackets (15%) in each of the Admira and Grandio groups failed without registering any force on the testing machine recording. None of the brackets bonded with Transbond XT had a similar failure mode. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that new materials that are being introduced in operative dentistry can potentially have orthodontic applications if the flow of these materials can be improved to better adhere to the bracket bases.

S. E. Bishara; M. M. Soliman; R. Ajlouni; C. Oonsombat; J. F. Laffoon; J. Warren

2004-01-01

258

Poisson Brackets of Orthogonal Polynomials  

CERN Document Server

For the standard symplectic forms on Jacobi and CMV matrices, we compute Poisson brackets of OPRL and OPUC, and relate these to other basic Poisson brackets and to Jacobians of basic changes of variable.

Cantero, M J; Cantero, Maria Jose; Simon, Barry

2006-01-01

259

Fractional Poisson Bracket  

CERN Multimedia

In the present paper fractional Hamilton-Jacobi equation has been derived for dynamical systems involving Caputo derivative. Fractional Poisson-bracket is introduced. Further Hamilton's canonical equations are formulated and quantum wave equation corresponds to the fractional Hamilton-Jacobi equation is suggested. Illustrative examples have been worked out to explain the formalism.

Golmankhaneh, Alireza Khalili

2008-01-01

260

Morphological characterization of as-received and in vivo orthodontic stainless steel archwires.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was undertaken to evaluate the material degradation of clinical bracket-archwire-contacting surfaces after in vivo orthodontic use. Twenty-four stainless steel multiloop edgewise archwires with two different cross sections (0.016 x 0.016 and 0.016 x 0.022 inches) were used for at least 6 months in the mouths of 14 patients. The surfaces of both as-received (cross-section of 0.016 x 0.016, 0.016 x 0.022, and 0.017 x 0.025 inches) and the in vivo wires were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The as-received wires exhibited an inhomogeneous surface with different surface irregularities resulting from the manufacturing process. For the in vivo archwires, an increase in the variety, type, and number of surface irregularities were observed. Crevice corrosion occurred not only at surface irregularities formed during manufacturing and orthodontic handling but also at the bracket-archwire-contacting surfaces and at the archwire surfaces coated with plaque and food remnants. This corrosion may be linked to the formation of a micro-environment at these locations. In addition, a limited number of signs of degradation induced during in vivo testing due to wear and friction were observed.

Daems J; Celis JP; Willems G

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Torque expression of 0.018 and 0.022 inch conventional brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the moments generated with low- and high-torque brackets. Four different bracket prescription-slot combinations of the same bracket type (Mini Diamond® Twin) were evaluated: high-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch and low-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch. These brackets were bonded on identical maxillary acrylic resin models with levelled and aligned teeth and each model was mounted on the orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS). Ten specimens of 0.017×0.025 inch and ten 0.019×0.025 inch stainless steel archwires (ORMCO) were evaluated in the low- and high-torque 0.018 inch and 0.022 inch brackets, respectively. The wires were ligated with elastomerics into the brackets and each measurement was repeated once after religation. Two-way analysis of variance and t-test were conducted to compare the generated moments between wires at low- and high-torque brackets separately. The maximum moment generated by the 0.017×0.025 inch stainless steel archwire in the 0.018 inch brackets at +15 degrees ranged from 14.33 and 12.95 Nmm for the high- and low-torque brackets, respectively. The measured torque in the 0.022 inch brackets with the 0.019×0.025 inch stainless steel archwire was 9.32 and 6.48 Nmm, respectively. The recorded differences of maximum moments between the high- and low-torque series were statistically significant. High-torque brackets produced higher moments compared with low-torque brackets. Additionally, in both high- and low-torque configurations, the thicker 0.019×0.025 inch steel archwire in the 0.022 inch slot system generated lower moments in comparison with the 0.017×0.025 inch steel archwire in the 0.018 inch slot system.

Sifakakis I; Pandis N; Makou M; Eliades T; Katsaros C; Bourauel C

2013-10-01

262

Torque expression of 0.018 and 0.022 inch conventional brackets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the moments generated with low- and high-torque brackets. Four different bracket prescription-slot combinations of the same bracket type (Mini Diamond® Twin) were evaluated: high-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch and low-torque 0.018 and 0.022 inch. These brackets were bonded on identical maxillary acrylic resin models with levelled and aligned teeth and each model was mounted on the orthodontic measurement and simulation system (OMSS). Ten specimens of 0.017×0.025 inch and ten 0.019×0.025 inch stainless steel archwires (ORMCO) were evaluated in the low- and high-torque 0.018 inch and 0.022 inch brackets, respectively. The wires were ligated with elastomerics into the brackets and each measurement was repeated once after religation. Two-way analysis of variance and t-test were conducted to compare the generated moments between wires at low- and high-torque brackets separately. The maximum moment generated by the 0.017×0.025 inch stainless steel archwire in the 0.018 inch brackets at +15 degrees ranged from 14.33 and 12.95 Nmm for the high- and low-torque brackets, respectively. The measured torque in the 0.022 inch brackets with the 0.019×0.025 inch stainless steel archwire was 9.32 and 6.48 Nmm, respectively. The recorded differences of maximum moments between the high- and low-torque series were statistically significant. High-torque brackets produced higher moments compared with low-torque brackets. Additionally, in both high- and low-torque configurations, the thicker 0.019×0.025 inch steel archwire in the 0.022 inch slot system generated lower moments in comparison with the 0.017×0.025 inch steel archwire in the 0.018 inch slot system. PMID:22828075

Sifakakis, Iosif; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore; Katsaros, Christos; Bourauel, Christoph

2012-07-24

263

Orthodontic separators  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An orthodontic separator, dimensioned such that it can be inserted between adjacent teeth. The separator is characterized in that it exhibits an increase in compressive force after insertion between adjacent teeth in the oral environment. The separator, after insertion, exerts sufficient force on the adjacent teeth to push the teeth apart.

HANSEN JAMES D; TZOU TSI-ZONG

264

ORTHODONTIC SEPARATORS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An orthodontic separator (10, 20, 30, 100), said separator (10, 20, 30, 100) dimensioned such that it can be inserted between adjacent teeth, said separator being characterized in that when inserted between adjacent teeth in the oral environment, it exhibits an increase in compressive force, wherein the separator exerts sufficient force on the adjacent teeth to push the teeth apart.

HANSEN James D.; TZOU Tsi-Zong

265

Orthodontic separators  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An orthodontic separator, said separator dimensioned such that it can be inserted between adjacent teeth, said separator being characterized in that when inserted between adjacent teeth in the oral environment, it exhibits an increase in compressive force, wherein the separator exerts sufficient force on the adjacent teeth to push the teeth apart.

HANSEN JAMES D; TZOU TSI-ZONG

266

Speech performance and oral impairments with lingual and labial orthodontic appliances in the first stage of fixed treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To compare (1) speech performance based on an auditive analysis and sonagraphy and (2) levels of oral impairment between fixed lingual and labial orthodontic appliances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with Class I division 1 malocclusion and moderate crowding of upper teeth were distributed randomly into two groups. Seventeen patients in group A (mean age: 20.6 years; standard deviation [SD]: 2.9 years) were treated with fixed lingual appliances (Stealth®, AO, Sheboygan, Wisc), whereas 17 patients in group B (mean age: 21.8 years; SD: 3.3 years) were treated with conventional fixed labial appliances. Speech performance was tested using spectrographic analysis of fricative /s/ sound before, immediately after (T1), 1 month after, and 3 months after bracket placement. The levels of oral impairment were assessed using standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: A significant deterioration in articulation was recorded at all assessment times in group A but only at T1 in group B. Significant intergroup differences were recorded at all assessment times (P < .001). Speech difficulties were significantly higher in the lingual brackets group after 1 month of bracket placement (P < .001). Soft tissue irritation and chewing difficulty were significantly higher in the lingual appliance group after 24 hours of bracket placement (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The lingual appliance is more problematic than the labial one in terms of speech articulation. Although patients with both appliances suffered from different degrees of oral impairment, patients with lingual appliances had more untoward effects, particularly during the first month of treatment.

Khattab TZ; Farah H; Al-Sabbagh R; Hajeer MY; Haj-Hamed Y

2013-05-01

267

Antibacterial effect of silver-platinum coating for orthodontic appliances.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a hard coating for stainless surfaces based on silver (Ag)-platinum (Pt) alloys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ag-Pt alloys, which have high degree of biocompatibility, excellent resistance to sterilization conditions, and antibacterial properties to different bacteria, are associated with long-term antibacterial efficiency. Approximately 1.03-µm to 2.34-µm-thick coatings, as determined by scanning electron microscopy, were deposited on stainless surfaces by the simultaneous vaporization of both metals (Ag and Pt) in an inert argon atmosphere. The coating was done by physical vapor deposition. Microorganisms and eukaryotic culture cells were grown on these surfaces. RESULTS: The coatings released sufficient Ag ions when immersed in phosphate-buffered saline and showed significant antimicrobial potency against Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains. At the same time, human gingival fibroblast cells were not adversely affected. CONCLUSION: Ag-Pt coatings on load-bearing orthodontic bracket surfaces can provide suitable antimicrobial activity during active orthodontic treatment.

Ryu HS; Bae IH; Lee KG; Hwang HS; Lee KH; Koh JT; Cho JH

2012-01-01

268

Surface characterization of retrieved NiTi orthodontic archwires.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The structure and morphological condition of retrieved NiTi orthodontic archwires was evaluated and any possible alterations in the surface composition of the alloy following 1-6 months in vivo were characterized. NiTi wires (GAC, German Orthodontics, ORMCO) of various cross-sections were collected through a retrieval protocol and were subjected to multi-technique characterization. Optical microscopy revealed islands of amorphous precipitants and accumulated microcrystalline particles. Micro MIR-FTIR investigation of the retrieved samples demonstrated the presence of a proteinaceous biofilm, the organic constituents of which were mainly amide, alcohol, and carbonate. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray microanalysis showed that the elemental species precipitated on the material surface were Na, K, Cl, Ca, and P, forming NaCl, KCl, and Ca-P precipitates. Increased intra-oral exposure was consistently associated with the presence of a mature film, while evidence of alloy delamination, pitting, and crevice corrosion, as well as a notable reduction in the alloy grain size was observed. Intra-oral exposure of NiTi wires alters the topography and structure of the alloy surface through surface attack in the form of pitting or crevice corrosion or formation of integuments. Further in vivo research is required to resolve the implications of the described ageing pattern in the corrosion resistance of the alloy, the potential for nickel leaching, as well as bracket-archwire friction variants.

