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Sample records for orthodontic bracket materials

  1. 21 CFR 872.5470 - Orthodontic plastic bracket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic plastic bracket. 872.5470 Section 872...Therapeutic Devices § 872.5470 Orthodontic plastic bracket. (a) Identification. An orthodontic plastic bracket is a plastic device...

  2. A stainless steel bracket for orthodontic application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Keun-Taek; Choo, Sung-Uk; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2005-06-01

    Aesthetics has become an essential element when choosing orthodontic fixed appliances. Most metallic brackets used in orthodontic therapy are made from stainless steel (SS) with the appropriate physical properties and good corrosion resistance, and are available as types 304, 316 and 17-4 PH SS. However, localized corrosion of these materials can frequently occur in the oral environment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of sizing, microstructure, hardness, corrosion resistance, frictional resistance and cytotoxicity of commercially available Mini-diamond (S17400), Archist (S30403) and experimentally manufactured SR-50A (S32050) brackets. The size accuracy of Mini-diamond was the highest at all locations except for the external horizontal width of the tie wing (P properties to orthodontic wire than Mini-diamond and Archist. Cytotoxic results showed that the response index of SR-50A was 0/1 (mild), Mini-diamond 1/1 (mild+), and Archist 1/2 (mild+). SR-50A showed greater biocompatibility than either Mini-diamond or Archist. It is concluded that the SR-50A bracket has good frictional property, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility with a lower probability of allergic reaction, compared with conventionally used SS brackets. PMID:15947222

  3. Soportes de autoligado en ortodoncia / Orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lizandro Michel, Pérez García; Eduardo, Reytor Saavedra.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el sistema de ligado del arco al soporte debe ser seguro, fuerte, rápido, confortable para el paciente, fácil de usar y producir poca fricción. Objetivo: argumentar el manejo de las técnicas fijas con el uso de los soportes de autoligado. Conclusiones: los soportes de autoligado constitu [...] yen una opción novedosa en ortodoncia, pero en Cuba se han utilizado poco. Se clasifican en pasivos y activos. El sistema Damon, Vision LP y Time son los más utilizados entre los pasivos y el Speed e In Ovation entre los activos. Se describen cuatro fases de tratamiento para usar la técnica con este tipo de soportes y a pesar de su alto costo, es más ventajosa que las técnicas precedentes. Abstract in english Background: the system bound to the orthodontic bracket arch must be safe, strong, rapid and comfortable for the patient, easy to use and must provoke little friction. Objective: to argue about the management of fixed techniques with the use of brackets. Conclusions: brackets constitute a newfangled [...] option in orthodontics, but in Cuba it has been rarely used. They are classified into passive and active. Damon system, Vision LP and Time are the mostly used among the passive ones and the Speed and In Ovation among the active ones. Four phases of treatment are described to use the technique of these orthodontic brackets and in spite of its high cost; it is more advantageous than the previous techniques.

  4. Retrieval analysis of different orthodontic brackets: the applicability of electron microprobe techniques for determining material heterogeneities and corrosive potential

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Ioana Holst; Stefan Holst; Ursula Hirschfelder; Volker Von Seckendorff

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of micro-analytical methods with high spatial resolution to the characterization of the composition and corrosion behavior of two bracket systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The surfaces of six nickel-free brackets and six nickel-containing brackets were examined for signs of corrosion and qualitative surface analysis using an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), prior to bonding to patient's tooth surfaces and four months...

  5. Effect of bonding material, etching time and silane on the bond strength of metallic orthodontic brackets to ceramic

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Rosa, Costa; Américo Bortolazzo, Correr; Regina Maria, Puppin-Rontani; Silvia Amélia, Vedovello; Heloísa Cristina, Valdrighi; Lourenço, Correr-Sobrinho; Mário, Vedovello Filho.

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste estudo foi avaliar a resistência de união de bráquetes a cerâmica feldspática com diferentes tempos de condicionamento ácido, materiais de união, com ou sem aplicação do silano. Cilindros de cerâmica feldspática foram condicionados com ácido fluorídrico 10% por 20 ou 60 s. Para cada [...] tempo de condicionamento, metade dos cilindros recebeu duas camadas de silano. Bráquetes metálicos foram fixados aos cilindros utilizando Transbond XT (3M Unitek) ou Fuji Ortho LC (GC). A fotoativação foi realizada com tempo de exposição total de 40 s utilizando LED UltraLume 5. O ensaio de resistência ao cisalhamento foi realizado após 24 h de armazenagem. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância a três fatores e teste de Tukey (?=0,05). O Índice de Remanescente Adesivo (IRA) foi utilizado para avaliar a quantidade de adesivo remanescente na superfície cerâmica com magnificação de 8×. Os espécimes condicionados por 60 s apresentaram maior resistência de união comparado com 20 s. A aplicação do silano foi efetiva no aumento da resistência de união ao cisalhamento de bráquetes com a cerâmica para ambos os materiais. O Transbond XT mostrou resistência de união significativamente maior que Fuji Orth LC. O IRA mostrou predominância de escore 0 (ausência de resina na superfície cerâmica) para todos os grupos, com aumento de escores 1, 2 e 3 (aumento da presença de resina na superfície cerâmica) para o tempo de condicionamento de 60 s. Em conclusão, o tempo de condicionamento de 60 s, aplicação de silano e resina Transbond XT melhoraram significativamente a resistência de união ao cisalhamento de bráquetes a cerâmica feldspática. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of metallic orthodontic brackets to feldspathic ceramic with different etching times, bonding materials and with or without silane application. Cylinders of feldspathic ceramic were etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 20 or 60 s. For each [...] etching time, half of the cylinders received two layers of silane. Metallic brackets were bonded to the cylinders using Transbond XT (3M Unitek) or Fuji Ortho LC (GC). Light-activation was carried out with total exposure time of 40 s using UltraLume 5. Shear bond strength testing was performed after 24 h storage. Data were submitted to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to evaluate the amount of adhesive remaining on the ceramic surface at ×8 magnification. Specimens etched for 60 s had significantly higher bond strength compared with 20 s. The application of silane was efficient in increasing the shear bond strength between ceramic and both fixed materials. Transbond XT showed significantly higher (p

  6. A quantitative AFM analysis of nano-scale surface roughness in various orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Ki-Ho; Park, Young-Guk; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2010-10-01

    In orthodontics, the surface roughnesses of orthodontic archwire and brackets affect the effectiveness of arch-guided tooth movement, corrosion behavior, and the aesthetics of orthodontic components. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements were used to provide quantitative information on the surface roughness of the orthodontic material. In this study, the changes in surface roughness of various orthodontic bracket slots before and after sliding movement of archwire in vitro and in vivo were observed through the utilization of AFM. Firstly, we characterized the surface of four types of brackets slots as follows: conventional stainless steel (Succes), conventional ceramic (Perfect), self-ligating stainless steel (Damon) and self-ligating ceramic (Clippy-C) brackets. Succes) and Damon brackets showed relatively smooth surfaces, while Perfect had the roughest surface among the four types of brackets used. Secondly, after in vitro sliding test with beta titanium wire in two conventional brackets (Succes and Perfect), there were significant increases in only stainless steel bracket, Succes. Thirdly, after clinical orthodontic treatment for a maximum of 2 years, the self-ligating stainless steel bracket, Damon, showed a significant increase in surface roughness. But self-ligating ceramic brackets, Clippy-C, represented less significant changes in roughness parameters than self-ligating stainless steel ones. Based on the results of the AFM measurements, it is suggested that the self-ligating ceramic bracket has great possibility to exhibit less friction and better biocompatibility than the other tested brackets. This implies that these bracket slots will aid in the effectiveness of arch-guided tooth movement. PMID:20646928

  7. Retrieval analysis of different orthodontic brackets: the applicability of electron microprobe techniques for determining material heterogeneities and corrosive potential

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandra Ioana, Holst; Stefan, Holst; Ursula, Hirschfelder; Volker Von, Seckendorff.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of micro-analytical methods with high spatial resolution to the characterization of the composition and corrosion behavior of two bracket systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The surfaces of six nickel-free brackets and six nickel [...] -containing brackets were examined for signs of corrosion and qualitative surface analysis using an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), prior to bonding to patient's tooth surfaces and four months after clinical use. The surfaces were characterized qualitatively by secondary electron (SE) images and back scattered electron (BSE) images in both compositional and topographical mode. Qualitative and quantitative wavelength-dispersive analyses were performed for different elements, and by utilizing qualitative analysis the relative concentration of selected elements was mapped two-dimensionally. The absolute concentration of the elements was determined in specially prepared brackets by quantitative analysis using pure element standards for calibration and calculating correction-factors (ZAF). RESULTS: Clear differences were observed between the different bracket types. The nickel-containing stainless steel brackets consist of two separate pieces joined by a brazing alloy. Compositional analysis revealed two different alloy compositions, and reaction zones on both sides of the brazing alloy. The nickel-free bracket was a single piece with only slight variation in element concentration, but had a significantly rougher surface. After clinical use, no corrosive phenomena were detectable with the methods applied. Traces of intraoral wear at the contact areas between the bracket slot and the arch wire were verified. CONCLUSION: Electron probe microanalysis is a valuable tool for the characterization of element distribution and quantitative analysis for corrosion studies.

  8. Retrieval analysis of different orthodontic brackets: the applicability of electron microprobe techniques for determining material heterogeneities and corrosive potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ioana Holst

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of micro-analytical methods with high spatial resolution to the characterization of the composition and corrosion behavior of two bracket systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The surfaces of six nickel-free brackets and six nickel-containing brackets were examined for signs of corrosion and qualitative surface analysis using an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA, prior to bonding to patient's tooth surfaces and four months after clinical use. The surfaces were characterized qualitatively by secondary electron (SE images and back scattered electron (BSE images in both compositional and topographical mode. Qualitative and quantitative wavelength-dispersive analyses were performed for different elements, and by utilizing qualitative analysis the relative concentration of selected elements was mapped two-dimensionally. The absolute concentration of the elements was determined in specially prepared brackets by quantitative analysis using pure element standards for calibration and calculating correction-factors (ZAF. RESULTS: Clear differences were observed between the different bracket types. The nickel-containing stainless steel brackets consist of two separate pieces joined by a brazing alloy. Compositional analysis revealed two different alloy compositions, and reaction zones on both sides of the brazing alloy. The nickel-free bracket was a single piece with only slight variation in element concentration, but had a significantly rougher surface. After clinical use, no corrosive phenomena were detectable with the methods applied. Traces of intraoral wear at the contact areas between the bracket slot and the arch wire were verified. CONCLUSION: Electron probe microanalysis is a valuable tool for the characterization of element distribution and quantitative analysis for corrosion studies.

  9. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miti? Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A great number of techniques have been used for bonding orthodontic brackets to the tooth surfaces. Glass ionomer cements are frequently used material for this purpose. The aim of this study was to measure the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement Ortho Fuji LC and remained adhesive on the enamel surface after brackets debonding. Material and methods. A total of 40 extracted premolars for orthodontic reasons in different gender patients, 10-16 years old, were randomly divided into four groups. Using glass ionomer cement Ortho Fuji LC (Tokyo, Japan stainless steel brackets were bonded to the teeth with the average surface area of the bracket base of 14.7 mm2. The shear bond strengths were measured at a crosshead speed of 1 mm per minute, and the load applied at the time of fracture was recorded using electronic dynamometer. Remained adhesive on the enamel after bracket debonding was evaluated using the adhesive remnant index (ARI. Results. Shear bond strength had the highest value for the group where enamel was etched right before bonding bracket (9.14 MPa, than in the group 2 (7.43 MPa, while in the groups 1 (6.72 MPa and 3 (6.22 MPa, where etching was not performed, bond strength was lower. Conclusion. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with glass ionomer cement Ortho Fuji LC had higher values when the enamel was etched than without etching.

  10. Physical and chemical properties of orthodontic brackets after 12 and 24 months: in situ study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernardo de Azevedo Bahia, MENDES; Ricardo Alberto Neto, FERREIRA; Matheus Melo, PITHON; Martinho Campolina Rebello, HORTA; Dauro Douglas, OLIVEIRA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this article was to assess how intraoral biodegradation influenced the surface characteristics and friction levels of metallic brackets used during 12 and 24 months of orthodontic treatment and also to compare the static friction generated in these brackets with four different [...] methods of the ligation of orthodontic wires. Material and Methods: Seventy premolar brackets as received from the manufacturer and 224 brackets that were used in previous orthodontic treatments were evaluated in this experiment. The surface morphology and the composition of the deposits found in the brackets were evaluated with rugosimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Friction was analyzed by applying tensile tests simulating sliding mechanics with a 0.019x0.025" steel wire. The static friction levels produced by the following ligation methods were evaluated: loosely attached steel ligature around all four bracket wings, steel ligature attached to only two wings, conventional elastomeric ligation around all 4 bracket wings, and non-conventional Slide® elastomeric ligature. Results: The results demonstrated the presence of biodegradation effects such as corrosion pits, plastic deformation, cracks, and material deposits. The main chemical elements found on these deposits were Carbon and Oxygen. The maximum friction produced by each ligation method changed according to the time of intraoral use. The steel ligature loosely attached to all four bracket wings produced the lowest friction levels in the new brackets. The conventional elastic ligatures generated the highest friction levels. The metallic brackets underwent significant degradation during orthodontic treatment, showing an increase in surface roughness and the deposit of chemical elements on the surface. Conclusion: The levels of static friction decreased with use. The non-conventional elastic ligatures were the best alternative to reduce friction.

  11. Effect of recycling process on metal ion release from orthodontic brackets at different periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariati M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Considering the application of recycled metallic brackets in orthodontic treatments and probably more resultant metal ion release, which can cause cytotoxic side effects, this study was set up to assess the effect of recycling process of orthodontic brackets on metal ion release."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, 80 Discovery direct bond brackets (Dentarum, Germany were divided into 2 groups, new and recycled brackets (n = 40, then each group was divided into two subgroups (one-week and 6-months subgroups (n=20. The specimens were maintained in buffered solution of NaNHNo3"n(pH=7 at 37°C in an incubator. After periods of one week and 6 months immersion, 0.5 mL of each solution was analyzed by spectrophotometry for the quantity of released Nickel (Ni, Chromium (Cr, and Cobalt (Co ions. The data were analyzed using two way ANOVA analysis."nResults: After one week, the quantity of Ni, Cr, and Co ions released from new brackets were 0.65, 1.4, and 0.75 (ppb, respectively. The values for recycled brackets were 142, 2.61, and, 1.43 (ppb. These findings indicated significant difference between two groups (P<0.001. After six months, the quantity of Ni, Cr, and Co ions released from new brackets were 1200, 3.4, and 2.4 (ppb and from recycled brackets were 2330, 6.9, and 10.8 (ppb, which showed significant difference between two groups (P<0.001."nConclusion: Application of recycled brackets in long fixed orthodontic treatments can lead to metal ion release, specifically Nickel. Thus, the use of recycled brackets in long orthodontic treatments is not recommended.

  12. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets and Disinclusion Buttons: Effect of Water and Saliva Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Fraticelli, Danilo; Gandini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of water and saliva contamination on the shear bond strength and failure site of orthodontic brackets and lingual buttons. Materials and Methods. 120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens each. Both orthodontic brackets and disinclusion buttons were tested under three different enamel surface conditions: (a) dry, (b) water contamination, and (c) saliva contamination. Brackets and buttons were bonded to the teeth and subsequently tested using a Instron universal testing machine. Shear bond strength values and adhesive failure rate were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (strength values) and Chi squared test (ARI Scores). Results. Noncontaminated enamel surfaces showed the highest bond strengths for both brackets and buttons. Under water and saliva contamination orthodontic brackets groups showed significantly lower shear strengths than disinclusion buttons groups. Significant differences in debond locations were found among the groups under the various enamel surface conditions. Conclusions. Water and saliva contamination of enamel during the bonding procedure lowers bond strength values, more with orthodontic brackets than with disinclusion buttons. PMID:23762825

  13. Shear bond strength of ceramic orthodontic brackets to enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, J C; McInnes, P; Weinberg, R; Ledoux, W R; Retief, D H

    1990-10-01

    The recent introduction of ceramic orthodontic brackets has generated interest among orthodontists. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the in vitro shear bond strengths to enamel of four ceramic orthodontic brackets and one stainless steel bracket in trials with two separate acid-etching times for enamel. Eighty extracted human central incisors were prepared for bonding to Starfire, Allure, Transcend, Quasar, and stainless steel (in the control group) orthodontic bracket systems. Enamel etching times of 15 seconds and 60 seconds were used. There was a total of 10 groups. After acid etching, one coat of low-viscosity bonding agent was applied and the brackets were bonded to etched enamel with Concise orthodontic bonding resin. The bonded test specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 degrees C for 14 days, after which they were thermocycled for 500 cycles (5 degrees C to 60 degrees C). The bonds were stressed to failure in an Instron machine at a crosshead speed of 0.02 inch per minute. The shear bond strengths were calculated and Weibull analysis was used to obtain a shape factor (the slope of the straight line and a measure of predictability) and the characteristic level (the 63.2% bond strength value of median rank on the strength line) for each group. Predictability and high bond strength, along with other factors, are important in the clinical selection of a bracket system. When either predictability or bond strength was considered independently, several bracket systems, coupled with a particular etch time, had either high predictability or high bond strength. The highest predictability and the highest bond strength were both found with the Allure bracket system. PMID:2145756

  14. Effect of Lactic Acid Etching on Bonding Effectiveness of Orthodontic Bracket after Water Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effect of lactic acid at various concentrations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with the resin adhesive system before and after water storage. Materials and Methods. Hundred extracted human premolars were divided into 5 treatment groups and etched for 30 seconds with one of the following agents: lactic acid solution with (A) 10%, (B) 20%, (C) 30%, and (D) 50%; group E, 37% phosphoric acid (control). Metal brackets were bonded using a Trans...

  15. The effect of chemical recycling on shear bond strength of orthodontic metal brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heravi F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recycling of brackets can significantly reduce the price of fixed orthodontic appliances but if the bond is more prone to failure during treatment, this potential benefit will disappear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chemical recycling on bond strength of metal orthodontic brackets and failure pattern of recycled brackets. Material and Methods: In this experimental study Instron machine was used to measure shear bond strength (SBS of brackets in two stages on 60 human maxillary first premolars using No-Mix composite. Shear bond strength and pattern of failure were compared between recycled and new brackets in two stages. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan tests. Adhesive Remnant Index was evaluated in different groups by Pearson Chi-square test. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the mean values of SBS for new bracket group was 12.00 MPa and for recycled group and double recycled group, 9.94Mpa and 10.00 MPa respectively. A significant reduction (about 18% in bond strengths of brackets was observed at the first time of recycling. Recycling at the second time had no significant influence on the bond strength. Pattern of bond failure of these brackets showed that a great amount of residual adhesive material was remained on the teeth surfaces after debonding of recycled brackets which indicates that cleaning the teeth surfaces after debonding of recycled brackets is more time consuming. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, before using recycled brackets, several advantages and disadvantages must be considered.

  16. A method for producing controlled fluoride release from an orthodontic bracket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Hobson, Ross S; Bai, Yuxing; Yan, Zhuoqun; Carrick, Thomas E; McCabe, John F

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to manufacture and test, in vitro, a novel modification to provide fluoride-releasing orthodontic brackets. Thirty-two orthodontic brackets were drilled to produce a recess (approximately 1.3 mm in diameter and 0.7 mm in depth) at the centre of the bracket base. Four materials, with and without the addition of sodium fluoride, a glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem micro), a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC; GC Fuji Ortho LC), a zinc phosphate (Zinc Cement Improved), and a resin (Transbond XT) were used to fill the recess in the bracket base. Fluoride release was measured daily during the first week and then weekly for 10 weeks. An ion chromatograph with suppressed conductivity was used for free fluoride ion determination. Statistical analysis to determine the amount of flouride release was undertaken using analysis of variance and Tukey's test. During the first 2 weeks, the resin group, with the addition of 38 per cent sodium fluoride added, released significantly more free fluoride (P < 0.05), but after 2 weeks the fluoride release markedly decreased. After 5 weeks, the RMGIC group, with 15 per cent added sodium fluoride, had significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily fluoride release than the other groups. The findings demonstrated that an appropriate fluoridated material can be used as a fluoride-releasing reservoir in a modified orthodontic bracket to enable it to release fluoride over the period of fixed appliance treatment. PMID:17804428

  17. The effect of phosphoric acid application time on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Miti? Vladimir; Janoševi? Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatment intervals (15, 30 and 45 s) of 37% phosphoric acid on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Materials and Methods: Seventy extracted premolars, glass ionomer cement Ortho Fuji LC (GC Inc., Tokyo, Japan) and a conventional self-curing adhesive, System 1+ (Dentaurum, Inspringen, Germany) were used. Results: The obtained results suggested that the strongest bond was accomplished after enamel conditioning fo...

  18. Coating and Surface Treatments on Orthodontic Metallic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia García; Santiago Arango; Alejandro Peláez-Vargas

    2012-01-01

    Metallic biomaterials have been extensively used in orthodontics throughout history. Gold, stainless steel, cobalt-chromium alloys, titanium and its alloys, among other metallic biomaterials, have been part of the orthodontic armamentarium since the twentieth century. Metals and alloys possess outstanding properties and offer numerous possibilities for the fabrication of orthodontic devices such as brackets, wires, bands, ligatures, among others. However, these materials have drawbacks that c...

  19. The use of single step adhesives in bonding orthodontic brackets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Von Wald

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that the new single-step adhesive systems used in operative dentistry and can bond to both enamel and dentin, require a shorter application time while maintaining adequate bond strength. In orthodontics, several repetitions of the bonding procedure are necessary, therefore, adhesive systems requiring less time for application are of particular interest. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of incorporating single step adhesives to a traditional bonding system, on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Sixty recently extracted human teeth were divided into three equal groups. Group I (control: brackets were bonded with the Transbond XT adhesive system (3M/Unitek following the manufacturer's instructions; Group II: Single Bond (3M adhesive was applied to the tooth surface and Transbond XT adhesive paste was used to bond the brackets; Group III: Optibond Solo (Kerr Co. adhesive was applied to the enamel surface and Transbond XT adhesive was used to bond the brackets. Teeth were stored in deionized water at 37oC for 24 hours. A Zwick Universal Testing Machine was used to measure shear bond strength. The shear bond strengths for the three groups tested were; Group ?: 11.8+4.6 Mpa; Group ??: 12.5+3.9 Mpa; and Group ???: 9.7+4.3 Mpa. Analysis of Variance (F=2.37 indicated that there were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the bond strengths among the three groups. In conclusion, the use of single step adhesives to replace the sealant did not significantly affect the shear bond strength of the adhesive system.

  20. Hypersensitivity reactions to orthodontic materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Synodinos, Philippos N.; Eleni Voulgari; Papagrigorakis, Manolis I.

    2005-01-01

    Most allergic reactions that may be observed during orthodontic treatment are manifestations of hypersensitivity to potentially allergenic factors of orthodontic materials. These factors basically include the latex material of disposable elastic surgical gloves and of most elastic orthodontic materials and the nickel contained in the alloys of metal orthodontic appliances. Allergic hypersensitivity reactions may involve extra- and intra-oral clinical signs usually including localized manifest...

  1. Nuclear techniques to identify allergenic metals in orthodontic brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study determines the elementary alloy composition of ten commercial brands of brackets, especially related to Ni, Cr, and Co metals, confirmed allergenic elements. The nuclear techniques applied in the analyses were X-ray fluorescence (XRF) - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France (National Center of Scientific Research), and X-ray energy spectrometry (XRES), and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) - CDTN/CNEN, Brazil. The XRES and XRF techniques identified Cr in the 10 samples analyzed and Ni in eight samples. The INAA technique identified the presence of Cr (14% to 19%) and Co (42% to 2400 ppm) in all samples. The semi-quantitative analysis performed by XRF also identified Co in two samples. The techniques were effective in the identification of metals in orthodontic brackets. The elements identified in this study can be considered one of the main reason for the allergic processes among the patients studied. This finding suggests that the patients should be tested for allergy and allergenic sensibility to metals prior to the prescription of orthodontic device. (author)

  2. Rebonding of unused brackets with different orthodontic adhesives

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emigdio Enrique Orellana, Jimenez; Sérgio Paulo, Hilgenberg; Márcia Cristina, Rastelli; Gibson Luiz, Pilatti; Bruno, Orellana; Ulisses, Coelho.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare in vitro shear bond strength (SBS) of different orthodontic adhesives in bonding and repeatedly rebonding metal brackets, and to evaluate the bond failure site with the adhesive remnant index (ARI). METHODS: Specimens consisted of 90 extracted human first premolars, randomly di [...] vided into three groups (n=30). The adhesives Alpha Plast (AP), ConciseTM (CO) and TransbondTM XT (TB) were used in each group. Three SBS tests were performed, i.e., one at T0 (initial) and the other two at T1 and T2 (first and second rebondings, respectively), observing a 24-hour interval. The tests were performed in a Shimadzu AG-I (10kN) SBS testing machine, at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: SBS data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test and Bonferroni test (p

  3. Coating and Surface Treatments on Orthodontic Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials have been extensively used in orthodontics throughout history. Gold, stainless steel, cobalt-chromium alloys, titanium and its alloys, among other metallic biomaterials, have been part of the orthodontic armamentarium since the twentieth century. Metals and alloys possess outstanding properties and offer numerous possibilities for the fabrication of orthodontic devices such as brackets, wires, bands, ligatures, among others. However, these materials have drawbacks that can present problems for the orthodontist. Poor friction control, allergic reactions, and metal ionic release are some of the most common disadvantages found when using metallic alloys for manufacturing orthodontic appliances. In order to overcome such weaknesses, research has been conducted aiming at different approaches, such as coatings and surface treatments, which have been developed to render these materials more suitable for orthodontic applications. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the coating and surface treatment methods performed on metallic biomaterials used in orthodontics.

  4. Rebonding of unused brackets with different orthodontic adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emigdio Enrique Orellana Jimenez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare in vitro shear bond strength (SBS of different orthodontic adhesives in bonding and repeatedly rebonding metal brackets, and to evaluate the bond failure site with the adhesive remnant index (ARI. METHODS: Specimens consisted of 90 extracted human first premolars, randomly divided into three groups (n=30. The adhesives Alpha Plast (AP, ConciseTM (CO and TransbondTM XT (TB were used in each group. Three SBS tests were performed, i.e., one at T0 (initial and the other two at T1 and T2 (first and second rebondings, respectively, observing a 24-hour interval. The tests were performed in a Shimadzu AG-I (10kN SBS testing machine, at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: SBS data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test and Bonferroni test (p<0.05. For the ARI, the Kruskal Wallis test was performed, followed by the Dunn test. The results revealed that at T0 groups AP and CO showed SBS values that were near, but above TB values; and at T1 and T2, the highest SBS values were observed for the AP group, followed by the CO and TB groups. CONCLUSION: Statistically significant differences were found in SBS between groups AP, CO and TB during bonding and repeated rebondings of unused metal brackets, with group AP achieving the highest SBS value. Regarding ARI, adhesive AP exhibited bond failure at the enamel-adhesive interface, with a higher enamel fracture frequency.

  5. Effect of bonding protocol on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets: An in vitro study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tais, Munhoz.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of bracket composites as a function of the application of flow adhesive prior to the composite and light curing time. Material and methods: Freshly extracted bovine permanent central incisors (50) were acid etched and divided into four g [...] roups varying the attachment protocol: (1) no adhesive, composite light-cured for 20s; (2) no adhesive, composite light-cured for 40s; (3) application of adhesive, composite light-cured for 20s; and (4) application of adhesive, composite light-cured for 40s. For comparison, a chemically cured system was used accordingly to the manufacturer instructions. The samples were stored in distilled water (37ºC) for 24 hours prior to the shear test (0,75mm/min) and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was registered for each tooth. Results: The present in vitro findings showed that both variables, application of adhesive and light curing time, influenced the bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Brackets bonded without adhesive present lower resistance to shear forces (p=0.05) than the samples bonded with adhesive. Higher bond strength values were found for longer light curing times, though statistical difference (p=0.05) was only observed between groups (3) and (4). ARI results show lower scores for extended light curing times. Although the variables in this study significantly affect the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets, all the experimental groups show bond strength values greater than the normally accepted in the current literature.

  6. A scanning electron microscopic investigation of ceramic orthodontic brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic brackets were introduced to overcome the esthetic disadvantages of stainless steel brackets. The clinical impression of these brackets is very favorable. However, the sliding mechanics used in the Straightwire (A Company, San Diego, CA, USA) system appear to produce slower tooth movements with ceramic compared to stainless steel brackets. To determine whether this was due to any obvious mechanical problem in the bracket slot, Transcend (Unitek Corporation/3M, Monrovia, CA, USA) ceramic brackets were examined by a scanning electron microscope and compared to stainless steel brackets.Consistently, large surface defects were found in the ceramic bracket slots that were not present in the metal bracket slots. These irregularities could obviously hinder the sliding mechanics of the bracket slot-archwire system and create a greater demand on anchorage. Conversely, the fitting surface of the Transcend ceramic bracket showed extremely smooth surface characteristics, and it would seem advisable for the manufacturers to incorporate this surface within the bracket slot. (author)

  7. A study of frictional forces between orthodontic brackets and archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, A; McCabe, J; Gordon, P

    1994-11-01

    The differences in magnitude of static and kinetic frictional forces generated by 0.022 x 0.030-inch stainless steel (Dentaurum) and polycrystalline ceramic (Transcend) brackets in combination with archwires of different sizes (0.018 inch and 0.019 x 0.025 inch) and materials (stainless steel, nickel-titanium, and beta-titanium) at a constant ligature force were investigated. A friction-testing assembly using the Instron machine was used. In all cases, the static frictional force was greater than the kinetic frictional force. There were no significant differences in the frictional forces generated by stainless steel and polycrystalline ceramic brackets. Beta-titanium archwires produced greater frictional forces than the other two materials. Increasing the archwire diameter increased the frictional force. PMID:7857894

  8. Comparison of Microleakage under Rebonded Stainless Steel Orthodontic Brackets Using Two Methods of Adhesive Removal: Sandblast and Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudehzaeim, Mohamad Hossein; Yassaei, Soghra; Taherimoghadam, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Debonding is a common occurrence in orthodontic treatment and a considerable number of orthodontists prefer to rebond the detached brackets because of economic issues. The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage beneath rebonded stainless steel brackets using two methods of adhesive removal namely sandblast and laser. Materials and Methods: Sixty human premolar teeth were randomly divided into three groups. Following bonding the brackets, group 1 served as the control group. Brackets in groups 2 and 3 were debonded, and adhesive removal from the bracket bases was done by means of sandblasting and Er-YAG laser, respectively. After rebonding, teeth in each group were stained with 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope. Marginal microleakage at the adhesive-enamel and bracket-adhesive interfaces in the occlusal and gingival margins was determined. Statistical analysis was done using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Comparison of the microleakage scores among the three groups revealed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). At the enamel-adhesive interface, the gingival margins in all groups showed higher microleakage while in the adhesive-bracket interface, the occlusal margin exhibited greater microleakage. Conclusion: Er-YAG laser irradiation and sandblasting for adhesive removal from the debonded brackets yielded clinically acceptable microleakage scores.

  9. Gingival response in orthodontic patients: Comparative study between self-ligating and conventional brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folco, Alejandra A; Benítez-Rogé, Sandra C; Iglesias, Marina; Calabrese, Diana; Pelizardi, Cristina; Rosa, Alcira; Brusca, Marisa I; Hecht, Pedro; Mateu, María E

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic brackets contribute to the accumulation of bacterial plaque on tooth surfaces because they hinder oral hygiene. In contrast to conventional brackets, self-ligating brackets do not require additional parts to support the arches, thus improving dental hygiene. The aim of this study was to compare the gingival response in orthodontic patients wearing self-ligating or conventional brackets. A sample of 22 patients aged 16 to 30 years was divided into two groups: Group A, treated with selfligating brackets (Damon system) and Group B, treated with conventional brackets (Roth technique). The following were assessed during the treatment: Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and Probing Depth (PD), and sub-gingival samples were taken from teeth 14/24 for microbiological observation. No statistically significant difference was found between Groups A and B; p>0.05 (sign-ranked) or between PI, GI and PD at the different times (Friedman's Analysis of Variance), even though the indices were found to increase at 14 days, particularly for self-ligating brackets. The quantity and quality of microorganisms present were compatible with health on days 0, 28 and 56. As from day 14 there is a predominance of microbiota compatible with gingivitis in both groups. In the samples studied, orthodontic treatment increases bacterial plaque and inflammatory gingival response, but gingival-periodontal health can be maintained with adequate basic therapy. Self-ligating and conventional brackets produced similar gingival response. PMID:25560690

  10. Trial production of titanium orthodontic brackets fabricated by metal injection molding (MIM) with sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, T; Ito, M; Obata, A; Koh, Y; Yamagishi, T; Oshida, Y

    1996-07-01

    Safety and esthetics are two indispensable factors to consider when fabricating orthodontic brackets. However, these factors are not easily achieved when conventional techniques (including forging and casting) are used in the mass production of titanium brackets, albeit the brackets exhibit excellent biocompatibility. In the present study, orthodontic brackets were manufactured by metal powder injection molding with sintering. Brackets with three different base designs were made and subjected to compression shear tests for evaluation of their bonding strength to enamel substrate. The shapes given to the dimple of the base were spherical, oval, and grooved. The maximum shear forces for each type were 11.1 kgf, 7.6 kgf, and 18.5 kgf, respectively. The bonding strengths of the titanium bracket were equivalent to those obtained with conventional stainless steel brackets. Moreover, uniform distribution of Vickers hardness values (average, 240 +/- 40 Hv) measured at three locations indicated that the titanium bracket was uniformly sintered. Accordingly, titanium brackets thus fabricated exhibit a potential for clinical application. PMID:8876601

  11. Hypersensitivity reactions to orthodontic materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippos N. Synodinos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most allergic reactions that may be observed during orthodontic treatment are manifestations of hypersensitivity to potentially allergenic factors of orthodontic materials. These factors basically include the latex material of disposable elastic surgical gloves and of most elastic orthodontic materials and the nickel contained in the alloys of metal orthodontic appliances. Allergic hypersensitivity reactions may involve extra- and intra-oral clinical signs usually including localized manifestations, at the site of contact with the allergen, such as erythema, edema, itching of the skin or oral mucosa and more rarely systemic manifestations, such as generalized rash and dyspnea, whereas in extreme situations aphylactic reaction may be observed. In any case, when taking the patient’s medical history, it is necessary to record in detail all previous allergic episodes of any type. Where considered necessary, the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to specific materials is documented by the allergiologist following specialized dermatological or hematological tests. Although the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to orthodontic materials is not common in routine clinical practice, in cases where an allergic reaction is observed, the prompt diagnosis is of utmost importance, and it should be followed by the immediate interruption of exposure to the allergen along with the substitution of any suspected /potent allergens or/and modification of treatment planning. The aim of this review is to describe, on the basis of modern literature, the latest evidence-based scientific data concerning etiology, diagnosis and treatment of allergic reactions to materials most frequently used during orthodontic treatment.

  12. Evaluation of shear bond strength of orthodontic resin and resin modified glass ionomer cement on bonding of metal and ceramic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Costa Casanovas de Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of orthodontic resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement on bonding of metal and ceramic brackets. Material and methods: Forty bovine teeth were sectioned and embedded into PVC with chemically-cured acrylic resin. The labial surfaces were flattened and received prophylaxis with pumice and water. Then they were divided into four groups, according to the bonding material and the type of bracket. Group 1: metallic bracket + Transbond XT; Group 2: metallic bracket + Vitremer; Group 3: ceramic bracket + Transbond XT; Group 4: ceramic bracket + Vitremer. The bonding was performed according to the manufacturers’ recommendations. The shear bond strength test was conducted in a universal testing machine (TIRAtest 2420 at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Then, the fractured surfaces were evaluated using a stereomicroscope (x15 magnification to check the adhesive remnant index. Data was subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test for pairwise comparisons (? = 0.05. Results: The results suggested a non-significant effect of the interaction (p > 0.97, and only main factors were significant (p = 0.0001. The bond strength of Transbond XT was statistically higher than Vitremer. Ceramic brackets obtained the highest values of resistance when compared with metal brackets. Conclusion: The ceramic brackets bonded with Transbond XT orthodontic resin have excellent bond strength results.