Eliades T; Eliades G; Athanasiou AE; Bradley TG

2000-06-01

269

Impact of brackets on smile esthetics: laypersons and orthodontists perception  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: esse estudo analisou a influência dos aparelhos ortodônticos na estética do sorriso em avaliação por adolescentes, adultos e ortodontistas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de uma jovem mulher, usando-se as seguintes combinações: aparelho ortodôntico de metal com ligaduras de diferentes cores (verde, vermelho e cinza); aparelho ortodôntico cerâmico (ligadura transparente); e sem aparelho - resultando em cinco fotografias de 15x (more) 20cm. Para a avaliação das fotografias, 16 adolescentes leigos, 16 adultos leigos e 16 ortodontistas foram selecionados de forma randômica. As fotografias foram aleatoriamente organizadas em um álbum, acompanhadas de uma escala visual analógica (EVA) para o registro das notas. As notas das duas avaliações de cada grupo (adolescentes, adultos e ortodontistas) foram submetidas à análise de erro (teste pareado de Wilcoxon) e comparação múltipla de grupos pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: ortodontistas, adultos e adolescentes concordaram em suas opiniões, porém, os ortodontistas deram notas menores em suas avaliações. Pôde ser observado que os braquetes cerâmicos foram mais aceitos, considerando-se a estética do sorriso, uma vez que os braquetes metálicos tiveram as menores notas. CONCLUSÃO: ortodontistas, adultos e adolescentes parecem preferir soluções estéticas durante o tratamento ortodôntico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the influence of orthodontic appliances on smile esthetics assessed by lay adolescents, lay adults and orthodontists. METHODS: A facial photograph of a smiling young woman was used under the following conditions: With metal orthodontic brackets ligated by different elastic ligature colors (green, red and gray), with ceramic bracket brackets (transparent elastic ligature) and without brackets, totaling five 15 x 20 cm pictures. For the photo (more) graph assessment, 16 lay adolescents, 16 lay adults and 16 orthodontists were randomly selected. The photographs were randomly arranged in an album, followed by a visual analog scale (VAS) for the scores registration. Scores in both evaluations of each group of evaluators (adolescents, adults and orthodontists) were submitted to error analysis by WILCOXON test and multiple comparison among groups performed by Kruskal - Wallis at 5% significance. RESULTS: Orthodontists, adults and adolescents agreed in their opinions, although the orthodontists gave lower scores in their assessments. It could be observed that ceramic brackets were more acceptable concerning the smile esthetics, whereas the metal brackets received the lowest scores. CONCLUSION: Orthodontists, adults and even adolescents seem to prefer esthetic solutions during orthodontic treatment.

Oliveira, Seandra Cordeiro de; Furquim, Rachel D'Aurea; Ramos, Adilson Luiz

2012-10-01

270

Impact of brackets on smile esthetics: laypersons and orthodontists perception  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the influence of orthodontic appliances on smile esthetics assessed by lay adolescents, lay adults and orthodontists. METHODS: A facial photograph of a smiling young woman was used under the following conditions: With metal orthodontic brackets ligated by different elastic ligature colors (green, red and gray), with ceramic bracket brackets (transparent elastic ligature) and without brackets, totaling five 15 x 20 cm pictures. For the photograph assessment, 16 lay adolescents, 16 lay adults and 16 orthodontists were randomly selected. The photographs were randomly arranged in an album, followed by a visual analog scale (VAS) for the scores registration. Scores in both evaluations of each group of evaluators (adolescents, adults and orthodontists) were submitted to error analysis by WILCOXON test and multiple comparison among groups performed by Kruskal - Wallis at 5% significance. RESULTS: Orthodontists, adults and adolescents agreed in their opinions, although the orthodontists gave lower scores in their assessments. It could be observed that ceramic brackets were more acceptable concerning the smile esthetics, whereas the metal brackets received the lowest scores. CONCLUSION: Orthodontists, adults and even adolescents seem to prefer esthetic solutions during orthodontic treatment.OBJETIVO: esse estudo analisou a influência dos aparelhos ortodônticos na estética do sorriso em avaliação por adolescentes, adultos e ortodontistas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de uma jovem mulher, usando-se as seguintes combinações: aparelho ortodôntico de metal com ligaduras de diferentes cores (verde, vermelho e cinza); aparelho ortodôntico cerâmico (ligadura transparente); e sem aparelho - resultando em cinco fotografias de 15x20cm. Para a avaliação das fotografias, 16 adolescentes leigos, 16 adultos leigos e 16 ortodontistas foram selecionados de forma randômica. As fotografias foram aleatoriamente organizadas em um álbum, acompanhadas de uma escala visual analógica (EVA) para o registro das notas. As notas das duas avaliações de cada grupo (adolescentes, adultos e ortodontistas) foram submetidas à análise de erro (teste pareado de Wilcoxon) e comparação múltipla de grupos pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: ortodontistas, adultos e adolescentes concordaram em suas opiniões, porém, os ortodontistas deram notas menores em suas avaliações. Pôde ser observado que os braquetes cerâmicos foram mais aceitos, considerando-se a estética do sorriso, uma vez que os braquetes metálicos tiveram as menores notas. CONCLUSÃO: ortodontistas, adultos e adolescentes parecem preferir soluções estéticas durante o tratamento ortodôntico.

Seandra Cordeiro de Oliveira; Rachel D'Aurea Furquim; Adilson Luiz Ramos

2012-01-01

271

Femtosecond laser etching of dental enamel for bracket bonding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT. The aim is to investigate femtosecond laser ablation as an alternative method for enamel etching used before bonding orthodontic brackets. A focused laser beam is scanned over enamel within the area of bonding in a saw tooth pattern with a varying number of lines. After patterning, ceramic brackets are bonded and bonding quality of the proposed technique is measured by a universal testing machine. The results are compared to the conventional acid etching method. Results show that bonding strength is a function of laser average power and the density of the ablated lines. Intrapulpal temperature changes are also recorded and observed minimal effects are observed. Enamel surface of the samples is investigated microscopically and no signs of damage or cracking are observed. In conclusion, femtosecond laser exposure on enamel surface yields controllable patterns that provide efficient bonding strength with less removal of dental tissue than conventional acid-etching technique.

Kabas AS; Ersoy T; Gülsoy M; Akturk S

2013-09-01

272

Femtosecond laser etching of dental enamel for bracket bonding.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT. The aim is to investigate femtosecond laser ablation as an alternative method for enamel etching used before bonding orthodontic brackets. A focused laser beam is scanned over enamel within the area of bonding in a saw tooth pattern with a varying number of lines. After patterning, ceramic brackets are bonded and bonding quality of the proposed technique is measured by a universal testing machine. The results are compared to the conventional acid etching method. Results show that bonding strength is a function of laser average power and the density of the ablated lines. Intrapulpal temperature changes are also recorded and observed minimal effects are observed. Enamel surface of the samples is investigated microscopically and no signs of damage or cracking are observed. In conclusion, femtosecond laser exposure on enamel surface yields controllable patterns that provide efficient bonding strength with less removal of dental tissue than conventional acid-etching technique. PMID:24045693

Kabas, Ayse Sena; Ersoy, Tansu; Gülsoy, Murat; Akturk, Selcuk

2013-09-01

273

Correction of palatally displaced maxillary lateral incisors without brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 25-year-old Korean female patient with anterior crowding, including palatally displaced lateral incisors. Her facial profile was satisfactory, but 3.5 mm of maxillary anterior crowding was observed. To correct this crowding, we decided to minimize the use of the conventional fixed orthodontic appliances and employed a less bulky and more aesthetic appliance for applying light continuous force. We determined the final positions of the maxillary teeth via a working model for diagnostic set up and achieved space gaining and alignment with simple Ni-Ti spring and stainless steel round tubes. Tooth alignment was achieved efficiently and aesthetically without the conventional brackets.

Choi KH; Lee Y; Kim M; Chun YS

2013-08-01

274

Nickel chromium brackets and its effect on the oral microflora.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Nickel chromium brackets are the most common type of fixed orthodontic appliance used in our environment and may alter the oral microflora. AIM: This study aimed to determine the effect of nickel chromium brackets in orthodontic treatment on the oral microflora and to compare with a control group of dental students. METHOD: Thirty-eight randomly selected participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 was 19 orthodontic patients (OS) with anterior segment crowding. Group 2 were 19 normal dental students (DS) who served as a control group. Two samples of stimulated saliva were collected. The initial sample was collected before the placement of nickel chromium brackets (OS1) and the other 6 months after wearing the appliance in both arches (OS2) for group 1. Group 2 also had the initial (DS1) and second samples (DS2) collected after a 6 month interval. The saliva was analysed after being inoculated onto blood, chocolate and MacConkey agar plates which were incubated for 24 hours at 37 degrees C aerobically except chocolate agar, which was incubated in a candle extinction jar. RESULTS: The results showed that Streptococcus viridans was the most prevalent microorganism and was isolated in 15 (79%), and 11 (57.9%), of groups OS1 and DS1 respectively. There was no statistical difference between both control groups OS1 and DS1 (p > 0.05), and treatment groups OS2 and DS2 for Streptococcus viridans. There was a significant difference between DS1 with 7(36.8%) and OS1 with 2 (10.5%) for Staphylococcus aureus (p < 0.05). Klebsiella pneumoniae was cultured in all groups except OS2. There was also no statistically significant difference between groups OS1 and OS2 and the control groups DS1 and DS2 for all the organisms cultured. There was no change in composition of bacteria between groups OS1, OS2 and DS1. CONCLUSION: There is no difference in the oral microflora between orthodontic patients and normal subjects and wearing nickel chromium brackets does not significantly alter the composition of the oral microflora.

Ize-Iyamu IN; Ogbogu P

2011-12-01

275

Halogen light versus LED for bracket bonding: shear bond strength  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: LED light-curing devices seek to provide a cold light activator which allows protocols of material polymerization with shorter duration. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength of bracket bonding using three types of light-curing devices: One with halogen light (Optilight Plus - Gnatus) and two with LEDs (Optilight CL - Gnatus and Elipar Freelight - 3M/ESPE). RESULTS: Comparing the results by analysis of variance, the Gnatus LED device showed an inferior statistical behavior in relation to other light sources, when activated by a short time. But, when it was used for 40 seconds, the polymerization results were consistent with the other evaluated sources. The device with the best average performance was the halogen light, followed by the 3M/ESPE LED. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the LEDs may be indicated in orthodontic practice, as long as a protocol is used for the application of light with the activation time of 40 seconds.INTRODUÇÃO: os aparelhos de fotopolimerização por LED buscam proporcionar uma luz ativadora fria, que possibilite protocolos de polimerização do material com menor tempo de duração. OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência à tração da colagem de braquetes, utilizando três tipos de aparelhos fotoativadores: um de luz halógena (Optilight Plus - Gnatus) e outros dois de LED (Optilight CL - Gnatus; e Elipar Freelight - 3M/Espe). RESULTADOS: comparando os resultados por meio da análise de variância, o aparelho de LED Gnatus apresentou comportamento estatístico inferior em relação às outras fontes de luz, quando ativado por tempo reduzido. Já quando foi utilizado o tempo de 40 segundos, os resultados de polimerização foram compatíveis com as demais fontes avaliadas. O aparelho que apresentou melhor desempenho médio foi o de luz halógena, seguido pelo LED 3M/Espe. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que os LEDs podem ser indicados na prática ortodôntica, uma vez que seja utilizado um protocolo de aplicação da luz com tempo de ativação de 40 segundos.

Paulo Eduardo Guedes Carvalho; Valdemir Muzulon dos Santos; Hassan Isber; Flávio Augusto Cotrim-Ferreira

2013-01-01

276

Shear bond strength of new and recycled brackets to enamel  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes reciclados. Foram utilizados 50 pré-molares humanos, extraídos com finalidade ortodôntica, nos quais foi feita a colagem de bráquetes (S2C-03Z; Dental Morelli, Brasil) com resina composta quimicamente ativada (Concise Ortodôntico; 3M, EUA). Os dentes foram divididos aleatoriamente em 5 grupos (n=10). No grupo I (controle), os bráquetes colados permaneceram fixados até o moment (more) o do teste de cisalhamento (ou seja, não foram feitos procedimentos de remoção e nova colagem dos bráquetes). Nos grupos II, III e IV, os bráquetes foram removidos e reutilizados após reciclagem com jateamento de óxido de alumínio (90 µm), desgaste com ponta abrasiva de carboneto de silício ou processo industrial por uma empresa especializada (Abzil-Lancer, Brasil), respectivamente. No grupo V, os bráquetes foram removidos e bráquetes novos foram colados sobre o esmalte. Os ensaios de cisalhamento foram realizados numa máquina Instron com velocidade de 0,5 mm/min e os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey com nível de significância de 5 %. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante (p>0,05) entre os bráquetes do grupo controle (0,52 kgf/mm²), reciclados com óxido de alumínio (0,34 kgf/mm²) e bráquetes novos colados sobre o esmalte onde anteriormente havia bráquetes fixados (0,43 kgf/mm²). Bráquetes reciclados pela empresa especializada (0,28 kgf/mm²) e pelo desgaste com carboneto de silício (0,14 kgf/mm²) apresentaram os menores valores de resistência ao cisalhamento, com diferença estatisticament significante (p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the shear bond strength of recycled orthodontic brackets. S2C-03Z brackets (Dental Morelli, Brazil) were bonded to the buccal surfaces of 50 extracted human premolars using Concise Orthodontic chemically cured composite resin (3M, USA). The teeth were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=10), as follows. In group I (control), the bonded brackets remained attached until shear testing (i.e., no debonding/rebonding). In groups I (more) I, III and IV, the bonded brackets were detached and rebonded after recycling by 90-mum particle aluminum oxide blasting, silicon carbide stone grinding or an industrial process at a specialized contractor company (Abzil-Lancer, Brazil), respectively. In group V, the bonded brackets were removed and new brackets were bonded to the enamel surface. Shear bond strength was tested in an Instron machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the control brackets (0.52 kgf/mm²), brackets recycled by aluminum oxide blasting (0.34 kgf/mm²) and new brackets attached to previously bonded teeth (0.43 kgf/mm²). Brackets recycled by the specialized company (0.28 kgf/mm²) and those recycled by silicon carbide stone grinding (0.14 kgf/mm²) showed the lowest shear strength means and differed statistically from control brackets (0.52 kgf/mm²) (p

Tavares, Stenyo Wanderley; Consani, Simonides; Nouer, Darcy Flávio; Magnani, Maria Beatriz Borges de Araújo; Nouer, Paulo Roberto Aranha; Martins, Laura Moura

2006-01-01

277

Quantitative analysis of S. mutans and S. sobrinus cultivated independently and adhered to polished orthodontic composite resins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: In orthodontics, fixed appliances placed in the oral cavity are colonized by microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the independent bacterial colonization of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in orthodontic composite resins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven orthodontic composite adhesives for bonding brackets were selected and classified into 14 groups; (GIm, GIs) Enlight, (GIIm, GIIs) Grengloo, (GIIIm, GIIIs) Kurasper F, (GIVm, GIVs) BeautyOrtho Bond, (GVm, GVs) Transbond CC, (GVIm, GVIs) Turbo Bond II, (GVIIm, GVIIs) Blugloo. 60 blocks of 4x4x1 mm of each orthodontic composite resin were made (total 420 blocks), and gently polished with sand-paper and ultrasonically cleaned. S. mutans and S. sobrinus were independently cultivated. For the quantitative analysis, a radioactive marker was used to codify the bacteria (³H) adhered to the surface of the materials. The blocks were submerged in a solution with microorganisms previously radiolabeled and separated (210 blocks for S. mutans and 210 blocks for S. sobrinus) for 2 hours at 37 ºC. Next, the blocks were placed in a combustion system, to capture the residues and measure the radiation. The statistical analysis was calculated with the ANOVA test (Sheffè post-hoc). RESULTS: Significant differences of bacterial adhesion were found amongst the groups. In the GIm and GIs the significant lowest scores for both microorganisms were shown; in contrast, the values of GVII for both bacteria were significantly the highest. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the orthodontic composite resin evaluated in the GIm and GIs, obtained the lowest adherence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, which may reduce the enamel demineralization and the risk of white spot lesion formation.

Velazquez-Enriquez U; Scougall-Vilchis RJ; Contreras-Bulnes R; Flores-Estrada J; Uematsu S; Yamaguchi R

2012-09-01

278

Quantitative analysis of S. mutans and S. sobrinus cultivated independently and adhered to polished orthodontic composite resins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Orthodontics, fixed appliances placed in the oral cavity are colonized by microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the independent bacterial colonization of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in orthodontic composite resins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven orthodontic composite adhesives for bonding brackets were selected and classified into 14 groups; (GIm, GIs) Enlight, (GIIm, GIIs) Grengloo, (GIIIm, GIIIs) Kurasper F, (GIVm, GIVs) BeautyOrtho Bond, (GVm, GVs) Transbond CC, (GVIm, GVIs) Turbo Bond II, (GVIIm, GVIIs) Blugloo. 60 blocks of 4x4x1 mm of each orthodontic composite resin were made (total 420 blocks), and gently polished with sand-paper and ultrasonically cleaned. S. mutans and S. sobrinus were independently cultivated. For the quantitative analysis, a radioactive marker was used to codify the bacteria (³H) adhered to the surface of the materials. The blocks were submerged in a solution with microorganisms previously radiolabeled and separated (210 blocks for S. mutans and 210 blocks for S. sobrinus) for 2 hours at 37ºC. Next, the blocks were placed in a combustion system, to capture the residues and measure the radiation. The statistical analysis was calculated with the ANOVA test (Sheffè post-hoc). RESULTS: Significant differences of bacterial adhesion were found amongst the groups. In the GIm and GIs the significant lowest scores for both microorganisms were shown; in contrast, the values of GVII for both bacteria were significantly the highest. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the orthodontic composite resin evaluated in the GIm and GIs, obtained the lowest adherence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, which may reduce the enamel demineralization and the risk of white spot lesion formation.

Ulises Velazquez-Enriquez; Rogelio Jose Scougall-Vilchis; Rosalia Contreras-Bulnes; Jaime Flores-Estrada; Shinsuke Uematsu; Ryozo Yamaguchi

2012-01-01

279

Quantitative analysis of S. mutans and S. sobrinus cultivated independently and adhered to polished orthodontic composite resins  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In Orthodontics, fixed appliances placed in the oral cavity are colonized by microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the independent bacterial colonization of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in orthodontic composite resins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven orthodontic composite adhesives for bonding brackets were selected and classified into 14 groups; (GIm, GIs) Enlight, (GIIm, GIIs) Grengloo, (GIIIm, GIIIs) Kurasper F, (GIVm, GIVs) Beau (more) tyOrtho Bond, (GVm, GVs) Transbond CC, (GVIm, GVIs) Turbo Bond II, (GVIIm, GVIIs) Blugloo. 60 blocks of 4x4x1 mm of each orthodontic composite resin were made (total 420 blocks), and gently polished with sand-paper and ultrasonically cleaned. S. mutans and S. sobrinus were independently cultivated. For the quantitative analysis, a radioactive marker was used to codify the bacteria (³H) adhered to the surface of the materials. The blocks were submerged in a solution with microorganisms previously radiolabeled and separated (210 blocks for S. mutans and 210 blocks for S. sobrinus) for 2 hours at 37ºC. Next, the blocks were placed in a combustion system, to capture the residues and measure the radiation. The statistical analysis was calculated with the ANOVA test (Sheffè post-hoc). RESULTS: Significant differences of bacterial adhesion were found amongst the groups. In the GIm and GIs the significant lowest scores for both microorganisms were shown; in contrast, the values of GVII for both bacteria were significantly the highest. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the orthodontic composite resin evaluated in the GIm and GIs, obtained the lowest adherence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, which may reduce the enamel demineralization and the risk of white spot lesion formation.

Velazquez-Enriquez, Ulises; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio Jose; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalia; Flores-Estrada, Jaime; Uematsu, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Ryozo

2012-10-01

280

Surface roughness of three types of modern plastic bracket slot floors and frictional resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: To quantitatively analyze the surface roughness of the slot floors of three types of modern plastic brackets and to measure static frictional force during sliding mechanics in vitro. Materials and Methods: Control groups comprised stainless steel brackets and monocrystalline ceramic brackets. Test groups comprised three types of 0.022-in slot, Roth prescription, plastic, maxillary right central incisor brackets. Test groups included glass fiber-reinforced polycarbonate, filler-reinforced polycarbonate, and hybrid polymer with inserted metal slot brackets. The static frictional resistance caused by sliding movements with an archwire (stainless steel) in vitro was quantitatively analyzed. Both scanning electron microscope and three-dimensional optical surface profiling were used. Results: Scanning electron microscope and three-dimensional optical surface profiler revealed that all as-received brackets had irregular slot floor surfaces, and both irregularity and roughness increased after the archwire sliding test. The ceramic brackets in the control group showed significantly lower surface roughness values and higher frictional values during the archwire sliding test compared with the other brackets. The glass or filler-reinforced plastic brackets exhibited significantly higher static frictional values than the metallic slot type brackets (P slot brackets showed relatively lower surface roughness and frictional values compared with the stainless steel control bracket. Conclusion: Glass or filler-reinforced plastic brackets showed higher frictional resistance than metallic slot-type brackets. A plastic bracket with inserted metal slot may be the best choice among plastic brackets for low frictional resistance and to avoid damage from sliding movements of the archwire. PMID:23767940

Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kang, Da-Young; Hwang, Chung-Ju

2013-06-14

 
 
 
 
281

Salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in patients with conventional and self-ligating brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of bracket type (conventional and self-ligating) on the levels of Streptococcus mutans and total bacterial counts in whole saliva of orthodontic patients. Thirty-two male and female patients were selected using the following inclusion criteria: adolescents (mean age 13.6 years, range 11-17 years), fixed appliances in both arches, non-smoker, and no reported oral habits. Demographic and oral hygiene characteristics were determined for each subject. The patients were subdivided into two groups with random allocation of bracket type (conventional or self-ligating). An initial saliva sample was obtained before the initiation of treatment (T1) and a second sample 2-3 months following appliance bonding (T2). Salivary S. mutans and total bacteria were enumerated and analysed after growth in culture. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the samples were analysed with a t- or chi-square test, where applicable, to assess the random allocation of bracket group to participants. The results of S. mutans and total facultative bacterial counts were log transformed and statistically analysed with analysis of covariance with bracket (conventional versus self-ligating) as the categorical variable and initial total bacterial counts or initial S. mutans levels serving as the covariate. No difference was found in the demographics and oral hygiene indices between the two groups, verifying the random assignment of brackets to the population sample. The levels of S. mutans in whole saliva of orthodontically treated patients do not seem to be significantly different between conventional and self-ligating brackets. The pre-treatment levels of S. mutans are significant predictors of the levels of S. mutans after placement of orthodontic appliances, while this was not the case for total bacterial counts.