  13. Orthodontic brackets in high field MR imaging: experimental evaluation of magnetic field interactions at 3.0 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate static magnetic field interactions for 32 commonly used orthodontic brackets in a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system. Materials and methods: 32 orthodontic brackets consisting of a steel alloy (n=27), a cobalt-chromium alloy (n=2), ceramic (n=1), ceramic with a steel slot (n=1), and titanium (n=1) from 13 different manufacturers were tested for magnetic field interactions in a static magnetic field at 3.0 T (Gyroscan Intera 3.0 T, Philips Medical Systems, Best, Netherlands). The magnetic deflection force FZ [mN] was evaluated by determining the deflection angle ?[ ] using the established deflection angle test according to the ASTM guidelines. The magnetic-field-induced rotational force Frot or torque was qualitatively determined using a 5-point grading scale (0: no torque; +4: very strong torque). Results: In 18 of the 32 brackets, the deflection angle ? was found to be > 45 and the translational force exceeded the gravitational force FG on the particular bracket (FZ: 1.2-45.7 mN). The translational force FZ was found to be up to 68.5 times greater than the gravitational force FG (FZ/FG: 1.4-68.5). The rotational force Frot was correspondingly high (+3/+4) for those brackets. For the remaining 14 objects, the deflection angles were < 45 and the torque measurements ranged from 0 to +2. The static magnetic field did not affect the titaniumgnetic field did not affect the titanium bracket and the ceramic bracket. No measurable translational and rotational forces were found. (orig.)

  14. Shear bond strength of precoated orthodontic brackets: an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Hassan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ali H HassanDepartment of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the shear bond strength of precoated orthodontic brackets bonded with self-etching primer relative to that of noncoated conventionally-bonded brackets at two different time intervals.Methods: Twenty-one subjects were selected for randomized split-mouth bonding of two types of brackets to the maxillary arch. Half of the teeth had precoated brackets bonded using selfetching adhesive, and the other half had regular brackets bonded using Transbond XT adhesive. Nitinol wires were tied to the upper arch and were left until the time of debonding. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: one debonded after one hour and the other debonded two weeks after the initial wire placement. The shear bond strength was directly recorded from the patients’ mouths using an in vivo debonding device.Results: There were no significant differences in shear bond strength between the precoated and conventional groups or within each group at different time intervals. There were significant differences between anterior and posterior teeth in both the precoated and conventional groups. Conclusion: Pre-coated brackets bonded with self-etching adhesive have the same bonding strength as the conventionally bonded brackets.Keywords: shear bond, bonding, orthodontics, precoated, brackets, self-etching adhesive

  15. Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação da liberação iônica in vitro Biodegradation of orthodontic brackets: in vitro ion release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Schmidt Dolci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar, in vitro, a biodegradação de aparelhos ortodônticos simulados constituídos de braquetes e fios de aço inoxidável. METODOLOGIA: a amostra foi dividida em 2 grupos, de acordo com a marca dos braquetes usados: grupo A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303; e grupo B - LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L. Os corpos-de-prova permaneceram incubados em solução salina (0,05% a 36ºC, sob agitação por um período de até 60 dias. A análise da liberação iônica foi realizada por meio de espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. O peso em massa dos braquetes também foi medido antes e após o experimento. RESULTADOS: os resultados indicaram que o grupo A apresentou maior liberação de íons ferro, níquel e cromo do que o grupo B. Além disso, os braquetes do grupo A também mostraram perda de massa, considerada outro indicativo de corrosão. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que, nas condições deste experimento, os braquetes do grupo A apresentaram maior biodegradação que os acessórios do grupo B, o que pode estar associado à liga metálica e/ou ao processo de fabricação dos mesmos.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the biodegradation of simulated orthodontic appliances consisting of stainless steel brackets and wires. MATERIALS AND METHODOS: The sample was divided in 2 groups, according to brackets brand: group A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/ Unitek (AISI 303; and group B - LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L. The specimens (simulated orthodontic appliances were incubated in saline solution (0.05%, in shake, at 36ºC, for 60 days. The ion release was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The weight of brackets was also measured before and after the test. RESULTS: The results indicated that group A released more ions iron, nickel and chromium than group B. Moreover, the brackets in group A also presented weight loss, which is considered an indicator of corrosion. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that, under the present study conditions, the brackets from group A presented a higher biodegradation than group’s B brackets, what could be associated to composition and manufacturing process of these brackets.

  16. Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação da liberação iônica in vitro / Biodegradation of orthodontic brackets: in vitro ion release

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel Schmidt, Dolci; Luciane Macedo de, Menezes; Rodrigo Matos de, Souza; Berenice Anina, Dedavid.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar, in vitro, a biodegradação de aparelhos ortodônticos simulados constituídos de braquetes e fios de aço inoxidável. METODOLOGIA: a amostra foi dividida em 2 grupos, de acordo com a marca dos braquetes usados: grupo A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303); e grupo B - LG Edgewise Standar [...] d, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). Os corpos-de-prova permaneceram incubados em solução salina (0,05%) a 36ºC, sob agitação por um período de até 60 dias. A análise da liberação iônica foi realizada por meio de espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. O peso em massa dos braquetes também foi medido antes e após o experimento. RESULTADOS: os resultados indicaram que o grupo A apresentou maior liberação de íons ferro, níquel e cromo do que o grupo B. Além disso, os braquetes do grupo A também mostraram perda de massa, considerada outro indicativo de corrosão. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que, nas condições deste experimento, os braquetes do grupo A apresentaram maior biodegradação que os acessórios do grupo B, o que pode estar associado à liga metálica e/ou ao processo de fabricação dos mesmos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the biodegradation of simulated orthodontic appliances consisting of stainless steel brackets and wires. MATERIALS AND METHODOS: The sample was divided in 2 groups, according to brackets brand: group A - Dyna-Lock, 3M/ Unitek (AISI 303) [...] ; and group B - LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). The specimens (simulated orthodontic appliances) were incubated in saline solution (0.05%), in shake, at 36ºC, for 60 days. The ion release was detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The weight of brackets was also measured before and after the test. RESULTS: The results indicated that group A released more ions iron, nickel and chromium than group B. Moreover, the brackets in group A also presented weight loss, which is considered an indicator of corrosion. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that, under the present study conditions, the brackets from group A presented a higher biodegradation than group’s B brackets, what could be associated to composition and manufacturing process of these brackets.

  17. Effect of toothbrushing with different manual toothbrushes on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of brushing with a Colgate 360º or Oral B Indicator 35 toothbrush on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to extracted human teeth. The bristle wear and bristle tip morphology were also examined after simulated tooth-brushing. Orthodontic brackets (Roth-P/1st and 2nd premolar S/D- Slot 0.18" were bonded (Transbond XT® to the smoothest surface of each of 45 extracted human molar and premolar teeth. Test specimens were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1, control group with no brushing; Group 2, brushing with the Oral B Indicator 35; Group 3, brushing with the Colgate 360º. Samples were adapted to a machine that simulated tooth-brushing. The bond strength of each bracket to each tooth was assessed with a mechanical testing machine. The bristle wear and bristle tip morphology indices were also assessed. Statistically significant differences were defined for p < 0.05. The average bond strengths (range: 90.18-90.89 kgf/cm² did not differ among the three groups. The Colgate 360º showed less bristle wear and a better bristle tip morphology than the Oral B Indicator 35 toothbrush. However, use of either toothbrush did not decrease the bond strength of the orthodontic brackets. Therefore, patients undergoing orthodontic therapy can safely use either toothbrush.

  18. Frictional and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon-coated orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Nakagaki, Susumu; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on frictional and mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets. DLC films were deposited on stainless steel brackets using the plasma-based ion implantation/deposition (PBIID) method under two different atmospheric conditions. As-received metal brackets served as the control. Two sizes of stainless steel archwires, 0.018 inch diameter and 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions, were used for measuring static and kinetic friction by drawing the archwires through the bracket slots, using a mechanical testing machine (n = 10). The DLC-coated brackets were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Values of hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing (n = 10). Friction forces were compared by one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffé test. The hardness and elastic modulus of the brackets were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. SEM photomicrographs showed DLC layers on the bracket surfaces with thickness of approximately 5-7 ?m. DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 2 showed significantly less static frictional force for the stainless steel wire with 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions than as-received brackets and DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 1, although both DLC-coated brackets showed significantly less kinetic frictional force than as-received brackets. The hardness of the DLC layers was much higher than that of the as-received bracket surfaces. In conclusion, the surfaces of metal brackets can be successfully modified by the PBIID method to create a DLC layer, and the DLC-coating process significantly reduces frictional forces. PMID:21934113

  19. Effect of elastomeric ligatures on frictional forces between the archwire and orthodontic bracket

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávia Ramos, Venâncio; Sílvia Amélia Scudeler, Vedovello; Carlos Alberto Malanconi, Tubel; Viviane Veroni, Degan; Adriana Simone, Lucato; Letícia Nery, Lealdim.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the frictional force between the archwire and orthodontic bracket generated by elastomeric ligatures with polymer coating (Super slick, TP Orthodontics) and conventional ligatures (Morelli) using two types of insertion techniques. METHODS: Forty elastomeric ligatures, 20 with polyme [...] r coating and 20 conventional, were evaluated. Each type of ligature was separated into two groups (n=10), according to the insertion mode: conventional or crossed (from mesial to distal region crossed in front). To analyze friction, 40 5-cm-long segments of stainless steel orthodontic archwire 0.019" x 0.025" (Morelli) and Edgewise brackets (slot 0.022" x 0.028"; Morelli) were used. Each set (bracket, wire and elastic) was submitted to frictional testing in a universal test machine (Instron 4411) at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Each bracket was moved 5 mm on the wire, with maximum friction and mean friction being recorded by software. Three readouts were taken for each bracket. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p

  20. Gingival response in orthodontic patients: Comparative study between self-ligating and conventional brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandra A, Folco; Sandra C, Benítez-Rogé; Marina, Iglesias; Diana, Calabrese; Cristina, Pelizardi; Alcira, Rosa; Marisa I, Brusca; Pedro, Hecht; María E, Mateu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los brackets ortodoncicos contribuyen al acumulo de placa bacteriana en las superficies dentarias, debido a que dificultan la higiene oral. A diferencia de los brackets convencionales, los brackets autoligables no requieren elementos adicionales para sujetar los arcos, lo cual favoreceria la higiene [...] dentaria. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar la respuesta gingival en pacientes ortodoncicos, utilizando brackets autoligables y brackets convencionales. Se estudiaron 22 pacientes, entre 16 y 30 anos, divididos en dos grupos: A, tratado con brackets autoligables, Sistema Damon) y B, tratado con brackets convencionales, Tecnica de Roth. Durante el tratamiento, se evaluaron los Indices de Placa (IP), Indice Gingival (IG) y Profundidad de Sondaje (PS) y se tomaron muestras subgingivales de las piezas 14/24 para su observacion microbiologica. En la evaluacion estadistica no se encontraron diferencias estadisticamente significativa entre los grupos A y B; p>0.05 (de los rangos con signo) y ni en los IP, IG y PS en los diferentes tiempos evaluados (Analisis de varianza de Friedman), sin embargo se observa un aumento en los indices a los 14 dias, sobre todo en autoligables. Los microorganismos se presentaron en cantidad y calidad compatible con salud el dia 0, 28 y 56; a partir del dia 14 predomina microbiota compatible con gingivitis para ambos grupos. En las muestras estudiadas el tratamiento ortodoncicos produce incremento de placa bacteriana y respuesta gingival inflamatoria, pero con terapia basica adecuada puede mantenerse la salud gingivo-lperiodontal. Los brackets autoligables y los o convencionales, produjeron respuesta gingival similar. Abstract in english Orthodontic brackets contribute to the accumulation of bacterial plaque on tooth surfaces because they hinder oral hygiene. In contrast to conventional brackets, self-ligating brackets do not require additional parts to support the arches, thus improving dental hygiene. The aim of this study was to [...] compare the gingival response in orthodontic patients wearing self-ligating or conventional brackets. A sample of 22 patients aged 16 to 30 years was divided into two groups: Group A, treated with selfligating brackets (Damon system) and Group B, treated with conventional brackets (Roth technique). The following were assessed during the treatment: Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and Probing Depth (PD), and sub-gingival samples were taken from teeth 14/24 for microbiological observation. No statistically significant difference was found between Groups A and B; p>0.05 (sign-ranked) or between PI, GI and PD at the different times (Friedman's Analysis of Variance), even though the indices were found to increase at 14 days, particularly for self-ligating brackets. The quantity and quality of microorganisms present were compatible with health on days 0, 28 and 56. As from day 14 there is a predominance of microbiota compatible with gingivitis in both groups. In the samples studied, orthodontic treatment increases bacterial plaque and inflammatory gingival response, but gingival-periodontal health can be maintained with adequate basic therapy. Self-ligating and conventional brackets produced similar gingival response.

  1. Microhardness of enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets after CO2 laser irradiation and fluoride application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangler, Leonardo Pucci; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; Shirozaki, Mariana Umekita; Galo, Rodrigo; Afonso, Alessandra Marques Correa; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser combined or not with fluoride application on the surface microhardness of enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Fifteen human molars were selected from which 30 enamel fragments measuring 4 mm2 were obtained. The fragments were embedded in PCV tubes with acrylic resin and prepared using water abrasive paper, felt disks and alumina. Orthodontic brackets cut in half were bonded to enamel and 3 microhardness readings were performed on the adjacent surface, as follows: initial, after cariogenic challenge and final. The specimens were divided into the following 3 groups (n=10): Group C: control, Group L: irradiated with CO2 laser, and Group FL: topical fluoride application and CO2 laser irradiation. After initial reading, the specimens were placed in a demineralizing solution for 32 h and the second reading was to verify if demineralization was uniform in all groups. After the treatments, the specimens were submitted to DES-RE cycling for 8 days followed by final surface microhardness reading. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Duncan test (?=0.05). At the final measurement Group FL obtained higher microhardness value than Groups C and L (p<0.05). Groups L and FL were statistically superior to Group C (p<0.05). Irradiation with CO2 laser around orthodontic brackets combined or not with topical fluoride application was effective to increase the surface microhardness of enamel. PMID:24474294

  2. Effect of a fluoride varnish on demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, M A; Staley, R N; Kanellis, M J; Donly, K J; Wefel, J S

    1999-08-01

    Home fluoride regimens have long been used to reduce the amount of demineralization adjacent to orthodontic appliances. In the absence of patient compliance, another method of applying the fluoride must be used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the ability of a fluoride varnish, Duraflor, to directly inhibit demineralization of enamel surrounding orthodontic brackets. Brackets were bonded to 36 extracted human canines and premolars with a traditional composite resin and randomly assigned to three equal groups of twelve. Group 1 served as the control with no topical application after bonding. Group 2 was treated with a single application of a nonfluoridated placebo varnish. Group 3 was treated with a single application of Duraflor. All groups were cycled in an artificial caries challenge for 1 hour two times daily for 37 days and were brushed with a medium bristled toothbrush to simulate mechanical wear of the varnish. Demineralization of enamel was evaluated in longitudinal buccolingual tooth sections using polarized light microscopy. Both average depth and area of demineralization were measured with a sonic digitizer. ANOVA (P Duraflor exhibited 50% less demineralization than the control teeth and an even greater difference when compared to the placebo group. Fluoride varnishes should be considered for use as a preventive adjunct to reduce enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets, particularly in patients who exhibit poor compliance with oral hygiene and home fluoride use. PMID:10434089

  3. Enamel Surface Roughness after Debonding of Orthodontic Brackets and Various Clean-Up Techniques

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    Farzaneh Ahrari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate enamel roughness after adhesive removal using different burs and an Er:YAG laser.Materials and Methods: The buccal surfaces of forty human premolars were sealed by two layers of nail varnish, except for a circular area of 3 mm in diameter on the middle third. The enamel surfaces were initially subjected to profilometry analysis and four parameters of surface irregularity (Ra, Rq, Rt and Rz were recorded. Following bracket bonding and debonding, adhesive remnants were removed by tungsten carbide burs in low- or high- speed handpieces (group 1 and 2, respectively, an ultrafine diamond bur (group 3 or an Er:YAG laser (250 mJ, long pulse, 4 Hz (group 4, and surface roughness parameters were measured again. Then, the buccal surfaces were polished and the third profilometry measurements were performed.Results: The specimens that were cleaned with a low speed tungsten carbide bur showed no significant difference in surface irregularity between the different treatment stages (p>0.05. Surface roughness increased significantly after clean-up with the diamond bur and the Er:YAG laser (p<0.01. In comparison between groups, adhesive removal with tungsten carbide burs at slow- or high-speed handpieces produced the lowest, while enamel clean-up with the Er:YAG laser caused the highest values of roughness measurements (P<0.05.Conclusion: Under the study conditions, application of the ultrafine diamond bur or the Er:YAG laser caused irreversible enamel damage on tooth surface, and thus these methods could not be recommended for removing adhesive remnants after debonding of orthodontic brackets.

  4. In vitro evaluation of an adhesive monomer as a bonding agent for orthodontic brackets to primary teeth and nickel-chromium ion crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergas, R P; Hondrum, S O; Mathieu, G P; Koonce, J D

    1995-01-01

    The adhesive monomer, Clearfil New Bond, was used to enhance the bond strength between orthodontic brackets and primary molars, premolars, and NiCr crowns. Twenty specimens of each had this dental adhesive applied according to the manufacturer's instructions in addition to a chemically cured composite material. The remaining specimens (20 each) were bonded without the adhesive monomer. Shear bond strengths were determined using a universal testing machine. Fracture sites were examined to determine the type of bond failure. All bond strengths were significantly increased with the addition of Clearfil New Bond (P < or = 0.0001). The shear bond strength to NiCr crowns with the addition of the adhesive monomer was 7.76 kg. This is comparable to the shear bond strength observed for primary molars (8.66 kg) and premolars (8.65 kg) without adhesive monomer. The observed decrease in adhesive bond failures with the addition of Clearfil New Bond indicated a stronger shear bond strength between the tooth surface and the bracket base. Clearfil New Bond can significantly increase the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to both primary molars and premolars. Additionally, it was shown that orthodontic brackets can be successfully bonded to Ni-Cr crowns at strengths comparable to primary or permanent enamel. PMID:7617496

  5. Comparative in vitro study of the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with restorative and orthodontic resins

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Isber; Aldrieli Regina Ambrosio; Paulo Eduardo Guedes Carvalho; Karyna Martins do Valle-Corotti; Danilo Furquim Siqueira

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with different restorative systems and compare it with that afforded by an established orthodontic bonding system. Seventy human bicuspids were used, divided into five different groups with 14 teeth each. Whereas a specific orthodontic bonding resin (TransbondTM XT) was used in the control group, the restorative systems Charisma, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum and Z100 were used in the other four groups. Seven days a...

  6. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets to enamel under different surface treatment conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matheus Melo, Pithon; Márlio Vinícius de, Oliveira; Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, Ruellas; Ana Maria, Bolognese; Fábio Lourenço, Romano.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the shear bond strength to enamel and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) of both metallic and polycarbonate brackets bonded under different conditions. Ninety bovine permanent mandibular incisors were embedded in acrylic resin using PVC rings as molds a [...] nd assigned to 6 groups (n=15). In Groups 1 (control) and 3, metallic and polycarbonate orthodontic brackets were, respectively, bonded to the enamel surfaces using Transbond XT composite according to the manufacturer's recommendations. In Groups 2 and 4, both types of brackets were bonded to enamel with Transbond XT composite, but XT primer was replaced by the OrthoPrimer agent. In Groups 5 and 6, the polycarbonate bracket bases were sandblasted with 50-mm aluminum-oxide particle stream and bonded to the enamel surfaces prepared under the same conditions described in Groups 3 and 4, respectively. After bonding, the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24 hours and then submitted to shear bond strength test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results (MPa) showed no statistically significant difference between Groups 4 and 6 (p>0.05). Likewise, no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found among Groups 1, 2, and 5, although their results were significantly lower than those of Groups 4 and 6 (p

  7. Comparison of frictional resistance between self-ligating and conventional brackets tied with elastomeric and metal ligature in orthodontic archwires

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Vieira, Leite; Murilo Baena, Lopes; Alcides, Gonini Júnior; Marcio Rodrigues de, Almeida; Sandra Kiss, Moura; Renato Rodrigues de, Almeida.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar a resistência ao atrito entre braquetes autoligáveis e braquetes convencionais, variando o tipo de fio. MÉTODOS: foram usados braquetes incisivos Abzil Kirium Capelozza e Easy Clip. Uma ligadura elastomérica ou um fio ligável de 0,010" foi usado para ligação do fio no braque [...] te Abzil. Três tipos de ligas de fio ortodôntico foram avaliadas: fio de NiTi de 0,016"; fio de NiTi de 0,016" x 0,022"; e fio de aço de 0,019" x 0,025". Dez observações foram feitas para cada combinação "braquete-fio-inclinação". Os braquetes foram montados em um aparelho especial, posicionados a 90° em relação ao fio, e testados em duas inclinações. O teste de atrito foi realizado na máquina universal de ensaios, a 5mm/min e com 10mm de deslocamento. As médias (em MPa) foram submetidas aos testes ANOVA e de Tukey, a 5% de significância. As superfícies dos fios e dos braquetes foram observadas no MEV. RESULTADOS: o braquete com amarrilhos metálicos (16,48 ± 8,31MPa) apresentou médias mais altas que o braquete com ligaduras elastoméricas (4,29 ± 2,16MPa) e o braquete autoligável (1,66 ± 1,57) (p 0,05). Nenhuma diferença estatística (p > 0,05) foi encontrada entre inclinações de zero (7,76 ± 8,46) e cinco (7,19 ± 7,93) graus. Concluão: o atrito foi influenciado pelo tipo de braquete e sistemas de ligaduras. Diferentes aspectos morfológicos foram observados para os braquetes e fios estudados. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the frictional resistance between self-ligating and conventional brackets tied to different types of wire. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Abzil Kirium Capelozza (Pattern I) and Easy Clip (Roth prescription) incisor brackets were used. An elastomeric ligature or a ligating wire 0. [...] 10-in was used to ligate the wire to the Abzil bracket. Three types of orthodontic archwire alloys were assessed: 0.016-in NiTi wire, 0.016 x 0.021-in NiTi wire and 0.019 x 0.025-in steel wire. Ten observations were carried out for each bracket-archwire angulation combination. Brackets were mounted in a special appliance, positioned at 90 degrees in relation to the wire and tested in two angulations. Frictional test was performed in a Universal Testing Machine at 5 mm/min and 10 mm of displacement. The means (MPa) were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test set at 5% of significance. The surfaces of wires and brackets were observed at SEM. RESULTS: Steel-tied brackets (16.48 ± 8.31) showed higher means of frictional resistance than elastomeric-tied brackets (4.29 ± 2.16 ) and self-ligating brackets (1.66 ± 1.57) (P 0.05). No statistical differences (P > 0.05) were found between zero (7.76 ± 8.46) and five-degree (7.19 ± 7.93) angulations. CONCLUSIONS: Friction was influenced not only by the type of bracket, but also by the ligating systems. Different morphological aspects were observed for the brackets and wires studied

  8. Alterations in plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation promoted by treatment with self-ligating and conventional orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio de Almeida, Cardoso; Patrícia Pinto, Saraiva; Liliana Ávila, Maltagliati; Fernando Kleinübing, Rhoden; Carla Cristina Alvarenga, Costa; David, Normando; Leopoldino, Capelozza Filho.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, comparativamente, a resposta periodontal durante o tratamento ortodôntico realizado com braquetes autoligáveis e convencionais. MÉTODOS: dezesseis indivíduos, leucodermas, em dentição permanente, de ambos os sexos, com idades de 12 a 16 anos, for [...] am selecionados. Oito foram tratados com braquetes convencionais instalados na arcada inferior, e braquetes autoligáveis na arcada superior. Os outros oito indivíduos receberam braquetes autoligáveis na arcada inferior e braquetes convencionais na arcada superior. Os pacientes receberam materiais e instruções sobre higiene bucal. O índice de placa visível (IPV), o índice de sangramento gengival (ISG) e o nível de inserção clínica (NIC) foram avaliados logo após a instalação do aparelho e 30, 60 e 180 dias mais tarde. Para comparar as diferenças entre os grupos (braquetes autoligáveis e convencionais), foi utilizado o teste Mann-Whitney; para analisar o NIC em cada local de cada dente, foi utilizada a análise de variância de duas vias, seguida do teste de Tukey, com nível de significância a 5%. RESULTADOS: não houve alteração significativa nos parâmetros avaliados (IPV, ISG e NIC), em nenhum dos dois sistemas. CONCLUSÃO: a resposta periodontal ao tratamento ortodôntico não apresentou diferenças significativas, para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas, entre os indivíduos tratados com braquetes autoligáveis passivos e braquetes convencionais, os quais receberam instruções quanto à adequada higienização bucal e foram submetidos ao monitoramento das condições periodontais. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate, comparatively, the periodontal response during orthodontic treatment performed with self-ligating and conventional brackets. METHODS: Sixteen Caucasian individuals of both sexes, aged between 12 and 16 years old and in permanent dentition wer [...] e selected. Eight individuals were treated with conventional brackets installed on the lower dental arch and self-ligating brackets on the upper arch. Another eight individuals received self-ligating brackets in the lower arch and conventional brackets in the upper arch. The subjects received material and instructions for oral hygiene. Visible plaque index (VPI), gingival bleeding index (GBI) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were evaluated just after installation of orthodontic appliances, and 30, 60 and 180 days later. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare differences between groups (self-ligating and conventional), two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test was used to assess CAL at each site of each tooth. Significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: No significant changes were found with regard to the assessed parameters (VPI, GBI and CAL) in either one of the systems. CONCLUSION: No significant changes were found with regard to the periodontal response to orthodontic treatment for the variables assessed and between subjects receiving passive self-ligating and conventional brackets. All individuals had received oral hygiene instructions and had their periodontal conditions monitored.

  9. The Influence of No-Primer Adhesives and Anchor Pylons Bracket Bases on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Fraticelli, Danilo; Daina, Paola; Tamagnone, Alessandra; Gandini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores of no-primer adhesives tested with two different bracket bases. Materials and Methods. 120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens. Two brackets (ODP) with different bracket bases (anchor pylons and 80-gauge mesh) were bonded to the teeth using a conventional adhesive (Transbond XT) and two different no-primer adhesive (Ortho Cem; Heliosit) systems. Groups were tested using an instron universal testing machine. SBS values were recorded. ARI scores were measured. SEM microphotographs were taken to evaluate the pattern of bracket bases. Statistical analysis was performed. ANOVA and Tukey tests were carried out for SBS values, whereas a chi-squared test was applied for ARI scores. Results. Highest bond strength values were reported with Transbond XT (with both pad designs), Ortho Cem bonded on anchor pylons and Heliosit on 80-gauge mesh. A higher frequency of ARI score of “3” was reported for Transbond XT groups. Other groups showed a higher frequency of ARI score “2” and “1.” Conclusion. Transbond XT showed the highest shear bond strength values with both pad designs. PMID:23984339

  10. Friction between different wire bracket combinations in artificial saliva: an in vitro evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Kelly da Silva Fidalgo; Matheus Melo Pithon; José Vinicius Bolognesi Maciel; Ana Maria Bolognese

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective this work was to assess the friction coefficient between brackets and wires of different materials under conditions simulating the oral environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stainless steel (SS) and titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA) wires of 0.019x0.025-in diameter (American Orthodontics) and polycarbonate bracket (American Orthodontics), ceramic bracket (American Orthodontics), and metal bracket (3M Unitek) with slots of 0.022x0.030-in were used. The friction coefficient ...

  11. Friction between different wire bracket combinations in artificial saliva – an in vitro evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Kelly da Silva Fidalgo; Matheus Melo Pithon; José Vinicius Bolognesi Maciel; Ana Maria Bolognese

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective this work was to assess the friction coefficient between brackets and wires of different materials under conditions simulating the oral environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stainless steel (SS) and titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA) wires of 0.019x0.025-in diameter (American Orthodontics) and polycarbonate bracket (American Orthodontics), ceramic bracket (American Orthodontics), and metal bracket (3M Unitek) with slots of 0.022x0.030-in were used. The friction coefficient ...

  12. Microleakage under Orthodontic Metal Brackets Bonded with Three Different Bonding Techniques with/without Thermocycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berahman Sabzevari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the microleakage of beneath the orthodontic brackets bonded with 3 different bonding techniques and evaluate the effect of thermocycling. Methods: One hundred and twenty premolars were randomly divided into 6 groups, received the following treatment: group 1: 37% phosphoric acid gel+Unite primer+Unite adhesive, group 2: 37% phosphoric acid gel+ Transbond XT primer+Transbond XT adhesive, group 3: Transbond plus Self Etching Primer (TSEP+Transbond XT adhesive. Groups 4, 5, and 6 were similar to groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Evaluation of microleakage was done following to thermocycling test. After bonding, the specimens were sealed with nail varnish except for 1 mm around the brackets and then stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine. The specimens were sectioned at buccolingual direction in 2 parallel planes and evaluated under a stereomicroscope to determine the amount of microleakage at bracket-adhesive and adhesive-enamel interfaces from gingival and occlusal margins. Results: Microleakage was observed in all groups, and increased significantly after thermocycling at some interfaces of Unite adhesive group and conventional etching+Transbond XT adhesive group, but the increase was not significant in any interface of TSEP group. With or without thermocycling, TSEP displayed more microleakage than other groups. In most groups, microleakage at gingival margin was significantly higher than occlusal margin. Conclusion: Thermocycling and type of bonding technique significantly affect the amount of microleakage.

  13. Effect of toothbrushing with different manual toothbrushes on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme José Pimentel Lopes de, Oliveira; Chaine, Pavone; Maurício Ribeiro, Costa; Rosemary Adriana Chiérici, Marcantonio.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of brushing with a Colgate 360º or Oral B Indicator 35 toothbrush on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to extracted human teeth. The bristle wear and bristle tip morphology were also examined after simulated tooth-brushing. Orthod [...] ontic brackets (Roth-P/1st and 2nd premolar S/D- Slot 0.18") were bonded (Transbond XT®) to the smoothest surface of each of 45 extracted human molar and premolar teeth. Test specimens were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1, control group with no brushing; Group 2, brushing with the Oral B Indicator 35; Group 3, brushing with the Colgate 360º. Samples were adapted to a machine that simulated tooth-brushing. The bond strength of each bracket to each tooth was assessed with a mechanical testing machine. The bristle wear and bristle tip morphology indices were also assessed. Statistically significant differences were defined for p

  14. Comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontics brackets on composite resin restorations with different surface treatments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Antonio, Ribeiro; Ariane Vicente de, Morais; Daniel Paludo, Brunetto; Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, Ruellas; Monica Tirre Souza de, Araujo.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: frequentemente, os pacientes ortodônticos apresentam restaurações de resina composta; no entanto, existem poucos estudos que avaliam a melhor forma de colagem ortodôntica nessa situação. OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a força adesiva de braquetes ortodônticos em re [...] staurações resinosas com tratamento de superfície. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 51 incisivos inferiores bovinos divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. No grupo controle (GC), os braquetes foram colados em esmalte dentário; nos grupos experimentais com tratamento (GCT) e sem tratamento (GST), os braquetes foram colados em restauração de resina previamente realizada, diferenciando-se pelo tratamento de superfície com broca diamantada. Os dentes foram incluídos em tubos de PVC com resina acrílica autopolimerizável. O ensaio de cisalhamento foi executado em máquina universal de ensaios Emic. Os grupos foram submetidos à ANOVA com pós-teste de Tukey para verificação da diferença estatística entre os grupos (? = 0,05). RESULTADOS: GC (6,62MPa) e GCT (6,82MPa) apresentaram resultados semelhantes, enquanto o GST (5,07MPa) obteve resultados estatisticamente menores (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic patients frequently present composite resin restorations, however there are few studies that evaluate the best way for orthodontic bonding in this situation. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to evaluate the bond strength of orthodontic brackets in resin restoration [...] s with surface treatment. METHODS: Fifty one bovine lower incisors were randomly divided into three groups. On the control group (CG) the brackets were bonded to dental enamel; on experimental groups, brackets were bonded to resin restoration with diamond drill treatment (EGT) and with no treatment (EGN). The teeth were placed in PVC tubes with autopolymerized acrylic resin. The shear test was performed in EMIC universal testing machine. The groups were submitted to ANOVA analysis of variance with Tukey post test to verify the statistical difference between groups (? = 0.05). RESULTS: CG (6.62 MPa) and EGT (6.82 MPa) groups presented similar results, while EGN (5.07 MPa) obtained statistically lower results (p

  15. Comparison of friction produced by two types of orthodontic bracket protectors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Steyner de Lima, Mendonça; Otávio José, Praxedes Neto; Patricia Teixeira de, Oliveira; Patricia Bittencourt Dutra dos, Santos; Fábio Henrique de Sá Leitão, Pinheiro.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: o aparelho ortodôntico fixo é considerado um fator causador de traumas na mucosa bucal. Com o intuito de controlar o desconforto no tecido mole, diversos ortodontistas recomendam a utilização de uma pequena quantidade de cera utilidade sobre os braquetes como forma de proteção. Esse es [...] tudo teve como objetivo avaliar, in vitro, o atrito gerado por dois tipos de protetores de braquetes (protetor de acetato e de resina - PPA e PRT) durante os estágios iniciais do tratamento ortodôntico. MÉTODOS: o atrito gerado pelos protetores no fio ortodôntico foi avaliado em unidades de teste de modelos experimentais. Esses modelos foram ligados a uma máquina de ensaios mecânicos que simulava o alinhamento do canino superior. A comparação intergrupos foi realizada pela ANOVA, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: a fricção apresentada pelo grupo PRT foi estatisticamente maior do que a do grupo controle ao nível de 6mm. Para o atrito máximo, a média do grupo PRT foi estatisticamente maior do que a dos grupos controle e PPA. CONCLUSÃO: o protetor de acetato demonstrou não interferir no atrito entre o fio e a ranhura do braquete ortodôntico. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Fixed orthodontic appliances have been regarded as a common causative factor of oral lesions. To manage soft tissue discomfort, most orthodontists recommend using a small amount of utility wax over the brackets in order to alleviate trauma. This in vitro study aimed at evaluating fri [...] ction generated by two types of bracket protectors (customized acetate protector [CAP] and temporary resin protector [TRP]) during the initial stages of orthodontic treatment. METHODS: An experimental model (test unit) was used to assess friction. In order to measure the friction produced in each test, the model was attached to a mechanical testing machine which simulated maxillary canines alignment. Intergroup comparison was carried out by one-way ANOVA with level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: The friction presented by the TRP group was statistically higher than that of the control group at 6 mm. It was also higher than in the control and CAP groups in terms of maximum friction. CONCLUSION: The customized acetate protector (CAP) demonstrated not to interfere in friction between the wire and the orthodontic bracket slot.