Pandis N; Papaioannou W; Kontou E; Nakou M; Makou M; Eliades T

2010-02-01

282

Summary of: complexities associated with orthodontic services in the National Health Service.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To detail orthodontic provision in Wales. BACKGROUND: In 2006 the new orthodontic contract was introduced in the NHS in England and Wales. Since the introduction of the new contract there have been recent reports of inefficiencies in orthodontic provision in Wales in terms of: orthodontic provision reaching those who need it, type of orthodontic activities undertaken, who is providing orthodontic care, the relative cost-efficiency of the orthodontic services, contracting and performance management of the services and robustness of the orthodontic database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 2008/09 orthodontic data on contracted services were analysed. Data from the salaried services was collected through a questionnaire. Normative orthodontic treatment need was estimated from mid-year population estimates. RESULTS: In 2008/09, there were considerable inefficiencies in the orthodontic services in Wales with varied level of access by children living in 22 former local health boards, co-terminus with local authorities in Wales. Total spend on orthodontics in Wales was around £12,718,370. It was estimated that 11,539 (30%) of 12-17-year-olds required orthodontic treatment. In 2008/09, 11,031 children received orthodontic treatment in all NHS services in Wales indicating a potential shortfall of 508 treatments. Out of 135 GDS/PDS orthodontic contracts, 27 provided no active treatment (only assessments) and 62 provided less than 50 treatments annually. Cost per units of orthodontic activity (UOA) ranged from £58 to £74. With improved contracts and efficiency, the orthodontic budget seems sufficient to meet the orthodontic need of the population. CONCLUSIONS: As with any type of NHS provision, it is important that orthodontic services are competitive, highly efficient and provided on the basis of need. Performance management of orthodontic services should focus on the number of successful orthodontic treatments delivered annually. The personal dental services (PDS) orthodontic contract will need to be modified accordingly.

Robinson PG

2012-02-01

283

Comparison of friction force between corroded and noncorroded titanium nitride plating of metal brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Titanium nitride (TiN) plating is a method to prevent metal corrosion and can increase the surface smoothness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the friction forces between the orthodontic bracket, with or without TiN plating, and stainless steel wire after it was corroded in fluoride-containing solution. METHODS: In total, 540 metal brackets were divided into a control group and a TiN-coated experimental group. The electrochemical corrosion was performed in artificial saliva with 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) as the electrolytes. Static and kinetic friction were measured by an EZ-test machine (Shimadazu, Tokyo, Japan) with a crosshead speed of 10 mm per minute over a 5-mm stretch of stainless steel archwire. The data were analyzed by using unpaired t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Both the control and TiN-coated groups' corrosion potential was higher with 1.23% APF solution than with artificial solution (P <0.05). In brackets without corrosion, both the static and kinetic friction force between the control and TiN-coated brackets groups showed a statistically significant difference (P <0.05). In brackets with corrosion, the control group showed no statistical difference on kinetic or static friction. The TiN-coated brackets showed a statistical difference (P <0.05) on kinetic and static friction in different solutions. CONCLUSION: TiN-coated metal brackets, with corrosion or without corrosion, cannot reduce the frictional force.

Kao CT; Guo JU; Huang TH

2011-05-01

284

Effect of light-curing units in shear bond strength of metallic brackets: an in vitro study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of the light curing units on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two premolars were divided into six groups (n=12): Group I: brackets bonded with Transbond and polymerization with halogen light; Group II: Transbond and LED; Group III: Fuji Ortho and halogen light; Group IV: Fuji Ortho and LED; Group V: Fuji Ortho, without acid and halogen light; Group VI: Fuji Ortho, without acid and LED. The groups were tested to shear strength in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: The composite resin presented higher shear bond strength than the resin-modified glass ionomer cement (p0.05). CONCLUSION: The shear bond strength was influenced by the material but not by the light-curing unit. The use of LED reduced the experimental time by approximately 60%, with the same curing efficiency.

Luciana Borges Retamoso; Niége Michelle Lazzari Onofre; Luciane Hann; Ernani Menezes Marchioro

2010-01-01

285

Effect of light-curing units in shear bond strength of metallic brackets: an in vitro study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of the light curing units on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two premolars were divided into six groups (n=12): Group I: brackets bonded with Transbond and polymerization with halogen light; Group II: Transbond and LED; Group III: Fuji Ortho and halogen light; Group IV: Fuji Ortho and LED; Group V: Fuji Ortho, without acid and halogen light; Group VI: Fuji Ortho, without acid and LED. Th (more) e groups were tested to shear strength in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: The composite resin presented higher shear bond strength than the resin-modified glass ionomer cement (p0.05). CONCLUSION: The shear bond strength was influenced by the material but not by the light-curing unit. The use of LED reduced the experimental time by approximately 60%, with the same curing efficiency.

Retamoso, Luciana Borges; Onofre, Niége Michelle Lazzari; Hann, Luciane; Marchioro, Ernani Menezes

2010-02-01

286

ORTHODONTIC REPOSITIONING APPLIANCE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an invisible removable orthodontic repositioning appliance with a lower modulus inner lining for systematically aligning teeth from an initial tooth arrangement to a final tooth arrangement while minimizing propensity for root and bone resorption due to the lower modulus. The aligning of the teeth may be accomplished by taking impressions at various intervals for greater accuracy in the event of a distorted impression. Patient impression and/or model may then be digitally scanned. Using 3D software, tooth position may be incrementally modified toward idealized position and associated stress analyzed. Final modified model and associated appliance may be fabricated with for orthodontic movement using 3D printer. Each appliance may be numerically identified to maintain uniformity of application from start of , treatment to completion.The forces required for the alignment may be from polymeric material used to fabricate the orthodontic appliances, the shape memory alloy, and/or micro-implants with various attachments, including magnetic attachments to allow for three potential types of cooperating forces toward optimal tooth movement.

KALILI THOMAS

287

ORTHODONTIC REPOSITIONING APPLIANCE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an invisible removable orthodontic repositioning appliance with a lower modulus inner lining for systematically aligning tee th from an initial tooth arrangement to a final tooth arrangement while mini mizing propensity for root and bone resorption due to the lower modulus. The aligning of the teeth may be accomplished by taking impressions at various intervals for greater accuracy in the event of a distorted impression. Patie nt impression and/or model may then be digitally scanned. Using 3D software, tooth position may be incrementally modified toward idealized position and associated stress analyzed. Final modified model and associated appliance ma y be fabricated with for orthodontic movement using 3D printer. Each applian ce may be numerically identified to maintain uniformity of application from start of , treatment to completion. The forces required for the alignment ma y be from polymeric material used to fabricate the orthodontic appliances, t he shape memory alloy, and/or micro-implants with various attachments, inclu ding magnetic attachments to allow for three potential types of cooperating forces toward optimal tooth movement.

KALILI THOMAS

288

Orthodontic repositioning appliance  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an invisible removable orthodontic repositioning appliance with a lower modulus inner lining for systematically aligning teeth from an initial tooth arrangement to a final tooth arrangement while minimizing propensity for root and bone resorption due to the lower modulus. The aligning of the teeth may be accomplished by taking impressions at various intervals for greater accuracy in the event of a distorted impression. Patient impression and/or model may then be digitally scanned. Using 3D software, tooth position may be incrementally modified toward idealized position and associated stress analyzed. Final modified model and associated appliance may be fabricated with for orthodontic movement using 3D printer. Each appliance may be numerically identified to maintain uniformity of application from start of treatment to completion.The forces required for the alignment may be from polymeric material used to fabricate the orthodontic appliances, the shape memory alloy, and/or micro-implants with various attachments, including magnetic attachments to allow for three potential types of cooperating forces toward optimal tooth movement.

KALILI TOM

289

Future practice plans of orthodontic residents in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to investigate the future clinical practice plans of orthodontic residents in the United States. METHODS: All program chairs and directors of the 65 US orthodontic residency programs were contacted by e-mail and telephone and asked for permission to e-mail their residents and invite them to take part in an anonymous 57-item questionnaire online. A total of 335 e-mails from 37 programs were obtained, and the survey was sent in May 2007. Basic statistics including chi-square comparative analyses were performed by sex, age, and year of program. RESULTS: A total of 63.04% of orthodontic residents plan to use self-ligating brackets; 84.06% plan to use Invisalign (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif); 92.03% plan to use temporary anchorage devices, and 72.26% plan on placing them themselves; 28.26% plan to use cone-beam computerized tomography; 92.75% plan to use a digital imaging program; 45.65% plan to use indirect bonding; and 10.87% plan to use lingual orthodontics. A total of 70.07% plan to use 2-phase treatment, and 61.59% said they will use functional appliances. A total of 81.16% plan to become certified by the American Board of Orthodontics, but only 18.12% thought certification should be mandatory for licensure; 36.50% indicated that a master of science degree should be required in their program, and 77.94% believe that a 24- to 30-month program adequately prepares them for future orthodontic practice. CONCLUSIONS: Newer orthodontic technologies such as self-ligating brackets, temporary anchorage devices, and Invisalign as well as functional appliances are expected to grow in popularity in the United States because of projected future use by orthodontic residents. Two-phase orthodontic treatment with functional appliance mechanics will continue to be used. Most orthodontic residents will become certified by the American Board of Orthodontics but do not believe it should be necessary for licensure. Orthodontic residents in the United States believe that a 2-year program adequately prepares them for private practice.

Noble J; Hechter FJ; Karaiskos NE; Lekic N; Wiltshire WA

2009-03-01

290

Effect of calcium hydroxide-based materials on periapical tissue healing and orthodontic root resorption of endodontically treated teeth in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated periapical tissue healing and orthodontic root resorption of endodontically treated teeth sealed with calcium hydroxide in dogs. The sample consisted of three contralateral pairs of maxillary incisors and two contralateral pairs of mandibular incisors in each of two dogs using a split mouth design. After biomechanical preparation of the teeth in the first group (n = 10), a Ca(OH)(2) dressing was placed for 14 days before root canal filling with Ca(OH)(2)-based sealer (Sealapex) and gutta-percha points. In the second group (n = 10), root canals were obturated immediately after the mechanical preparation with gutta-percha points and zinc oxide and eugenol (ZOE)-based sealer (Endofill). After completion of endodontic treatment, the teeth were moved with an orthodontic appliance with a calibrated force of 200 g, reactivated every 21 days. After 105 days, the animals were killed and the teeth were removed upon completion of active treatment, without a period of recovery, and prepared for histomorphological analysis. All sections of each tooth were graded subjectively on a scale from one to four to obtain the average of the 16 histomorphological parameters analysed. Evaluation of the differences between the two treatment protocols was made with Mann-Whitney U-test. It was observed that the teeth treated with Ca(OH)(2)-based materials provided better outcomes (P = 5%), with complete repair of all root resorption areas, high rate of biological closure of the main canal and apical accessory canals by newly formed cementum, less intense and extensive chronic inflammatory infiltrate, and better organization of the periodontal ligament. Under the tested conditions, Ca(OH)(2)-based materials had a favourable action on periapical tissue healing and repair of orthodontic root resorption in endodontically treated dogs' teeth. PMID:19290903

de Souza, Ricardo Sampaio; de Souza, Valdir; Holland, Roberto; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo; Murata, Sueli Satomi; Sonoda, Celso Koogi

2009-04-01

291

Effect of calcium hydroxide-based materials on periapical tissue healing and orthodontic root resorption of endodontically treated teeth in dogs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study evaluated periapical tissue healing and orthodontic root resorption of endodontically treated teeth sealed with calcium hydroxide in dogs. The sample consisted of three contralateral pairs of maxillary incisors and two contralateral pairs of mandibular incisors in each of two dogs using a split mouth design. After biomechanical preparation of the teeth in the first group (n = 10), a Ca(OH)(2) dressing was placed for 14 days before root canal filling with Ca(OH)(2)-based sealer (Sealapex) and gutta-percha points. In the second group (n = 10), root canals were obturated immediately after the mechanical preparation with gutta-percha points and zinc oxide and eugenol (ZOE)-based sealer (Endofill). After completion of endodontic treatment, the teeth were moved with an orthodontic appliance with a calibrated force of 200 g, reactivated every 21 days. After 105 days, the animals were killed and the teeth were removed upon completion of active treatment, without a period of recovery, and prepared for histomorphological analysis. All sections of each tooth were graded subjectively on a scale from one to four to obtain the average of the 16 histomorphological parameters analysed. Evaluation of the differences between the two treatment protocols was made with Mann-Whitney U-test. It was observed that the teeth treated with Ca(OH)(2)-based materials provided better outcomes (P = 5%), with complete repair of all root resorption areas, high rate of biological closure of the main canal and apical accessory canals by newly formed cementum, less intense and extensive chronic inflammatory infiltrate, and better organization of the periodontal ligament. Under the tested conditions, Ca(OH)(2)-based materials had a favourable action on periapical tissue healing and repair of orthodontic root resorption in endodontically treated dogs' teeth.

de Souza RS; de Souza V; Holland R; Gomes-Filho JE; Murata SS; Sonoda CK

2009-04-01

292

[Orthodontic treatment possibilities of allergic patients].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the past two decades the incidence of allergies against dental materials has been rising. The most common allergens are nickel, mercury, benzoxyl-peroxide, formaldehyde, MMA, HEMA, EGDMA and TEGDMA. Contact allergy develops in predisposed individuals as a consequence of environmental exposures to allergens. Although the relatively high frequency of contact allergies in children is well documented, its importance during orthodontic treatments is still often underestimated. The most common metal to cause dental allergic reactions is nickel. Nickel-containing metal alloys, such as nickel-titanium, are widely used in orthodontics because of their favorable physical properties. Coated wires (epoxi coating, teflon, etc.) are not only more aesthetic, but can play a role in the orthodontic treatment of patients with nickel allergy. In our case report we present two patients with nickel allergy, and their treatment with alternative orthodontic appliances. During the orthodontic treatment our patients did not have any objective or subjective allergy-related symptoms.

Vitályos G; Török J; Márton I; Szepesi M; Radics T; Hegedus C

2007-04-01

293

[Orthodontic treatment possibilities of allergic patients].  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past two decades the incidence of allergies against dental materials has been rising. The most common allergens are nickel, mercury, benzoxyl-peroxide, formaldehyde, MMA, HEMA, EGDMA and TEGDMA. Contact allergy develops in predisposed individuals as a consequence of environmental exposures to allergens. Although the relatively high frequency of contact allergies in children is well documented, its importance during orthodontic treatments is still often underestimated. The most common metal to cause dental allergic reactions is nickel. Nickel-containing metal alloys, such as nickel-titanium, are widely used in orthodontics because of their favorable physical properties. Coated wires (epoxi coating, teflon, etc.) are not only more aesthetic, but can play a role in the orthodontic treatment of patients with nickel allergy. In our case report we present two patients with nickel allergy, and their treatment with alternative orthodontic appliances. During the orthodontic treatment our patients did not have any objective or subjective allergy-related symptoms. PMID:17546898

Vitályos, Géza; Török, Judit; Márton, Ildikó; Szepesi, Marta; Radics, Tonde; Hegedus, Csaba

2007-04-01

294

In-office bacteria test for a microbial monitoring during the conventional and self-ligating orthodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the microbial level of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. during an orthodontic treatment, and compare the data with untreated control subjects.Sixty young adult subjects were selected (average 20.5, DS 1.62), among which 40 underwent an orthodontic treatment (20 were treated with self-ligating brackets and 20 with conventional brackets) and 20 were controls. Plaque Index, salivary flow and buffering capacity of saliva were assessed before the beginning of the orthodontic treatment. Then the microbial counts were obtained by using an in-office bacteria test.The plaque index (PI) increased over time in each group as well as salivary flow, mostly in subjects treated with self-ligating brackets, suggesting a difference between conventional and self-ligating brackets. S.mutans showed a different trend of colonization in the two treated groups, as for subjects treated with conventional brackets it showed the greater value at the early stage of treatment (T1), followed by a decrease at T2. Lactobacillus spp. showed significant increase over time in the two treated groups, respect to the control group. Linear regression analysis showed no significant predictor for the microbial count at T2.The assortment of the various species of bacteria change over time during the orthodontic treatment, and seems to show different trends, depending on the type of orthodontic device. Consequently a periodical microbial monitoring using in-office bacteria tests, seems indicated.

Mummolo S; Marchetti E; Giuca MR; Gallusi G; Tecco S; Gatto R; Marzo G

2013-01-01

295

Preclinical alterations of oral epithelial cells in contact with orthodontic appliances.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This study evaluated the behavior of oral epithelial cells in contact with orthodontic appliances. METHODS: Oral epithelial cells of clinically normal buccal mucosa were obtained by liquid-based exfoliative cytology from 22 orthodontic patients. The following regions were evaluated: a) oral mucosa exposed to friction from orthodontic brackets; b) oral mucosa exposed to friction from the tube on the orthodontic band, and c) oral mucosa not exposed to friction (control area). Nuclear (NA) and cytoplasmic (CA) areas and NA/CA ratio were assessed by an image analysis system. Cell morphology and cellularity were also analyzed by Papanicolaou technique. RESULTS: The NA of the cells in contact with orthodontic brackets and bands were smaller than the control area. Cells in contact with the brackets showed the greatest reduction in CA in comparison with the cells subjected to friction from the tube, and the control group. Smears classified as type I predominated in all regions analyzed, although type II were predominant, together with superficial epithelial cells, mainly in the oral mucosa in contact with the band tube. CONCLUSION: Preclinical alterations in the epithelial cells of oral mucosa, caused by orthodontic appliances, are reduction in NA, increase in cell keratinization and inflammatory features, especially in the band tube area.

Arruda EP; Trevilatto PC; Camargo ES; Woyceichoski IE; Machado MA; Vieira I; Lima AA

2011-09-01

296

Speech and discomfort during lingual orthodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The increased use of lingual appliances has meant a continued evolution in the design of lingual brackets. These changes in appliance and bracket design have tended to focus on reducing bracket thickness, with the aim of making appliances more comfortable. A thinner bracket design appears to have had some positive effects on the quality of speech, as well as comfort whilst appliances are in place. However, despite these improvements, some patients do struggle with their speech during treatment, far more than others. It is important therefore, when consenting patients for lingual orthodontic treatment, to ensure that they are made aware of the potential for speech to be disturbed, particularly in the early stages of treatment. The purpose of this article is to outline some of the issues associated with speech problems and discomfort during lingual appliance treatment, so that practitioners are able to advise patients who may be considering this kind of treatment. Advice given during the consent process, including appliance selection, procedures for maintaining oral comfort and management of individual speech issues, will all help lingual patients cope with any speech problems they may experience during their treatment.

Slater RD

2013-09-01

297

Motivations and future plans of Canadian orthodontic residents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Our purposes were to investigate factors influencing career choice and to identify future plans of Canadian orthodontic residents. METHODS: All orthodontic residents in the 5 Canadian residency training programs were invited to complete an anonymous online survey in November 2006. Data were categorized by demographic variables, and basic statistics including chi-square comparative analyses were performed. RESULTS: Forty-four of the 54 residents in Canada (81.48%) completed the survey. "Intellectual stimulation/challenge" emerged as the most important factor (40%) influencing the decision to pursue specialty training in orthodontics, followed by a "passion for orthodontics" (29%). The decision to become an orthodontist was made by 42% of respondents while they were in dental school; 33% had decided after completing dental school, and 24% had already decided before starting their dental school studies. Most residents (82%) planned to work in a private practice environment. Only 2 (4.5%) indicated that they will most likely practice primarily in an academic setting. Eighty percent said that they will use self-ligating brackets in private practice, and almost 80% said they will use Invisalign (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif). A total of 55% indicated that orthodontic residents should be required to undertake research leading to a masters of science degree as part of their orthodontic program. A total of 77% thought that a 24- to 30-month program was too short to adequately prepare them for private practice. CONCLUSIONS: Intellectual stimulation was the major attraction of most applicants to orthodontic programs, and the decision to become an orthodontist was normally made during dental school or even earlier. Most residents intended to enter an urban or suburban private practice after graduation, with few considering academic career choices. Modern techniques such as self-ligating brackets and Invisalign are expected to be popular among future orthodontists in Canada.

Noble J; Karaiskos N; Wiltshire WA

2009-11-01

298

Ceramic bracket bonding: a comparison of shear, tensile, and torsional bond strengths of ceramic brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether shear, tensile, or torsional forces were best suited for debonding ceramic brackets. Four commercially available ceramic brackets were evaluated. The brackets included both polycrystalline and monocrystalline types with either chemical or mechanical retention in the bracket bases. The ceramic brackets were bonded to one hundred and twenty bovine teeth, using Concise. The brackets were stressed until bond or bracket failure occurred with either shear, tensile, or torsional forces on the Instron machine. The maximum bond strength and the site of bond failure was recorded. Starfire TMB brackets fractured 30% of the time during shear debonding, whereas, Quasar 1000, Lumina, and Transcend 2000 brackets exhibited no bracket fractures. The shear bond strengths of Quasar 1000 brackets were significantly higher than Starfire TMB brackets. Starfire TMB was the only bracket type that exhibited no bracket fractures with tensile force. Tensile bond strengths were not significantly different between the four bracket types. In torsion, Lumina was the only bracket type that did not exhibit any bracket failures. Shear and tensile bond strengths of chemically retained brackets were not significantly different than mechanically retained brackets. Torsional bond strength of chemically retained brackets was significantly higher than mechanically retained brackets. The results suggest Quasar 1000, Lumina, and Transcend 2000 are best removed with shear or tensile forces. Starfire TMB is best removed with tensile forces.

Merrill SW; Oesterle LJ; Hermesch CB

1994-09-01

299

Advances in fixed appliance orthodontics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 1992, Postlethwaite wrote an article for Dental Update entitled 'Advances in fixed appliance design and use'. In the subsequent years there have been, as in most dental specialties, huge advances in materials. These have resulted in improved efficiency, convenience and simplicity in using fixed appliance orthodontics. This article is intended to be an update in these advances over the last 10 years.