  16. Effect of Fast Curing Lights, Argon Laser, and Plasma Arc on Bond Strengths of Orthodontic Brackets: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hashem-Hoseini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nowadays light-cured composites are used widely by orthodontists to bond brackets. As these composites require 20-40 seconds time per tooth to be light cured, more chair-time in needed compared to self-cured composites. In recent years, the argon laser and plasma arc lights have been introduced in dentistry to reduce this curing time. The purpose of this study was to compare bond strength of brackets bonded with the argon la-ser and plasma arc light with those bonded with the conventional halogen light.Materials and Methods: Fifty-one intact human premolars were randomly divided into three groups of 17 teeth each. Stainless steel twin premolar brackets (018- in Dyna lock, 3M Unitek were bonded to the teeth using one of these curing devices in each group: the halogen unit (Coltolux 75, Switzerland, the argon laser unit (Bo-5, Iran , and the plasma arc unit (Remecure 15, Belgium. The orthodontic adhesive was the same in the three groups (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek. After thermal cycling, the diametral tensilebond strength of specimens was measured using a debonding plier in a Zwick Universal Testing machine (Z/100, Germany.Results: The mean bond strengths was 17.344 MPa (SD=4.567 for halogen 19.172 MPa(SD=6.328 for laser and 19.322 MPa (SD=4.036 for plasma arc groups. No statistically significant difference existed in the mean bond strengths among three groups.Conclusion: Argon laser lights, significantly reducing the curing time of orthodonticbrackets without affecting bond strength, have the potential to be considered as advanta-geous alternatives to conventional halogen light.

  17. Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Motta Streva; Flávio Augusto Cotrim-Ferreira; Daniela Gamba Garib; Paulo Eduardo Guedes Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following commercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines, was measured by an ...

  18. Effect of fluoride solutions on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela da Rocha, Leódido; Hianna Oliveira, Fernandes; Mateus Rodrigues, Tonetto; Cristina Dupim, Presoto; Matheus Coêlho, Bandéca; Leily Macedo, Firoozmand.

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar in vitro a resistência adesiva de bráquetes após o pré-tratamento do esmalte com diferentes soluções fluoretadas. Foram utilizados 48 incisivos bovinos hígidos recém-extraídos que foram aleatoriamente divididos em 4 grupos experimentais (n=12). CG (controle): [...] sem tratamento; FN: aplicação de flúor neutro por 4 min; FFA: aplicação de flúor fosfato acidulado (FFA) a 1,23% por 4 min; e VFS: aplicação de verniz de fluoreto de sódio a 5% por 6 h. Após o tratamento dos grupos, foi realizada a profilaxia do esmalte e os bráquetes foram fixados utilizando o compósito Transbond XT (3M), seguindo as especificações do fabricante. A resistência adesiva foi verificada através do teste de cisalhamento, realizado na Máquina de Ensaio Universal DL-2000 24 h após a fixação dos bráquetes. As superfícies dos dentes foram analisadas para verificação do índice de adesivo remanescente (IAR). Por meio dos testes estatísticos ANOVA e Tukey (?=5%), observou-se diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos estudados (p0,05). A análise dos escores do IAR revelou que grande parte das falhas ocorreram na interface esmalte-resina. Conclui-se que o tratamento do esmalte com FFA 1,23% e VFS a 5%, previamente à fixação de bráquetes ortodônticos, reduziu os valores de resistência adesiva ao cisalhamento Abstract in english The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets after pre-treatment with different fluoride solutions. This study used 48 freshly extracted sound bovine incisors that were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups (n=12). CG: (control) without treatment; NF: 4 min [...] application of neutral fluoride; APF: application of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) for 4 min; and SFV: application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish for 6 h. For each group, after surface treatment, prophylaxis of enamel and bracket bonding with Transbond XT composite resin (3M) were performed following the manufacturer's specifications. The shear bond strength was performed with a universal testing machine 24 h after fixing the brackets. The tooth surfaces were analyzed to verify the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). There was statistically significant difference among the groups (p0.05). The analysis of ARI scores revealed that most failures occurred at the enamel-resin interface. It may be concluded that the pre-treatment of enamel with 1.23% APF and 5% SFV prior to fixing orthodontic brackets reduces shear bond strength values.

  19. Comparative in vitro study of the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with restorative and orthodontic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Isber

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with different restorative systems and compare it with that afforded by an established orthodontic bonding system. Seventy human bicuspids were used, divided into five different groups with 14 teeth each. Whereas a specific orthodontic bonding resin (TransbondTM XT was used in the control group, the restorative systems Charisma, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum and Z100 were used in the other four groups. Seven days after bonding the brackets to the samples, shear forces were applied under pressure in a universal testing machine. The data collected was evaluated using the ANOVA test and, when a difference was identified, the Tukey test was applied. A 5% level of significance was adopted. The mean results of the shear bond strength tests were as follows: Group 1 (Charisma, 14.98 MPa; Group 2 (Tetric Ceram, 15.16 MPa; Group 3 (TPH, 17.70 MPa; Group 4 (Z100, 13.91 MPa; and Group 5 or control group (TransbondTM XT, 17.15 MPa. No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. It was concluded that all tested resins have sufficient bond strength to be recommended for bonding orthodontic brackets.

  20. Comparative in vitro study of the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with restorative and orthodontic resins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hassan, Isber; Aldrieli Regina, Ambrosio; Paulo Eduardo Guedes, Carvalho; Karyna Martins do, Valle-Corotti; Danilo Furquim, Siqueira.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with different restorative systems and compare it with that afforded by an established orthodontic bonding system. Seventy human bicuspids were used, divided into five different groups with 14 teeth each. Whereas a spec [...] ific orthodontic bonding resin (TransbondTM XT) was used in the control group, the restorative systems Charisma, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum and Z100 were used in the other four groups. Seven days after bonding the brackets to the samples, shear forces were applied under pressure in a universal testing machine. The data collected was evaluated using the ANOVA test and, when a difference was identified, the Tukey test was applied. A 5% level of significance was adopted. The mean results of the shear bond strength tests were as follows: Group 1 (Charisma), 14.98 MPa; Group 2 (Tetric Ceram), 15.16 MPa; Group 3 (TPH), 17.70 MPa; Group 4 (Z100), 13.91 MPa; and Group 5 or control group (TransbondTM XT), 17.15 MPa. No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. It was concluded that all tested resins have sufficient bond strength to be recommended for bonding orthodontic brackets.

  1. Microhardness of Enamel Adjacent to Orthodontic Brackets After CO2 Laser Irradiation and Fluoride Application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Pucci, Stangler; Fabio Lourenco, Romano; Mariana Umekita, Shirozaki; Rodrigo, Galo; Alessandra Marques Correa, Afonso; Maria Cristina, Borsatto; Mirian Aiko Nakane, Matsumoto.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a eficácia do laser de CO2, associado ou não à aplicação de flúor na microdureza superficial do esmalte dentário adjacente a bráquetes ortodônticos. Foram selecionados 15 molares humanos, dos quais 30 fragmentos de esmalte com 4 mm2 foram obtidos. Os fragmentos foram incluídos em [...] tubos de PVC, contendo resina acrílica, preparados usando lixas d'água e discos de feltro e alumina. Bráquetes ortodônticos cortados ao meio foram colados no esmalte e 3 leituras de microdureza foram realizadas na superfície adjacente: inicial, após desafio cariogênico e final. Os espécimes foram divididos em 3 grupos (n=10): Grupo C - Controle, Grupo L - irradiado com laser de CO2 e Grupo FL - aplicação tópica de flúor e irradiação com laser de CO2. Após leitura inicial, os espécimes foram colocados em solução desmineralizadora por 32 h e a segunda leitura foi realizada para verificar se desmineralização foi uniforme em todos os grupos. Após os tratamentos, os espécimes foram submetidos a ciclagem DES-RE durante 8 dias seguida da leitura da microdureza superficial final. Os dados foram analisdos estatisticamente utilizando ANOVA e o teste de Duncan (?=0,05). Na mensuração final o grupo FL obteve maior valor de microdureza que os grupos C e L (p Abstract in english This study evaluated the effectiveness of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser combined or not with fluoride application on the surface microhardness of enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Fifteen human molars were selected from which 30 enamel fragments measuring 4 mm2 were obtained. The fragments were [...] embedded in PCV tubes with acrylic resin and prepared using water abrasive paper, felt disks and alumina. Orthodontic brackets cut in half were bonded to enamel and 3 microhardness readings were performed on the adjacent surface, as follows: initial, after cariogenic challenge and final. The specimens were divided into the following 3 groups (n=10): Group C: control, Group L: irradiated with CO2 laser, and Group FL: topical fluoride application and CO2 laser irradiation. After initial reading, the specimens were placed in a demineralizing solution for 32 h and the second reading was to verify if demineralization was uniform in all groups. After the treatments, the specimens were submitted to DES-RE cycling for 8 days followed by final surface microhardness reading. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Duncan test (?=0.05). At the final measurement Group FL obtained higher microhardness value than Groups C and L (p

  2. Enamel Surface Roughness after Debonding of Orthodontic Brackets and Various Clean-Up Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Ahrari; Majid Akbari; Javad Akbari; Ghahraman Dabiri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate enamel roughness after adhesive removal using different burs and an Er:YAG laser.Materials and Methods: The buccal surfaces of forty human premolars were sealed by two layers of nail varnish, except for a circular area of 3 mm in diameter on the middle third. The enamel surfaces were initially subjected to profilometry analysis and four parameters of surface irregularity (Ra, Rq, Rt and Rz) were recorded. Following bracket bonding and debonding, adhesiv...

  3. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded using halogen light and light-emitting diode at different debond times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Di Nicoló

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the photoactivation effects of QTH (Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen and LED (Light-Emitting Diode on the SBS (Shear Bond Strength of orthodontic brackets at different debond times. Seventy-two bovine lower incisors were randomly divided into two groups according to the photoactivation system used (QTH or LED. The enamel surfaces were conditioned with Transbond self-etching primer, and APC (Adhesive Pre-Coated brackets were used in all specimens. Group I was cured with QTH for 20 s and Group II with LED for 10 s. Both groups were subdivided according to the different experimental times after bonding (immediately, 24 h and 7 days. The specimens were tested for SBS and the enamel surfaces were analyzed according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI. The statistical analysis included the Tukey's test to evaluate the main effects of photoactivation and debond time on SBS. The Chi-square test was used to compare the ARI values found for each group, and no statistically significant difference was observed. The debond time of 7 days for QTH photoactivation showed statistically greater values of SBS when compared to the immediate and 24 h periods. There was no statistically significant difference between the QTH and LED groups immediately and after the 24 h period. In conclusion, bonding orthodontic brackets with LED photoactivation for 10 s is suggested because it requires a reduced clinical chair time.

  4. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded using halogen light and light-emitting diode at different debond times

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rebeca, Di Nicoló; Maria Amelia Maximo de, Araujo; Levy Anderson César, Alves; Rodrigo Othavio de Assunção e, Souza; Daniel Maranha da, Rocha.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the photoactivation effects of QTH (Quartz-Tungsten-Halogen) and LED (Light-Emitting Diode) on the SBS (Shear Bond Strength) of orthodontic brackets at different debond times. Seventy-two bovine lower incisors were randomly divided into two groups accord [...] ing to the photoactivation system used (QTH or LED). The enamel surfaces were conditioned with Transbond self-etching primer, and APC (Adhesive Pre-Coated) brackets were used in all specimens. Group I was cured with QTH for 20 s and Group II with LED for 10 s. Both groups were subdivided according to the different experimental times after bonding (immediately, 24 h and 7 days). The specimens were tested for SBS and the enamel surfaces were analyzed according to the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). The statistical analysis included the Tukey's test to evaluate the main effects of photoactivation and debond time on SBS. The Chi-square test was used to compare the ARI values found for each group, and no statistically significant difference was observed. The debond time of 7 days for QTH photoactivation showed statistically greater values of SBS when compared to the immediate and 24 h periods. There was no statistically significant difference between the QTH and LED groups immediately and after the 24 h period. In conclusion, bonding orthodontic brackets with LED photoactivation for 10 s is suggested because it requires a reduced clinical chair time.

  5. Shear bond strength of fluoride-releasing orthodontic bonding and composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, Bernhard Christian; Freudenthaler, Josef; Jonke, Erwin; Bantleon, Hans-Peter

    2010-06-01

    Several fluoride-releasing bonding materials are available for orthodontic bracket placement. These are supposed to prevent white spot lesions during therapy. The objectives of this in vitro study were to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) and failure mode of a recently introduced fluoride-releasing adhesive, as well as the comparison with established orthodontic adhesives. Sixty bovine mandibular incisors were randomly allocated to three groups (n = 20): stainless steel brackets were bonded with Transbond Plus Color Change Adhesive, Transbond XT, or Light Bond. A universal testing machine was used to determine the SBS at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. After debonding, the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to assess the adhesive remaining on the brackets. One-way analysis of variance comparing the three experimental groups showed no differences between the bonding systems for mean SBS (P = 0.27). ARI scores showed more residual adhesive on the teeth bonded with the Transbond systems (P < 0.01). As the fluoride-releasing bonding system provided sufficient mean bond strength in vitro (19.9 MPa), it may be used as an additional prophylactic measure in orthodontic therapy. However, the clinical effectiveness of its fluoride release may be questionable, as the amount of fluoride required from a bonding material to be caries preventive is still unknown. PMID:20080958

  6. Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura / Analysis of biodegradation of orthodontic brackets using scanning electron microscopy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciane Macedo de, Menezes; Rodrigo Matos de, Souza; Gabriel Schmidt, Dolci; Berenice Anina, Dedavid.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, as alterações químicas e estruturais de braquetes metálicos submetidos a um processo de biodegradação in vitro. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a marca comercial dos acessórios - Grupo A = Dyna-Lock, 3 [...] M/Unitek (AISI 303) e Grupo B = LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). Os corpos de prova, aparelhos ortodônticos simulados, permaneceram imersos em solução salina (0,05%) por um período de 60 dias, a 37ºC, sob agitação. As alterações decorrentes da exposição dos acessórios à solução salina foram investigadas através da observação com microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV) e análise da composição química (EDX), realizadas antes e após o período de imersão (T0 e T5, respectivamente). RESULTADOS: em T5, houve formação de produtos de corrosão sobre a superfície dos braquetes, especialmente no Grupo A, além disso, houve alterações na composição da liga metálica dos braquetes de ambos os grupos, sendo que, no Grupo A, houve redução dos íons ferro e cromo e, no Grupo B, redução de íons cromo. CONCLUSÃO: os acessórios do Grupo A apresentaram-se menos resistentes à biodegradação in vitro, o que poderia estar associado ao tipo de aço utilizado em sua fabricação (AISI 303). Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze, with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the chemical and structural changes in metal brackets subjected to an in vitro biodegradation process. METHODS: The sample was divided into three groups according to brackets commercial brand na [...] mes, i.e., Group A = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303) and Group B = LG standard edgewise, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). The specimens were simulated orthodontic appliances, which remained immersed in saline solution (0.05%) for a period of 60 days at 37°C under agitation. The changes resulting from exposure of the brackets to the saline solution were investigated by microscopic observation (SEM) and chemical composition analysis (EDX), performed before and after the immersion period (T0 and T5, respectively). RESULTS: The results showed, at T5, the formation of products of corrosion on the surface of the brackets, especially in Group A. In addition, there were changes in the composition of the bracket alloy in both groups, whereas in group A there was a reduction in iron and chromium ions, and in Group B a reduction in chromium ions. CONCLUSIONS: The brackets in Group A were less resistant to in vitro biodegradation, which might be associated with the type of steel used by the manufacturer (AISI 303).

  7. Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura Analysis of biodegradation of orthodontic brackets using scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Macedo de Menezes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, as alterações químicas e estruturais de braquetes metálicos submetidos a um processo de biodegradação in vitro. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a marca comercial dos acessórios - Grupo A = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303 e Grupo B = LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L. Os corpos de prova, aparelhos ortodônticos simulados, permaneceram imersos em solução salina (0,05% por um período de 60 dias, a 37ºC, sob agitação. As alterações decorrentes da exposição dos acessórios à solução salina foram investigadas através da observação com microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV e análise da composição química (EDX, realizadas antes e após o período de imersão (T0 e T5, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: em T5, houve formação de produtos de corrosão sobre a superfície dos braquetes, especialmente no Grupo A, além disso, houve alterações na composição da liga metálica dos braquetes de ambos os grupos, sendo que, no Grupo A, houve redução dos íons ferro e cromo e, no Grupo B, redução de íons cromo. CONCLUSÃO: os acessórios do Grupo A apresentaram-se menos resistentes à biodegradação in vitro, o que poderia estar associado ao tipo de aço utilizado em sua fabricação (AISI 303.OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze, with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, the chemical and structural changes in metal brackets subjected to an in vitro biodegradation process. METHODS: The sample was divided into three groups according to brackets commercial brand names, i.e., Group A = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303 and Group B = LG standard edgewise, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L. The specimens were simulated orthodontic appliances, which remained immersed in saline solution (0.05% for a period of 60 days at 37°C under agitation. The changes resulting from exposure of the brackets to the saline solution were investigated by microscopic observation (SEM and chemical composition analysis (EDX, performed before and after the immersion period (T0 and T5, respectively. RESULTS: The results showed, at T5, the formation of products of corrosion on the surface of the brackets, especially in Group A. In addition, there were changes in the composition of the bracket alloy in both groups, whereas in group A there was a reduction in iron and chromium ions, and in Group B a reduction in chromium ions. CONCLUSIONS: The brackets in Group A were less resistant to in vitro biodegradation, which might be associated with the type of steel used by the manufacturer (AISI 303.

  8. Evaluation of different LED light-curing devices for bonding metallic orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Corina Maia de Souza, Pinto; José Tarcísio Lima, Ferreira; Mírian Aiko Nakane, Matsumoto; Maria Cristina, Borsatto; Raquel Assed Bezerra da, Silva; Fábio Lourenço, Romano.

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de diferentes aparelhos de luz tipo LED na colagem de bráquetes ortodônticos, através do teste de resistência ao cisalhamento e do Índice de Remanescente do Adesivo (IRA). Coroas de 60 incisivos bovinos receberam a colagem de bráquetes com compósito T [...] ransbond XT. A amostra foi dividida em 4 grupos (n=15) de acordo com os seguintes tipos de fotoativação: HL: controle, luz halógena; OR= Ortholux LED; UL= Ultraled XP e RD= Radii LED. Todas as fotoativações foram realizadas por 40 s. O teste de resistência ao cisalhamento foi realizado em máquina universal de ensaios mecânicos à velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo ANOVA e teste de Tukey. Os escores do IRA foram avaliados em lupa estereoscópica e analisados estatisticamente pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis. O nível de significância de 5% foi adotado para todas as análises. Os valores médios (MPa) e o desvio-padrão do teste de resistência ao cisalhamento foram 9,82 (3,28), 12,70 (3,35), 9,04 (2,80) e 11,22 (2,36) para o grupo HL, OR, UL e RD, respectivamente. O grupo OR apresentou os maiores valores médios de resistência ao cisalhamento. O grupo HL diferiu significativamente (p0,05). Quanto ao escores do IRA, nenhuma diferença estatística significante foi observada (p>0,05) entre os grupos. Concluiu-se que as unidades de luz Ortholux LED e Radii LED proporcionaram maiores valores de resistência adesiva aos bráquetes. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different light-emitting diodes (LED) light-curing devices for bonding orthodontic brackets, using the shear bond strength and analysis of adhesive remnant index (ARI). Crowns from 60 bovine incisors received brackets bonded with Transbond XT. Spe [...] cimens were divided into 4 groups (n=15) according to the light-curing procedures: HL = control, halogen light; OR = Ortholux LED; UL = Ultraled XP, and RD = Radii LED. All light-curing procedures were performed for 40 s. Shear bond strength test was evaluated using an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test. The ARI scores were evaluated with a stereoscopic magnifying glass and analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test. A significance level of 5% was set for all analyses. Shear bond strength means in MPa and standard deviations were 9.82 (3.28), 12.70 (3.35), 9.04 (2.80) and 11.22 (2.36) for HL, OR, UL and RD, respectively. OR presented the highest shear bond strength mean value. HL differed significantly (p0.05). Regarding the ARI scores, no statistically significant difference was observed (p>0.05) among the groups. In conclusion, Ortholux LED and Radii LED units provided the highest values of bracket adhesive strength.

  9. Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Hemrend, Bernard; Altuna, Gurkan; Tompson, Bryan

    1989-01-01

    The authors of this article offer an introduction to the field of orthodontics. They present the latest advances in orthodontic appliances and some of the possible consequences of orthodontic treatment. They discuss a number of cases and offer examples of some of the more common problems that the orthodontist is asked to treat. Such cases include severe Class II, division 1 malocclusion, surgical orthodontics, “long-face” syndrome, adult orthodontics-TMJ-periodontics, late adult growth, a...

  10. Orthodontic materials research and applications: part 2. Current status and projected future developments in materials and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliades, Theodore

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this 2-part opinion article was to project the developments expected to occur in the next few years in orthodontic materials research and applications. Part 1 reviewed developments in bonding to enamel. Part 2 looks at other orthodontic materials applications and explores emerging research strategies for probing the biological properties of materials. In the field of metallic brackets, expansion of the use of titanium alloys with improved hardness and nickel-free steels with better corrosion resistance and increased hardness is expected. Manufacturing techniques might be modified to include laser-welding methods and metal injection molding. Esthetic bracket research will involve the synthesis of high-crystallinity biomedical polymers with increased hardness and stiffness, decreased water sorption, and improved resistance to degradation. New plastic brackets might incorportate ceramic wings. Fiber-reinforced composite archwires, currently experimental, could soon be commercially available, and long-term applications of shape-memory plastics might become viable. Advancements in elastomeric materials will result in polymers with reduced relaxation, broader use of fluoride-releasing elastomers with decreased relaxation, and large-scale film coating of elastomers to decrease reactivity, water sorption, and degradation. Finally, biocompatibility assessments will incorporate testing of potential endocrinological action. New polymer formulations might be tested in adhesive and plastic bracket manufacturing, based on benzoic ring-free monomers to avoid the adverse effects of the estrogenic molecule bisphenol-A. PMID:17276868

  11. Influence of surface treatment on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ione Helena Vieira Portella, Brunharo; Daniel Jogaib, Fernandes; Mauro Sayão de, Miranda; Flavia, Artese.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: foram avaliadas as forças de cisalhamento após colagem de braquetes ortodônticos em superfícies resinosas microparticuladas ou micro-híbridas, após diferentes tratamentos de superfície. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 280 corpos de prova, divididos em grupos de 10 elementos cada, sendo 140 pre [...] enchidos com resina microparticulada Durafill e 140 com resina micro-híbrida Charisma. Os tratamentos de superfície envolveram: ácido fosfórico, ácido fluorídrico, jato de bicarbonato de sódio, jato de óxido de alumínio, pedra e broca. A silanagem foi utilizada em metade dos grupos. O cisalhamento foi realizado com a máquina universal de testes EMIC DL 10000 MF, com célula de 10kg e velocidade de 0,5mm/min. As comparações entre as forças de cisalhamento foram obtidas por meio da análise de variância, e o grau de interação entre os tipos de compósito e o preparo de superfície foram obtidos por meio de uma regressão multivariada. RESULTADOS: as médias e desvios-padrão foram: jato de bicarbonato = 11,27 ± 2,78; broca = 9,26 ± 3,01; pedra = 7,95 ± 3,67; jato de óxido de alumínio = 7,04 ± 3,21; ácido fosfórico = 5,82 ± 1,90; ácido fluorídrico = 4,54 ± 2,87; e sem preparo = 2,75 ± 1,49. Um acréscimo de 1,94MPa foi obtido com o uso do compósito Charisma. A silanagem reduziu em 0,68MPa as médias do compósito Charisma, e aumentou o Durafill com uso do jato de bicarbonato (0,83), broca (0,98) e pedra (0,46). CONCLUSÃO: os preparos com jato de bicarbonato, broca e pedra obtiveram médias de forças apropriadas para colagem. O compósito Charisma apresentou forças de maior intensidade que as da resina Durafill. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to micro-hybrid and micro-particulate resins under different surface treatment methods was assessed. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty test samples were divided into 28 groups (n = 10), where 140 specimens were filled with Durafill m [...] icro-particulate resin and 140 with Charisma composite. In 140 samples, a coupling agent (silane) was applied. The surface treatment methods were: Phosphoric and hydrofluoric acid etching, sodium bicarbonate and aluminum oxide blasting, stone and burs. A Universal Instron Machine was used to apply an occlusal shear force directly to the resin composite bracket surface at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The means were compared using analysis of variance and multivariate regression to assess the interaction between composites and surface treatment methods. RESULTS: Means and standard deviations for the groups were: Sodium bicarbonate jet 11.27±2.78; burs 9.26±3.01; stone 7.95±3.67; aluminum oxide blasting 7.04±3.21; phosphoric acid 5.82±1.90; hydrofluoric acid 4.54±2.87, and without treatment 2.75±1.49. An increase of 1.94 MPa in shear bond strength was seen in Charisma groups. Silane agent application reduced the Charisma shear bond strength by 0.68 Mpa, but increased Durafill means for bicarbonate blasting (0.83), burs (0.98) and stone drilling (0.46). CONCLUSION: The sodium bicarbonate blasting, burs and stone drilling methods produced adequate shear bond strength and may be suitable for clinical use. The Charisma micro hybrid resin composite showed higher shear bond means than Durafill micro particle composite.

  12. Relative kinetic frictional forces between sintered stainless steel brackets and orthodontic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J L; Duncanson, M G; Nanda, R S; Currier, G F

    1995-01-01

    The level of kinetic frictional forces generated during in vitro translation at the bracket-wire interface were measured for two sintered stainless steel brackets as a function of two slot sizes, four wire alloys, and five to eight wire sizes. The two types of sintered stainless steel brackets were tested in both 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slots. Wires of four different alloy types, stainless steel (SS), cobalt chromium (Co-Cr), nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti), and beta-titanium (beta-Ti), were tested. There were five wire sizes for the 0.018-inch slot and eight wire sizes for the 0.022-inch slot. The wires were ligated into the brackets with elastomeric ligatures. Bracket movement along the wire was implemented by means of a mechanical testing instrument, and time dependent frictional forces were measured by a load cell and plotted on an X-Y recorder. For most wire sizes, lower frictional forces were generated with the SS of Co-Cr wires than with the beta-Ti or Ni-Ti wires. Increase in wire size generally resulted in increased bracket-wire friction. There were no significant differences between manufacturer for the sintered stainless steel brackets. The levels of frictional force in 0.018-inch brackets ranged from a low of 46 gm with 0.016-inch Co-Cr wire to a high of 157 gm with 0.016 x 0.025-inch beta-Ti wire. In comparing the data from a previous study by Kapila et al. 1990 performed at OUHSC with the same apparatus, the friction of sintered stainless steel brackets was approximately 40% to 45% less than the friction of the conventional stainless steel brackets. PMID:7817958

  13. Evaluation of Friction in Orthodontics Using Various Brackets and Archwire Combinations-An in Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sujeet; Singh, Shamsher; Hamsa P.R, Rani; Ahmed, Sameer; Prasanthma,; Bhatnagar, Apoorva; Sidhu, Manreet; Shetty, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to compare frictional resistance which was produced between conventional brackets (0.022 slot Otho-Organiser) and self ligating brackets (active Forestadent and passive Damon III) by using various arch wire combinations (0.016 Niti, 0.018 Niti, 0.017 x 0.025 SS and 0.019 x 0.025 SS).

  14. In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Pereira Saporeti; Enio Tonani Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco Sales

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chromium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four i...

  15. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets cemented with a zinc oxide-polyvinyl cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S; Garcia-Godoy, F

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strengths and enamel surface structure after debonding a conventional metal bracket and a polycrystalline ceramic bracket bonded with a bipolar zinc oxide-polyvinyl cement (F-21) or a light-cured resin cement (Transbond). Forty extracted human premolars were used. The buccal enamel surfaces were used, and the teeth randomly divided into four groups of 10 teeth each: group 1: conventional metal bracket (Unitek) bonded with Transbond; group 2: metal bracket bonded with F-21; group 3: ceramic bracket (Transcend 2000) bonded with Transbond; and group 4: ceramic bracket bonded with F-21. The brackets were bonded to the etched enamel surfaces according to manufacturer's instructions. All specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours and then thermocycled for 300 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C. The specimens were mounted in dental stone and placed in the Instron at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min with a knife-edged blade. Immediately after debonding, the enamel surface and bracket-enamel interface were evaluated visually and with a stereomicroscope. Representative samples were then examined with the scanning electron microscope. The analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls tests were performed. The results in megapascals were Group 1: 19,6 (+/- 9,6); group 2: 14,3 (+/- 4,6); group 3: 28,8 (+/- 12,6); and group 4: 18,5 (+/- 7,5). Group 3 was statistically significantly different (P < 0.008) from all other groups. Groups 1, 2, and 4 were not significantly different.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7977207

  16. Report: Discussion on the development of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket and its antibacterial property and biocompatibility in orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ronghe; Zhang, Weiwei; Bai, Xueyan; Song, Xiaotong; Wang, Chunyan; Gao, Xinxin; Tian, Xubiao; Liu, Fengzhen

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to explore the antibacterial property of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket for the common bacteria in oral cavity, and discuss its biocompatibility. Micro morphology in the surface of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket was detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and surface roughness of ordinary mental bracket, nano TiO2 coating bracket and nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket were measured. First, antibacterial property of nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket on the common bacteria in oral cavity was studied by sticking membrane method. Secondly, bonding strength of nano TiO2 coating and nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket in groups were detected by scratching test. The result showed that, the synthetic nano Ag/TiO2 coating was nanogranular films with rigorous organizational structure, presenting as smooth and clean surface, and antibacterial rate of nano Ag/TiO2 coating for the common bacteria in oral cavity for 20 min was more than 79% in the dark. All the findings suggested that, nano Ag/TiO2 coating bracket not only has antibacterial effect but also has good biocompatibility, therefore, it can satisfy the clinical request of orthodontic treatment. PMID:25796158

  17. Comparison of the shear bond strengths of conventional mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Prado Torres Lugato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare in vitro the shear bond strength between metallic brackets (Abzil with conventional mesh bases and metallic brackets with bases industrially sandblasted with aluminum oxide using three adhesive systems, in order to assess the influence of sandblasting on adhesiveness and to compare 3 different bonding systems. Two hundred and forty bovine incisors were used and randomly divided into 6 groups (40 teeth in each group, according to the bracket base and to the bonding system. The brackets were direct-bonded in bovine teeth with 3 adhesive systems: System A - conventional TransbondTM XT (3M - Unitek; System B - TransbondTM Plus Self Etching Primer + TransbondTM XT (3M - Unitek and System C - Fuji ORTHO LC resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement in capsules (GC Corp.. Shear bond strength tests were performed 24 hours after bonding, in a DL-3000 universal testing machine (EMIC, using a load cell of 200 kgf and a speed of 1 mm/min. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and showed no significant difference between conventional and sandblasted bracket bases. However, comparison between the bonding systems presented significantly different results. System A (14.92 MPa and system C (13.24 MPa presented statistically greater shear bond strength when compared to system B (10.66 MPa. There was no statistically significant difference between system A and system C.

  18. Comparison of the shear bond strengths of conventional mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Cristina Prado Torres, Lugato; Lilian Maria Brisque, Pignatta; Flávia de Moraes, Arantes; Eduardo César Almada, Santos.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare in vitro the shear bond strength between metallic brackets (Abzil) with conventional mesh bases and metallic brackets with bases industrially sandblasted with aluminum oxide using three adhesive systems, in order to assess the influence of sandblasting on adhesiveness and [...] to compare 3 different bonding systems. Two hundred and forty bovine incisors were used and randomly divided into 6 groups (40 teeth in each group), according to the bracket base and to the bonding system. The brackets were direct-bonded in bovine teeth with 3 adhesive systems: System A - conventional TransbondTM XT (3M - Unitek); System B - TransbondTM Plus Self Etching Primer + TransbondTM XT (3M - Unitek) and System C - Fuji ORTHO LC resin-reinforced glass ionomer cement in capsules (GC Corp.). Shear bond strength tests were performed 24 hours after bonding, in a DL-3000 universal testing machine (EMIC), using a load cell of 200 kgf and a speed of 1 mm/min. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and showed no significant difference between conventional and sandblasted bracket bases. However, comparison between the bonding systems presented significantly different results. System A (14.92 MPa) and system C (13.24 MPa) presented statistically greater shear bond strength when compared to system B (10.66 MPa). There was no statistically significant difference between system A and system C.

  19. Notching of orthodontic bonding resin to facilitate ceramic bracket debond--an ex vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmour, C J; McCabe, J F; Gordon, P H

    1998-11-01

    This ex vivo study assessed the potential of introducing a notch in the bond layer, as a means of facilitating the removal of ceramic brackets. Sixty extracted premolar teeth were divided into three groups of 20 teeth and bonded with Intrigue brackets using Concise chemically-cured adhesive. The bonding technique was modified with groups 1 and 2 by introducing a notch in the bond layer. Group 1 was notched from the gingival aspect, group 2 from the occlusal, and group 3 served as a control. The brackets were removed by applying a shear load from the gingival aspect using an Instron universal testing machine. The mean force to debond was calculated for each group. The results showed that introducing a notch significantly reduced the mean and maximal debond forces. This was confirmed with Weibull analysis with the notched specimens having a higher probability of failure at any force. In addition, ceramic bracket fracture was eliminated. Notching the bonding resin may be helpful in facilitating the removal of ceramic brackets. PMID:9884780

  20. Influência da secção transversa de fios ortodônticos na fricção superficial de braquetes autoligados / Influence of the cross-section of orthodontic wires on the surface friction of self-ligating brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta, Buzzoni; Carlos N., Elias; Daniel J., Fernandes; José Augusto M., Miguel.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a força de atrito estático entre braquetes de aço inoxidável autoligados com sistema de fechamento resiliente e fios ortodônticos redondos e retangulares do mesmo material. MÉTODOS: empregaram-se 30 braquetes referentes aos caninos superiores [...] divididos em 6 grupos formados por braquetes autoligados Smartclip, In-Ovation R e convencionais Gemini amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. A hipótese testada neste trabalho foi quanto à possibilidade dos braquetes autoligados ativos serem suscetíveis à elevação da força de atrito com o aumento e alteração da secção transversal dos fios ortodônticos. Os ensaios foram realizados com tração de 30s em fios de aço inoxidável 0,020" e 0,019"X0,025" na máquina de ensaios Emic DL 10000, com uma célula de carga de 20 newtons. Cada conjunto braquete/fio foi responsável pela geração de quatro corpos de prova, totalizando 120 leituras. As comparações entre as médias foram realizadas através da Análise de Variância (one way ANOVA) com correções pelo coeficiente de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: os braquetes autoligados apresentaram maior força de atrito do que os braquetes convencionais amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. O grupo Smartclip foi o mais efetivo no controle do atrito (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the surface friction produced by self-ligating stainless steel brackets equipped with a resilient closure system and compare the friction generated during traction of round and rectangular orthodontic wires made from the same material. METHODS: Thi [...] rty maxillary canine brackets were divided into six groups comprising SmartClip and In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets, and conventional Gemini brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. This investigation tested the hypothesis that self-ligating brackets are susceptible to increases in friction that are commensurate with increases and changes in the cross-section of orthodontic wires. Traction was performed with the aid of thirty segments of 0.020" and 0.019" x 0.025" stainless steel wires in an EMIC DL 10000 testing machine with a 2N load cell. Each set of bracket/wire generated four samples, totaling 120 readings. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (one way ANOVA) corrected with the Bonferroni coefficient. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The self-ligating brackets exhibited lower friction than conventional brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. The SmartClip group was the most effective in controlling friction (p

  1. Avaliação in vitro da liberação de níquel por braquetes metálicos / In vitro nickel release from metallic orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Lara, Sória; Luciane, Menezes; Berenice, Dedavid; Marçal, Pires; Susana, Rizzatto; Luiz Cesar da, Costa Filho.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O aço inoxidável austenítico é utilizado para confecção de dispositivos ortodônticos e contém cerca de 8-10% de níquel em sua composição, metal este responsável por reações alérgicas de hipersensibilidade. Acredita-se que a liberação de níquel dos dispositivos metálicos pode provocar dermatites de c [...] ontato em pacientes suscetíveis. Este estudo laboratorial avaliou a influência de três variáveis na liberação de níquel: 1) o tipo de liga do braquete; 2) o tipo de solução de imersão e 3) o esforço mecânico nas canaletas dos braquetes de aço inoxidável austenítico. Foram avaliados seis grupos experimentais e dois grupos controles. As amostras foram imersas em tubos de ensaio contendo saliva artificial ou solução salina, sendo mantidas sob agitação e temperatura constante (37ºC). A quantidade de níquel presente nas soluções foi avaliada com espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica (Varian - Spectra A55) em dois momentos: após uma semana e após duas semanas. Os resultados revelaram que os braquetes de aço inoxidável com baixo teor de níquel apresentaram menor liberação deste elemento. Foi possível constatar que o tipo de solução alterou o padrão de liberação de níquel pelos dispositivos avaliados. O esforço mecânico aplicado sobre os braquetes de aço inoxidável austenítico não alterou a quantidade de níquel liberada. Abstract in english Austenitic stainless steel is frequently used to fabricate orthodontic appliances, which contains 8-10% of nickel. Such metal is responsible for hypersensitivity allergic reactions. Thus, nickel release of orthodontic appliances may be responsible for contact dermatitis in sensitive patients. This s [...] tudy assessed the influence of three variables in nickel release of metal brackets: 1) type of metal alloy; 2) type of solution used for immersion; and 3) mechanical stress. Six experimental and two control groups were assessed. The specimens were immersed in saline solution or artificial saliva, maintained in constant agitation in controlled temperature environment (37ºC). Nickel present in solutions was measured with atomic spectroscopy (Varian-Spectra A55) in two moments: after one and after two weeks. The results showed that brackets made of low nickel contend alloy released less nickel than standard ones. It was possible to notice that the type of solution alters the pattern of nickel release. Mechanical stress applied in the slots of standard brackets did not influence nickel release.