Currie L; Gillgrass TJ

2004-10-01

300

Clinical and microbiological studies of children and adolescents receiving orthodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This case-controlled study examined clinical and microbiological parameters in Brazilian children and adolescents receiving orthodontic treatment using fixed orthodontic appliances or removable orthodontic appliances. METHODS: The plaque index, gingival index, number of decayed, missing and filled teeth, and probing pocket depth was measured on each fully erupted tooth in 30 patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances and an equal number of age and sex-matched control subjects. The same parameters were also measured in 18 patients treated with removable orthodontic appliances and an equal number of age and sex-matched control subjects. In the patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, subgingival plaque samples were collected from four teeth with orthodontic brackets and from four teeth with orthodontic bands. In the patients with removable appliances, subgingival plaque samples were collected from clasped maxillary permanent first molar teeth and from four unclasped permanent teeth. Samples of unstimulated whole saliva and samples from the dorsal surface of the tongue were also obtained from each subject. Each sample was analyzed for the presence of 19 target bacteria by dot blot. A subset of samples was examined by direct amplification of bacterial nucleic acids. RESULTS: Compared to their respective age and sex-matched controls, whole mouth means for plaque index and gingival index were significantly elevated in both the fixed and removable orthodontic groups. There was no difference in the DMFT. Subjects with fixed orthodontic appliances had a higher prevalence of each of the target species except for L. fermentum, Neisseriaceae and S. mutans. The prevalence of A. naeslundii and Streptococcus sp. was significantly higher on teeth with orthodontic brackets alone compared to teeth with both orthodontic bands and brackets. Subjects with removable orthodontic appliances had a higher prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans, C. rectus, E. corrodens, L. fermentum, Neisseriaceae, and spirochetes. The prevalence of Neisseriaceae was significantly higher on unclasped teeth compared to clasped teeth. There was no difference between sample sites for the target bacteria except for A. actinomycetemcomitans that was detected less frequently in saliva. Orthodontic patients demonstrated higher proportions of gram negative species by direct amplification of nucleic acids including species frequently associated with periodontal disease as well as rarely cultivable or non-cultivable species such as Abiotrophia defectiva, Gemella haemolysans, Granulicatella adiacens, Lautropia sp., Terrahaemophilus aromaticivorans, and TM7 bacterium.

Rego RO; Oliveira CA; dos Santos-Pinto A; Jordan SF; Zambon JJ; Cirelli JA; Haraszthy VI

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Desmistificando os braquetes autoligáveis/ Demystifying self-ligating brackets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Atualmente, os braquetes autoligáveis têm sido associados a tratamentos mais rápidos e eficazes, o que desperta a curiosidade em compará-los ao sistema convencional. Ao contrário dos braquetes tradicionais, os autoligáveis não necessitam de ligaduras, sejam elásticas ou metálicas. A literatura é farta em concluir que essa característica diminui, ostensivamente, a resistência do atrito durante as mecânicas de deslize. Além disso, existem alegações sobre a d (more) imimuição da necessidade de extrações e de expansão maxilar com o uso desses acessórios. Portanto, o objetivo dessa revisão de literatura foi buscar os mais novos estudos a respeito dos aparelhos autoligáveis atualmente utilizados nos tratamentos ortodônticos, confirmando ou retificando as especulações vigentes. Abstract in english Currently self-ligating brackets have been associated to faster and more efficient treatments, which arouse the curiosity to compare them to the conventional system. Unlike traditional appliances, self-ligating brackets do not require elastomeric or metal ligatures. The literature is abundant in concluding that this feature decreases, ostensibly, the friction resistance during the sliding mechanics. Moreover, there are reports on minimizing the need of extractions and max (more) illary expansion using these accessories. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review was to seek the newest studies about the self-ligating brackets currently used in orthodontic treatments, confirming or correcting current speculations.

Sathler, Renata; Silva, Renata Gonçalves; Janson, Guilherme; Branco, Nuria Cabral Castello; Zanda, Marcelo

2011-04-01

302

The spectrum of Apert syndrome: phenotype, particularities in orthodontic treatment, and characteristics of orthognathic surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In the PubMed accessible literature, information on the characteristics of interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical treatment of patients with Apert syndrome is rare. The aim of the present article is threefold: (1) to show the spectrum of the phenotype, in order (2) to elucidate the scope of hindrances to orthodontic treatment, and (3) to demonstrate the problems of surgery and interdisciplinary approach. Children and adolescents who were born in 1985 or later, who were diagnosed with Apert syndrome, and who sought consultation or treatment at the Departments of Orthodontics or Craniomaxillofacial Surgery at the Dental School of the University Hospital of Münster (n = 22; 9 male, 13 female) were screened. Exemplarily, three of these patients (2 male, 1 female), seeking interdisciplinary (both orthodontic and surgical treatment) are presented. Orthodontic treatment before surgery was performed by one experienced orthodontist (AH), and orthognathic surgery was performed by one experienced surgeon (UJ), who diagnosed the syndrome according to the criteria listed in OMIM™. In the sagittal plane, the patients suffered from a mild to a very severe Angle Class III malocclusion, which was sometimes compensated by the inclination of the lower incisors; in the vertical dimension from an open bite; and transversally from a single tooth in crossbite to a circular crossbite. All patients showed dentitio tarda, some impaction, partial eruption, idopathic root resorption, transposition or other aberrations in the position of the tooth germs, and severe crowding, with sometimes parallel molar tooth buds in each quarter of the upper jaw. Because of the severity of malocclusion, orthodontic treatment needed to be performed with fixed appliances, and mainly with superelastic wires. The therapy was hampered with respect to positioning of bands and brackets because of incomplete tooth eruption, dense gingiva, and mucopolysaccharide ridges. Some teeth did not move, or moved insufficiently (especially with respect to rotations and torque) irrespective of surgical procedures or orthodontic mechanics and materials applied, and without prognostic factors indicating these problems. Establishing occlusal contact of all teeth was difficult. Tooth movement was generally retarded, increasing the duration of orthodontic treatment. Planning of extractions was different from that of patients without this syndrome. In one patient, the sole surgical procedure after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in the maxilla and mandible was a genioplasty. Most patients needed two- jaw surgery (bilateral sagittal split osteotomy [BSSO] with mandibular setback and distraction in the maxilla). During the period of distraction, the orthodontist guided the maxilla into final position by means of bite planes and intermaxillary elastics. To our knowledge, this is the first article in the PubMed accessible literature describing the problems with respect to interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical procedures. Although the treatment results are not perfect, patients undergoing these procedures benefit esthetically to a high degree. Patients need to be informed with respect to the different kinds of extractions that need to be performed, the increased treatment time, and the results, which may be reached using realistic expectations.

Hohoff Ariane; Joos Ulrich; Meyer Ulrich; Ehmer Ulrike; Stamm Thomas

2007-01-01

303

[Comparison of periodontal indices and Porphyromonas gingivalis between conventional and self-ligating brackets].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the periodontal indices and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) between the use of self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets. METHODS: Thirty patients were divided into 2 groups(n=15). Self-ligating brackets were used in the experimental group. Conventional brackets were used in the control group. Clinical periodontal indices, including plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI) and probing depth (PD) of observed teeth were examined at three different time points: Before orthodontic treatment, the first month after treatment and the third month after treatment. Subgingival plaques were collected simultaneously at each time point. The number of total bacteria and P. gingivalis in each sample were detectd and quantitated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the percentage of P. gingivalis in total bacteria was obtained. RESULTS: Before treatment, the periodontal indices and the percentage of P. gingivalis in total bacteria had no difference between the two groups (P>0.05). After 1 and 3 months respectively, the periodontal indices and the percentage of P. gingivalis in total bacteria increased with time (P<0.05) and were obviously lower than those of the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with conventional brackets, the self-ligating brackets are better for periodontal health. But it is adverse effect on oral health.

Shi J; Liu Y; Hou J; Yan Z; Peng H; Chang X

2013-06-01

304

Colour stability of aesthetic brackets: ceramic and plastic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The colour stability of aesthetic brackets may differ according to their composition, morphology and surface property, which may consequently influence their aesthetic performance. AIMS: To assess the colour stability of aesthetic brackets (ceramic and plastic) after simulating aging and staining. METHODS: Twelve commercially manufactured ceramic brackets and four different plastic brackets were assessed. To determine possible colour change (change of E*(ab)) and the value of the NBS (National Bureau of Standards) unit system, spectrophotometric colour measurements for CIE L*, a* and b* were taken before and after the brackets were aged and stained. Statistical analysis was undertaken using a one-way ANOVA analysis of variance and a Tukey multiple comparison test (alpha = 0.05). RESULTS: The colour change between the various (ceramic and plastic) materials was not significant (p > 0.05), but still varied significantly (p < 0.001) between the brackets of the same composition or crystalline structure and among commercial brands. CONCLUSION: Colour stability cannot be confirmed simply by knowing the type of material and crystalline composition or structure.

Filho HL; Maia LH; Araújo MV; Eliast CN; Ruellas AC

2013-05-01

305

Evaluation of shear bond strength of different treatments of ceramic bracket surfaces Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de diferentes tratamentos na superfície de braquetes cerâmicos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bonding strength of the ceramic bracket and composite resin restoration interface, using four types of treatment on the base of the bracket. METHODOLOGY: 48 photoactivated composite resin discs were used (FiltekTM Z250) contained in specimens and divided into 4 groups of 12 specimens for each group according to the type of treatment performed on the base of the brackets. Once the brackets were bonded, the specimens were subjected to shear stress carried out in a universal testing machine (MTS: 810 Material Test System) calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5 mm / minute. The values obtained were recorded and compared by means of appropriate statistical tests - analysis of variance and then Tukey's test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The surfaces of ceramic brackets conditioned with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 1 minute, followed by aluminum oxide blasting, 50µ, after silane application and primer application, was considered the best method to prepare surfaces of ceramic brackets prior to orthodontic esthetic bonding.OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência à união da interface entre braquete cerâmico e restauração de resina composta, empregando quatro tipos de tratamento na base do braquete. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 48 discos de resina fotoativada (Filtek® Z250) incluídos em corpos de prova, divididos em quatro grupos, com 12 espécimes em cada grupo, de acordo com o tipo de tratamento realizado na base do braquete. Uma vez colados os braquetes, os corpos de prova foram submetidos à tensão de cisalhamento, realizado numa máquina universal de ensaios (MTS: 810 Material Test System) calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/min. Os valores obtidos foram registrados e comparados por meio de médias, utilizando-se testes estatísticos adequados (análise de Variância e, posteriormente, teste de Tukey). RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o condicionamento das superfícies dos braquetes cerâmicos com ácido hidrofluorídrico a 10% por 1 minuto, seguido do jateamento com óxido de alumínio com 50um de tamanho, e posterior aplicação do silano e, depois, aplicação de adesivo, foi considerado o melhor método para o preparo de superfícies de braquetes cerâmicos previamente à colagem estética ortodôntica.

Patrícia Helou Ramos Andrade; Rogério Vieira Reges; Marcos Augusto Lenza

2012-01-01

306

Evaluation of shear bond strength of different treatments of ceramic bracket surfaces/ Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de diferentes tratamentos na superfície de braquetes cerâmicos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência à união da interface entre braquete cerâmico e restauração de resina composta, empregando quatro tipos de tratamento na base do braquete. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 48 discos de resina fotoativada (Filtek® Z250) incluídos em corpos de prova, divididos em quatro grupos, com 12 espécimes em cada grupo, de acordo com o tipo de tratamento realizado na base do braquete. Uma vez colados os braquetes, os corpos de prova foram submetidos ? (more) ? tensão de cisalhamento, realizado numa máquina universal de ensaios (MTS: 810 Material Test System) calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/min. Os valores obtidos foram registrados e comparados por meio de médias, utilizando-se testes estatísticos adequados (análise de Variância e, posteriormente, teste de Tukey). RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o condicionamento das superfícies dos braquetes cerâmicos com ácido hidrofluorídrico a 10% por 1 minuto, seguido do jateamento com óxido de alumínio com 50um de tamanho, e posterior aplicação do silano e, depois, aplicação de adesivo, foi considerado o melhor método para o preparo de superfícies de braquetes cerâmicos previamente à colagem estética ortodôntica. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bonding strength of the ceramic bracket and composite resin restoration interface, using four types of treatment on the base of the bracket. METHODOLOGY: 48 photoactivated composite resin discs were used (FiltekTM Z250) contained in specimens and divided into 4 groups of 12 specimens for each group according to the type of treatment performed on the base of the brackets. Once the brackets were bonded, the specimens were subjected to shear stress (more) carried out in a universal testing machine (MTS: 810 Material Test System) calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5 mm / minute. The values obtained were recorded and compared by means of appropriate statistical tests - analysis of variance and then Tukey's test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The surfaces of ceramic brackets conditioned with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 1 minute, followed by aluminum oxide blasting, 50µ, after silane application and primer application, was considered the best method to prepare surfaces of ceramic brackets prior to orthodontic esthetic bonding.

Andrade, Patrícia Helou Ramos; Reges, Rogério Vieira; Lenza, Marcos Augusto

2012-08-01

307

Elastomeric-ligated vs self-ligating appliances: a pilot study examining microbial colonization and white spot lesion formation after 1 year of orthodontic treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To (1) evaluate the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-driven bioluminescence for quantification of total plaque bacteria in orthodontic patients, (2) compare plaque bacteria amounts at the bracket-tooth interface with use of elastomeric-ligated and self-ligating brackets after 1 year of orthodontic treatment, and (3) analyze formation of white spot lesions by photographic evaluation and laser-light fluorescence (DIAGNOdent). METHODS: Thirteen subjects had fixed orthodontic appliances placed where lateral incisors were bonded with either elastomeric-ligated or self-ligating brackets. Plaque bacteria were collected from incisor surfaces after 1 year and quantified using plating methods and ATP-driven bioluminescence. White spot lesions were evaluated by photographic and DIAGNOdent determinations. A 2 x 2 x 2 mixed-design ANOVA was conducted to determine differences in plaque retention between elastomeric-ligated and self-ligating brackets. RESULTS: ATP-driven bioluminescence values correlated to numbers of total plaque bacteria (r = 0.80). However, unlike findings published in the original pilot study, which described increased plaque retention with elastomeric-ligated brackets at 5 weeks postbonding, there were no significant differences in bacterial numbers or ATP-driven bioluminescence values surrounding the elastomeric-ligated vs self-ligating brackets after 1 year of orthodontic treatment. Based on photographic and DIAGNOdent determinations, white spot lesions were found relatively equally on teeth bonded with either bracket type. DIAGNOdent measurements were found to have moderate sensitivity (0.71) and good specificity (0.88) when compared to white spot lesions determined using photographic evaluation. CONCLUSION: ATP-driven bioluminescence can be used as an accurate assessment of total plaque bacteria in orthodontic patients. After 1 year of orthodontic treatment for patients in this pilot study, there appeared to be no differences in retention of plaque bacteria or white spot lesions comparing the bracket types. The use of DIAGNOdent has some limitations, but may prove to be useful to monitor white spot lesions longitudinally.

Buck T; Pellegrini P; Sauerwein R; Leo MC; Covell DA Jr; Maier T; Machida CA

2011-01-01

308

Design Modification for Failed Grill Bracket using Finite Element Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Grill is a part placed on vehicle located in front of the Engine cooling module by means of bracket. The purpose of the Grill is to protect the cooling module from front impact and at the same time provide appropriate aesthetic value to the vehicle. This report presents the failure analysis of grill bracket of Engine cooling module of a Truck using Finite Element Analysis. The Grill bracket has failed in the field before warranty period so it has to be replaced with new one. Replacing old bracket means economic loss to the company. The Failure of this Grill bracket is analysed using Finite Element Analysis. 3 D models were created using Pro –E CAD softwares and Finite element analysis was done using Medina and Permas softwares. After doing Finite Element Analysis it was observed that high stresses were coming at failure location on the Grill bracket. The high stresses were mainly observed due to accelerations loads. Several proposals for alternate designs were created considering the packaging data, availability of the standard materials and manufacturing feasibility. These alternate designs were again checked by finite element analysis. The most optimized design was finalized through this process. The finalized design showed 60% lower stress values at failure location compared to current design. New proposed design was found to pass the given warranty period (100000 miles). Thus Finite element analysis proved to be very suitable tool for the situation where quick solution is expected.

K. S. Kulkarni; Dr.(Mrs.)R. S. Bindu

2013-01-01

309

A computational fluid dynamic analysis of peri-bracket salivary flow influencing the microbial and periodontal parameters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fixed vestibular appliances decrease the "self-cleansing" action of saliva and promote aggregation of dental plaque by disturbing the salivary flow field on tooth surfaces, leading to a higher prevalence of enamel demineralization and periodontal diseases. In the current study, we investigated the salivary dynamic characteristics of plaque retention and periodontal status around appliances during orthodontic treatment. By reconstructing lower central incisors and orthodontic appliances, we simulated saliva flow on the tooth surface and then characterized and quantified the salivary flow pattern surrounding the bracket and archwire. In parallel, we tested the total peri-bracket bacterial counts and periodontal status to assess interrelations. Our results demonstrate that orthodontic appliances disturb the salivary flow field on tooth surfaces and can lead to a decrease in salivary velocity and an increase in bacterial numbers. Local vortexes forming in the areas gingival to the bracket, together with the narrow space limitation, contributed to the periodontal inflammatory response. This study confirms that changes in salivary flow are an obvious predisposing factor for bacterial accumulation, and advances the ability to replicate, in vitro, the salivary characteristics of plaque retention and periodontal status around appliances during orthodontic treatment.

Zhu P; Lin H; Han Y; Lin Y; Xu Y; Zhang Z

2013-01-01

310

A computational fluid dynamic analysis of peri-bracket salivary flow influencing the microbial and periodontal parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fixed vestibular appliances decrease the "self-cleansing" action of saliva and promote aggregation of dental plaque by disturbing the salivary flow field on tooth surfaces, leading to a higher prevalence of enamel demineralization and periodontal diseases. In the current study, we investigated the salivary dynamic characteristics of plaque retention and periodontal status around appliances during orthodontic treatment. By reconstructing lower central incisors and orthodontic appliances, we simulated saliva flow on the tooth surface and then characterized and quantified the salivary flow pattern surrounding the bracket and archwire. In parallel, we tested the total peri-bracket bacterial counts and periodontal status to assess interrelations. Our results demonstrate that orthodontic appliances disturb the salivary flow field on tooth surfaces and can lead to a decrease in salivary velocity and an increase in bacterial numbers. Local vortexes forming in the areas gingival to the bracket, together with the narrow space limitation, contributed to the periodontal inflammatory response. This study confirms that changes in salivary flow are an obvious predisposing factor for bacterial accumulation, and advances the ability to replicate, in vitro, the salivary characteristics of plaque retention and periodontal status around appliances during orthodontic treatment. PMID:23620815

Zhu, Ping; Lin, Han; Han, Yi; Lin, Yi; Xu, Yue; Zhang, Zhaoqiang

2013-04-19

311

In vitro tooth cleaning efficacy of electric toothbrushes around brackets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This in vitro study assessed the cleaning efficacy of different electric toothbrushes around upper incisor brackets. Standard and Mini Diamond brackets were fixed on black-stained teeth. The teeth were coated with white titanium oxide and brushed in a machine twice for 1 minute each. Twelve different brush heads with either a wiping or an oscillating-rotating action were tested. After brushing, the teeth were scanned, the black surfaces were assessed planimetrically and a modified plaque index for orthodontic patients (PIOP) was introduced. Tooth areas, which were black again after brushing indicated tooth surface contact of the filaments and were expressed as a percentage of total area. The remaining white areas around the brackets indicated 'plaque-retentive' niches. Analysis of variance was used for individual comparison of the brush types. Bonferroni/Dunn adjustment was applied for multiple testing. The Sonicare toothbrush handle with the brush head 'Compact ProResults' (81.7 per cent) and the brush head 'Standard ProResults' (80.8 per cent), as well as the sonic Waterpik toothbrush SR 800E with the standard brush head (78.2 per cent), showed statistically significantly better cleaning efficacy than all others. The poorest cleaning efficacy was observed for the oscillating-rotating Braun Oral-B Professional Care with the brush head 'Ortho' (less than 50 per cent). The planimetric findings were in correspondence with the results of the PIOP assessment. Cleaning efficacy of electric toothbrushes around brackets on upper incisors was different between the tested brushes. The PIOP was practicable, effective, and easy to use, although it has to be verified in a clinical study.

Schätzle M; Sener B; Schmidlin PR; Imfeld T; Attin T

2010-10-01

312

In vitro tooth cleaning efficacy of electric toothbrushes around brackets.  

Science.gov (United States)

This in vitro study assessed the cleaning efficacy of different electric toothbrushes around upper incisor brackets. Standard and Mini Diamond brackets were fixed on black-stained teeth. The teeth were coated with white titanium oxide and brushed in a machine twice for 1 minute each. Twelve different brush heads with either a wiping or an oscillating-rotating action were tested. After brushing, the teeth were scanned, the black surfaces were assessed planimetrically and a modified plaque index for orthodontic patients (PIOP) was introduced. Tooth areas, which were black again after brushing indicated tooth surface contact of the filaments and were expressed as a percentage of total area. The remaining white areas around the brackets indicated 'plaque-retentive' niches. Analysis of variance was used for individual comparison of the brush types. Bonferroni/Dunn adjustment was applied for multiple testing. The Sonicare toothbrush handle with the brush head 'Compact ProResults' (81.7 per cent) and the brush head 'Standard ProResults' (80.8 per cent), as well as the sonic Waterpik toothbrush SR 800E with the standard brush head (78.2 per cent), showed statistically significantly better cleaning efficacy than all others. The poorest cleaning efficacy was observed for the oscillating-rotating Braun Oral-B Professional Care with the brush head 'Ortho' (less than 50 per cent). The planimetric findings were in correspondence with the results of the PIOP assessment. Cleaning efficacy of electric toothbrushes around brackets on upper incisors was different between the tested brushes. The PIOP was practicable, effective, and easy to use, although it has to be verified in a clinical study. PMID:20551084

Schätzle, Marc; Sener, Beatrice; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Imfeld, Thomas; Attin, Thomas