  2. Avaliação da superfície da porcelana após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos Porcelain surface evaluation after debonding of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Moreira Mattos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tempo de condicionamento ácido em superfície de porcelana e o estado desta após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizadas 20 amostras de porcelana feldspática para esmalte (Duceram-LFC divididas em 2 grupos de acordo com o tempo de condicionamento com ácido fluorídico 10% (15 segundos e 1 minuto. Após o ataque ácido, foi aplicado silano (3M Scotchbond, adesivo resinoso (Optibond Solo Plus e resina (Fill Magic nestas superfícies. A descolagem foi realizada através de força de cisalhamento numa máquina universal de ensaios (DL 500 - EMIC calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/minuto. O índice do adesivo remanescente (ARI nas superfícies cerâmicas e o estado destas após a remoção dos braquetes foram avaliados através de fotos digitais. RESULTADOS: no grupo 15 segundos, a força de adesão média foi de 3,63MPa, significantemente inferior à do grupo 1 minuto, que foi de 7,18MPa (pAIM: the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acid conditioning time in porcelain surface and its characteristics after debonding of orthodontic brackets. METHODS: twenty samples of feldspathic porcelain for enamel (Duceram-LFC were divided in 2 groups according with the amount of time of acid conditioning with hydrofluoric acid 10% (15 seconds and 1 minute. After acid etching, it was applied silane (3M Scotchbond, adhesive (Optibond Solo Plus and resin (Fill Magic in these surfaces. The debonding was done with shear strength through a universal testing machine (DL 500 - EMIC calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5mm/minute. The adhesive remnant index (ARI in the porcelain surfaces and their characteristics after removal of the brackets were evaluated through digital pictures. RESULTS: in the 15 seconds group, the mean bond strength was 3.63Mpa, significantly lower than the 1 minute group, that was 7.18Mpa (p<0.0001. All fractures during debonding were cohesive in the composite resin layer (70% or bond between the bracket and the resin (30%. In relation to the ARI analysis, the Chi-square test showed no statistically significant difference between both groups. CONCLUSION: conditioning with hydrofluoric acid 10% for 1 minute, followed by the application of silane, adhesive and resin was considered the best porcelain preparation method before orthodontic bonding.

  3. Corrosion Inhibitory Ability of Ocimum Sanctum Linn (Tulsi Rinse on Ion Release from Orthodontic Brack-ets in Some Mouthwashes: An Invitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopal Patel, Sheron Bhanat, Dolly Patel, Bhadra Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the oral environment, orthodontic appliances are exposed to potentially damaging physical and chemical agents which may cause metallic corrosion. Corrosion will occur continuously in mouth, due to release of irons with abrasion by food, liquids etc. The purpose of this study was to measure the amount of metal ion release from orthodontic brackets when kept in different mouthwashes and effect of tulsi rinse on ion release when combined with different mouthwashes. Methods: Three hundred and twenty stainless steel brackets (0.022” were divided randomly into 8 equal groups and immersed in Mouthwash-A and, Mouthwash-B and mouthwash-C and distilled deionized water. These mouthwashes and distilled deionized water were all sepa-rately mixed with tulsi rinse and incubated at 37°C for 45 days. Nickel, Chromium, iron, copper and manganese released from the orthodontic brackets were measured with an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer. Results: Ion release in deionized water was higher (p<0.05 than in the 3 mouthwashes. Higher ion release was also found with Mouthwash-B compared with other 2 mouthwashes. There is no difference (p>0.05 in nickel, chromium, iron and copper ion release in the Mouthwash-A and Mouthwash-C. Tulsi rinse showed significant reduction (p<0.05 in all ion release in 3 mouthwashes used along with distilled deionzed water group. Conclusion: If ion release is concerned, Mouthwash-C mixed with tulsi rinse might be better option than Mouthwash-A as well as Mouthwash-B for orthodontic patients with stainless steel brackets.

  4. Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra Motta, Streva; Flávio Augusto, Cotrim-Ferreira; Daniela Gamba, Garib; Paulo Eduardo Guedes, Carvalho.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following comm [...] ercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines, was measured by an operator using an optical microscope coupled to a computer. The values were compared to those established by the MBT prescription. RESULTS: The results showed that for the maxillary canine brackets, only the Morelli torque (-3.33º) presented statistically significant difference from the proposed values (-7º). For the mandibular canines, American Orthodontics (-6.34º) and Ortho Organizers (-6.25º) presented statistically significant differences from the standards (-6º). Comparing the brands, Morelli presented statistically significant differences in comparison with all the other brands for maxillary canine brackets. For the mandibular canine brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the brands. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant variations in torque values of some of the brackets assessed, which would clinically compromise the buccolingual positioning of the tooth at the end of orthodontic treatment.

  5. Streptococcus mutans counts in plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement or resin-based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Machado Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU (colony forming units in the saliva and plaque adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with a glass ionomer cement - GIC (Fuji Ortho or a resin-based composite - RC (Concise. Twenty male and female patients, aged 12 to 20 years, participated in the study. Saliva was collected before and after placement of appliances. Plaque was collected from areas adjacent to brackets and saliva was again collected on the 15th, 30th, and 45th day after placement. On the 30th day, 0.4% stannous fluoride gel was applied for 4 minutes. No significant modification in the number of Streptococcus mutans CFU in saliva was observed after placement of the fixed orthodontic appliances. On the 15th day, the percentage of Streptococcus mutans CFU in plaque was statistically lower in sites adjacent to GIC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.365 than in those adjacent to RC-bonded brackets (mean = 0.935. No evidence was found of a contribution of GIC to the reduction of CFU in plaque after the 15th day. Topical application of stannous fluoride gel on the 30th day reduced the number of CFU in saliva, but not in plaque. This study suggests that the antimicrobial activity of GIC occurs only in the initial phase and is not responsible for a long-term anticariogenic property.

  6. Etching conditions for resin-modified glass ionomer cement for orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Rudolfo M; De Rijk, Waldemar G; Drummond, James L; Evans, Carla A

    2002-05-01

    This study reports the tensile bond strength of orthodontic eyelets (RMO, Inc, Denver, Colo) bonded to human extracted teeth with a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Fuji Ortho LC, GC America, Alsip, Ill) and various acid etchants (Etch-37 and All-Etch, Bisco, Schaumburg, Ill; Ultra Etch, 3M Unitek, St Paul, Minn) for enamel preparation before bonding. The enamel etch conditions were as follows: 37% phosphoric acid with silica; 37% phosphoric acid, silica-free; 10% phosphoric acid, silica-free; 10% polyacrylic acid; and unetched enamel. Bond strength was measured by pulling in tension on the eyelet with a 0.018-in steel wire perpendicular to the enamel surface with a testing machine (Instron model 1125, Canton, Mass) at a speed of 2 mm/min. A light-cured resin cement (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) applied to enamel etched with 37% phosphoric acid containing silica served as a control. Each group included 30 specimens. The Weibull distribution (m) was used for statistical analysis with a 90% CI. The different etchants used with RMGIC did not affect tensile bond strength. The resin cement group had the highest tensile strength. Significantly lower bond strengths were observed when glass ionomer cement was used to bond orthodontic attachments to nonetched teeth. However, unlike resin cement, RMGIC can bond effectively to etched teeth in a moist environment without an additional bonding agent. PMID:12045770

  7. Control of White Spot Lesion Adjacent to Orthodontic Bracket with Use of Fluoride Varnish or Chlorhexidine Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Manuel; Bussaneli, Diego G.; Jeremias, Fabiano; Cordeiro, Rita C. L.; Magalhães, Ana C.; Palomari Spolidorio, Denise M.; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effectiveness of fluoride varnish and chlorhexidine gel in controlling white spot lesions (WSLs) adjacent to orthodontic brackets and to compare the ability of Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF) to measure mineral uptake with that of transverse microradiography (TMR). Thirty premolars with artificially induced WSLs were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) two applications of 5% NaF-varnish (F), with one-week interval, (2) two applications of 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), with one-week interval, and (3) control (CO), no treatment. QLF was used to measure changes in fluorescence before and after caries induction, 1 week after each application and 1, 2, and 3 months after the last application of F or CHX. TMR was performed to quantify lesion depth and mineral content after caries induction to evaluate the effects of F, CHX, and CO 3 months after the last application of agents. The data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test. All treatments increased the mineral content during the experimental period; however, F induced faster remineralization than CHX. The correlation between QLF and TMR was significantly moderate. Two applications of fluoride varnish or 2% chlorhexidine gel at one-week intervals were effective in controlling WSLs. PMID:25973442

  8. Properties of Composite Materials Used for Bracket Bonding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Caroline Silva, Gama; Andre Guaraci de Vito, Moraes; Lilyan Cardoso, Yamasaki; Alessandro Dourado, Loguercio; Ceci Nunes, Carvalho; Jose, Bauer.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento no esmalte, resistência flexural, módulo flexural, tensão de contração de polimerização de duas resinas flow e uma resina ortodôntica. Os bráquetes ortodônticos foram colados em 45 pré-molares humanos e divididos: Transbond XT, Filtek [...] Z-350 flow, Opallis flow e testado para resistência ao cisalhamento (n=15). Para a resistência e módulo flexural espécimes foram confeccionados e testados sob flexão. Para o teste de tensão de contração de polimerização, espécimes cilíndricos foram confeccionados e monitorados com um extensômetro (Instron). Os dados foram submetidos aos testes ANOVA a um critério e Tukey (?=0,05) para contraste de média. (n=15). A resistência de união das resinas flow foram significantemente menos que o da resina ortodôntica (p>0,05). A resistência flexural não demonstrou diferença significante entre os grupos testados (p>0,05). O módulo flexural da resina ortodôntica foi significantemente maior que o grupo das resinas flow (p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the shear bond strength to enamel, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and contraction stress of one orthodontic composite and two flowable composites. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to 45 human maxillary premolars with the composites Transbond X [...] T, Filtek Z-350 flow and Opallis flow and tested for shear bond strength. For measurement of flexural strength and flexural modulus, specimens were fabricated and tested under flexion. For the contraction stress test, cylindrical specimens were tested and an extensometer determined the height of the specimens. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). The shear bond strength values were significantly lower (p0.05) while the flexural modulus was significantly higher (p

  9. In vitro corrosion of metallic orthodontic brackets: influence of artificial saliva with and without fluorides

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mônica Pereira, Saporeti; Enio Tonani, Mazzieiro; Wisley Falcco, Sales.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo in vitro verificou a resistência à corrosão de braquetes metálicos, avaliando-se os aspectos superficiais em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e os componentes residuais formados. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 17 conjuntos de braquetes de quatro diferentes ligas metál [...] icas: titânio, cobalto-cromo, aço inoxidável com baixa concentração de níquel e com cobertura de nitreto de titânio (TiN). Doze conjuntos foram submetidos à corrosão por imersão em 50ml de saliva artificial (pH 6,5) e 4 em saliva (pH 6,5) contendo flúor (2g/l), todos sob temperatura de 37ºC, e analisados após 7, 9 e 11 semanas. Uma montagem foi mantida como controle. As análises consistiram na avaliação qualitativa da corrosão por meio das imagens obtidas no MEV, na avaliação semiquantitativa da composição química dos resíduos superficiais por meio de MEV-EDS e da quantidade de íons liberados nas salivas na avaliação da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que os braquetes com liga de titânio puro e os de aço com baixa concentração de níquel foram superiores em relação à resistência à corrosão. A liga de cobalto-cromo foi a que apresentou maior corrosão. Na presença do flúor, observaram-se maiores alterações em todas as ligas, com destaque para as de aço cobertos com TiN e as de cobalto-cromo. CONCLUSÃO: apesar de se observar a corrosão no MEV, a espectrofotometria mostrou baixo desprendimento de íons nas salivas artificiais, porém a presença do flúor interferiu negativamente na resistência à corrosão. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study verified the resistance to corrosion of metallic brackets, evaluating the superficial aspects in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the residual components. METHODS: The sample consisted of 17 sets of brackets of four different metallic alloys: Titanium, Cobalt-Chr [...] omium, Stainless steel with low nickel concentration and with titanium nitride coating (NiTi). Twelve sets were submitted to corrosion by immersion in 50 ml of artificial saliva (pH 6.5) and four in saliva (pH 6.5) containing fluoride (2 g/l), all at a temperature of 37 ºC and analyzed after 7, 9 and 11 weeks. One was kept as control set. The analysis consisted in qualitative evaluation of the corrosion by the images obtained on the SEM, in semi-quantitative evaluation of chemical composition of the surface residue by SEM-EDS and the amount of ions released in saliva on evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The results showed that the pure titanium brackets and the ones with low nickel concentration were superior regarding resistance to corrosion. The cobalt-chromium alloy showed the greatest corrosion. In the presence of fluoride, it was observed greater variation in all alloys, especially in the ones of NiTi coated steel and the ones of cobalt-chromium. CONCLUSION: Although observed corrosion on the SEM, the spectrophotometry showed low ions release in the artificial saliva, however, the presence of fluoride negatively affected the corrosion resistance.

  10. Influence of bleaching and desensitizing gel on bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Alves Rodrigues, Britto; Adriana Simoni, Lucato; Heloisa Cristina, Valdrighi; Sílvia Amélia Scudeler, Vedovello.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a influência do gel clareador e da utilização de dessensibilizante na resistência adesiva de braquetes cerâmicos colados ao esmalte bovino. MÉTODOS: cem incisivos bovinos foram aleatoriamente divididos em cinco grupos (n = 20). Grupo 1, [...] sem clareamento (controle); Grupo 2, clareamento com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35%; Grupo 3, clareamento com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35%, sendo três aplicações de 15 minutos cada, e aplicação do dessensibilizante por 10 minutos; Grupo 4, clareamento com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35% durante 40 minutos; Grupo 5, clareamento com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35% durante 40 minutos e aplicação do dessensibilizante durante 10 minutos. Os braquetes foram colados sete dias após o clareamento e submetidos ao teste de resistência ao cisalhamento após 24 horas, a uma velocidade de compressão de 1mm/minuto. Após a fratura, avaliava-se o braquete, com lupa estereoscópica, com magnificação de 40x, e o Índice de Remanescente Adesivo (IRA). Os dados de resistência ao cisalhamento (MPa) foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que as amostras do Grupo 5 apresentaram resistência de união significativamente superior à dos grupos 1, 2 e 4, mas sem diferença do Grupo 3. Não houve diferença significativa entre a resistência de união dos demais grupos. O Índice de Remanescente Adesivo mostrou predominância do escore 3, ou seja, toda resina permaneceu aderida ao esmalte, para todos os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: pôde-se concluir que o clareamento com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35%, com cálcio associado à aplicação do dessensibilizante, produziu maior resistência dos braquetes ao esmalte bovino. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess, in vitro, the influence of bleaching gel and the use of desensitizing agent over bond strength of ceramic brackets bonded to bovine enamel. METHODS: One hundred bovine incisors were selected and randomly divided into five groups (n = 20): Group [...] 1, control group (without bleaching); Group 2, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide; Group 3, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (three applications, 15 minutes each) and desensitizing agent applied for 10 minutes; Group 4, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 40 minutes; Group 5, bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for 40 minutes with desensitizing agent applied for 10 minutes. Brackets were bonded 7 days after bleaching and submitted to shear bond strength test after 24 hours at a compression rate of 1 mm/minute. After fracture, the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was assessed under stereoscopic at 40 x magnification. Shear strength data (MPa) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test with significance level set at 5%. RESULTS: Group 5 (29.33 MPa) showed significantly higher bond strength than Group 1 (19.19 MPa), Group 2 (20.59 MPa) and Group 4 (23.25 MPa), but with no difference in comparison to Group 3. There was no significant difference among the other groups. The adhesive remnant index showed predominance of score 3, that is, all resin remained adhered to enamel for all groups. CONCLUSION: Bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide with calcium associated with desensitizing agent application produced higher bond strength values of brackets bonded to bovine enamel.

  11. Influência da secção transversa de fios ortodônticos na fricção superficial de braquetes autoligados Influence of the cross-section of orthodontic wires on the surface friction of self-ligating brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Buzzoni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a força de atrito estático entre braquetes de aço inoxidável autoligados com sistema de fechamento resiliente e fios ortodônticos redondos e retangulares do mesmo material. MÉTODOS: empregaram-se 30 braquetes referentes aos caninos superiores divididos em 6 grupos formados por braquetes autoligados Smartclip, In-Ovation R e convencionais Gemini amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. A hipótese testada neste trabalho foi quanto à possibilidade dos braquetes autoligados ativos serem suscetíveis à elevação da força de atrito com o aumento e alteração da secção transversal dos fios ortodônticos. Os ensaios foram realizados com tração de 30s em fios de aço inoxidável 0,020" e 0,019"X0,025" na máquina de ensaios Emic DL 10000, com uma célula de carga de 20 newtons. Cada conjunto braquete/fio foi responsável pela geração de quatro corpos de prova, totalizando 120 leituras. As comparações entre as médias foram realizadas através da Análise de Variância (one way ANOVA com correções pelo coeficiente de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: os braquetes autoligados apresentaram maior força de atrito do que os braquetes convencionais amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. O grupo Smartclip foi o mais efetivo no controle do atrito (pOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the surface friction produced by self-ligating stainless steel brackets equipped with a resilient closure system and compare the friction generated during traction of round and rectangular orthodontic wires made from the same material. METHODS: Thirty maxillary canine brackets were divided into six groups comprising SmartClip and In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets, and conventional Gemini brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. This investigation tested the hypothesis that self-ligating brackets are susceptible to increases in friction that are commensurate with increases and changes in the cross-section of orthodontic wires. Traction was performed with the aid of thirty segments of 0.020" and 0.019" x 0.025" stainless steel wires in an EMIC DL 10000 testing machine with a 2N load cell. Each set of bracket/wire generated four samples, totaling 120 readings. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (one way ANOVA corrected with the Bonferroni coefficient. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The self-ligating brackets exhibited lower friction than conventional brackets tied with elastomeric ligatures. The SmartClip group was the most effective in controlling friction (p <0.01. The hypothesis under test was confirmed to the extent that the traction performed with rectangular 0.019" x 0.025" cross-section wires resulted in higher friction forces than those observed in the 0.020" round wire groups (p<0.01. The SmartClip system was more effective even when the traction produced by rectangular wires was compared with the In-Ovation R brackets combined with round wires (p<0.01.

  12. Effect of self-etching primer/adhesive and conventional bonding on the shear bond strength in metallic and ceramic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzakouchaki, Behnam; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Hydari, Mahboubeh; Shahrbaf, Shirin; Mirzakouchaki-boroujeni, Parvin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Bracket debonding from the tooth surface is a common problem in fixed orthodontics. The aims of the present study were to assess the bond strength and failure sites in two ways of bonding technique, with metallic and ceramic brackets. Material and Methods: One hundred premolars were assigned to 4 groups of 25 each: Group A, metallic brackets/ conventional procedure; Group B, metallic brackets/Transbond XT; Group C, ceramic brackets/conventional procedure; and Grou...

  13. Estudo comparativo de seis tipos de braquetes ortodônticos quanto à força de adesão A comparative study of six types of orthodontic brackets with regard to bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Aquino Fleischmann

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a realização de um diagnóstico acurado, assim como a correta seleção de materiais, especificamente dos braquetes, são requisitos importantes para o êxito da terapia ortodôntica. OBJETIVOS: investigar a influência de variados tipos de desenho da base de braquetes na força de adesão. METODOLOGIA: seis modelos foram avaliados mediante ensaio de cisalhamento - Discovery (Dentaurum - metálico com retenções por laser e 13,12mm² de área da base; Monobloc (Morelli - metálico em corpo único com protuberâncias e 10,22mm² de área; Edgewise Standard (Ortho Organizers - metálico com base MIM (Metal Injection Molding e 12,02mm² de área; Illusion Plus (Ortho Organizers - porcelana com sulcos de retenção e 13,49mm² de área; Composite (Morelli - policarbonato com protuberâncias para retenção mecânica e 14,68mm² de área; e Edgewise Standard (Morelli - metálico com tela de retenção e 14,31mm² de área. Os braquetes foram colados em dentes bovinos (incisivos com o sistema adesivo Fill Magic Ortodôntico (Vigodent, para a realização do teste. O ensaio foi executado em uma máquina de ensaios universal (EMIC, e a força de adesão foi computada, no momento da cisão, pelo software TESC, versão 3.01, medida em Newtons (N e em Megapascal (Mpa. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: não houve diferença estatística entre os braquetes testados, sendo que o grupo que apresentou a maior média de força de adesão foi o Discovery com 10,12Mpa.INTRODUCTION: An accurate diagnosis as well as the correct selection of materials, brackets in particular, are important pre-requisites for success in orthodontic therapy. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of various brackets-base designs on bond strength. METHODS: Six models were evaluated by a test of sheer bond strength: Discovery (Dentaurum - metallic with laser grooves and 13.12mm² of base area; Monobloc (Morelli - metallic one-piece with raised bumps and 10.22mm² of area; Edgewise Standard (Ortho Organizers - metallic with MIM (Metal Injection Molding and 12.02mm² of area; Illusion Plus (Ortho Organizers - ceramic with retention ridges and 13.49mm² of area; Composite (Morelli - polycarbonate with raised bumps for mechanical retention with 14.68mm² of area; and Edgewise Standard (Morelli - metallic with single mesh and 14.31mm² of area. The brackets were bonded on bovine teeth with Fill Magic Ortodôntico (Vigodent bond agent, for testing. The study was conduced in a universal test machine (EMIC, and the bond strength was recorded at the moment of split by TESC software, 3.01 version; it was calculated in newtons (N and megapascal (Mpa. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: No statistical difference among tested brackets was found, and the group with the greatest average bond strength was Discovery with 10,12Mpa.

  14. Estudo comparativo de seis tipos de braquetes ortodônticos quanto à força de adesão / A comparative study of six types of orthodontic brackets with regard to bond strength

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo de Aquino, Fleischmann; Márcio Costa, Sobral; Gildo Coelho, Santos Júnior; Fernando, Habib.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a realização de um diagnóstico acurado, assim como a correta seleção de materiais, especificamente dos braquetes, são requisitos importantes para o êxito da terapia ortodôntica. OBJETIVOS: investigar a influência de variados tipos de desenho da base de braquetes na força de adesão. METOD [...] OLOGIA: seis modelos foram avaliados mediante ensaio de cisalhamento - Discovery (Dentaurum) - metálico com retenções por laser e 13,12mm² de área da base; Monobloc (Morelli) - metálico em corpo único com protuberâncias e 10,22mm² de área; Edgewise Standard (Ortho Organizers) - metálico com base MIM (Metal Injection Molding) e 12,02mm² de área; Illusion Plus (Ortho Organizers) - porcelana com sulcos de retenção e 13,49mm² de área; Composite (Morelli) - policarbonato com protuberâncias para retenção mecânica e 14,68mm² de área; e Edgewise Standard (Morelli) - metálico com tela de retenção e 14,31mm² de área. Os braquetes foram colados em dentes bovinos (incisivos) com o sistema adesivo Fill Magic Ortodôntico (Vigodent), para a realização do teste. O ensaio foi executado em uma máquina de ensaios universal (EMIC), e a força de adesão foi computada, no momento da cisão, pelo software TESC, versão 3.01, medida em Newtons (N) e em Megapascal (Mpa). RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: não houve diferença estatística entre os braquetes testados, sendo que o grupo que apresentou a maior média de força de adesão foi o Discovery com 10,12Mpa. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: An accurate diagnosis as well as the correct selection of materials, brackets in particular, are important pre-requisites for success in orthodontic therapy. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of various brackets-base designs on bond strength. METHODS: Six models w [...] ere evaluated by a test of sheer bond strength: Discovery (Dentaurum) - metallic with laser grooves and 13.12mm² of base area; Monobloc (Morelli) - metallic one-piece with raised bumps and 10.22mm² of area; Edgewise Standard (Ortho Organizers) - metallic with MIM (Metal Injection Molding) and 12.02mm² of area; Illusion Plus (Ortho Organizers) - ceramic with retention ridges and 13.49mm² of area; Composite (Morelli) - polycarbonate with raised bumps for mechanical retention with 14.68mm² of area; and Edgewise Standard (Morelli) - metallic with single mesh and 14.31mm² of area. The brackets were bonded on bovine teeth with Fill Magic Ortodôntico (Vigodent) bond agent, for testing. The study was conduced in a universal test machine (EMIC), and the bond strength was recorded at the moment of split by TESC software, 3.01 version; it was calculated in newtons (N) and megapascal (Mpa). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: No statistical difference among tested brackets was found, and the group with the greatest average bond strength was Discovery with 10,12Mpa.

  15. Prototype of a new tip developed to be coupled to dental light-curing units for optimizing bonding of orthodontic brackets and accessories

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio Luiz, Mota Júnior; Márcio José da Silva, Campos; Marco Abdo, Gravina; Marcelo Reis, Fraga; Robert Willer Farinazzo, Vitral.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: desenvolver uma nova ponteira para ser acoplada aos aparelhos fotopolimerizadores utilizados para colagem de braquetes e acessórios ortodônticos, e testar sua da efetividade em ensaio mecânico in vitro. A ponteira é espelhada na superfície interna e baseia-se em conceitos físicos de refraç [...] ão e reflexão de luz. Apresenta como principal vantagem o menor tempo clínico durante o procedimento de colagem, reduzindo a possibilidade de contaminação durante o processo. MÉTODOS: por meio de ensaio de resistência ao cisalhamento e determinação do índice remanescente de adesivo (IRA), testou-se a ponteira desenvolvida em 120 corpos de prova. A amostra foi dividia em dois grupos. No grupo 1, foi utilizado aparelho fotopolimerizador de fonte de luz halógena e, no grupo 2, fonte de LED. Cada grupo foi subdividido. Nos subgrupos H1 e L1, utilizou-se a ponteira convencional. Nos subgrupos H2 e L2 a colagem foi feita utilizando a ponteira desenvolvida para a polimerização do material de colagem. RESULTADOS: os valores dos testes de cisalhamento e IRA para os subgrupos foram comparados entre si. Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa para o ensaio de resistência ao cisalhamento (p > 0,05) nem para o IRA (p > 0,05) entre os subgrupos. CONCLUSÃO: os testes de ensaio mecânico, assim como a análise do IRA, mostraram que a nova ponteira desenvolvida cumpriu os requisitos necessários à colagem dos acessórios ortodônticos, e que o tempo de colagem foi reduzido pela metade, sendo necessária uma só incidência. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: development of a new device to be coupled to light-curing units for bonding orthodontic brackets and accessories, and test its efficacy in an in vitro mechanical trial. The inner surface of the device is mirrored and is based on physical concepts of light refraction and reflection. The ma [...] in advantage of such device is the reduced clinical time needed for bonding and the low possibility of contamination during the process. METHODS: One hundred and twenty specimens were used for testing the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with the device. The Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) was also determined. The sample was divided into 2 groups. In group 1 a halogen light-curing unit was used while in group 2 a led light-curing unit was used. Each group was then subdivided. In subgroups H1 and L1, a conventional light guide rod was used while in subgroups H2 and L2 bonding was performed with the mirrored device coupled to the tip of the guide light rod. RESULTS: The values obtained for the shear bond strength and the ARI in the subgroups were compared. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference for the shear strength (p > 0.05) and the ARI (p > 0.05) between the subgroups. CONCLUSION: The tests of mechanical trials and the ARI analysis showed that the new device fulfilled the requirements for bonding orthodontic accessories, and that the time for bonding was reduced to half, being necessary only one light exposure.

  16. Evaluation of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded on the tooth surface after internal bleaching / Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de briquettes ortodônticos colados na superfície dentária após clareamento interno

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadia de Souza, FERREIRA; Patrícia Campos Ferreira da, ROSA; Raffaela Di Iorio Jeronymo, FERREIRA; Marcia Carneiro, VALERA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução : O apelo estético de pacientes que possuem dentes escurecidos é grande, pois atualmente os padrões estéticos se tornaram rigorosos e muitos pacientes antes ou durante o tratamento ortodôntico, realizam o procedimento de clareamento dental. Objetivo: Avaliar a adesão de braquetes or [...] todônticos em molares humanos que receberam clareamento interno. Material e método: Quarenta coroas de molares humanos foram divididas em quatro grupos, de acordo com o agente clareador utilizado: SP) perborato de sódio + água; SP) peróxido de carbamida; CP+SP) peróxido de carbamida + perborato de sódio; Cont) água (grupo controle). Os agentes clareadores colocados no interior das câmaras pulpares foram substituídos a cada 7 dias por 2 semanas, e a colagem dos braquetes foi efetuada após 30 dias do final do clareamento. O teste de resistência ao cisalhamento foi realizado em máquina de ensaios universal (Emic). Resultado: O teste estatístico ANOVA com nível de significância de 5% (p > 0,05), mostrou que não houve diferença estatística significante entre os grupos (p = 0,1214). Conclusão: Concluiu-se que os diferentes agentes clareadores estudados não interferem na resistência de adesão dos braquetes ao esmalte dentário e a colagem dos braquetes 30 dias após o clareamento interno é um procedimento seguro. Abstract in english Introduction: There is great demand for esthetic treatment by patients who have discolored teeth, because currently aesthetic standards have become stricter and many patients have tooth bleaching procedures performed before or during orthodontic treatment. Objective: To evaluate the bonding of [...] orthodontic brackets to human molars after internal tooth bleaching. Material and method: Forty molars were divided into four groups according to the bleaching agent used: PS) sodium perborate + water; PC) carbamide peroxide; PC + PS) carbamide peroxide + sodium perborate; Cont) water (control group). Bleaching agents placed inside the pulp chambers were replaced every 7 days for 2 weeks, and the brackets were bonded 30 days after the end of bleaching. The shear strength test was performed in a universal testing machine (Emic). Result: ANOVA with a significance level of 5% (p > 0.05), showed no statistically significant difference between groups (p = 0.1214). Conclusion: It was concluded that the different bleaching agents studied did not interfere with the bond strength of brackets to enamel and bonding the brackets 30 days after internal bleaching is a safe procedure.

  17. Friction between different wire bracket combinations in artificial saliva: an in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kelly da Silva Fidalgo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective this work was to assess the friction coefficient between brackets and wires of different materials under conditions simulating the oral environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stainless steel (SS and titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA wires of 0.019x0.025-in diameter (American Orthodontics and polycarbonate bracket (American Orthodontics, ceramic bracket (American Orthodontics, and metal bracket (3M Unitek with slots of 0.022x0.030-in were used. The friction coefficient was assessed by means of mechanical traction with the system immersed in artificial saliva. The mean roughness of both wire surface and bracket slots was evaluated by using a surface profilometer. RESULTS: The system using TMA wire and polycarbonate bracket had the highest roughness (p<0.05. SS wire with ceramic bracket had the highest friction coefficient, whereas the use of metallic bracket yielded the lowest (p<0.05. However, it was observed a statistically significant difference in the system using TMA wire and ceramic bracket compared to that using TMA wire and polycarbonate bracket (p=0.038. CONCLUSIONS: Ceramic brackets in association with SS wire should be judiciously used, since this system showed a high friction coefficient.

  18. Fracture strength of different soldered and welded orthodontic joining configurations with and without filling material

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Johannes Bock; Jacqueline Bailly; Christian Ralf Gernhardt; Robert Andreas Werner Fuhrmann

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength of different joints made by conventional brazing, TIG and laser welding with and without filling material. Five standardized joining configurations of orthodontic wire in spring hard quality were used: round, cross, 3 mm length, 9 mm length and 7 mm to orthodontic band. The joints were made by five different methods: brazing, tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding with and without filling material. For the original orthodontic w...

  19. Friction between different wire bracket combinations in artificial saliva: an in vitro evaluation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana Kelly da Silva, Fidalgo; Matheus Melo, Pithon; José Vinicius Bolognesi, Maciel; Ana Maria, Bolognese.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective this work was to assess the friction coefficient between brackets and wires of different materials under conditions simulating the oral environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stainless steel (SS) and titanium-molybdenum alloy (TMA) wires of 0.019x0.025-in diameter (American Orth [...] odontics) and polycarbonate bracket (American Orthodontics), ceramic bracket (American Orthodontics), and metal bracket (3M Unitek) with slots of 0.022x0.030-in were used. The friction coefficient was assessed by means of mechanical traction with the system immersed in artificial saliva. The mean roughness of both wire surface and bracket slots was evaluated by using a surface profilometer. RESULTS: The system using TMA wire and polycarbonate bracket had the highest roughness (p

  20. Hypersensitivity to conventional and to nickel-free orthodontic brackets Hipersensibilidade a bráquetes ortodônticos convencionais e a bráquetes "nickel-free"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Cristina Garcia Pantuzo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the allergenic potential of orthodontic brackets, comparing the cutaneous sensitivity provoked by metals present in conventional metallic brackets to that provoked by brackets with a low concentration of nickel, known as "nickel-free". A sample was selected from 400 patients undergoing treatment in the orthodontic clinic of the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, in the period from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2003. A cutaneous sensitivity patch test containing 5% nickel sulphate was used in 58 patients (30 males and 28 females, aged between 11 and 30, which were using fixed appliances with Morelli® brackets in both arches. In a second phase, 30 days later, a comparative test of cutaneous sensitivity was applied to the whole sample with two types of test specimens, in the form of a disc. Two alloys were tested: discs composed of the alloy used in the construction of conventional brackets and discs composed of a nickel-free alloy. The internal part of the forearm was chosen for testing, and 20 test specimens of each experiment (corresponding to the twenty brackets of a complete fixed appliance were applied. Of the 58 patients evaluated, 16 patients were sensitive to the patch test with 5% nickel sulphate. Out of these 16 patients, 12 developed an allergic reaction to experiment 1 (test specimen with nickel, while in experiment 2, only 5 patients showed sensitivity to that sample. The McNemar test revealed that the nickel-free test specimens provoked less allergic reaction when compared with the conventional alloy (p = 0.016.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade alergênica provocada pelos bráquetes ortodônticos, comparando a sensibilidade cutânea provocada pelos metais presentes nos bráquetes metálicos convencionais com a provocada por bráquetes com baixa concentração de níquel ("nickel-free". A amostra foi selecionada dos 400 pacientes em tratamento da clínica de Ortodontia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil, no período compreendido entre o início de 2002 e o final de 2003. A amostra consistiu de 58 pacientes (30 homens e 28 mulheres, com idades variando de 11 a 30 anos, os quais eram portadores de aparelho ortodôntico fixo Morelli® em ambos os arcos. Estes pacientes foram diagnosticados quanto à sensibilidade ao níquel, por meio da aplicação do "patch test" com sulfato de níquel a 5%. Em uma segunda fase, trinta dias após o "patch test", comparou-se a sensibilidade cutânea provocada pelos metais presentes nos bráquetes convencionais e nos "Nickel Free", por meio de um teste de sensibilidade cutânea utilizando-se dois tipos de corpos-de-provas, em formato de disco, com a mesma composição destes bráquetes. A área de eleição para realização deste teste foi a parte interna do antebraço, sendo aplicados vinte corpos-de-prova de cada experimento (referente a uma boca completa de bráquetes. Dos 58 pacientes avaliados, 16 deles foram sensíveis ao "patch test" com sulfato de níquel a 5%. Dentre estes 16 pacientes, 12 deles desenvolveram reação alérgica ao Experimento 1 (corpo-de-prova com níquel, enquanto que no Experimento 2 (corpo-de-prova "Niquel Free" apenas 5 pacientes apresentaram sensibilidade a esta amostra. O teste de McNemar revelou que os corpos-de-prova "nickel-free" provocaram menor reação alérgica quando comparados aos convencionais (p = 0.016.

  1. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Regina Guerra, MONTEIRO; Licinio Esmeraldo da, SILVA; Carlos Nelson, ELIAS; Oswaldo de Vasconcellos, VILELLA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel) and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional) on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods: Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brack [...] ets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek) with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees) slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics) were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M). The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil). The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results: Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion: even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material.

  2. Effect of Fast Curing Lights, Argon Laser, and Plasma Arc on Bond Strengths of Orthodontic Brackets: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hashem-Hoseini; H. Mahmood-Hashemi; F. Soltan-Moradi; T. Hooshmand; I.HARIRIAN; P. Motahhary; J. Chalipa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Nowadays light-cured composites are used widely by orthodontists to bond brackets. As these composites require 20-40 seconds time per tooth to be light cured, more chair-time in needed compared to self-cured composites. In recent years, the argon laser and plasma arc lights have been introduced in dentistry to reduce this curing time. The purpose of this study was to compare bond strength of brackets bonded with the argon la-ser and plasma arc light with those bonded with the conve...

  3. Biodegradação de braquetes ortodônticos: análise por microscopia eletrônica de varredura Analysis of biodegradation of orthodontic brackets using scanning electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Macedo de Menezes; Rodrigo Matos de Souza; Gabriel Schmidt Dolci; Berenice Anina Dedavid

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: analisar, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, as alterações químicas e estruturais de braquetes metálicos submetidos a um processo de biodegradação in vitro. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a marca comercial dos acessórios - Grupo A = Dyna-Lock, 3M/Unitek (AISI 303) e Grupo B = LG Edgewise Standard, American Orthodontics (AISI 316L). Os corpos de prova, aparelhos ortodônticos simulados, permaneceram imersos em solução salina (0,05%) por um ...

  4. Shear bond strength of orthodontic resins after caries infiltrant preconditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Ewelina; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Tawakoli, Pune Nina; Attin, Rengin; ATTIN, Thomas; Wiegand, Annette

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of caries infiltrant preconditioning on the shear bond strength of orthodontic resin cements on sound and demineralized enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stainless-steel brackets were bonded to sound or artificially demineralized (14 d, acidic buffer, pH 5.0) bovine enamel specimens using a resin cement or a combination of caries infiltrant preconditioning (Icon, DMG) and the respective resin cement (light-curing composite: Heliosit Orthodontic, Transbo...

  5. Orthodontic brackets removal under shear and tensile bond strength resistance tests – a comparative test between light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated if a new LEDs system has enough efficient energy to promote efficient shear and tensile bonding strength resistance under standardized tests. LEDs 470 ± 10 nm can be used to photocure composite during bracket fixation. Advantages considering resistance to tensile and shear bonding strength when these systems were used are necessary to justify their clinical use. Forty eight human extracted premolars teeth and two light sources were selected, one halogen lamp and a LEDs system. Brackets for premolar were bonded through composite resin. Samples were submitted to standardized tests. A comparison between used sources under shear bonding strength test, obtained similar results; however, tensile bonding test showed distinct results: a statistical difference at a level of 1% between exposure times (40 and 60 seconds) and even to an interaction between light source and exposure time. The best result was obtained with halogen lamp use by 60 seconds, even during re-bonding; however LEDs system can be used for bonding and re-bonding brackets if power density could be increased

  6. Immediate versus Delayed Force Application after Orthodontic Bonding; An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Basafa, M.; Farzanegan, F.

    2006-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Bracket de-bonding during initial orthodontic archwire placement immediately after bracket set up or following re-bonding a single bracket can be a clinical concern.Purpose: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of time on the shear bond strength of a no-mix orthodontic composite adhesive.Materials and Methods: Seventy freshly extracted human upper first premolars were collected and stored in normal saline solution. The teeth were cleaned, polished, and...

  7. Evaluation of the influence of dental bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide in orthodontic bracket shear bond strength

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcus Vinicius Neiva Nunes do, Rego; Roanselli Marllon Lima dos, Santos; Leanne Matias Portela, Leal; Carlos Gustavo Silva, Braga.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o propósito do presente estudo in vitro foi avaliar a resistência de união de braquetes colados em pré-molares previamente submetidos ao clareamento com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35%. MÉTODOS: foram estudados 21 dentes pré-molares hígidos, divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos (n = 7). O [...] grupo I (G1) incluiu os dentes que não foram submetidos ao clareamento. As superfícies de esmalte dos grupos II (G2) e III (G3) foram submetidas ao processo de clareamento com peróxido de hidrogênio a 35% (Whiteness HP Maxx). No grupo II (G2), após o clareamento, os dentes foram armazenados por 24 horas em água destilada a 37ºC e, em seguida, braquetes metálicos para pré-molares foram colados utilizando resina Transbond XT (3M). O grupo III (G3) também foi submetido ao mesmo procedimento, sete dias após o clareamento. Após a colagem, todos os dentes foram armazenados em água destilada a 37ºC por 24 horas. Todos os grupos foram submetidos ao teste de tração utilizando-se máquina universal de ensaios Emic DL2000 a uma velocidade 0,5mm/min. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: a resistência à descolagem dos braquetes foi comparada entre os grupos por meio da utilização do teste não paramétrico Kruskall Wallis (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the bond strength of brackets bonded to premolars previously subjected to bleaching with a 35% hydrogen peroxide. METHODS: Twenty one healthy premolars were selected and randomly divided into three groups (n = 7). Group I (G1) included [...] teeth that were not submitted to bleaching. The enamel surfaces of Groups II (G2) and III (G3) were submitted to a bleaching process with 35% hydrogen peroxide (Whiteness HP Maxx). On Group II (G2), after bleaching, the teeth were stored for 24 hours in distilled water at 98.6 ºF, and then, premolar metallic brackets were bonded using Transbond XT (3M) resin. Group III (G3) was submitted to the same procedure seven days after bleaching. After bonding, all teeth were stored in distilled water at 98.6 ºF for 24 hours. All groups were submitted to a traction test using an EMIC DL2000 universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The bracket resistance to debonding was compared between the groups by the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test (p

  8. Coated Rectangular Composite Archwires: A Comparison Of Self-Ligating And Conventional Bracket Systems During Sliding Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David Keith

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the resistance to sliding of coated rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwires using various brackets systems and second-order bracket angulations. Resistance to sliding was investigated for eight bracket systems: six self-ligating brackets (four passive and two passive-active) and two conventional brackets. A rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwire of 0.019 x 0.025-in dimension from BiomersRTM SimpliClear was drawn through a three-bracket model system at ten millimeters per minute for 2.5 millimeters. For each bracket, the resistance to sliding was measured at four bracket angulations (0°, 2.5°, 5°, and 10°) in a dry state at room temperature. The fiber reinforced composite archwire produced the lowest sliding resistance with the passive self-ligating bracket system (Damon DQ) at each bracket angulation tested. Overall, self-ligating bracket systems generated lower sliding resistance than conventionally ligated systems, and one passive/active self-ligating bracket system (In-Ovation-R). There was a significant increase in resistance to sliding as bracket angulation increased for all bracket systems tested. Microscopic analysis revealed increased perforation of the archwire coating material as bracket angulations were increased. Our findings show that the rectangular fiber reinforced composite archwire may be acceptable for sliding mechanics during the intermediate stages of orthodontic tooth movement, however more long-term studies are needed.

  9. A comparative clinical study of the failure rate of orthodontic brackets bonded with two adhesive systems: conventional and self-etching primer (SEP)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladys Cristina, Dominguez; André, Tortamano; Luiz Vicente de Moura, Lopes; Priscilla Campanatti Chibebe, Catharino; Camillo, Morea.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar o desempenho clínico da colagem de braquetes ortodônticos com resina Transbond (3M Unitek) associada a dois sistemas adesivos: convencional em duas etapas (ataque ácido + Transbond XT adhesive Primer) e Self-Etching Primer (SEP), em etapa única (T [...] ransbond Plus). MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída de 480 braquetes metálicos (Victory, 3M Unitek), colados em 24 pacientes, que foram tratados durante um período de 36 a 48 meses. A colagem foi feita por meio do sistema split-mouth, utilizando os dois sistemas de colagem em cada paciente. Foi analisada a taxa de queda dos braquetes para cada sistema de colagem, descrita a causa da queda conforme relato do paciente e a posição dos dentes nas arcadas. RESULTADOS: o sistema adesivo convencional apresentou taxa de queda de 5,41%, enquanto a do SEP foi de 4,58%. O sistema convencional apresentou 5 quedas (38,4%) no quadrante superior direito, 2 (15,4%) no quadrante superior esquerdo, 4 (30,8%) no quadrante inferior direito e 2 (15,4%) no quadrante inferior esquerdo. O SEP apresentou 4 quedas (36,4%) no quadrante superior direito, 1 (9%) no quadrante superior esquerdo, 3 (27,3%) no quadrante inferior direito e 3 (27,3%) no quadrante inferior esquerdo. Por meio da análise estatística descritiva e do teste Odds Ratio, constatou-se que não houve diferença significativa entre essas taxas (p = 0,67). CONCLUSÃO: com base nesses resultados, pode-se concluir que o sistema adesivo SEP apresentou eficácia clínica semelhante à do sistema adesivo convencional. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study compared the clinical performance of orthodontic brackets bonded with Transbond adhesive paste after two priming systems: a two-stage conventional system (acid etching + Transbond XT adhesive primer) and a singlestage self-etching primer (SEP) (Transbond Plus). METHODS: The sam [...] ple comprised 480 metal brackets bonded to the teeth of 24 consecutive patients treated for 36 to 48 months. A split-mouth design was used for bonding, and both systems were used in each patient. Bracket failure rates for each system were analyzed; and failure causes as reported by the patients and the quadrant of teeth for which brackets failed were recorded. RESULTS: The conventional system group had a failure rate of 5.41%, whereas the rate for SEP was 4.58%. In this group, there were 5 failures (38.4%) in the right maxillary quadrant, 2 (15.4%) in the left maxillary quadrant, 4 (30.8%) in the right mandibular quadrant, and 2 (15.4%) in the left mandibular quadrant. In the SEP group, there were 4 (36.4%) failures in the right maxillary quadrant, 1 (9%) in the left maxillary quadrant, 3 (27.3%) in the right mandibular quadrant, and 3 (27.3%) in the left mandibular quadrant. Results of descriptive statistical analysis and odds ratio did not show any significant differences between rates (p = 0.67). CONCLUSION: The clinical efficiency of SEP was similar to that of the conventional system.

  10. O efeito do jateamento do esmalte na força de adesão na colagem de braquetes / The effect of air abrasion in enamel adhesion of orthodontic bracket

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla D' Agostini, Derech; Juliana da Silva, Pereira; Margareth Maria Gomes de, Souza.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o propósito deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar o efeito do jateamento com óxido de alumínio na adesão de braquetes ortodônticos e compará-lo à tradicional técnica de condicionamento ácido do esmalte. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados 80 dentes bovinos distribuídos aleatoriamente entre quatro gr [...] upos, sendo que a superfície do esmalte foi tratada da seguinte maneira: grupo 1 (somente jateamento com óxido de alumínio), grupo 2 (profilaxia com pedra-pomes e condicionamento com ácido), grupo 3 (jateamento com óxido de alumínio e condicionamento ácido) e grupo 4 (somente condicionamento ácido). Após, foi aplicado sistema adesivo e o braquete colado com resina. Os corpos-de-prova foram submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento e análise do IAR. Aos resultados foram aplicados o teste de variância múltipla (ANOVA) e a comparação entre pares (Tukey). Para a análise do IAR foi aplicado o teste Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: o grupo 1 apresentou a menor resistência ao cisalhamento (3,6MPa) e o 3 a maior (13,27MPa). A análise Qui-quadrado do IAR demonstrou que o tratamento da superfície do esmalte tem influência sobre a quantidade de remanescente de resina sobre o esmalte e os grupos 3 e 4 apresentaram a maior quantidade de resina aderida. CONCLUSÕES: o jateamento de óxido de alumínio não deve ser o único procedimento utilizado no preparo da superfície do esmalte na colagem de braquetes, porém, quando associado ao condicionamento ácido, mostrou-se eficaz no aumento da retenção entre esmalte e resina. Novos estudos são necessários visando menor dano do esmalte e adesão satisfatória. Abstract in english AIM: The purpose of this study in vitro was to evaluate the effect of the air abrasion with Al-oxide in the adhesion of orthodontic brackets and compare with traditional technique of acid conditioning of the enamel. METHODS: Eighty bovine teeth distributed randomly between four groups had been used [...] and the surface of the enamel was prepared in the following way: group 1 (only air abrasion), group 2 (enamel pumiced and acid conditioning), group 3 (air abrasion and acid conditioning) and group 4 (only acid conditioning). After, adhesive system was applied and bracket was bonded with resin. Shear bond was assessed and analysis of the IAR was performed. Test of multiple variance (ANOVA) and the comparison between pairs had been applied (Tukey) on the results. For the analysis of the IAR the Qui-square test was applied. RESULTS: Group 1 presented the lowest shear strength (3,6MPa) and 3 the greater (13,27MPa). The Qui-square analysis of the IAR demonstrated that the treatment of the enamel surface has influence on the amount of resin remainder on the enamel and groups 3 and 4 had presented the biggest amount of adhered resin. CONCLUSIONS: The air abrasion doesn’t have to be the only procedure used in the preparation of the enamel surface in the brackets bonding, however, when associated to the acid conditioning it revealed efficient in adhesion increase. New studies are necessary aiming at lesser damage of the enamel and satisfactory adhesion.

  11. O efeito do jateamento do esmalte na força de adesão na colagem de braquetes The effect of air abrasion in enamel adhesion of orthodontic bracket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla D'Agostini Derech

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o propósito deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar o efeito do jateamento com óxido de alumínio na adesão de braquetes ortodônticos e compará-lo à tradicional técnica de condicionamento ácido do esmalte. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados 80 dentes bovinos distribuídos aleatoriamente entre quatro grupos, sendo que a superfície do esmalte foi tratada da seguinte maneira: grupo 1 (somente jateamento com óxido de alumínio, grupo 2 (profilaxia com pedra-pomes e condicionamento com ácido, grupo 3 (jateamento com óxido de alumínio e condicionamento ácido e grupo 4 (somente condicionamento ácido. Após, foi aplicado sistema adesivo e o braquete colado com resina. Os corpos-de-prova foram submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento e análise do IAR. Aos resultados foram aplicados o teste de variância múltipla (ANOVA e a comparação entre pares (Tukey. Para a análise do IAR foi aplicado o teste Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: o grupo 1 apresentou a menor resistência ao cisalhamento (3,6MPa e o 3 a maior (13,27MPa. A análise Qui-quadrado do IAR demonstrou que o tratamento da superfície do esmalte tem influência sobre a quantidade de remanescente de resina sobre o esmalte e os grupos 3 e 4 apresentaram a maior quantidade de resina aderida. CONCLUSÕES: o jateamento de óxido de alumínio não deve ser o único procedimento utilizado no preparo da superfície do esmalte na colagem de braquetes, porém, quando associado ao condicionamento ácido, mostrou-se eficaz no aumento da retenção entre esmalte e resina. Novos estudos são necessários visando menor dano do esmalte e adesão satisfatória.AIM: The purpose of this study in vitro was to evaluate the effect of the air abrasion with Al-oxide in the adhesion of orthodontic brackets and compare with traditional technique of acid conditioning of the enamel. METHODS: Eighty bovine teeth distributed randomly between four groups had been used and the surface of the enamel was prepared in the following way: group 1 (only air abrasion, group 2 (enamel pumiced and acid conditioning, group 3 (air abrasion and acid conditioning and group 4 (only acid conditioning. After, adhesive system was applied and bracket was bonded with resin. Shear bond was assessed and analysis of the IAR was performed. Test of multiple variance (ANOVA and the comparison between pairs had been applied (Tukey on the results. For the analysis of the IAR the Qui-square test was applied. RESULTS: Group 1 presented the lowest shear strength (3,6MPa and 3 the greater (13,27MPa. The Qui-square analysis of the IAR demonstrated that the treatment of the enamel surface has influence on the amount of resin remainder on the enamel and groups 3 and 4 had presented the biggest amount of adhered resin. CONCLUSIONS: The air abrasion doesn’t have to be the only procedure used in the preparation of the enamel surface in the brackets bonding, however, when associated to the acid conditioning it revealed efficient in adhesion increase. New studies are necessary aiming at lesser damage of the enamel and satisfactory adhesion.

  12. Interferência dos diferentes glazeamentos na colagem de bráquetes ortodônticos em superfícies cerâmicas / Effects of the different glazed ceramic surfaces on the bond of orthodontic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. C, Dalvi; A. M, Bolognese.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas diferentes formas de glazeamento da superfície de porcelana quanto à resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes metálicos colados com diferentes cimentos. Quarenta e dois corpos de prova de metalocerâmica foram confeccionados (2 controles) e divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com o t [...] ipo de glazeamento, com camada extra de glaze (G) ou auto-glazeados (AG), e o cimento utilizado, resina fotopolimerizável (r) ou ionômero de vidro resinosos (i), formando os seguintes grupos: Gr, Gi, AGr e AGi com 10 corpos de prova cada grupo. Todas as superfícies dos corpos de prova receberam tratamento com ácido fosfórico 35% por 30 s seguidos de uma camada de silano. Quarenta bráquetes metálicos foram colados. Os corpos de prova foram submetidos a termociclagem e ao teste de resistência ao cisalhamento com uma máquina universal de ensaios mecânicos. Uma amostra de cada grupo após descolagem, remoção da resina e polimento, foi avaliado em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O índice de fratura coesiva da porcelana foi também avaliado. Os resultados mostram valores acima da média aceitável na literatura para todos os grupos, sendo que o grupo AGr apresentou valor menor (10,38 MPa) e estatisticamente significativo em relação aos demais. A análise no microscópio eletrônico de varredura mostrou que as superfícies, após polimento, não readquirem as características de antes da colagem, apesar de se apresentarem aceitáveis clinicamente. Houve fratura da porcelana em todos os grupos. Conclui-se que é possível se conseguir colagem adequada de bráquetes metálicos em superfícies metalocerâmicas auto-glazeadas e com camada extra de glaze, preservando-o, não necessitando reconhecer previamente a forma de glazeamento. Abstract in english Different glazing techniques for porcelain surface were evaluated in terms of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with different cements. Forty-two metal-ceramic samples were made (2 controls) and then divided into four groups according to type of glazing technique, either using extra gl [...] aze layer (G) or self-glazing material (SG), and type of adhesive material, that is, self-curing resin (r) or resin glass-ionomer cement (i), thus forming the following groups: Gr, Gi, SGr, and SGi with 10 samples each. The whole surface of all samples was treated with 35% phosphoric acid for 30 s, followed by application of silane layer. Forty metallic brackets were bonded. The samples were submitted to thermocycling process and shear bond strength test with a universal testing machine. After bracket debonding, removal of resin, and polishing, one sample from each group was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The index of cohesive porcelain fracture was also assessed. The results show that all the groups had, on average, values higher than those found in the literature, with AGr presenting the lowest value (10.38 MPa) compared to other groups. SEM analysis showed that the porcelain surfaces did not recover their original characteristics before the bracket debonding procedure, although they were considered acceptable for clinical use. Porcelain fracture was observed in all groups. One can conclude that it is possible to bond metallic brackets adequately to metal-ceramic porcelain surfaces previously treated with either self-glazing material or extra glaze layer without having to recognise the glazing technique originally employed.

  13. Interferência dos diferentes glazeamentos na colagem de bráquetes ortodônticos em superfícies cerâmicas Effects of the different glazed ceramic surfaces on the bond of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C Dalvi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas diferentes formas de glazeamento da superfície de porcelana quanto à resistência ao cisalhamento de bráquetes metálicos colados com diferentes cimentos. Quarenta e dois corpos de prova de metalocerâmica foram confeccionados (2 controles e divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com o tipo de glazeamento, com camada extra de glaze (G ou auto-glazeados (AG, e o cimento utilizado, resina fotopolimerizável (r ou ionômero de vidro resinosos (i, formando os seguintes grupos: Gr, Gi, AGr e AGi com 10 corpos de prova cada grupo. Todas as superfícies dos corpos de prova receberam tratamento com ácido fosfórico 35% por 30 s seguidos de uma camada de silano. Quarenta bráquetes metálicos foram colados. Os corpos de prova foram submetidos a termociclagem e ao teste de resistência ao cisalhamento com uma máquina universal de ensaios mecânicos. Uma amostra de cada grupo após descolagem, remoção da resina e polimento, foi avaliado em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. O índice de fratura coesiva da porcelana foi também avaliado. Os resultados mostram valores acima da média aceitável na literatura para todos os grupos, sendo que o grupo AGr apresentou valor menor (10,38 MPa e estatisticamente significativo em relação aos demais. A análise no microscópio eletrônico de varredura mostrou que as superfícies, após polimento, não readquirem as características de antes da colagem, apesar de se apresentarem aceitáveis clinicamente. Houve fratura da porcelana em todos os grupos. Conclui-se que é possível se conseguir colagem adequada de bráquetes metálicos em superfícies metalocerâmicas auto-glazeadas e com camada extra de glaze, preservando-o, não necessitando reconhecer previamente a forma de glazeamento.Different glazing techniques for porcelain surface were evaluated in terms of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with different cements. Forty-two metal-ceramic samples were made (2 controls and then divided into four groups according to type of glazing technique, either using extra glaze layer (G or self-glazing material (SG, and type of adhesive material, that is, self-curing resin (r or resin glass-ionomer cement (i, thus forming the following groups: Gr, Gi, SGr, and SGi with 10 samples each. The whole surface of all samples was treated with 35% phosphoric acid for 30 s, followed by application of silane layer. Forty metallic brackets were bonded. The samples were submitted to thermocycling process and shear bond strength test with a universal testing machine. After bracket debonding, removal of resin, and polishing, one sample from each group was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The index of cohesive porcelain fracture was also assessed. The results show that all the groups had, on average, values higher than those found in the literature, with AGr presenting the lowest value (10.38 MPa compared to other groups. SEM analysis showed that the porcelain surfaces did not recover their original characteristics before the bracket debonding procedure, although they were considered acceptable for clinical use. Porcelain fracture was observed in all groups. One can conclude that it is possible to bond metallic brackets adequately to metal-ceramic porcelain surfaces previously treated with either self-glazing material or extra glaze layer without having to recognise the glazing technique originally employed.

  14. Fracture strength of different soldered and welded orthodontic joining configurations with and without filling material

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jens Johannes, Bock; Jacqueline, Bailly; Christian Ralf, Gernhardt; Robert Andreas Werner, Fuhrmann.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength of different joints made by conventional brazing, TIG and laser welding with and without filling material. Five standardized joining configurations of orthodontic wire in spring hard quality were used: round, cross, 3 mm length, 9 mm lengt [...] h and 7 mm to orthodontic band. The joints were made by five different methods: brazing, tungsten inert gas (TIG) and laser welding with and without filling material. For the original orthodontic wire and for each kind of joint configuration or connecting method 10 specimens were carefully produced, totalizing 240. The fracture strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005). Data were analyzed by ANOVA (p=0.05) and Bonferroni post hoc test (p=0.05). In all cases, brazing joints were ruptured on a low level of fracture strength (186-407 N). Significant differences between brazing and TIG or laser welding (p

  15. Friction coefficients and wear rates of different orthodontic archwires in artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, M V; Espinar, E; Llamas, J M; Rupérez, E; Manero, J M; Barrera, J M; Solano, E; Gil, F J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the influence of the nature of the orthodontic archwires on the friction coefficient and wear rate against materials used commonly as brackets (Ti-6Al-4V and 316L Stainless Steel). The materials selected as orthodontic archwires were ASI304 stainless steel, NiTi, Ti, TiMo and NiTiCu. The array archwire's materials selected presented very similar roughness but different hardness. Materials were chosen from lower and higher hardness degrees than that of the brackets. Wear tests were carried out at in artificial saliva at 37 °C. Results show a linear relationship between the hardness of the materials and the friction coefficients. The material that showed lower wear rate was the ASI304 stainless steel. To prevent wear, the wire and the brackets have high hardness values and in the same order of magnitude. PMID:23440428

  16. Avaliação do Índice de Remanescente Adesivo utilizando braquetes com e sem tratamento na base e a interação com três sistemas de colagem / Evaluation of Adhesive Remnant Index using conventional mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases and three bonding systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lilian Maria Brisque, Pignatta; Isabel Cristina Prado Torres, Lugato; Francisco Antonio, Bertoz; Eduardo César Almada, Santos.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o Índice de Remanescente Adesivo (IRA) em dentes bovinos após a descolagem de braquetes com e sem tratamento na base. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados três sistemas de colagem ortodôntica para os dois padrões de base. Os dentes bovinos foram divididos em seis grupos de 40, de acordo c [...] om a base do braquete e o sistema de colagem. Vinte e quatro horas após a colagem foram realizados os testes de compressão em uma máquina de ensaios. A avaliação do IRA foi realizada em um estereomicroscópio por três examinadores calibrados. Foi utilizado o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, seguido do método de Dunn, para fazer as comparações múltiplas entre todos os grupos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: observou-se que o tratamento das bases dos braquetes com óxido de alumínio não foi determinante para o aumento da adesividade entre o braquete e o adesivo. O grupo em que se utilizou braquetes com tratamento na base e adesivo TXT (3M-Unitek) + Transbond Plus SEP (3M-Unitek) apresentou a maior parte das fraturas na interface dente-adesivo (escore 4). Abstract in english AIM: To assess the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) in bovine teeth after debonding mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases. METHODS: Were used three bonding systems for the two standards of base. The bovine teeth were divided into 6 groups of 40, according to the bracket base and to the bo [...] nding system. Twenty four hours after bonding they had been carried through shear bond strength tests in a universal testing machine. The assessment of ARI was performed in a stereomicroscopy by three calibrated examiners. It was used the non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's method, to do the multiple comparisons among all groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that the aluminum oxide sandblasting bracket bases was not determinative to the increase of the adhesiveness between bracket and adhesive. The group where it was used sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases and bonding system TXT (3M-Unitek) + Transbond Plus SEP (3M-Unitek) presented the majority of the failures at the teeth-adhesive interface (score 4).

  17. Avaliação do Índice de Remanescente Adesivo utilizando braquetes com e sem tratamento na base e a interação com três sistemas de colagem Evaluation of Adhesive Remnant Index using conventional mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases and three bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Maria Brisque Pignatta

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o Índice de Remanescente Adesivo (IRA em dentes bovinos após a descolagem de braquetes com e sem tratamento na base. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados três sistemas de colagem ortodôntica para os dois padrões de base. Os dentes bovinos foram divididos em seis grupos de 40, de acordo com a base do braquete e o sistema de colagem. Vinte e quatro horas após a colagem foram realizados os testes de compressão em uma máquina de ensaios. A avaliação do IRA foi realizada em um estereomicroscópio por três examinadores calibrados. Foi utilizado o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis, seguido do método de Dunn, para fazer as comparações múltiplas entre todos os grupos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: observou-se que o tratamento das bases dos braquetes com óxido de alumínio não foi determinante para o aumento da adesividade entre o braquete e o adesivo. O grupo em que se utilizou braquetes com tratamento na base e adesivo TXT (3M-Unitek + Transbond Plus SEP (3M-Unitek apresentou a maior parte das fraturas na interface dente-adesivo (escore 4.AIM: To assess the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI in bovine teeth after debonding mesh bases and sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases. METHODS: Were used three bonding systems for the two standards of base. The bovine teeth were divided into 6 groups of 40, according to the bracket base and to the bonding system. Twenty four hours after bonding they had been carried through shear bond strength tests in a universal testing machine. The assessment of ARI was performed in a stereomicroscopy by three calibrated examiners. It was used the non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's method, to do the multiple comparisons among all groups. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that the aluminum oxide sandblasting bracket bases was not determinative to the increase of the adhesiveness between bracket and adhesive. The group where it was used sandblasted orthodontic bracket bases and bonding system TXT (3M-Unitek + Transbond Plus SEP (3M-Unitek presented the majority of the failures at the teeth-adhesive interface (score 4.

  18. Application of particle-induced X-ray emission, backscattering spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy in the evaluation of orthodontic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of this investigation was on orthodontic materials used in the manufacture of dental brackets. The properties of these dental materials are subjected to various physical parameters such as elongation, yield strength and elasticity that justify their application. In turn, these parameters depend on the quantitative elemental concentration distribution (QECD) in the materials used in the manufacture. For compositional analysis, proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), backscatter spectrometry (BS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied. QECD analysis was performed to correlate the physical parameters with the composition and to quantify imperfections in the materials. PIXE and BS analyses were performed simultaneously with a 3 MeV proton beam while electrons accelerated at 25 keV were used for the SEM analysis. From the QECDs it was observed that: (1) the major elements Cr, Fe and Ni were homogeneously distributed in the orthodontic plate; (2) the distribution of Mo and O correlated with one another; (3) there was a spread of Cr around regions of high C concentration; and, (4) areas of high concentrations of Mo and O corresponded to a decrease in C concentrations. Elemental concentration correlations are shown to indicate the similarities and differences in the ease of formation of phases, based on the tangent of linearity. (author)

  19. Comparison of the effect of hydrogel and solution forms of sodium ascorbate on orthodontic bracket-enamel shear bond strength immediately after bleaching: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimyai Soodabeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the effects of hydrogel and solution forms of sodium ascorbate (SA with two different application times on bracket bond strength subsequent to bleaching. Materials and Methods: A total of 72 sound premolars were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12: An unbleached control group (group one and five experimental groups of carbamide peroxide. Specimens in group two were bonded immediately after bleaching; specimens in groups three and four were bleached, then treated with SA solution for ten minutes and three hours, respectively, and then bonded. In groups five and six, SA hydrogel was used and the specimens were prepared similar to groups three and four, respectively. Following debonding, bond strengths were recorded in MPa. To evaluate the amount of resin left on the enamel surfaces, adhesive remnant index (ARI scores were used. Statistical Analysis: The bond strength data were analyzed with ANOVA and pairwise comparisons were made by Tukey test. The ARI data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis test and two-by-two comparisons were made by the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There were significant differences in bond strengths between the groups ( P < 0.0005. However, the differences between groups three, four, five and six were not significant. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between group one and groups four and six, whereas the differences between the other groups were significant ( P < 0.05. Regarding ARI, there were significant differences among the groups ( P = 0.004. Conclusion: Bleaching significantly decreased the bracket bond strength. Compromised bonding was reversed with a three-hour application of both forms of SA.

  20. Fracture strength of different soldered and welded orthodontic joining configurations with and without filling material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Johannes Bock

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical strength of different joints made by conventional brazing, TIG and laser welding with and without filling material. Five standardized joining configurations of orthodontic wire in spring hard quality were used: round, cross, 3 mm length, 9 mm length and 7 mm to orthodontic band. The joints were made by five different methods: brazing, tungsten inert gas (TIG and laser welding with and without filling material. For the original orthodontic wire and for each kind of joint configuration or connecting method 10 specimens were carefully produced, totalizing 240. The fracture strengths were measured with a universal testing machine (Zwick 005. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (p=0.05 and Bonferroni post hoc test (p=0.05. In all cases, brazing joints were ruptured on a low level of fracture strength (186-407 N. Significant differences between brazing and TIG or laser welding (p<0.05, Bonferroni post hoc test were found in each joint configuration. The highest fracture strength means were observed for laser welding with filling material and 3 mm joint length (998 N. Using filling materials, there was a clear tendency to higher mean values of fracture strength in TIG and laser welding. However, statistically significant differences were found only in the 9-mm long joints (p<0.05, Bonferroni post hoc test. In conclusion, the fracture strength of welded joints was positively influenced by the additional use of filling material. TIG welding was comparable to laser welding except for the impossibility of joining orthodontic wire with orthodontic band.

  1. The role of friction in orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Ribeiro Pacheco; Wellington Corrêa Jansen; Dauro Douglas Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sliding mechanics is widely used during orthodontic treatment. One of the disadvantages of this mechanics is the friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface, which may reduce the amount of desired orthodontic movement obtained. Due to the application and great acceptance of this type of mechanics, the role of friction in Orthodontics has been of interest for both clinicians and scientists. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, this article discussed how friction affects orthodontic too...

  2. Influence of fibre and filler reinforcement of plastic brackets: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltermeier, Andreas; Rosentritt, Martin; Faltermeier, Rupert; Müssig, Dieter

    2007-06-01

    In spite of their popularity in fulfilling aesthetic requirements, plastic brackets still present some disadvantages because of their low elastic modulus, decreased fracture toughness, and reduced wear resistance. Fibre-reinforced composites are well established in dentistry and consist of a polymer matrix in which reinforcing fibres are embedded. Stress is transferred from the polymer matrix to the fibres which present a high tensile strength. Hence, the mechanical properties of polymers could be improved. The purpose of this study was to compare fracture strength, fracture toughness and flexural strength of an experimental fibre-reinforced bracket material, an SiO(2) filler-reinforced bracket and an unfilled plastic bracket material (control group). Experimental brackets and specialized bars were manufactured. Tests were performed after thermal cycling (5 degrees C/55 degrees C) the samples in an artificial oral environment of a device to simulate mastication. Statistical evaluation was undertaken. The median, 25th and 75th percentiles were calculated and a Mann-Whitney U-test was performed. In this study two findings were obvious. (1) Filler reinforcement of plastic brackets improved fracture strength and fracture toughness in comparison with the unfilled bracket material. (2) Glass fibre reinforcement of orthodontic bracket materials resulted in the greatest enhancement of the mechanical properties in comparison with the other test groups. Therefore, the application of glass fibres in plastic brackets is a successful method to enhance fracture strength. PMID:17513873

  3. Biocompatibilidade dos materiais em Ortodontia: mito ou realidade? Biocompatibility of orthodontic materials: myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Macedo de Menezes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar uma revisão sobre os conceitos relacionados à biocompatibilidade dos materiais empregados em Ortodontia. Fatos relacionados às reações de hipersensibilidade aos diversos materiais ortodônticos são discutidos, sendo apresentadas as condutas recomendáveis nestas situações.The aim of this paper is to present a review on the biocompatibility of orthodontic materials. Hypersensitivity reactions to these materials are discussed and the recommended conduct in this kind of situation are presented.