2010-06-15

313

Comparison between two methods for resin removing after bracket debonding  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess - using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) - the effectiveness of two abrasive discs, one made from silicon and one from aluminum oxide, in removing adhesive remnants (AR) after debonding orthodontic brackets. METHODS: Ten randomly selected bovine teeth were used, i.e., 2 in the control group, and the other 8 divided into two groups, which had orthodontic brackets bonded to their surface with Concise Orthodontic Adhesive (3M). The following methods were employed - in one single step - to remove AR after debracketing: Group A, Optimize discs (TDV) and Group B, Onegloss discs (Shofu), used at low speed. After removing the AR with the aforementioned methods, the teeth were prepared to undergo SEM analysis, and photographs were taken of the enamel surface with 50x magnification. Six examiners evaluated the photographs applying the Zachrisson and Årtun enamel surface index (ESI) system (1979). RESULTS: Group A exhibited minor scratches on the enamel surface as well as some AR in some of the photographs, while Group B showed a smoother surface, little or no AR and some abrasion marks in the photographs. No statistically significant differences were found between the two methods and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The two abrasive discs were effective in removing the AR after bracket debonding in one single step.OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a eficácia de dois discos abrasivos de silicone e óxido de alumínio para a remoção da resina remanescente após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 10 dentes bovinos selecionados aleatoriamente, sendo 2 para o grupo controle e os demais divididos em dois grupos, os quais receberam colagem de braquetes ortodônticos com resina ortodôntica Concise (3M). Os métodos de remoção da resina após a descolagem dos acessórios ortodônticos em apenas uma etapa foram: Grupo A - disco Optimize (TDV); e Grupo B - disco Onegloss (Shofu), empregados em baixa rotação. Após a remoção da resina remanescente pelos métodos mencionados, os dentes foram preparados para serem submetidos à análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura, obtendo-se fotografias da superfície do esmalte com aumento de 50X. Seis examinadores avaliaram as fotografias seguindo a escala de avaliação de Zachrisson e Arthun (1979). RESULTADOS: no Grupo A, observou-se pequenos arranhões na superfície do esmalte, bem como pouco remanescente de resina em algumas das fotografias; enquanto, no Grupo B, observou-se maior lisura, pouco ou nenhum remanescente de resina e alguns riscos nas fotografias. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os dois métodos avaliados e o grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: os dois discos abrasivos mostraram-se eficientes para remoção da resina remanescente após a descolagem de braquete em única etapa.

Rodrigo De Marchi; Luciana Manzotti De Marchi; Raquel Sano Suga Terada; Hélio Hissashi Terada

2012-01-01

314

Deformation and recrystallization of a channel die compressed aluminium bicrystal with (112) (left bracket) 111(bar) (right bracket)/(123) (left bracket) 412(bar) (right bracket) orientation  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of microstructure and texture during deformation and recrystallization has been studied in a high-purity aluminum bicrystal with (112) (left bracket) 111(bar) (right bracket)/(123) (left bracket) 412(bar) (right bracket) orientation deformed 90% by compression in a channel die. The boundary plane of the bicrystal is located at the middle of the width, along the length of the crystals and inclined at 20 deg to the plane of compression. The microstructure is characterized over a wide scale by optical microscopy, SEM and TEM. The local orientation and misorientation are examined by EBSP in SEM and by microdiffraction and Kikuchi pattern analysis in TEM. The macrotexture is determined by X-ray diffraction. The deformation microstructure in both crystals is heterogeneous, particularly, shear bands with relatively large local misorientations form in the (112) (left bracket) 111(bar) (right bracket) crystal. The orientation of the (112) (left bracket) 111(bar) (right bracket) crystal is stable during deformation whereas the (123) (left bracket) 412(bar) (right bracket) crystal changes to (011) (left bracket) 311(bar) (right bracket). The presence of the bicrystal boundary does not significantly affect the deformation microstructure and the boundary is not a strong nucleation site. Intragranular nucleation occurs in shear bands in the (112) (left bracket) 111(bar) (right bracket) crystal and an approximate (left angle bracket) 111 (right angle bracket) rotation relationship exists between the orientation of the nuclei and the deformed matrix. The growth of these nuclei is fast and their crystallographic orientation dominates the recrystallization texture in the (112) (left bracket) 111(bar) (right bracket) crystal.

Liu, Y. L.; Hu, Hsun; Hansen, N.

1995-06-01

315

Scanning electron microscope appearances of fretting in the fixed orthodontic appliances.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fretting is one of the types of a tribologic wear. It is a process that occurs at a nominally immovable junction of elements. In dentistry, such elements can be brackets and archwires of fixed orthodontic appliances. They meet all the criteria for fretting to occur, i.e., they are nominally immovable, are subjected to initial loadings and they work in aggressive environment. Chrome-nickel stainless steel Elite Opti-Mim brackets (Trachem) working in vivo in oral cavity environment in combination with NiTi and stainless steel archwires were investigated. Scanning electron micrographs of bracket's working surfaces showed the presence of fretting damaged areas. This research also confirmed that there were almost all the types of fretting wear on the elements of the orthodontic appliances under examination.

Klimek L; Palaty?ska-Ulatowska A

2012-01-01

316

Aesthetic colour performance of plastic and ceramic brackets -- an in vitro study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the aesthetic colour performance (colour blending) of plastic and ceramic brackets by determining the colour changes of shade guide tabs before and after bracket placement. DESIGN: In vitro, laboratory study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four plastic and four ceramic brackets were investigated (n=5). Brackets were placed on the labial surface of the A1 and A4 tabs of a Vitapan classic shade guide. The colours of the areas corresponding to the central and inferior areas of the brackets were measured before and after bracket placement according to the CIELAB colour scale with a spectroradiometer. Changes in colour (?E*(ab)) and colour coordinates (?L*, ?a*, ?b* and ?C*(ab)) of the tabs after bracket placement were calculated. RESULTS: Colour changes in the central and inferior areas were in the ranges of 5·6-11·1 and 4·3-12·3 ?E*(ab) units, respectively. Changes in colour and colour coordinates were influenced by shade tab colour and bracket brand (P<0·05). Compared to A1 tab, ?E*(ab), ?a*, ?b* and ?C*(ab) values on A4 tab were significantly higher (P<0·01). The hybrid polymer bracket and glass reinforced plastic bracket induced the smallest colour changes in the central and inferior areas. CONCLUSIONS: All the investigated aesthetic brackets induced clinically unacceptable (?E*(ab)>5·5) or perceptible (?E*(ab)>2·6) colour changes when placed on the shade tabs. Aesthetic colour performance of brackets on the less chromatic and lighter tab was better than that on the more chromatic and dark tab. High translucency of bracket alone did not lead to better aesthetic colour performance.

Yu B; Lee YK

2011-09-01

317

Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes da técnica lingual colados sobre superfície cerâmica/ Evaluation of shear strength of lingual brackets bonded to ceramic surfaces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos (American Orthodontics) utilizados na técnica lingual, colados em facetas de cerâmica. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 40 corpos de prova divididos em quatro grupos de 10, de acordo com o material de colagem e do preparo da porcelana: Grupo I -resina Sondhi Rapid-Set e ácido fluorídrico; Grupo II -resina Sondhi Rapid-Set e óxido de alumínio; Grupo III -resina Transbond XT e ácido fluorídrico; e Gr (more) upo IV -resina Transbond XT e óxido de alumínio. Previamente à colagem, os braquetes foram preparados com base de resina de carga pesada (Z-250) e as facetas de cerâmica receberam aplicação de silano. O teste de cisalhamento foi realizado por uma máquina de ensaios Kratos à uma velocidade de 0,5mm/min. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através do teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear strength of lingual metal brackets (American Orthodontics) bonded to ceramic veneers. METHODS: A total of 40 specimens were divided into four groups of 10, according to bonding material and ceramics preparation: Group I -Sondhi Rapid-Set resin and Hydrofluoric acid, Group II -Sondhi Rapid-Set resin and aluminum oxide, Group III -Transbond XT resin and Hydrofluoric acid, and Group IV -Transbond XT resin and aluminu (more) m oxide. Prior to bonding, the brackets were prepared with heavy-duty resin base (Z-250) and the ceramic veneers were treated with silane. The shear test was conducted with a Kratos testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The results were statistically analyzed by the Tukey test (p

Imakami, Michele Balestrin; Valle-Corotti, Karyna Martins; Carvalho, Paulo Eduardo Guedes; Scocate, Ana Carla Raphaelli Nahás

2011-06-01

318

Direct versus indirect loading of orthodontic miniscrew implants-an FEM analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The mesialization of molars in the lower jaw represents a particularly demanding scenario for the quality of orthodontic anchorage. The use of miniscrew implants has proven particularly effective; whereby, these orthodontic implants are either directly loaded (direct anchorage) or employed indirectly to stabilize a dental anchorage block (indirect anchorage). The objective of this study was to analyze the biomechanical differences between direct and indirect anchorage and their effects on the primary stability of the miniscrew implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose, several computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM)-models were prepared from the CT data of a 21-year-old patient, and these were combined with virtually constructed models of brackets, arches, and miniscrew implants. Based on this, four finite element method (FEM) models were generated by three-dimensional meshing. Material properties, boundary conditions, and the quality of applied forces (direction and magnitude) were defined. After solving the FEM equations, strain values were recorded at predefined measuring points. The calculations made using the FEM models with direct and indirect anchorage were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: The loading of the compact bone in the proximity of the miniscrew was clearly greater with direct than it was with indirect anchorage. The more anchor teeth were integrated into the anchoring block with indirect anchorage, the smaller was the peri-implant loading of the bone. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect miniscrew anchorage is a reliable possibility to reduce the peri-implant loading of the bone and to reduce the risk of losing the miniscrew. The more teeth are integrated into the anchoring block, the higher is this protective effect. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In clinical situations requiring major orthodontic forces, it is better to choose an indirect anchorage in order to minimize the risk of losing the miniscrew.

Holberg C; Winterhalder P; Holberg N; Rudzki-Janson I; Wichelhaus A

2012-10-01

319

Fricção em braquetes gerada por fios de aço inoxidável, superelásticos com IonGuard e sem IonGuard Friction force on brackets generated by stainless steel wire and superelastic wires with and without IonGuard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a fricção no braquete (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3,2mm, largura 0,022" x 0,030", Torque -2° e angulação +13°, Morelli®, Brasil), utilizando fios ortodônticos retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" de aço inoxidável (Morelli®, Brasil) e de níquel-titânio superelásticos Bioforce com IonGuard e sem IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, EUA). MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 24 conjuntos braquetes/segmento de fio, divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o fio. Cada conjunto braquete/segmento de fio foi testado 3 vezes e obtida uma média. Os ensaios foram realizados em máquina universal de ensaios EMIC DL2000®. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância com significância de 95%. RESULTADOS: o fio retangular Bioforce com IonGuard apresentou fricção significativamente menor que o Bioforce sem IonGuard, porém sem diferença do fio de aço inoxidável. Entretanto, o coeficiente de variação dos fios Bioforce com e sem IonGuard foi menor que o do fio de aço inoxidável. CONCLUSÃO: os fios retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" Bioforce com IonGuard apresentam menor fricção que o fio Bioforce sem IonGuard, sem diferença para o fio de aço inoxidável.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the friction forces on brackets (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3.2 mm, width 0.022" x 0.030 ", Torque -2° and angulation +13°, Morelli®, Brazil), with stainless steel orthodontic rectangular wire (Morelli®, Brazil) and nickel titanium superelastic Bioforce wires with and wit