  4. An evaluation of the quality of orthodontic attachment offered by single- and double-mesh bracket bases using the finite element method of stress analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, J; Kralj, B; Hubsch, P; Middleton, J; Jones, M L

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of bracket base mesh geometry on the stresses generated in the bracket-cement-tooth continuum by a shear/peel load case. A validated three-dimensional finite element model of the bracket-cement-tooth system was constructed consisting of 15,324 nodes and 2971 finite elements. Cement geometric and physical properties were held constant and bracket base geometry was varied, representing a variety of single-mesh configurations and 1 double-mesh design. For the single-mesh designs, increasing wire diameter (100-400 microm) resulted in a decrease in enamel and cement stresses. Increases in wire mesh spacing (200-750 microm) increased the major principal stress recorded in the enamel and adhesive at all wire diameters. Within the bracket, the major principal stress increased significantly at wire spacing above 400-500 microm. However, within the impregnated wire mesh (IWM), the major principal stress decreased as wire space increased. When the double-mesh bracket base was considered, the combined mesh layers resulted in a decrease in the stresses recorded in the most superficial (coarse) mesh layer and an increase in the stresses recorded in the deepest (fine mesh) layer when compared with the single-layer designs in isolation. Modification of single-mesh spacing and wire diameter influences the magnitude and distribution of stresses within the bracket-cement-tooth continuum. The use of a double-mesh design results in a reduction in the stresses recorded in the most superficial mesh. Mesh design influenced stress distribution in this study, primarily by determining the flexibility of the bracket base. PMID:11302592

  5. Innovative materials: the NiTi alloys in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, G; Riva, G

    1996-01-01

    Since ten years the NiTi alloys have gained an ever increasing place in orthodontic practice: that is due to their peculiar mechanical properties ascribed to a martensitic thermoelastic transformation which can be thermally or, in a proper temperature range, stress-induced. In the last case, when martensite is stress-induced at body temperature, the stress-strain behaviour is pseudoelastic with large deformations gained or recovered at constant stress, respectively in direct/reverse transformation: this behaviour exploited in orthodontics allowed to overcome the drawbacks intrinsic to the use of conventional alloys as stainless steel or Co-Mo alloys, where small displacements can be achieved at decreasing loads. From the phase state diagram of NiTi alloys it appears that at body temperature they are stable, but out of equilibrium: thermal treatments at intermediate temperatures can therefore modify the equilibrium state and as a consequence the transformation temperatures respect to body temperature. That allows to modify the recovery stress level according to the requirements of practice and thus disclosing new roads: the capability to foresee NiTi archwires pre-programmed in different sections, with a personalized scheme. Attention has not currently been paid to the modifications in the recovery stress induced by a temperature change inside the oral cavity. Recent results have shown that the thermal changes in the oral cavity induced by cold/hot liquid intake can considerably modify the stress level to which the dentition is exposed: though confined to the time extent connected with drinking, similar effects can be expected also for meals intake and should be taken into account for a correct procedure. PMID:8980837

  6. Evaluación in vitro de la resistencia friccional entre brackets cerámicos y arcos de acero inoxidable con y sin recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método Sol-Gel In vitro evaluation of frictional resistance between ceramic brackets and orthodontic steel wires with and without glass coatings applied by Sol-Gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Adriana Rendón Arias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: comparar la resistencia friccional estática y dinámica in vitro entre brackets cerámicos y alambres de acero inoxidable con recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método Sol-Gel y sin él. MÉTODOS: se prepararon 58 alambres de acero inoxidable AISI 304 de 0.016 x 0.016 con recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por Sol-Gel y sin él. Posteriormente se evaluó la resistencia a la fricción estática y dinámica in vitro de los alambres sobre brackets cerámicos de zafiro monocristalino y se caracterizaron las superficies en contacto por microscopia óptica y electrónica de barrido (SEM. RESULTADOS: se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos tanto para la fuerza de fricción estática (p = 0,000 como dinámica (p = 0,001. El grupo de los alambres recubiertos presentó una fuerza de fricción estática y dinámica mayor (estática: 1,78 ± 0,44 N, dinámica: 1,75 ± 0,49 N que el grupo sin recubrimientos (estática: 1,37 ± 0,31 N, dinámica: 1,41 ± 0,27 N. La caracterización por SEM mostró que se producen defectos superficiales en los recubrimientos después de las pruebas de fricción. CONCLUSIÓN: los recubrimientos evaluados no mostraron mejor comportamiento friccional sobre brackets de zafiro monocristalino cuando son comparados con el grupo control.INTRODUCTION: to compare the in vitro static and dynamic frictional resistance between ceramic brackets and stainless steel wires with and without glass coatings applied by sol-gel method. METHODS: 58 commercial stainless steel orthodontic wires AISI 304 (0.016 x 0.016 inch were prepared with and without vitreous coating applied by Sol- Gel method. The in vitro static and dynamic frictional resistance of the wires on the mono-crystalline ceramic brackets were evaluated; also, the wire surfaces were characterized by means of Optical Microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. RESULTS: statistically significant differences were found between both groups under static (p = 0.000 as well as dynamic (p = 0.001 friction test. The friction values found in the coated group were higher (Static friction: 1.78 ± 0.44 N, Dynamic friction: 1.75 ± 0.49 N than the group with no coating (Static friction: 1.37 ± 0.31 N, Dynamic friction: 1.41 ± 0.27 N. Characterization by SEM showed surface defects in both groups after the friction tests. CONCLUSION: the evaluated coatings did not perform better in terms of frictional behavior on sapphire mono-crystalline ceramic brackets when compared with the control group.

  7. Evaluación in vitro de la resistencia friccional entre brackets cerámicos y arcos de acero inoxidable con y sin recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método Sol-Gel / In vitro evaluation of frictional resistance between ceramic brackets and orthodontic steel wires with and without glass coatings applied by Sol-Gel method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz Adriana, Rendón Arias; Gustavo Adolfo, Cano Correa; Alejandro, peláez Vargas; Pedro M, Jaramillo Vallejo; Claudia, García Garcia; Yessid, Montoya Góez.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: comparar la resistencia friccional estática y dinámica in vitro entre brackets cerámicos y alambres de acero inoxidable con recubrimiento vítreo aplicado por el método Sol-Gel y sin él. MÉTODOS: se prepararon 58 alambres de acero inoxidable AISI 304 de 0.016 x 0.016 con recubrimiento v [...] ítreo aplicado por Sol-Gel y sin él. Posteriormente se evaluó la resistencia a la fricción estática y dinámica in vitro de los alambres sobre brackets cerámicos de zafiro monocristalino y se caracterizaron las superficies en contacto por microscopia óptica y electrónica de barrido (SEM). RESULTADOS: se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre ambos grupos tanto para la fuerza de fricción estática (p = 0,000) como dinámica (p = 0,001). El grupo de los alambres recubiertos presentó una fuerza de fricción estática y dinámica mayor (estática: 1,78 ± 0,44 N, dinámica: 1,75 ± 0,49 N) que el grupo sin recubrimientos (estática: 1,37 ± 0,31 N, dinámica: 1,41 ± 0,27 N). La caracterización por SEM mostró que se producen defectos superficiales en los recubrimientos después de las pruebas de fricción. CONCLUSIÓN: los recubrimientos evaluados no mostraron mejor comportamiento friccional sobre brackets de zafiro monocristalino cuando son comparados con el grupo control. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: to compare the in vitro static and dynamic frictional resistance between ceramic brackets and stainless steel wires with and without glass coatings applied by sol-gel method. METHODS: 58 commercial stainless steel orthodontic wires AISI 304 (0.016 x 0.016 inch) were prepared with and w [...] ithout vitreous coating applied by Sol- Gel method. The in vitro static and dynamic frictional resistance of the wires on the mono-crystalline ceramic brackets were evaluated; also, the wire surfaces were characterized by means of Optical Microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: statistically significant differences were found between both groups under static (p = 0.000) as well as dynamic (p = 0.001) friction test. The friction values found in the coated group were higher (Static friction: 1.78 ± 0.44 N, Dynamic friction: 1.75 ± 0.49 N) than the group with no coating (Static friction: 1.37 ± 0.31 N, Dynamic friction: 1.41 ± 0.27 N). Characterization by SEM showed surface defects in both groups after the friction tests. CONCLUSION: the evaluated coatings did not perform better in terms of frictional behavior on sapphire mono-crystalline ceramic brackets when compared with the control group.

  8. Orthodontic material applications over the past century: Evolution of research methods to address clinical queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliades, Theodore

    2015-05-01

    The advances in the field of materials as they relate to orthodontics can be divided into the actual evolution of materials applied to daily practice and the changes in research methods to study the performance and the biologic properties of the materials. Although it is evident that new materials have saturated the market during the past century, the basic concepts of attaching one appliance to the enamel to use as a grip and inserting wires into that to control the spatial orientation of a tooth are identical to the original concepts. In contrast to that, the numbers of treatises about those subjects and the complexity of instrumentation and analytic tools used in published research have advanced tremendously and at a frenetic pace. This highly specialized pattern of research may effectively raise boundaries across research areas, since the complexity of the issues allows researchers to comprehend the content of journal articles in a narrow spectrum of disciplines. The purposes of this article were to review the advances in the research methods for investigating the various properties of orthodontic materials and to assist the reader in navigating this topic. A synopsis of the materials is also provided, listing future applications that already exist at the experimental stage or are yet unavailable but with the relevant technology already presented in broader scientific disciplines. PMID:25925652

  9. Bonding brackets to porcelain: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sant'Anna Eduardo Franzotti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, in vitro, the effect of various porcelain surface treatments on the shear strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to porcelain and the mode of fracture after debonding. Eighty-eight samples of metallic supported feldspathic porcelain were randomly divided into four groups according to their surface preparation as follows: the porcelain was maintained intact (GI, roughened with a diamond bur (GII, etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid (GIII, or sandblasted with aluminum oxide (GIV. The specimens were treated with silane (Scothprime and brackets were bonded with Concise. Each sample was subjected to a shear load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min and a recording was made at the point of failure. Bond strengths, adequate to withstand the application of orthodontic forces, were achieved in all groups. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test showed no significant differences in bond strength between the groups (p>0.05. However, many more porcelain fractures occurred on deglazed porcelain. This study indicates that with the appropriate material selection, the silane/composite procedure alone may be adequate for bonding.

  10. Comparative study on direct and indirect bracket bonding techniques regarding time length and bracket detachment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jefferson Vinicius, Bozelli; Renato, Bigliazzi; Helga Adachi Medeiros, Barbosa; Cristina Lucia Feijo, Ortolani; Francisco Antonio, Bertoz; Kurt, Faltin Junior.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o tempo necessário para realização da colagem de braquetes pelas técnicas direta (CDB) e indireta (CIB), mensurando o tempo despendido entre a parte laboratorial (CIB) e a parte clínica (CDB e CIB), e a prevalência de descolamentos durante o período de observação de 24 semanas. MÉT [...] ODOS: dezessete pacientes (7 homens e 10 mulheres), com idade média de 21 anos, com necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico, foram selecionados para participar desse estudo. Foram utilizados um total de 304 braquetes, sendo que 151 foram colados pela técnica de CDB e 153 pela CIB, com o mesmo tipo de braquete e material de colagem. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon, com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: o tempo total para realização da CIB foi maior em relação à CDB (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the time spent for direct (DBB - direct bracket bonding) and indirect (IBB - indirect bracket bonding) bracket bonding techniques. The time length of laboratorial (IBB) and clinical steps (DBB and IBB) as well as the prevalence of loose bracket after a [...] 24-week follow-up were evaluated. METHODS: Seventeen patients (7 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 21 years, requiring orthodontic treatment were selected for this study. A total of 304 brackets were used (151 DBB and 153 IBB). The same bracket type and bonding material were used in both groups. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by Wilcoxon non-parametric test at 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Considering the total time length, the IBB technique was more time-consuming than the DBB (p

  11. Antimicrobial and fluoride release capacity of orthodontic bonding materials

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erika Machado, Caldeira; Amanda, Osorio; Edna Lucia Couto, Oberosler; Delmo Santiago, Vaitsman; Daniela Sales, Alviano; Matilde da Cunha Goncalves, Nojima.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and fluoride releasing capacity of 3 bonding materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty nine specimens with standardized surface smoothness and dimensions were prepared. The antimicrobial capacity of the materials against S. mutans, [...] L. casei and C. albicans was evaluated by determining the percentage of growth inhibition of these microorganisms in an inoculated medium, obtained by optical density readouts on a spectrophotometer. The potential to interfere in microbial growth on the surface of the studied materials was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluoride release capacity in ultrapure water for 14 days was analyzed by means of ion chromatography. RESULTS: The PLUS group presented the highest percentage of microbial inhibition and the most contamination-free surface. The FUJI group presented the best fluoride release capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The TransbondTM Plus Color Change was the one that presented the best general behavior considering the evaluated aspects.

  12. Influência do agente clareador peróxido de carbamida a 10% na resistência mecânica da colagem de braquetes ortodônticos Influence of 10% carbamide peroxide gel on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Norões R. da Matta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo in vitro foi determinar a influência do agente clareador peróxido de carbamida a 10% na resistência mecânica da colagem de braquetes ortodônticos. Foram estudados três grupos denominados G1 (não submetido ao clareamento, G2 (com clareamento e colagem realizada 1 semana após e G3 (com clareamento e colagem realizada 24h após. O teste de cisalhamento foi conduzido na máquina de ensaios mecânicos Emic, com a velocidade de deformação de 0,5 mm/min.A resitência ao cisalhamento em relação à área de colagem foi calculada para cada dente e expressa em MPa. Os resultados mostraram aumento estatisticamente significante (pThe purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the influence of 10% carbamide peroxide gel on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Three group were studied: G1 (without bleaching, G2 (bleaching and bonding after 1 week and G3 (bleaching and bonding after 24h. The shear test was conduced in a Emic testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0,5 mm/min. The shear bond strength was calculated for each tooth and expressed in MPa. The results show enhance statistical significant (p<0,001 on the shear bond strength after bleaching and encreased with the time interval between bleaching and bonding, significantily.

  13. A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C02, Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm2 on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

  14. An ex vivo study of self-, light-, and dual-cured composites for orthodontic bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, A E; McCabe, J F; Gordon, P H

    1995-11-01

    It was postulated that using a dual-cured composite to bond orthodontic brackets could result in bond strengths comparable with those of chemically-activated materials and higher than those for light-activated materials. The shear bond strength of four composite resins used to attach mesh-backed orthodontic brackets was measured at 24 hours and following mechanical insult in the ball-mill. Analysis of variance and an SNK range test showed that at 24 hours Dual-cured Porcelite gave a significantly higher mean bond strength than the other materials (P < 0.05). However, following ball-milling the mean bond strength for Right-on was apparently significantly higher than that of the other materials. (P < 0.05). In this study, the mode of bond failure is also analysed and the use of Weibull analysis in bond strength testing is described. PMID:8580097

  15. Tiedown Bracket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, D.; Wald, J. E.; Helmsin, F. K.

    1982-01-01

    Tiedown bracket secured to concrete slab with lag anchor and lag bolt. A trailer or other heavy equipment can be anchored by tethering it to strapping bolt. When bracket is no longer needed, it can be removed, leaving behind only lag anchor. Bracket is easily installed and removed without damage to concrete slab.

  16. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de adesivo ortodôntico associado a verniz de clorexidina e timol na colagem de braquetes / Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of orthodontic adhesive associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish in bracket bonding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Freire de Carvalho, Calabrich; Marcelo de Castellucci e, Barbosa; Maria Regina Lorenzetti, Simionato; Rogério Frederico Alves, Ferreira.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana da associação de um adesivo ortodôntico com um verniz de clorexidina e timol. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 32 pré-molares humanos divididos em 4 grupos. O grupo 1 consistiu do grupo controle, no qual o adesivo utilizado para a colagem do braquete não estava [...] associado a nenhum agente antimicrobiano. Os grupos 2, 3 e 4 foram colados com um sistema adesivo associado a um verniz de clorexidina e timol. Os grupos 3 e 4 foram armazenados em água por 7 dias e 30 dias, respectivamente, enquanto os corpos de prova do grupo 2 foram, logo depois da colagem, colocados em ágar semeado com Streptococcus mutans por 48h a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os grupos experimentais, com exceção do grupo controle, apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana com tendência de redução do seu potencial de ação com maior tempo de imersão em água. CONCLUSÃO: a associação do verniz de clorexidina a um sistema adesivo utilizado em Ortodontia apresenta-se vantajosa pela sua atividade antimicrobiana. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the antimicrobial activity resulting from the association of an orthodontic adhesive with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. METHODS: Thirty-two extracted human premolars were used, divided into four groups. In Group 1, the control group, the adhesive used to bond the bracket was not [...] associated with any antimicrobial agent. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were bonded with an adhesive system associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. Groups 3 and 4 were stored in water for 7 days and 30 days, respectively, while the specimens from group 2 were, soon after bonding, placed on agar seeded with Streptococcus mutans for 48 hours, at 37º C. RESULTS: The experimental groups, with the exception of the control group, showed antimicrobial activity whose action tended to decline commensurately with the amount of time that they remained immersed in water. CONCLUSIONS: The association of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish with an adhesive system used in orthodontics proved to be advantageous due to its antimicrobial activity.

  17. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de adesivo ortodôntico associado a verniz de clorexidina e timol na colagem de braquetes Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of orthodontic adhesive associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish in bracket bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Freire de Carvalho Calabrich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana da associação de um adesivo ortodôntico com um verniz de clorexidina e timol. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 32 pré-molares humanos divididos em 4 grupos. O grupo 1 consistiu do grupo controle, no qual o adesivo utilizado para a colagem do braquete não estava associado a nenhum agente antimicrobiano. Os grupos 2, 3 e 4 foram colados com um sistema adesivo associado a um verniz de clorexidina e timol. Os grupos 3 e 4 foram armazenados em água por 7 dias e 30 dias, respectivamente, enquanto os corpos de prova do grupo 2 foram, logo depois da colagem, colocados em ágar semeado com Streptococcus mutans por 48h a 37ºC. RESULTADOS: os grupos experimentais, com exceção do grupo controle, apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana com tendência de redução do seu potencial de ação com maior tempo de imersão em água. CONCLUSÃO: a associação do verniz de clorexidina a um sistema adesivo utilizado em Ortodontia apresenta-se vantajosa pela sua atividade antimicrobiana.OBJECTIVE: To assess the antimicrobial activity resulting from the association of an orthodontic adhesive with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. METHODS: Thirty-two extracted human premolars were used, divided into four groups. In Group 1, the control group, the adhesive used to bond the bracket was not associated with any antimicrobial agent. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were bonded with an adhesive system associated with chlorhexidine-thymol varnish. Groups 3 and 4 were stored in water for 7 days and 30 days, respectively, while the specimens from group 2 were, soon after bonding, placed on agar seeded with Streptococcus mutans for 48 hours, at 37º C. RESULTS: The experimental groups, with the exception of the control group, showed antimicrobial activity whose action tended to decline commensurately with the amount of time that they remained immersed in water. CONCLUSIONS: The association of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish with an adhesive system used in orthodontics proved to be advantageous due to its antimicrobial activity.

  18. Comparative study of frictional forces generated by NiTi archwire deformation in different orthodontic brackets: In vitro evaluation Estudo comparativo da força de atrito produzida pela deformação de arco NiTi em diferentes braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Vilanova Queiroz; Rafael Yagüe Ballester; João Batista de Paiva; José Rino Neto; Giselle Mara Galon

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the frictional forces between 0.014-in NiTi wires (Aditek) with 4 mm horizontal deflection and brackets with different archwire ligation systems. METHODS: Four types of self-ligating brackets (Damon MX, Easy Clip, Smart Clip and In-Ovation), a triple bracket (Synergy) and a twin bracket with 8-shaped ligature (Tecnident) were tested. Twin brackets with conventional elastomeric ligatures (Morelli) were used as control group. Tests were rep...

  19. Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes colados com resinas ortodônticas fluoretadas / Evaluation of shear bond strength of brackets bonded with orthodontic fluoride-releasing composite resins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcia Cristina, Rastelli; Ulisses, Coelho; Emígdio Enrique Orellana, Jimenez.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos colados com resinas que contêm flúor, comparando-as a uma resina convencional; e analisar a quantidade de adesivo remanescente na superfície do esmalte. MÉTODOS: sessenta pré-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos: Gr [...] upo I - Concise (3M), Grupo II - Ultrabond (Aditek do Brasil) e Grupo III - Rely-a-Bond (Reliance). Após a colagem dos braquetes, as amostras foram termocicladas (500 ciclos) nas temperaturas de 5°C e 55°C. Após 48 horas, foram submetidas aos ensaios mecânicos de cisalhamento na direção oclusocervical, com velocidade de carga de 0,5mm/min, em uma máquina MTS 810. RESULTADOS: foram observadas resistências médias ao cisalhamento de 24,54±6,98MPa para o Grupo I, de 11,53±6,20MPa para o Grupo II e de 16,46±5,72MPa para o Grupo III. A Análise de Variância determinou diferença estatística entre as médias de resistência ao cisalhamento entre os grupos (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets bonded with fluoride releasing composite resins, comparing them with a conventional resin and to analyze the amount of resin left on the enamel surface. METHODS: Sixty premolars were randomly divided into three groups: Group [...] I - Concise (3M), Group II - Ultrabond (Aditek do Brasil) and Group III - Rely-a-Bond (Reliance). After bonding, the samples were thermocycled (500 cycles) at 5ºC and 55ºC temperatures. After 48 hours they were subjected to shear bond strength testing, in the occluso-gingival direction, using an MTS 810 Universal Testing Machine with load speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The results demonstrated a mean shear bond strength of 24.54 ± 6.98 MPa for Group I, 11.53 ± 6.20 MPa for Group II, and 16.46 ± 5.72 MPa for Group III. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) determined a statistical difference in the mean shear bond strengths between groups (p

  20. Experiense with remineraling means in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanova Ye.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In patients undergoing orthodontic treatment using bracket-technology a high risk of caries development. The algorithm of preventive interventions for the prevention of hair demineralization of enamel of the teeth

  1. Staining of esthetic brackets by plaque disclosing solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiza Novelino Acatauassú, Ismael; Mauro de Amorim Acatauassú, Nunes; Ana Maria Novelino Acatauassú, Nunes; Rogério Heládio Lopes, Motta; Ana Paula Dias, Demasi; Flávia Martão, Flório.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the staining of esthetic orthodontic brackets by plaque disclosing solutions. METHODS: Two types of brackets manufactured by GAC/DENTSPLY(r) were evaluated: ceramic (n=30) and polycarbonate (n=30). The brackets were divided into 6 groups. Two control groups (n=6) were immersed [...] in absolute ethanol: GI - ceramic brackets and GII - polycarbonate brackets. Four experimental groups (n=12) were immersed in different plaque disclosing solutions: GIII (ceramic brackets) and GIV (polycarbonate brackets) were immersed in Replak(r); GV (ceramic brackets) and GVI (polycarbonate brackets) were immersed in Replasul "S"(r). Relative quantitative analysis of the influence of plaque disclosing tablets on bracket staining was performed using reflectance spectrophotometry of stain deposition. Exploratory analysis of the data was performed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in a 2x2 factorial setup (bracket x immersion) with additional treatments (controls). RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the ceramic brackets presented the highest amount of staining when Replasul "S"(r) was used (pd"0.05). However, when Replak(r) was used, no statistically significant difference was found in comparison with the control group (p>0.05). For polycarbonate brackets, staining was detected for both disclosing solutions (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The disclosing solutions caused stain formation on polycarbonate brackets and, under the tested conditions, use of Replak(r) on ceramic brackets did not cause staining.

  2. Orthodontics and Aligners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthodontics and Aligners Straighten teeth for a healthier smile. Orthodontics When consumers think about orthodontics, braces are the ... about which treatment is right for you. Clear Orthodontics Aligners Clear orthodontic aligners can straighten a dental ...

  3. Comparison of frictional resistance of esthetic and semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, M. S.; Murali, R. V.; Kishorekumar, S.; Gnanashanmugam, K.; Jayanth, V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The frictional resistance encountered during sliding mechanics has been well established in the orthodontic literature, and it consists of complex interactions between the bracket, archwire, and method of ligation the claim of reduced friction with self-ligating brackets is often cited as a primary advantage over conventional brackets. This study was done to compare and evaluate the frictional forces generated between fully esthetic brackets and semi-aesthetic self-ligating brackets, which are of passive form and SEM (scanning electron microscope) study of the Brackets after Frictional evaluation. Materials and Methods: Two types of self-ligating esthetic brackets, Damon clear (Ormco) made of fully ceramic and Opal (Ultradent Products, USA) and, Two types of self-ligating semi-esthetic brackets, Clarity SL (3M Unitek) and Damon 3 (Ormco) both of which are made of ceramic with metal slot. Arch wires with different dimensions and quality 17 × 25, 19 × 25 Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA) and 17 × 25, 19 × 25 stainless steel that came from plain strands of wire were used for frictional comparison test. The brackets used in this study had 0.022 × 0.028 inch slot. Results: The statistical tests showed significantly smaller amount of kinetic frictional forces is generated by Damon 3 (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets). For each wire used, Damon 3 displayed significantly lower frictional forces (P ? 0.05) than any of the self-ligating system, followed by Opal (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets) which generated smaller amount of frictional forces but relatively on the higher side when compared with Damon 3. Damon clear (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets) generated the maximum amount of kinetic forces with all types of wire dimensions and properties when compared to the other three types of self-ligating system. Clarity SL (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets) generated smaller amount of frictional forces when compared with Damon clear and relatively higher amount of frictional forces when compared to Opal and Damon 3 PMID:26015687

  4. Comparison of static friction with self-ligating, modified slot design and conventional brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel Morais, Castro; Perrin, Smith Neto; Martinho Campolina Rebello, Horta; Matheus Melo, Pithon; Dauro Douglas, Oliveira.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the static frictional forces generated at the bracket/wire interface of stainless steel brackets with different geometries and angulations, combined with orthodontic wires of different diameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The frictional forces were evaluated with three differe [...] nt types of metal brackets: a passive self-ligating (SmartClipTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA), with a modified slot design (Mini Uni TwinTM, 3M/Unitek, Monrovia, USA) and conventional (Kirium, Abzil, São José do Rio Preto, Brazil). The samples were mounted in a testing device with three different angulations and tested with 0.014" and 0.018" stainless steel wires (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, USA). The static frictional force was measured using a universal testing machine (DL 500, EMIC®, São José dos Pinhais, Brazil) with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. RESULTS: There was a significant difference (p

  5. Analysis of mesiodistal angulations of preadjusted brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Rogério de, MENDONÇA; Ana Caroline Gonçales, VERRI; Aubrey Fernando, FABRE; Osmar Aparecido, CUOGHI.

    2014-08-21

    Full Text Available Manufacturers offer various prescriptions of preadjusted brackets for use in the “straight-wire” orthodontic technique. However, the need to incorporate bends in the rectangular wires during orthodontic finishing has led to concerns regarding the type of prescription chosen and the credibility of in [...] formation provided by the manufacturer. The aim of this study was to compare the slot angulations of Roth prescription preadjusted metallic brackets for the maxillary left central incisor and maxillary left canine. For each tooth type, 10 brackets of three commercial brands (GAC, Forestadent and Morelli) were selected. Two individual metal matrices for brackets and tooth positioning were made for each group of teeth. Captured images were obtained by standardized ortho-radial photography with a digital camera. Images were exported and analyzed with the Image J software package. One-way ANOVA and Tukey statistical analyses were performed at the 5% significance level. For brackets of the maxillary left central incisor, differences in mean angulation were observed between the Morelli and GAC groups (p

  6. Adult Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Anita G; Asiya Begum

    2010-01-01

    Adult orthodontics is becoming a larger proportion of many practices. Adult orthodontics is concerned with striking a balance between achieving optimal proximal and occlusal contact of the teeth, acceptable dentofacial esthetics, normal function, and reasonable stability. With the adult, it is more frequently concerned with physiological adaptation and is often symptom related, whereas with the child the dealing is with the signs. In the past three decades, a major reorientation of orthodonti...

  7. The Orthodontic CYBERJournal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Abraham

    The Orthodontic CYBERJournal is a collection of specific case studies, descriptions of procedures and other issues relating to the practice of Orthodontics. While the front page is a bit crowded, the materials within the site are worth all the distractions. A visitor to the site will find journal articles on topics from Thalassemia patients with malocclusion to a simple and effective technique for augmenting molar anchorage. The articles in the CYBERJournal are submitted by professionals in the field and are approved by an esteemed panel which includes practicing and retired orthodontists, professors, and other journal editors. Overall, this site is a valuable tool for anyone interested in the field of orthodontry.

  8. Dental Health and Orthodontic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colored metal alloy used to fill cavities, a composite material can be used so that the color can be tinted to match the teeth. Orthodontic Problems Crooked teeth, overbites and underbites are ...

  9. Sensitivity of titanium brackets to the corrosive influence of fluoride-containing toothpaste and tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzer, W; Schröter, A; Gedrange, T; Muschter, F

    2001-08-01

    Titanium brackets are used in orthodontic patients with an allergy to nickel and other specific substances. In recent studies, the corrosive properties of fluoride-containing toothpastes with different pH values were investigated. The present in vivo study tested how the surfaces of titanium brackets react to the corrosive influence of acidic fluoride-containing toothpaste during orthodontic treatment. Molar bands were placed on 18 orthodontic patients. In these same patients, titanium brackets were bonded on the left quadrants and stainless steel brackets on the right quadrants of the upper and lower arches. Fifteen patients used Gel Kam containing soluble tin fluoride (pH 3.2), whereas 3 used fluoride-free toothpaste. The brackets were removed for evaluation by light microscopy and scanning microscopy 5.5 to 7.0 months and 7.5 to 17 months after bonding. The quality and quantity of elements present were measured by scanning microscopy. Macroscopic evaluation showed the matte gray color of titanium brackets dominating over the silver gleam of the steel brackets. The plaque accumulation on titanium brackets is high because of the very rough surface. Pitting and crevices were observed in only 3 of the 165 brackets tested. The present in vivo investigation confirms the results of in vitro studies, but the changes are so minor that titanium brackets can safely be used for up to 18 months. Wing surfaces should be improved by modifying the manufacturing process. PMID:11510642

  10. The effect of enamel preparation on the tensile bond strength of orthodontic composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbo, L R; Lacefield, W R; Wells, B R; Russell, C M

    1992-01-01

    The bonding of orthodontic brackets to enamel surface using bis-GMA composite resin is usually accomplished by first cleaning the tooth surface then etching with phosphoric acid. This study compared the tensile bond strength of composite resin applied to a tooth surface which had been cleansed with an air-powder polisher to that of the same resin applied to a surface cleansed using a rubber cup and pumice. A wire loop apparatus was attached to bonded orthodontic brackets and pulled in tension in order to test the adherence of the bracket to the tooth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to evaluate the tooth surface to determine whether sodium bicarbonate material remained after the cleaning operation. All data was analyzed by the one way analysis of variants, the Student-Newman-Keuls test and Duncan's multiple comparison test. No statistical differences were found between the tensile strength of the bonds on the teeth cleansed with the air-powder polisher and those cleansed with a rubber cup and pumice. However, a double exposure of the tooth to phosphoric acid may lower the tensile bond strength by a significant amount. PMID:1333734

  11. Lingual Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Vasu murthy S; Saritha T

    2009-01-01

    At the early stages of the 80's, most of the practitioners and the patients have been seduced by lingual But the difficulties of the technique have rapidly given a disappointment. Today ten years later the authors present the progress which have been realized: the evolution of the brackets, the accuracy of their placement in the lab procedures, the making of the wire, the increase in patient's comfort. So this article attempts to review some of the advantages, disadvantages, bracket systems a...

  12. Contact allergy problem - danger for doctor and patient during orthodontic treatment. Literature review. Problem alergii kontaktowej - zagro?enie dla lekarza i pacjenta podczas terapii ortodontycznej. Przegl?d pi?miennictwa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sieja

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergy has currently become important problem of social life. Development of industry, civilization progress, change of lifestyle lead to increase of hypersensitivities incidents provoked by alimentary, inhaled and contact allergens. This problem especially concerns employees of health service, therefore dentists are highly exposed to the risk. Allergens such as disinfectants, metals, chemical compounds of medical rubber, synthetic materials or aromatic substances are mostly often responsible for occupational diseases developed in doctors. Problem of allergy in dentistry and especially in orthodontics was studied. Polish and foreign medical textbooks and journals containing results of research dealing with nickel, acrylate and latex allergy. Authoresses also searched medical bases: EBSCO and PUBMED, typing following keywords: nickel in orthodontics, contact allergy in orthodontics, acrylate in orthodontics and dentistry, latex in orthodontic treatment and in dentistry. A literature review and searching of internet bases did not interchangeably prove influence of orthodontic treatment on development of allergy to nickel. The studies find evidence of either intensification of allergy symptoms as well as of decrease of skin hypersensitivity in patients with nickel contact found in the past. Frequent application of latex and acrylates materials can cause allergy in medical staff and their patients. Since number of allergy-incidents increase, detailed anamnesis enabling early diagnosis of this problem should become basic procedure in dental or orthodontic offices. If potential hypersensitivity is revealed, sensitizing materials should be eliminated and replaced with non sensitizing ones. Therefore, nickel free orthodontic brackets and archwires, as well as latex free elastics may be promising solution conquering allergy-occurrence. Problem of allergy in dentistry and especially in orthodontics was widely discussed basing on Polish and foreign literature. Allergy against latex, nickel and acrylates were discussed in details. Furthermore, issue of hypersensitivity in medical stuff and patients was also highlighted.

  13. Nickel and chromium levels in the saliva of a Saudi sample treated with fixed orthodontic appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talic, Nabeel F.; Alnahwi, Hasan H.; Al-Faraj, Ali S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to measure the amount of nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) released into the saliva of Saudi patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. Materials and methods Ninety salivary samples were collected in a cross-sectional manner. Forty samples were collected from patients (17 males, 23 females) with fixed orthodontic appliances after different periods of orthodontic treatment ranging from the first month and up to 32 months into treatment. The fixed orthodontic appliance consisted of 4 bands, 20 stainless steel brackets, and upper and lower nickel titanium or stainless-steel arch wires. The other 50 samples were collected from people without appliances (24 males, 26 females). Samples were analyzed using Inductive Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy to measure Ni and Cr levels, respectively. Student’s t-test was used to compare Ni and Cr levels in the treated and untreated control groups. Results The mean Ni level was 4.197 ?g/L in the experimental group and 2.3 ?g/L in the control group (p < 0.05). The mean Cr level was 2.9 ?g/L in the experimental group and 3.3 ?g/L in the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Fixed orthodontic appliances resulted in a non-toxic increase in salivary levels of Ni, but no change in Cr levels. Duration of orthodontic treatment did not affect Ni and Cr levels in the saliva. PMID:24371378

  14. Using Little's Irregularity Index in orthodontics: outdated and inaccurate?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macauley, Donal

    2012-12-01

    Little\\'s Irregularity Index (LII) was devised to objectively score mandibular incisor alignment for epidemiological studies but has been extended to assess the relative performance of orthodontic brackets, retainer or treatment modalities. Our aim was to examine the repeatability and precision of LII measurements of four independent examiners on the maxillary arch of orthodontic patients. The hypothesis was that the reproducibility of individual contact point displacement measurements, used to calculate the LII score, are inappropriate.

  15. Comparative study of frictional forces generated by NiTi archwire deformation in different orthodontic brackets: In vitro evaluation / Estudo comparativo da força de atrito produzida pela deformação de arco NiTi em diferentes braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilberto Vilanova, Queiroz; Rafael Yagüe, Ballester; João Batista, De Paiva; José, Rino Neto; Giselle Mara, Galon.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar as forças de atrito entre fios NiTi 0,014" (Aditek) com deformações horizontais de 4mm, e braquetes com diferentes sistemas de ligação dos arcos. MÉTODOS: foram testados 4 tipos de braquetes autoligáveis (Damon MX, Easy Clip, Smart Clip e In-Ovation), [...] um braquete triplo (Synergy) e um braquete gêmeo com amarrilho 8 (Tecnident). Como grupo controle, foi utilizado braquete gêmeo com ligadura elástica convencional (Morelli). Foram executadas 10 repetições em cada combinação arco/braquete. As forças de atrito foram medidas em máquina de tração universal Instron, com velocidade de 3mm/minuto e deslocamento total de 6mm. Para análise estatística, usou-se a ANOVA e o Teste de Comparações Múltiplas de Dunnett. RESULTADOS: as forças de atrito por deformação do fio se mostraram crescentes na seguinte ordem: Synergy, Damon, amarrilho 8, Easy Clip, In-Ovation, Smart-Clip e ligadura convencional. As diferenças entre todos os grupos foram estatisticamente significantes, com exceção do Amarrilho 8 em relação aos grupos Damon e Easy Clip. CONCLUSÃO: em relação à ligadura convencional, todos os sistemas de fechamento das canaletas testados são eficientes em reduzir a força de atrito, porém, tal redução varia significativamente de acordo com o sistema de fechamento da canaleta selecionado. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the frictional forces between 0.014-in NiTi wires (Aditek) with 4 mm horizontal deflection and brackets with different archwire ligation systems. METHODS: Four types of self-ligating brackets (Damon MX, Easy Clip, Smart Clip and In-Ovation), a t [...] riple bracket (Synergy) and a twin bracket with 8-shaped ligature (Tecnident) were tested. Twin brackets with conventional elastomeric ligatures (Morelli) were used as control group. Tests were repeated 10 times for each bracket/archwire combination. Frictional forces were measured in an Instron universal tensile machine at 3 mm/minute speed and a total displacement of 6 mm. Statistical analysis comprised ANOVA and Dunnett's multiple comparison post hoc test. RESULTS: Deflection-induced frictional (DIF) forces increased in the following order: Synergy, Damon, 8-shaped Ligature, Easy Clip, In-Ovation, Smart-Clip and conventional ligatures. The differences among groups were significant, with the exception of the 8-shaped ligature groups which was equal to the Damon and Easy Clip groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional ligatures, all ligation systems tested reduced frictional forces. However, such reduction varied according to the ligation system employed.

  16. Comparative study of frictional forces generated by NiTi archwire deformation in different orthodontic brackets: In vitro evaluation Estudo comparativo da força de atrito produzida pela deformação de arco NiTi em diferentes braquetes ortodônticos: avaliação in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Vilanova Queiroz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the frictional forces between 0.014-in NiTi wires (Aditek with 4 mm horizontal deflection and brackets with different archwire ligation systems. METHODS: Four types of self-ligating brackets (Damon MX, Easy Clip, Smart Clip and In-Ovation, a triple bracket (Synergy and a twin bracket with 8-shaped ligature (Tecnident were tested. Twin brackets with conventional elastomeric ligatures (Morelli were used as control group. Tests were repeated 10 times for each bracket/archwire combination. Frictional forces were measured in an Instron universal tensile machine at 3 mm/minute speed and a total displacement of 6 mm. Statistical analysis comprised ANOVA and Dunnett's multiple comparison post hoc test. RESULTS: Deflection-induced frictional (DIF forces increased in the following order: Synergy, Damon, 8-shaped Ligature, Easy Clip, In-Ovation, Smart-Clip and conventional ligatures. The differences among groups were significant, with the exception of the 8-shaped ligature groups which was equal to the Damon and Easy Clip groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional ligatures, all ligation systems tested reduced frictional forces. However, such reduction varied according to the ligation system employed.OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar as forças de atrito entre fios NiTi 0,014" (Aditek com deformações horizontais de 4mm, e braquetes com diferentes sistemas de ligação dos arcos. MÉTODOS: foram testados 4 tipos de braquetes autoligáveis (Damon MX, Easy Clip, Smart Clip e In-Ovation, um braquete triplo (Synergy e um braquete gêmeo com amarrilho 8 (Tecnident. Como grupo controle, foi utilizado braquete gêmeo com ligadura elástica convencional (Morelli. Foram executadas 10 repetições em cada combinação arco/braquete. As forças de atrito foram medidas em máquina de tração universal Instron, com velocidade de 3mm/minuto e deslocamento total de 6mm. Para análise estatística, usou-se a ANOVA e o Teste de Comparações Múltiplas de Dunnett. RESULTADOS: as forças de atrito por deformação do fio se mostraram crescentes na seguinte ordem: Synergy, Damon, amarrilho 8, Easy Clip, In-Ovation, Smart-Clip e ligadura convencional. As diferenças entre todos os grupos foram estatisticamente significantes, com exceção do Amarrilho 8 em relação aos grupos Damon e Easy Clip. CONCLUSÃO: em relação à ligadura convencional, todos os sistemas de fechamento das canaletas testados são eficientes em reduzir a força de atrito, porém, tal redução varia significativamente de acordo com o sistema de fechamento da canaleta selecionado.

  17. Avaliação da resistência à tração de artifícios ortodônticos - braquete, botão e tela - colados em pré-molares com resina autopolimerizável. estudo "in vitro" / Evaluation of the resistance to traction of orthodontic devices - bracket, bouton and frame - bonded in premolar with autopolimerizable resin. "in vitro" study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter Leal de, Moura; Thaís Cristina Araújo, Moreira; João Batista Mendes, Teles.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Retenção dentária é a condição fisiopatológica em que o dente, uma vez chegado o seu momento fisiológico de erupção, apresenta algum impedimento para realizá-lo. O tratamento, com envolvimento cirúrgico-ortodôntico, visa deslocar o elemento dental para a correta posição na arcada dentária, sem causa [...] r danos aos elementos dentais adjacentes, restabelecendo a estética e a função. A colagem direta de botões e braquetes ortodônticos para tração de dentes inclusos transformou-se na técnica preferida, pois exige menor extensão cirúrgica e remoção de tecido para acesso à coroa dental. A pesquisa objetivou analisar a intensidade da força aplicada ao conjunto dente/artifício/fio de amarrilho, pelo tracionamento, e observar o local do rompimento. Utilizaram-se 45 pré-molares, conservados em soro fisiológico 0,9%, que foram divididos em 3 grupos (15 com braquetes, 15 com botões e 15 com telas). Os dentes foram fixados em canos de PVC preenchidos com resina acrílica e os acessórios fixados ao dente com resina autopolimerizável. Após a colagem dos acessórios ortodônticos, os dentes voltaram a ser conservados em soro fisiológico e o teste realizado após 72 horas, com a utilização de um sensor de força e um programa de computador (Logger Pro). Com os resultados, observou-se que o braquete resistiu a uma força média de 36,0N, sendo a junção fio/braquete o local menos resistente; o botão resistiu a uma força média de 41,2N, a junção fio/botão ortodôntico foi o local menos resistente e a tela resistiu a uma força média de 28,8N, sendo a junção dente/tela o local menos resistente. Abstract in english Restrained is the tooth which, reached its physiological moment of eruption, shows some obstruction to accomplish it. The treatment, with orthodontic-surgical involvement, type drives at to dislocate the dental element for right position in the dental arch, without to cause damages for adjacent dent [...] al element, re-establishing the aesthetics and function. Therefore, the direct bonding of orthodontic bracket and bouton for retained teeth traction became the preferred technic for, besides more clear, it demands smaller surgical amplitude and tissue removal to grant access to the dental crown. The research intended analyse the intensity of applied force to the entirety teeth/device/tie-wire, tractioning through, and to observe the splot rupture. Maked use of 45 premolar, conserved in 0.9%¹ physiological serum, that was divided into three groups (15 with brackets, 15 with boutons and 15 with frames). The tooth was filled in PVC pipe filled with acrylic resin and the devices was bonded to the teeth with autopolimerizable resin. After the bonding realization of the orthodontic devices, the tooth was be preserved in physiological serum and the tests was be realized after 72 hours of the bonding by means of a computer program. The bracket endured to medium force of 36,0N, being the junction wire-device the spot less resistant; the bouton endured to medium force of 41,2N, the juncion wire-bouton was the plot less resistant and the frame was endured to medium force of 28,8N, being the junction teeth/frame the plot less resistant.

  18. Avaliação da resistência à tração de artifícios ortodônticos - braquete, botão e tela - colados em pré-molares com resina autopolimerizável. estudo "in vitro" Evaluation of the resistance to traction of orthodontic devices - bracket, bouton and frame - bonded in premolar with autopolimerizable resin. "in vitro" study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Leal de Moura

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Retenção dentária é a condição fisiopatológica em que o dente, uma vez chegado o seu momento fisiológico de erupção, apresenta algum impedimento para realizá-lo. O tratamento, com envolvimento cirúrgico-ortodôntico, visa deslocar o elemento dental para a correta posição na arcada dentária, sem causar danos aos elementos dentais adjacentes, restabelecendo a estética e a função. A colagem direta de botões e braquetes ortodônticos para tração de dentes inclusos transformou-se na técnica preferida, pois exige menor extensão cirúrgica e remoção de tecido para acesso à coroa dental. A pesquisa objetivou analisar a intensidade da força aplicada ao conjunto dente/artifício/fio de amarrilho, pelo tracionamento, e observar o local do rompimento. Utilizaram-se 45 pré-molares, conservados em soro fisiológico 0,9%, que foram divididos em 3 grupos (15 com braquetes, 15 com botões e 15 com telas. Os dentes foram fixados em canos de PVC preenchidos com resina acrílica e os acessórios fixados ao dente com resina autopolimerizável. Após a colagem dos acessórios ortodônticos, os dentes voltaram a ser conservados em soro fisiológico e o teste realizado após 72 horas, com a utilização de um sensor de força e um programa de computador (Logger Pro. Com os resultados, observou-se que o braquete resistiu a uma força média de 36,0N, sendo a junção fio/braquete o local menos resistente; o botão resistiu a uma força média de 41,2N, a junção fio/botão ortodôntico foi o local menos resistente e a tela resistiu a uma força média de 28,8N, sendo a junção dente/tela o local menos resistente.Restrained is the tooth which, reached its physiological moment of eruption, shows some obstruction to accomplish it. The treatment, with orthodontic-surgical involvement, type drives at to dislocate the dental element for right position in the dental arch, without to cause damages for adjacent dental element, re-establishing the aesthetics and function. Therefore, the direct bonding of orthodontic bracket and bouton for retained teeth traction became the preferred technic for, besides more clear, it demands smaller surgical amplitude and tissue removal to grant access to the dental crown. The research intended analyse the intensity of applied force to the entirety teeth/device/tie-wire, tractioning through, and to observe the splot rupture. Maked use of 45 premolar, conserved in 0.9%¹ physiological serum, that was divided into three groups (15 with brackets, 15 with boutons and 15 with frames. The tooth was filled in PVC pipe filled with acrylic resin and the devices was bonded to the teeth with autopolimerizable resin. After the bonding realization of the orthodontic devices, the tooth was be preserved in physiological serum and the tests was be realized after 72 hours of the bonding by means of a computer program. The bracket endured to medium force of 36,0N, being the junction wire-device the spot less resistant; the bouton endured to medium force of 41,2N, the juncion wire-bouton was the plot less resistant and the frame was endured to medium force of 28,8N, being the junction teeth/frame the plot less resistant.

  19. Frictional Resistance of Three Types of Ceramic Brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Claire L.; Khaled Khalaf

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the static frictional resistance at the bracket/archwire interface in two recently introduced bracket systems and compare them to conventional ceramic and conventional metal bracket systems. Three variables were considered including the bracket system, archwire type and archwire angulation. Material and Methods: Four bracket systems were tested in vitro: Self ligating ceramic, ceramic with metal slot and module, conventional ceramic with module and conventional m...

  20. Laboratory evaluation of modern plastic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omar; Makou, Margarita; Papadopoulos, Triantafillos; Eliades, George

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate some properties of modern orthodontic plastic brackets. Seven bracket brands [Aesthetik-Line (AL), Avalon (AV), Brillant (BR), Elegance (EL), OrthoFlex (OF), Silkon Plus (SL), and Spirit MB (SP)] were included in the study. The properties tested were chemical composition, base morphology, slot roughness, Vickers hardness (VH), and shear bond strength (SBS) with enamel.According to the results, the brackets were composed of polyurethane (AV and OF), polyoxymethylene (BR), and Ca-Al-silicate fibre glass-reinforced polycarbonate (AL, EL, SL, and SP). Metallic slots were composed of austenitic stainless steel (EL and SP) and Ag-Cu alloy (AV). The base morphology exhibited distinct designs, employing parallel retentive canals (AV, EL, and OF) or round-angled square protrusions with major retentive elements (AL, BR, and SP) or a combination of both (SL). The SP metallic slot demonstrated the lowest Sz values. No significant differences were found in VH among the brackets before water immersion (19.6-16.9 VH). After 12 weeks immersion, the brackets showed a significant hardness reduction (16.6-12.9 HV). SBS ranged between 111 and 193 N (8-14 MPa) for all brackets, except from SP (59 N/5 MPa). The predominant failure mode was mixed adhesive and cohesive. Most of the plastic brackets presented a base structure capable of adequate bonding to enamel, regardless of their differences in composition. Slot roughness showed differences among groups. All the brackets demonstrated plasticization after prolonged water storage. PMID:21750238

  1. A study in vitro on radiation effects by Er:YAG laser combined with the fluorine therapy in the acid resistance of the dental enamel submitted to orthodontical brackets; Um estudo in vitro sobre os efeitos da irradiacao pelo laser de Er:YAG combinado com a terapia com fluor na resistencia acida do esmalte de dentes submetidos a aparelho ortodontico fixo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiyasu, Roseli Y.A

    2001-07-01

    Several researches have been demonstrating an increase in the resistance acid of the enamel surface when irradiated by some lasers types as Nd:YAG, C0{sub 2}, Er:YAG, and others, mainly when combined with the fluoride therapy after the irradiation of the laser. This study in vitro used the laser of Er:YAG which density of energy of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2} on the enamel about of orthodontical brackets of teeth extracted pre-molars. These teeth were then submitted to a rich way in S. mutans for twenty one days. The cases were analyzed: (1) enamel surface without any treatment, (2) enamel surface without any irradiation laser, but with therapy with acidulated phosphate fluoride, (3) enamel surface irradiated with laser of Er:YAG and (4) enamel surface irradiated by laser of Er:YAG and with application of acidulated phosphate fluoride. The results were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The morphologic changes observed to the scanning electron microscopy suggest increase in the acid resistance of the enamel surface. However, to the optical microscopy, it was still possible to visualize undesirable white stains in the surface of the enamel. (author)

  2. In vitro colour stability of aesthetic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltermeier, Andreas; Behr, Michael; Müssig, Dieter

    2007-08-01

    Contrary to their popularity in satisfying aesthetic demands, plastic brackets still present some problems because of their decreased hardness and wear resistance. A problem of plastic brackets is discolouration, due to ultraviolet (UV) light and food dyes. The aim of this study was to investigate the colour stability of aesthetic brackets during UV irradiation and exposure to food dyes. Four different polymer brackets were exposed in a Suntest CPS+ ageing device to a xenon lamp to simulate natural day light. Because most tooth-coloured bracket systems are used in adult treatment, red wine, coffee, and tea were chosen as food colourants. After 24 and 72 hours of exposure, colour measurements were performed by means of a spectrophotometer according to the CIE L*a*b* system and colour changes (DeltaE*) were computed. Statistical differences were investigated using three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). With the exception of the Aesthetic-Line bracket, almost all investigated polymer brackets showed clinically unacceptable discolouration during in vitro exposure to colourants. Most of the brackets became yellower after UV light treatment. In spite of the short exposure period of 72 hours, almost all polymer brackets showed undesirable discolouration. These current in vitro findings indicate that even newly developed plastic brackets, consisting of composite materials or modern polymers (polyoxymethylene) may have clinically unacceptable colour stability in the long-term. PMID:17702794

  3. Allergy and orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarthi, Sunitha; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on allergy in orthodontics and to identify the predisposing factors and the implications of the allergic reaction in the management of patients during orthodontic treatment. A computerized literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles published on allergy in relation to orthodontics. The MeSH term used was allergy and orthodontics. Allergic response to alloys in orthodontics, particularly nickel, has been extensively studied a...

  4. Influence of orthodontic treatment on temporomandibular disorders. A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañigral, Aránzazu; López-Caballo, José L.; Brizuela, Aritza; Moreno-Hay, Isabel; del Río-Highsmith, Jaime; Vega, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this literature systematic review was to evaluate the possible association between malocclusions, orthodontic treatment and development of temporomandibular disorders. Material and Methods: A search was carried out on PubMed-Medline database from January 2000 to August 2013 using the keywords “orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders”, “orthodontics and facial pain” and “malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders”. Human studies included in the study were those assessing signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in relation to orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods A search was carried out on PubMed-Medline database from January 2000 to August 2013 using the keywords “orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders”, “orthodontics and facial pain” and “malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders”. Human studies included in the study were those assessing signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in relation to orthodontic treatment. Results The search strategy resulted in 61 articles. After selection according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria 9 articles qualified for the final analysis. The articles which linked orthodontics and development of temporomandibular disorders showed very discrepant results. Some indicated that orthodontic treatment could improve signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, but none of them obtained statistically significant differences. Conclusions According to the authors examined, there is no evidence for a cause-effect relationship between orthodontic treatment and temporomandibular disorders, or that such treatment might improve or prevent them. More longitudinal studies are needed to verify any possible interrelationship. Key words:Malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders, orthodontics and facial pain, orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular disorders, temporomandibular dysfunction.

  5. Cytotoxicity and shear bond strength of four orthodontic adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, Erwin; Franz, Alexander; Freudenthaler, Josef; König, Franz; Bantleon, Hans-Peter; Schedle, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of four orthodontic bonding systems, Light Bond, Enlight, Concise, and Transbond, and to evaluate their shear bond strength (SBS). These orthodontic bonding materials were applied to metal brackets (Mini Diamond). Glass specimens were used as controls in all experiments. Only Concise was a chemically cured system, the other systems were light cured. The specimens were added to L-929 fibroblast cultures immediately after fabrication or after pre-incubation for 7 days. The incubation time was 72 hours and the cells were counted by flow cytometry. One hundred and fifty-seven freshly extracted human third molars were used for testing the SBS in a universal testing machine. Statistical significance was determined using analysis of variance followed by post hoc comparisons for multiple-level alpha control. Pairwise comparisons showed a significant difference only between Light Bond and Concise (P = 0.0126). The highest SBS was obtained with Light Bond (23.23 +/- 1.53 MPa) followed by Transbond (20.39 +/- 1.18 MPa) and Enlight, (20.32 +/- 1.06 MPa). Concise (17.87 +/- 1.04 MPa) showed the lowest SBS. The cytotoxicity of all light-cured systems for fresh specimens was comparable, whereas the chemically cured system, Concise, was significantly more cytotoxic. After 7 days of pre-incubation, all systems were significantly less cyotoxic than fresh specimens (P < 0.001). Brackets alone were not cytotoxic. All bonding systems showed a clinically satisfactory bond strength higher than 10 MPa, with the chemically cured system showing the lowest SBS. PMID:18791125

  6. Bond strength of different bracket bonding materials to the enamel subjected to thermal cycling / Resistência de união de diferentes materiais de colagem de bráquetes ao esmalte submetidos à ciclagem térmica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alcir, ROSOLEN; Enrico Coser, BRIDI; Roberta Tarkany, BASTING.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar in vitro a resistência de união por cisalhamento de bráquetes ortodônticos metálicos ao esmalte utilizando diferentes materiais para colagem em função da quantidade de ciclos térmicos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados um sistema de união com resina composta fluida (Transbond XT/3M Unitek) [...] e um ionômero de vidro modificado por resina (Fuji Ortho LC/GC America Inc.). Oitenta pré-molares humanos hígidos foram aleatoriamente divididos em oito grupos experimentais (n=10), de acordo com os tipos de material e quantidade de ciclos térmicos: zero, 1000, 2000 e 3000 ciclos. A colagem dos bráquetes foi realizada na face vestibular dos dentes. Após 24 horas, foram submetidos à ciclagem térmica com temperaturas de imersão entre 5ºC e 55ºC por 15 segundos. Os testes de resistência de união foram feitos em máquina de ensaios universal com ponta tipo cinzel com velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA a dois critérios. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença na resistência de união entre bráquetes e o esmalte em função do número de ciclos térmicos (p = 0,873). Houve diferença significativa na resistência de união proporcionada entre os materiais para colagem (p = 0,022), sendo que valores significativamente superiores foram obtidos com a utilização do Transbond XT, independentemente do número de ciclos térmicos. CONCLUSÃO: A quantidade de ciclos térmicos não influenciou significativamente a resistência de união dos materiais. Transbond XT mostrou maior resistência de união do que o cimento Fuji Ortho LC, independentemente da quantidade de ciclos térmicos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the shear bond strength of metallic orthodontic brackets to enamel using different bonding materials followed by thermal cycling. METHODS: A fluid composite resin (Transbond XT / 3M Unitek) and a resin-modified glass ionomer (Fuji Ortho LC / [...] GC America Inc.) were evaluated. Eighty sound human premolars were randomly divided into eight experimental groups (n = 10), according to the material used and the number of thermal cycles: zero, 1000, 2000 and 3000 cycles. Bracket bonding was performed on the buccal surface of the teeth. After 24 hours, they were subjected to thermal cycling at temperatures ranging between 5° C and 55° C for 15 seconds each immersion. Shear bond strength was performed using a universal testing machine with a chisel-type tip at a speed of 0.5 mm / min. The bond strength data was analyzed using two-way ANOVA. RESULTS: No difference on shear bond strength was observed regarding the number of thermal cycles for each specimen (p = 0.873). A significant difference was found in shear bond strength between the bonding materials (p = 0.022), with significantly higher values for Transbond XT regardless of the number of thermal cycles. CONCLUSION: The number of thermal cycles did not significantly affect the bond strength of the adhesive materials investigated. The bonding agent Transbond XT showed higher bond strength than Fuji Ortho LC regardless of the number of thermal cycles.

  7. Nd:YAG Laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding: Effects on shear bond strength and enamel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of Nd:YAG laser-aided ceramic brackets debonding technique, both ceramic brackets and metallic brackets were bonded with orthodontic adhesive to 30 freshly extracted premolars. The specimens were divided into three groups, 10 in each, according to the brackets employed and the debonding techniques used: (1) metallic brackets with shear debonding force, (2) ceramic brackets with shear debonding force, and (3) ceramic brackets with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The result showed that laser irradiation could diminish shear bond strength (SBS) significantly and produce the most desired ARI scores. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy investigation displayed that laser-aided technique induced little enamel scratch or loss. It was concluded that Nd:YAG laser could facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and diminish the amount of remnant adhesive without damaging enamel structure

  8. Clinical characteristics and properties of plastic brackets: A comprehensive review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karamouzos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this article is to provide the clinician with an up-to-date comprehensive literature review concerning the clinical characteristics and properties of plastic brackets. The article criticaily presents and discusses the various aspects of plastic brackets with regard to the construction, material properties, bond strength, frictional resistance, torque properties and bracket fracture. The article also contains guidelines and criteria concerning-the specific applications and use of plastic brackets.

  9. Frictional Resistance of Three Types of Ceramic Brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the static frictional resistance at the bracket/archwire interface in two recently introduced bracket systems and compare them to conventional ceramic and conventional metal bracket systems. Three variables were considered including the bracket system, archwire type and archwire angulation. Material and Methods: Four bracket systems were tested in vitro: Self ligating ceramic, ceramic with metal slot and module, conventional ceramic with module and conventional metal with module. A specially constructed jig and an Instron testing machine were used to measure the static frictional resistance for 0.014 inches round and 0.018 x 0.025 inches rectangular stainless steel wires at 0° and 7° angulations. Main outcome measures: static frictional force at the bracket/archwire interface; recorded and measured in units of force (Newtons. Results: Self ligating ceramic and metal slot ceramic bracket systems generated significantly less static frictional resistance than conventional ceramic bracket systems with the wire at both angulations (P < 0.05. Changing the wire from 0.014 round to 0.018 x 0.025 rectangular wire significantly increased frictional forces for metal slot ceramic and conventional metal bracket systems (P < 0.01. Increasing wire angulation significantly increased frictional resistance at the bracket/archwire interface for all four types of bracket systems tested (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Compared to conventional ceramic, self ligating ceramic and metal slot ceramic bracket systems should give improved clinical performance, matching that of conventional metal brackets.

  10. Quantitative analysis of S. mutans and S. sobrinus cultivated independently and adhered to polished orthodontic composite resins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ulises, Velazquez-Enriquez; Rogelio Jose, Scougall-Vilchis; Rosalia, Contreras-Bulnes; Jaime, Flores-Estrada; Shinsuke, Uematsu; Ryozo, Yamaguchi.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Orthodontics, fixed appliances placed in the oral cavity are colonized by microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the independent bacterial colonization of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in orthodontic composite resins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven orthodont [...] ic composite adhesives for bonding brackets were selected and classified into 14 groups; (GIm, GIs) Enlight, (GIIm, GIIs) Grengloo, (GIIIm, GIIIs) Kurasper F, (GIVm, GIVs) BeautyOrtho Bond, (GVm, GVs) Transbond CC, (GVIm, GVIs) Turbo Bond II, (GVIIm, GVIIs) Blugloo. 60 blocks of 4x4x1 mm of each orthodontic composite resin were made (total 420 blocks), and gently polished with sand-paper and ultrasonically cleaned. S. mutans and S. sobrinus were independently cultivated. For the quantitative analysis, a radioactive marker was used to codify the bacteria (³H) adhered to the surface of the materials. The blocks were submerged in a solution with microorganisms previously radiolabeled and separated (210 blocks for S. mutans and 210 blocks for S. sobrinus) for 2 hours at 37ºC. Next, the blocks were placed in a combustion system, to capture the residues and measure the radiation. The statistical analysis was calculated with the ANOVA test (Sheffè post-hoc). RESULTS: Significant differences of bacterial adhesion were found amongst the groups. In the GIm and GIs the significant lowest scores for both microorganisms were shown; in contrast, the values of GVII for both bacteria were significantly the highest. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the orthodontic composite resin evaluated in the GIm and GIs, obtained the lowest adherence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, which may reduce the enamel demineralization and the risk of white spot lesion formation.

  11. Model and Analysis on Car Seat Mounting Bracket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.Srinivasan#1 , M. Lava Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract--In this paper, we are desiged a car seat mounting bracket with seat arrangement by using Pro/E Softwarefor Automobile Applications. We have Conducted, structural analysis by varying the seat bracket material. By extracting the results Comparison is done for three materials to validate better material for car seat mounting bracket to find out which material is best for the withstand in loading condition. Analysis is by using ANSYS software.

  12. Evaluation of ionic degradation and slot corrosion of metallic brackets by the action of different dentifrices

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Antônio Martins Brandão; Rafael Menezes Simas; Leandro Moreira de Almeida; Juliana Melo da Silva; Marcelo de Castro Meneghim; Antonio Carlos Pereira; Haroldo Amorim de Almeida; Ana Maria Martins Brandão

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro ionic degradation and slot base corrosion of metallic brackets subjected to brushing with dentifrices, through analysis of chemical composition by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and qualitative analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). METHODS: Thirty eight brackets were selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 7). Two groups (n = 5) worked as positive and negative controls. Simulated orthodontic braces were assembled usi...

  13. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Cano, Jorge; Campo, Julián; Bonilla, Elena; Colmenero, César

    2012-01-01

    The use of orthodontic treatment in adult patients is becoming more common and these patients have different requirements specially regarding duration of treatment and facial and dental aesthetics. Alveolar corticotomy is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic treatment. This literature revision include an historical background, biological and orthodontic fundamentals and the most significant clinical applications of this technique. Orthodontic treatment time is reduced with this tech...

  14. Face Adaptation in Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Maen Mahfouz

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral Controversy in orthodontic science is widely present in different patterns; one of the most common is the debate between early versus late orthodontic treatment. This paper is going to demonstrate two clinical cases of class III malocclusion which are treated orthodontically, one in early mixed dentition and the other in permanent dentition. The face is highly capable to adapt to the changes achieved by orthodontics provided the earlier treatment begins, the more the face adapts to ...

  15. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  16. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF TORQUE ARM BRACKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj D. Shende

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this project is to investigate how a crack propagates and grows in a typical direction of Torque arm bracket. The finite element program and the crack growth program will be used to simulate crack growth and to compute the stresses and the stress-intensity factor. Aspecific bracket design was selected and a corner crack was investigated. This configuration was used since the engineers often detect this type of crack in brackets. The stress near the crack tip is compared against the yield strength of the material. The Mode I stress-intensity factor is compared against the material’s fracture toughness. The results show that the bracket can tolerate small cracks in the structure. The fatigue strength of the structure is recommended to be assessed in the future.

  17. Orthodontics and infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, M; Martin, M V

    1999-12-01

    Infective endocarditis associated with orthodontics is a rare occurrence. Unfortunately, many orthodontic practitioners do not treat patients potentially at risk of developing endocarditis due to the lack of practical guidelines and fear of precipitating the infection. Additionally, many patients that undergo orthodontic treatment are inappropriately prescribed antibiotic cover for procedures that have a minimal bacteraemic risk. In this paper the literature linking orthodontic treatment and infective endocarditis is examined. Recommendations are made for the appropriate management of patients at risk of infective endocarditis for orthodontic procedures. Refereed Paper PMID:10592157

  18. Orthodontic treatment of an anterior openbite with the aid of corticotomy procedure: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ali S. Aljhani; Aldrees, Abdullah M

    2010-01-01

    This case report illustrates the orthodontic treatment combined with the corticotomy technique in an adult patient to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. First, fixed orthodontic appliances (bidimensional edgewise brackets) were bonded, and a week later buccal and lingual corticotomy with alveolar augmentation procedure in the maxillary arch from the first molar...

  19. Quality management in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl-Andersen, Birte

    2005-11-01

    The introduction of modern quality thinking to orthodontic care should be a continuing effort on the part of the orthodontic profession. The strategy for the development of a European quality management system in orthodontic care was developed from 1993 to 2000 during the EURO-QUAL project. During the project's first stage, the basic prerequisites were identified for a general model of quality management in orthodontic care. A supra-national agreement was reached on policy statements for orthodontic care in Europe. The essential components of an orthodontic quality management system are: linking orthodontic care to population need, patient partnership, clinical accountability, and containing costs.Value-based health care and "TQM", the philosophy of total quality management, are basic principles applied in accordance with the recommendations of the European Health Committee of September 1997 and the "Health-for-All" policy framework of the World Health Organization. PMID:16331548

  20. The spectrum of Apert syndrome: phenotype, particularities in orthodontic treatment, and characteristics of orthognathic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehmer Ulrike

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the PubMed accessible literature, information on the characteristics of interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical treatment of patients with Apert syndrome is rare. The aim of the present article is threefold: (1 to show the spectrum of the phenotype, in order (2 to elucidate the scope of hindrances to orthodontic treatment, and (3 to demonstrate the problems of surgery and interdisciplinary approach. Children and adolescents who were born in 1985 or later, who were diagnosed with Apert syndrome, and who sought consultation or treatment at the Departments of Orthodontics or Craniomaxillofacial Surgery at the Dental School of the University Hospital of Münster (n = 22; 9 male, 13 female were screened. Exemplarily, three of these patients (2 male, 1 female, seeking interdisciplinary (both orthodontic and surgical treatment are presented. Orthodontic treatment before surgery was performed by one experienced orthodontist (AH, and orthognathic surgery was performed by one experienced surgeon (UJ, who diagnosed the syndrome according to the criteria listed in OMIM™. In the sagittal plane, the patients suffered from a mild to a very severe Angle Class III malocclusion, which was sometimes compensated by the inclination of the lower incisors; in the vertical dimension from an open bite; and transversally from a single tooth in crossbite to a circular crossbite. All patients showed dentitio tarda, some impaction, partial eruption, idopathic root resorption, transposition or other aberrations in the position of the tooth germs, and severe crowding, with sometimes parallel molar tooth buds in each quarter of the upper jaw. Because of the severity of malocclusion, orthodontic treatment needed to be performed with fixed appliances, and mainly with superelastic wires. The therapy was hampered with respect to positioning of bands and brackets because of incomplete tooth eruption, dense gingiva, and mucopolysaccharide ridges. Some teeth did not move, or moved insufficiently (especially with respect to rotations and torque irrespective of surgical procedures or orthodontic mechanics and materials applied, and without prognostic factors indicating these problems. Establishing occlusal contact of all teeth was difficult. Tooth movement was generally retarded, increasing the duration of orthodontic treatment. Planning of extractions was different from that of patients without this syndrome. In one patient, the sole surgical procedure after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances in the maxilla and mandible was a genioplasty. Most patients needed two- jaw surgery (bilateral sagittal split osteotomy [BSSO] with mandibular setback and distraction in the maxilla. During the period of distraction, the orthodontist guided the maxilla into final position by means of bite planes and intermaxillary elastics. To our knowledge, this is the first article in the PubMed accessible literature describing the problems with respect to interdisciplinary orthodontic and surgical procedures. Although the treatment results are not perfect, patients undergoing these procedures benefit esthetically to a high degree. Patients need to be informed with respect to the different kinds of extractions that need to be performed, the increased treatment time, and the results, which may be reached using realistic expectations.

  1. Influência da secção transversa de fios ortodônticos na fricção superficial de braquetes autoligados Influence of the cross-section of orthodontic wires on the surface friction of self-ligating brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Buzzoni; Elias, Carlos N.; Fernandes, Daniel J.; Miguel, Jose? Augusto M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a força de atrito estático entre braquetes de aço inoxidável autoligados com sistema de fechamento resiliente e fios ortodônticos redondos e retangulares do mesmo material. MÉTODOS: empregaram-se 30 braquetes referentes aos caninos superiores divididos em 6 grupos formados por braquetes autoligados Smartclip, In-Ovation R e convencionais Gemini amarrados com ligaduras elásticas. A hipótese testada neste trabalho foi quanto à po...

  2. Disinclusion of unerupted teeth by mean of self-ligating brackets: Effect of blood contamination on shear bond strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfondrini, Maria F.; Gatti, Sara; Gandini, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of blood contamination on the shear bond strength and failure site of three different orthodontic self-ligating brackets. Study Design: 240 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 12 groups of 20 specimens each. Orthodontic self-ligating brackets were tested under four different enamel surface conditions: a) dry, b) blood contamination before priming, c) blood contamination after priming, d) blood contamination before and after priming. Brackets were bonded to the teeth and subsequently tested using a Instron universal testing machine. Shear bond strength values and adhesive failure rate were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (strength values), and Chi squared test (ARI Scores). Results: Non-contaminated enamel surfaces showed highest bond strengths for all self ligating brackets. Under blood-contamination shear bond strengths lowered for all brackets tested. Groups contaminated before and after primer application showed the lowest shear bond strength. Significant differences in debond locations were found among the groups under the various enamel surface conditions. Conclusions: Blood contamination of enamel during the bonding procedure lowers bond strength values of self ligating brackets, expecially when contamination occur in different times of the bonding procedure. Key words:Disinclusion, self ligating brackets, blood, contamination, enamel, orthodontics, oral surgery. PMID:23229253

  3. Minor Periodontal Surgical Procedures Associated with Orthodontic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Banthia; Sphoorthi Anup Belludi; Anup Belludi

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, advances in techniques and dental materials as well as a growing public interest in developing and maintaining a healthy and attractive smile, has resulted in a greater understanding of the interrelationships between periodontics and orthodontics. A multidisciplinary approach is often necessary to treat and prevent dental problems in patients. Orthodontics and Periodontics are interrelated in a variety of situations. Orthodontic instrumentation may be necessary in certain sit...

  4. Influence of in vitro pigmenting of esthetic orthodontic ligatures on smile attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Ferraz; Marcelo Castellucci; Márcio Sobral

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of dental students and orthodontists on the degree of influence that pigmented esthetic elastic ligatures have on smile attractiveness, by judging clinical photographs. METHODS: Sixteen clinical facial photographs of the smile and 16 close up images of the smile of a single patient wearing monocrystalline porcelain orthodontic brackets, Teflon coated NiTi wire brackets and esthetic elastic ligatures of five different commercial brands were distributed int...

  5. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because they serve as reference points that make substandard performance psychologically painful. A broad goal allows high performance in one task to compensate for low performance in the other. This partially insures against the risk of falling short of ones goal(s), but creates incentives to shirk in one of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.

  6. Algebraic string bracket as a Poisson bracket

    OpenAIRE

    Abbaspour, Hossein; Tradler, Thomas; Zeinalian, Mahmoud

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we construct a Lie algebra representation of the algebraic string bracket on negative cyclic cohomology of an associative algebra with appropriate duality. This is a generalized algebraic version of the main theorem of [AZ] which extends Goldman's results using string topology operations.The main result can be applied to the de Rham complex of a smooth manifold as well as the Dolbeault resolution of the endomorphisms of a holomorphic bundle on a Calabi-Yau mani...

  7. The Stealth in comparison with other lingual brackets: properties and procedures for indirect bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Carlo; Veneziani, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of brackets available for lingual orthodontics. One, the Stealth bracket system, which can be positioned in the laboratory with Class or Targ or Pacon bonding systems and can be transferred with multiple or single transfers made either with thermoplastic materials or with resin has some advantages. 1) A single wing with horizontal engagement of the arch and good interbracket distance, permitting early engagement of rectangular arch wire with good torque control. 2) A deep slot and easy ligation that provides good arch wire stability in the slot during friction mechanics without double overties. 3) A thin design that gives little discomfort to the patient, reduces tongue stress and pain during therapy and allows good cleaning of the appliance. 4) A wide mesh with a strong bonding force 5) A horizontal extension on both sides of the slot that provides two points of contact between the slot and the arch wire for rotation control 6) A horizontal slot for insertion of auxiliaries such as a bite plane that can be used when it is clinically indicated. PMID:17364041

  8. Indirect orthodontic bonding - a modified technique for improved efficiency and precision

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lincoln Issamu, Nojima; Adriele Silveira, Araújo; Matheus, Alves Júnior.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a técnica de colagem indireta prioriza a otimização do procedimento de montagem do aparelho fixo na clínica ortodôntica, assegurando, entre outras, vantagens relacionadas à precisão no posicionamento dos braquetes. Nesse procedimento clínico laboratorial, o material e o método de confec [...] ção da moldeira de transferência são determinantes no quesito precisão. OBJETIVO: este artigo descreve uma técnica de colagem indireta simples, eficiente e reprodutível, para que o procedimento possa ser realizado com sucesso. Variáveis que exercem influência sobre o procedimento são analisadas e discutidas, a fim de auxiliar o profissional a adotar, de forma rotineira, a técnica de colagem indireta em sua prática clínica. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The indirect bonding technique optimizes fixed appliance installation at the orthodontic office, ensuring precise bracket positioning, among other advantages. In this laboratory clinical phase, material and methods employed in creating the transfer tray are decisive to accuracy. OBJEC [...] TIVE: This article describes a simple, efficient and reproducible indirect bonding technique that allows the procedure to be carried out successfully. Variables influencing the orthodontic bonding are analyzed and discussed in order to aid professionals wishing to adopt the indirect bonding technique routinely in their clinical practice.

  9. Bonded Orthodontic Retainer and Fixed Partial Denture Made with Fiber Reinforced Composite Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Kumbuloglu, Ovul; Saracoglu, Ahmet; Cura, Cenk; User, Atilla

    2011-01-01

    Retention is the phase of orthodontic treatment which maintains teeth in their orthodontically corrected positions, following the cessation of active orthodontic tooth movement. Development of resin-impregnated, fiber-reinforced composite materials has provided the potential to develop new approaches for stabilizing teeth and replacing teeth conservatively. This case report describes the rehabilitation of a patient with orthodontic and prosthetic problems. The long-term behavior of glass fibe...

  10. The effects of a newly designed twin-slot bracket on severely malpositioned teeth--a typodont experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Gang; Chen, Rong-Jing; Hu, Zheng; Qian, Yu-Fen

    2008-08-01

    The aims of this study were to design a twin-slot bracket featuring two horizontal slots and to examine its efficiency in tooth displacement. Based on the structure of a traditional edgewise bracket, an additional slot was added to a twin-slot bracket and the prototype products were fabricated for the typodont experiments. The orthodontic correction of malpositioned canines was conducted on a typodont to examine the efficiency of the twin-slot bracket in tooth displacement compared with a single-slot edgewise bracket. Three modalities of tooth movement requiring a heavy force moment, namely, axial rotation, mesiodistal tipping, and bodily translation, were conducted. The canine positions before and after simulation were measured and the changes identified. Statistical analysis was undertaken using a t-test to determine the significance of the differences in canine repositioning between the two bracket types. The results showed that in the twin-slot bracket group, the treatment changes in the canine position by derotation and uprighting were 40 +/- 3 and 25 +/- 2 degrees, respectively, compared with 20 +/- 5 and 10 +/- 2 degrees in the edgewise group (P twin-slot bracket group remained unchanged while in the edgewise group the canines became distally tipped by 5 +/- 2 degrees (P twin-slot bracket significantly increased the bracket width without reducing the interbracket span and therefore can generate increased force moments within the bracket, leading to an improved manipulation in tooth repositioning. PMID:18678759

  11. Impact of brackets on smile esthetics: laypersons and orthodontists perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seandra Cordeiro de Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the influence of orthodontic appliances on smile esthetics assessed by lay adolescents, lay adults and orthodontists. METHODS: A facial photograph of a smiling young woman was used under the following conditions: With metal orthodontic brackets ligated by different elastic ligature colors (green, red and gray, with ceramic bracket brackets (transparent elastic ligature and without brackets, totaling five 15 x 20 cm pictures. For the photograph assessment, 16 lay adolescents, 16 lay adults and 16 orthodontists were randomly selected. The photographs were randomly arranged in an album, followed by a visual analog scale (VAS for the scores registration. Scores in both evaluations of each group of evaluators (adolescents, adults and orthodontists were submitted to error analysis by WILCOXON test and multiple comparison among groups performed by Kruskal - Wallis at 5% significance. RESULTS: Orthodontists, adults and adolescents agreed in their opinions, although the orthodontists gave lower scores in their assessments. It could be observed that ceramic brackets were more acceptable concerning the smile esthetics, whereas the metal brackets received the lowest scores. CONCLUSION: Orthodontists, adults and even adolescents seem to prefer esthetic solutions during orthodontic treatment.OBJETIVO: esse estudo analisou a influência dos aparelhos ortodônticos na estética do sorriso em avaliação por adolescentes, adultos e ortodontistas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de uma jovem mulher, usando-se as seguintes combinações: aparelho ortodôntico de metal com ligaduras de diferentes cores (verde, vermelho e cinza; aparelho ortodôntico cerâmico (ligadura transparente; e sem aparelho - resultando em cinco fotografias de 15x20cm. Para a avaliação das fotografias, 16 adolescentes leigos, 16 adultos leigos e 16 ortodontistas foram selecionados de forma randômica. As fotografias foram aleatoriamente organizadas em um álbum, acompanhadas de uma escala visual analógica (EVA para o registro das notas. As notas das duas avaliações de cada grupo (adolescentes, adultos e ortodontistas foram submetidas à análise de erro (teste pareado de Wilcoxon e comparação múltipla de grupos pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: ortodontistas, adultos e adolescentes concordaram em suas opiniões, porém, os ortodontistas deram notas menores em suas avaliações. Pôde ser observado que os braquetes cerâmicos foram mais aceitos, considerando-se a estética do sorriso, uma vez que os braquetes metálicos tiveram as menores notas. CONCLUSÃO: ortodontistas, adultos e adolescentes parecem preferir soluções estéticas durante o tratamento ortodôntico.

  12. Impact of brackets on smile esthetics: laypersons and orthodontists perception

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Seandra Cordeiro de, Oliveira; Rachel D' Aurea, Furquim; Adilson Luiz, Ramos.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: esse estudo analisou a influência dos aparelhos ortodônticos na estética do sorriso em avaliação por adolescentes, adultos e ortodontistas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas fotografias faciais do sorriso de uma jovem mulher, usando-se as seguintes combinações: aparelho ortodôntico de metal com li [...] gaduras de diferentes cores (verde, vermelho e cinza); aparelho ortodôntico cerâmico (ligadura transparente); e sem aparelho - resultando em cinco fotografias de 15x20cm. Para a avaliação das fotografias, 16 adolescentes leigos, 16 adultos leigos e 16 ortodontistas foram selecionados de forma randômica. As fotografias foram aleatoriamente organizadas em um álbum, acompanhadas de uma escala visual analógica (EVA) para o registro das notas. As notas das duas avaliações de cada grupo (adolescentes, adultos e ortodontistas) foram submetidas à análise de erro (teste pareado de Wilcoxon) e comparação múltipla de grupos pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: ortodontistas, adultos e adolescentes concordaram em suas opiniões, porém, os ortodontistas deram notas menores em suas avaliações. Pôde ser observado que os braquetes cerâmicos foram mais aceitos, considerando-se a estética do sorriso, uma vez que os braquetes metálicos tiveram as menores notas. CONCLUSÃO: ortodontistas, adultos e adolescentes parecem preferir soluções estéticas durante o tratamento ortodôntico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the influence of orthodontic appliances on smile esthetics assessed by lay adolescents, lay adults and orthodontists. METHODS: A facial photograph of a smiling young woman was used under the following conditions: With metal orthodontic brackets ligated by different el [...] astic ligature colors (green, red and gray), with ceramic bracket brackets (transparent elastic ligature) and without brackets, totaling five 15 x 20 cm pictures. For the photograph assessment, 16 lay adolescents, 16 lay adults and 16 orthodontists were randomly selected. The photographs were randomly arranged in an album, followed by a visual analog scale (VAS) for the scores registration. Scores in both evaluations of each group of evaluators (adolescents, adults and orthodontists) were submitted to error analysis by WILCOXON test and multiple comparison among groups performed by Kruskal - Wallis at 5% significance. RESULTS: Orthodontists, adults and adolescents agreed in their opinions, although the orthodontists gave lower scores in their assessments. It could be observed that ceramic brackets were more acceptable concerning the smile esthetics, whereas the metal brackets received the lowest scores. CONCLUSION: Orthodontists, adults and even adolescents seem to prefer esthetic solutions during orthodontic treatment.

  13. External apical root resorption in maxillary root-filled incisors after orthodontic treatment: A split-mouth design study

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas-carreras, Jose? M.; Amarilla, Almudena; Espinar-escalona, Eduardo; Castellanos-cosano, Lizett; Marti?n-gonza?lez, Jenifer; Sa?nchez-domi?nguez, Benito; Lo?pez-fri?as, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare, in a split mouth design, the external apical root resorption (EARR) associated with orthodontic treatment in root-filled maxillary incisors and their contralateral teeth with vital pulps. Methodology: The study sample consisted of 38 patients (14 males and 24 females), who had one root-filled incisor before completion of multiband/bracket orthodontic therapy for at least 1 year. For each patient, digital panoramic radiographs taken b...

  14. Glass transition and degree of conversion of a light-cured orthodontic composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela M. D. S. Sostena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the glass transition temperature (Tg and degree of conversion (DC of a light-cured (Fill Magic versus a chemically cured (Concise orthodontic composite. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anelastic relaxation spectroscopy was used for the first time to determine the Tg of a dental composite, while the DC was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy. The light-cured composite specimens were irradiated with a commercial LED light-curing unit using different exposure times (40, 90 and 120 s. RESULTS: Fill Magic presented lower Tg than Concise (35-84ºC versus 135ºC, but reached a higher DC. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that Fill Magic has lower Tg than Concise due to its higher organic phase content, and that when this light-cured composite is used to bond orthodontic brackets, a minimum energy density of 7.8 J/cm² is necessary to reach adequate conversion level and obtain satisfactory adhesion.

  15. Glass transition and degree of conversion of a light-cured orthodontic composite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michela M. D. S., Sostena; Renata A., Nogueira; Carlos R., Grandini; João Carlos Silos, Moraes.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the glass transition temperature (Tg) and degree of conversion (DC) of a light-cured (Fill Magic) versus a chemically cured (Concise) orthodontic composite. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Anelastic relaxation spectroscopy was used for the first time to determine the Tg of a de [...] ntal composite, while the DC was evaluated by infrared spectroscopy. The light-cured composite specimens were irradiated with a commercial LED light-curing unit using different exposure times (40, 90 and 120 s). RESULTS: Fill Magic presented lower Tg than Concise (35-84ºC versus 135ºC), but reached a higher DC. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that Fill Magic has lower Tg than Concise due to its higher organic phase content, and that when this light-cured composite is used to bond orthodontic brackets, a minimum energy density of 7.8 J/cm² is necessary to reach adequate conversion level and obtain satisfactory adhesion.

  16. Effect of Activation Mode on Shear Bond Strength of Metallic Brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Americo Bortolazzo, Correr; Ana Rosa, Costa; Adriana Simoni, Lucato; Silvia Amelia, Vedovello; Heloisa Cristina, Valdrighi; Mario, Vedovello Filho; Lourenco, Correr-Sobrinho.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência de união ao cisalhamento (RUC) de braquetes ortodônticos metálicos colados ao dente bovino utilizando resinas compostas ativadas por luz ou quimicamente ativadas. Cento e vinte incisivos mandibulares bovinos foram divididos em 6 grupos (n=20), de aco [...] rdo com o material de colagem: Transbond XT (T); Enforce Dual (ED); Enforce químico (EC); Enforce ativado por luz (EL); Concise Ortodontico (C); e RelyX Unicem Capsula (UN). Braquetes metálicos foram posicionados e firmemente colados aos dentes. A ativação por luz para os grupos T, ED, EL e UN foi realizada em quatro exposições, sendo uma em cada lado do braquete, para um tempo total de exposição de 20 s usando o aparelho XL2500 (3M ESPE). Os grupos EC e C foram ativados quimicamente. Após, todas as amostras foram armazenadas em água deionizada a 37 °C por 24 h. O teste de resistência de união ao cisalhamento foi realizado após o período de armazenagem, à velocidade de 1 mm/minuto. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância e ao teste de Tukey (?=0,05). O índice de remanescente adesivo (IRA) foi avaliado em aumento de 8x. O valor de RUC (MPa) do grupo C (17,72±4,45) foi significantemente maior do que o de outros grupos (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of metallic orthodontic brackets bonded to bovine teeth using light-activated or chemically activated composite resins. One hundred and twenty bovine mandibular incisors were divided into 6 groups (n=20), according to the bonding ma [...] terials: Transbond XT (T); Enforce Dual (ED); Enforce chemical (EC); Enforce Light-activated (EL); Concise Orthodontic (C); and RelyX Unicem Capsule (UN). Metallic brackets were positioned and firmly bonded to the teeth. Light-activation for T, ED, EL and UN was carried out with four exposures on each side of the bracket with 20 s total exposure times using XL2500 (3M ESPE). EC and C were chemically cured. Next, all specimens were stored in deionized water at 37 °C for 24 h. The shear bond strength was carried out at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (?=0.05). The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was evaluated at 8× magnification. C (17.72±4.45) presented significantly higher SBS means (in MPa) than the other groups (p

  17. Improvement of orthodontic friction by coating archwire with carbon nitride film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce frictional resistance between archwire and bracket during orthodontic tooth movement, carbon nitride (CNx) thin films were deposited on the surface of archwires with ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that the CNx film was successfully deposited on the surface of the orthodontic wires. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggested that the deposited CNx film was sp2 carbon dominated structures, and diversiform bonds (N-C, N?C, et al.) coexisted in the film. The friction tests indicated that the CNx film significantly reduced the wire-bracket friction both in ambient air and in artificial saliva. The sp2C rich structure of the CNx film as well as its protection function for the archwire was responsible for the low friction of the wire-bracket sliding system.

  18. Improvement of orthodontic friction by coating archwire with carbon nitride film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Songbo [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shao Tianmin, E-mail: shaotm@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ding Peng [Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2011-10-01

    In order to reduce frictional resistance between archwire and bracket during orthodontic tooth movement, carbon nitride (CNx) thin films were deposited on the surface of archwires with ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) analysis showed that the CNx film was successfully deposited on the surface of the orthodontic wires. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggested that the deposited CNx film was sp{sup 2} carbon dominated structures, and diversiform bonds (N-C, N{identical_to}C, et al.) coexisted in the film. The friction tests indicated that the CNx film significantly reduced the wire-bracket friction both in ambient air and in artificial saliva. The sp{sup 2}C rich structure of the CNx film as well as its protection function for the archwire was responsible for the low friction of the wire-bracket sliding system.

  19. Effect of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To investigate the effect of daily intake of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic brackets assessed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Materials and methods. Sixty-four healthy adolescents (13-18 years) undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were enrolled and randomly allocated to a randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to drink one glass of milk (~ 200 ml) supplemented with fluoride (5 ppm) once daily and the subjects of the control group to drink the same amount of milk without fluoride. The intervention period was 12 weeks and the end-point was mineral gain or loss in enamel, assessed by QLF on two selected sites from each individual. The attrition rate was 12.5% and 112 sites were included in the final evaluation. Results. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups concerning fluorescence (¿F) values and lesion area (A mm(2)) at baseline.After 12 weeks, a significant decrease (p <0.05) in ¿F was registered in the fluoridated milk group and a significant increase in the non-fluoride control group (p <0.05). The mean reduction in the test group was somewhat lower (14%) than the increase in the control group (18%), but individual variations were evident. Only minor alterations of lesion area were recorded over the 12-week period and no statistically significant differences compared with baseline were found in any of the groups. Conclusion. Daily intake of fluoridated milk may aid remineralization of white spot lesions adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances.

  20. Fractional Poisson Bracket

    OpenAIRE

    GOLMANKHANEH, Alireza Khalili

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper fractional Hamilton-Jacobi equation has been derived for dynamical systems involving Caputo derivative. Fractional Poisson-bracket is introduced. Further Hamilton's canonical equations are formulated and quantum wave equation corresponds to the fractional Hamilton-Jacobi equation is suggested. Illustrative examples have been worked out to explain the formalism.

  1. Halogen light versus LED for bracket bonding: shear bond strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Guedes Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: LED light-curing devices seek to provide a cold light activator which allows protocols of material polymerization with shorter duration. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength of bracket bonding using three types of light-curing devices: One with halogen light (Optilight Plus - Gnatus and two with LEDs (Optilight CL - Gnatus and Elipar Freelight - 3M/ESPE. RESULTS: Comparing the results by analysis of variance, the Gnatus LED device showed an inferior statistical behavior in relation to other light sources, when activated by a short time. But, when it was used for 40 seconds, the polymerization results were consistent with the other evaluated sources. The device with the best average performance was the halogen light, followed by the 3M/ESPE LED. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the LEDs may be indicated in orthodontic practice, as long as a protocol is used for the application of light with the activation time of 40 seconds.INTRODUÇÃO: os aparelhos de fotopolimerização por LED buscam proporcionar uma luz ativadora fria, que possibilite protocolos de polimerização do material com menor tempo de duração. OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência à tração da colagem de braquetes, utilizando três tipos de aparelhos fotoativadores: um de luz halógena (Optilight Plus - Gnatus e outros dois de LED (Optilight CL - Gnatus; e Elipar Freelight - 3M/Espe. RESULTADOS: comparando os resultados por meio da análise de variância, o aparelho de LED Gnatus apresentou comportamento estatístico inferior em relação às outras fontes de luz, quando ativado por tempo reduzido. Já quando foi utilizado o tempo de 40 segundos, os resultados de polimerização foram compatíveis com as demais fontes avaliadas. O aparelho que apresentou melhor desempenho médio foi o de luz halógena, seguido pelo LED 3M/Espe. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que os LEDs podem ser indicados na prática ortodôntica, uma vez que seja utilizado um protocolo de aplicação da luz com tempo de ativação de 40 segundos.

  2. Halogen light versus LED for bracket bonding: shear bond strength

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Eduardo Guedes, Carvalho; Valdemir Muzulon dos, Santos; Hassan, Isber; Flávio Augusto, Cotrim-Ferreira.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: os aparelhos de fotopolimerização por LED buscam proporcionar uma luz ativadora fria, que possibilite protocolos de polimerização do material com menor tempo de duração. OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência à tração da colagem de braquetes, utilizando três tipos de aparelhos fotoativadores: u [...] m de luz halógena (Optilight Plus - Gnatus) e outros dois de LED (Optilight CL - Gnatus; e Elipar Freelight - 3M/Espe). RESULTADOS: comparando os resultados por meio da análise de variância, o aparelho de LED Gnatus apresentou comportamento estatístico inferior em relação às outras fontes de luz, quando ativado por tempo reduzido. Já quando foi utilizado o tempo de 40 segundos, os resultados de polimerização foram compatíveis com as demais fontes avaliadas. O aparelho que apresentou melhor desempenho médio foi o de luz halógena, seguido pelo LED 3M/Espe. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que os LEDs podem ser indicados na prática ortodôntica, uma vez que seja utilizado um protocolo de aplicação da luz com tempo de ativação de 40 segundos. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: LED light-curing devices seek to provide a cold light activator which allows protocols of material polymerization with shorter duration. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength of bracket bonding using three types of light-curing devices: One with halogen [...] light (Optilight Plus - Gnatus) and two with LEDs (Optilight CL - Gnatus and Elipar Freelight - 3M/ESPE). RESULTS: Comparing the results by analysis of variance, the Gnatus LED device showed an inferior statistical behavior in relation to other light sources, when activated by a short time. But, when it was used for 40 seconds, the polymerization results were consistent with the other evaluated sources. The device with the best average performance was the halogen light, followed by the 3M/ESPE LED. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the LEDs may be indicated in orthodontic practice, as long as a protocol is used for the application of light with the activation time of 40 seconds.

  3. Relationship between friction force and orthodontic force at the leveling stage using a coated wire

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Masaki, MURAYAMA; Yasuhiro, NAMURA; Takahiko, TAMURA; Hiroaki, IWAI; Noriyoshi, SHIMIZU.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between orthodontic force and friction produced from an archwire and brackets affects the sliding of the wire in the leveling stage. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between force and friction in a small esthetic nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) wire. [...] Material and Methods: Five esthetic wires (three coated and two plated) and two small, plain Ni-Ti wires (0.012 and 0.014 inches) were used. We performed a three-point bending test according to ISO 15841 and the drawing test with a dental arch model designed with upper linguoversion of the lateral incisor in the arch (displacements of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mm), and evaluated the relationship between them. Results: Unloading bending forces of all wires at displacements of less than 1.0 mm were larger than friction forces, but all friction forces at displacements exceeding 2.0 mm were larger than unloading bending forces. The arch likely expands when displacement from the proximal brackets exceeds 1.0 mm. The friction force of a martensite 0.014-inch Ni-Ti wire was significantly greater than those of the other esthetic and austenitic wires. Conclusions: A wire with the smallest possible friction force should be used in cases with more than 1.0 mm displacement.

  4. Effect of light-curing units in shear bond strength of metallic brackets: an in vitro study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Borges, Retamoso; Niége Michelle Lazzari, Onofre; Luciane, Hann; Ernani Menezes, Marchioro.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of the light curing units on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-two premolars were divided into six groups (n=12): Group I: brackets bonded with Transbond and polymerization with halogen light; Group II: Transbond and [...] LED; Group III: Fuji Ortho and halogen light; Group IV: Fuji Ortho and LED; Group V: Fuji Ortho, without acid and halogen light; Group VI: Fuji Ortho, without acid and LED. The groups were tested to shear strength in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test. RESULTS: The composite resin presented higher shear bond strength than the resin-modified glass ionomer cement (p0.05). CONCLUSION: The shear bond strength was influenced by the material but not by the light-curing unit. The use of LED reduced the experimental time by approximately 60%, with the same curing efficiency.

  5. Minor Periodontal Surgical Procedures Associated with Orthodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Banthia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, advances in techniques and dental materials as well as a growing public interest in developing and maintaining a healthy and attractive smile, has resulted in a greater understanding of the interrelationships between periodontics and orthodontics. A multidisciplinary approach is often necessary to treat and prevent dental problems in patients. Orthodontics and Periodontics are interrelated in a variety of situations. Orthodontic instrumentation may be necessary in certain situations for a successful restoration of periodontal health as well as for satisfactory maintenance of tissue integrity. At par successful orthodontic treatment for many patients will depend on the periodontal preparation before and after treatment and the maintenance of periodontal health throughout all phases of mechanotherapy. However this article will be mainly concentrating on the minor periodontal surgical procedures which would render optimal orthodontic therapeutic results. This makes an interdisciplinary approach a paramount in achieving a predictable outcome.

  6. Orthodontic Treatment FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions Contact Us Find an Orthodontist Find an AAO Orthodontist To find AAO-member orthodontists near you, enter a street address, ... general questions about orthodontic treatment. Our panel of AAO-member orthodontists will usually get back to you ...

  7. Internet and Orthodontics.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Karvelas

    1998-01-01

    Internet is spreading at on incredible rate. Orthodontics has already started adapting to this new environment and future developments are something to look forward to. This article presents main addresses directly or indirectly related to orthodontics. Because of the Web dynamics, changes occur so fast that some addresses may not be valid by the time this article is published and there may be new ones that are not included.

  8. 'Who does what' in the orthodontic workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, T; Parkin, N

    2015-02-16

    The contraction of the economy in the United Kingdom and constraints on the National Health Service (NHS) together with new opportunities for the delivery of orthodontic treatment has resulted in an increasing number of dental personnel across the different registrant groups. This article focuses on the changes that have taken place in the orthodontic workforce over the past decade. Although others help deliver orthodontic services such as material suppliers, treatment coordinators and those involved in marketing, this article will restrict itself to informing the reader specifically about which dental registrants are doing what at the clinical interface. How health professionals have developed their skills to undertake the role they play within the team and possible threats arising because of these changes are also discussed. PMID:25686442

  9. Evaluation In Vitro of Frictional Resistance of Self-Ligating Esthetic and Conventional Brackets / Evaluación In Vitro de la Resistencia Friccional en Brackets de Autoligado Estéticos y Convencionales

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Rita Danelon do, Amaral; Perrim Smith, Neto; Matheus Melo, Pithon; Dauro Douglas, Oliveira.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar la resistencia a la fricción producida en de brackets de autoligado estéticos y convencionales durante la simulación mecánica de deslizamiento ortodóncico. Se utilizaron cuatro tipos diferentes de soportes: 3 de tipo autoligado de diferentes marcas (Clarity SL, 3M Unitek; Dam [...] on 3®, Ormco Corporation; In-Ovation C®, GAC International), además de brackets estéticos convencionales (Radiance®, American Orthodontics) asociado con ligaduras elásticas convencionales (Sani-tie®, GAC International) y ligaduras de baja fricción (Slide®, Leone). Para simular la mecánica de deslizamiento, se utilizaron alambres de acero inoxidable con un espesor de 0,018" y 0,017"x0.025" (GAC Internacional). Cinco grupos (n = 10) fueron sometidos a cinco pruebas mecánicas consecutivas en una máquina de prueba universal modelo Emic DL ® 500. Los resultados mostraron niveles bajos de fricción en todos brackets de autoligado probados y con el uso de alambre de 0.018" (p0,05). Por otra parte, los brackets estéticos convencionales asociados con ligaduras convencionales resultaron tener una mayor resistencia a la fricción con ambos alambres probados (p>0,05). Todos los brackets de autoligado presentan niveles de fricción más bajo que los accesorios convencionales. El brackets activo de autoligado In-Ovation C, demostró un mayor grado de fuerza friccional cuando se asocia con alambre rectangular. La ligadura Slide® puede ser una alternativa al uso de brackets de autoligado. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the frictional resistance created in self-ligating esthetic and conventional brackets during simulated orthodontic sliding mechanics. Four different types of brackets were used: 3 self-ligating type of different brands (Clarity SL, 3M Unitek; Damon 3®, Orm [...] co Corporation; In-Ovation C®, GAC International), in addition to conventional esthetic brackets (Radiance®, American Orthodontics) associated with conventional elastic ligatures (Sani-tie®, GAC International) and low friction ligatures (Slide®, Leone). To simulate sliding mechanics, stainless steel wires with thicknesses of 0.018" and 0.017"x0.025" (GAC International) were used. Five groups (n=10) were submitted to five consecutive mechanical tests in a universal test machine model Emic® DL 500. The results showed low frictional levels in all tested self-ligating brackets and with use of 0.018" wire (p0.05). Moreover, conventional esthetic brackets associated with conventional ligatures resulted in greater frictional resistance with both wires tested (p>0.05). All the self-ligating brackets presented lower frictional levels than the conventional accessories. Active self-ligating bracket In-Ovation C, demonstrated higher degree of frictional force when associated with rectangular wire. The Slide® ligature may be an alternative to the use of self-ligating brackets.

  10. Degradation of orthodontic wires under simulated cariogenic and erosive conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura Cavalcante Lima, JABER; José Augusto, RODRIGUES; Flávia Lucisano Botelho, AMARAL; Fabiana Mantovani Gomes, FRANÇA; Roberta Tarkany, BASTING; Cecilia Pedroso, TURSSI.

    2014-08-04

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of cariogenic and erosive challenges (CCs and ECs, respectively) on the degradation of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) orthodontic wires. Sixty wire segments were divided into four treatment groups and exposed to CCs, ECs, artificial saliva, or dry storage (no-treatmen [...] t control). CC and EC were simulated using a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3) and a citric acid solution (pH 2.3), respectively. Following treatment, the average surface roughness (Ra) of the wires was assessed, and friction between the wires and a passive self-ligating bracket was measured. CuNiTi wires subjected to ECs exhibited significantly higher Ra values than did those that were stored in artificial saliva. In contrast, surface roughness was not affected by CCs. Finally, friction between the treated wires and brackets was not affected by ECs or CCs. Our results indicate that CuNiTi orthodontic wires may suffer degradation within the oral cavity, as ECs increased the surface roughness of these wires. However, rougher surfaces did not increase friction between the wire and the passive self-ligating bracket.

  11. Northcroft lecture: how has the spectrum of orthodontics changed over the past decades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Birte

    2011-06-01

    Three aspects have had a significant impact on orthodontics during the last few decades: the appliances being used, the anchorage being used and finally the distribution of patients being treated. Firstly, the marketing of appliances is increasingly leading the orthodontist to outsource important aspects of treatment such as wirebending and bracket positioning. Brackets and wires are being presented as the solution to all problems and metaphysical terms such as 'intelligent design,' 'working brackets' and 'intelligent wires' are dominating advertising and reducing the impact of evidence-based treatment approaches. Secondly, the introduction of skeletal anchorage has potentially widened the spectrum of orthodontics, allowing for treatments that could not be done with conventional appliances. Biomechanical knowledge is, however, mandatory if we agree that the system should not be abused. Thirdly, the orthodontic population comprises an increasing number of adult patients, many of whom are characterized by a degenerated dentition. The treatment of these patients requires a thorough knowledge not only of biomechanics but also of the reaction of the periodontal tissues to various types of loading. They can be treated only with custom-made appliances adapting the force systems and magnitude to the patient-specific treatment goal. In summary, the orthodontic world is being split between 'appliance-driven fast-food orthodontics' where the results to a large extent are dependent on both growth and function and 'orthodontist-driven' 'slow-food' treatments attempting to push the limits of the possible in relation to complicated problems and reversal of degeneration in adult patients. The latter treatments are performed with individualized appliances adapting the force system to the patient. This paper will attempt to summarize the bearing of these factors on present orthodontics. PMID:21677105

  12. Comparison Of Bond Strength Of Orthodontic Molar Tubes Using Different Enamel Etching Techniques And Their Effect On Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In fixed orthodontic treatment, brackets and tubes are used for transferring orthodontic forces to the teeth. Those attachments were welded to cemented bands. Fifty years ago, direct bonding of brackets and other attachments has become a common technique in fixed orthodontic treatment. Orthodontists used to band teeth, especially molars and second premolars, to avoid the need for re bonding accessories in these regions of heavy masticatory forces. However, it is a known fact that direct bonding saves chair time as it does not require prior band selection and fitting, has the ability to maintain good oral hygiene, improve esthetics and make easier attachment to crowded and partially erupted teeth. Moreover, when the banding procedure is not performed with utmost care it can damage periodontal and/or dental tissues. Molar tubes bonding decreases the chance of decalcification caused by leakage beneath the bands. Since molar teeth are subjected to higher masticatory impact, especially lower molars, it would be convenient to devise methods capable of increasing the efficiency of their traditional bonding. These methods may include variation in bond able molar tube material, design, bonding materials and etching techniques. For achieving successful bonding, the bonding agent must penetrate the enamel surface; have easy clinical use, dimensional stability and enough bond strength. Different etching techniques were introduced in literature to increase the bond strength which includes: conventional acid etching, sandblasting and laser etching techniques. The process of conventional acid etching technique was invented In (1955) as the surface of enamel has great potential for bonding by micromechanical retention, to form ‘the mechanical lock‘. The primary effect of enamel etching is to increase the surface area. However, this roughens the enamel microscopically and results in a greater surface area on which to bond. By dissolving minerals in enamel, etchants remove the outer 10 micrometers on the enamel surface. The purpose of acid etching is to remove the smear layer and create an irregular surface by preferentially dissolving hydroxyapatite crystals on the outer surface. This topography will facilitate penetration of the fluid adhesive components into the irregularities. After polymerization, the adhesive is locked as proved by Dr. Bounocore into the surface and contributes to micromechanical retention. Sandblasting was introduced in orthodontics in an attempt to achieve proper etching for the enamel surface which would result in a better bond strength through aluminum oxide particles that are emitted from a specific hand piece at a high speed which produce roughness in enamel surfaces. Another method of increasing bond strength is by using an adhesion promoter. The expression 'adhesion promoter' was first used in connection with certain molecules which could achieve chemical bonding in dental structures. The word laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The introduction of laser has revolutionized the bonding procedure. The first laser introduced was the helium-neon laser followed by Nd;YAG and CO2 laser. Then the erbium family(Er;YAG and Er;Cr;YSSG) was introduced to dentistry. It has some advantages such as having no vibration or heat and producing a surface which is acid resistant by altering the calcium to phosphor ratio and formation of less soluble compounds. These characteristics make the erbium family more popular in orthodontics. If laser can achieve the above-mentioned function of acid etching, and even produce a favorable surface for bonding to a restorative material, it may be a viable alternative to acid etching. Although there are studies that have evaluated the effect of laser etching on bond strength, still further studies are needed for evaluating the shear bond strength of orthodontic molar tubes bonded to enamel prepared by the new Er;Cr;YSSG laser, sandblasting versus the conventional acid etching technique

  13. Mechanical properties of a new thermoplastic polymer orthodontic archwire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Juan Carlos; Velo, Marcos; Espinar, Eduardo; Llamas, Jose Maria; Rúperez, Elisa; Manero, Jose Maria; Javier Gil, F

    2014-09-01

    A new thermoplastic polymer for orthodontic applications was obtained and extruded into wires with round and rectangular cross sections. We evaluated the potential of new aesthetic archwire: tensile, three point bending, friction and stress relaxation behaviour, and formability characteristics were assessed. Stresses delivered were generally slightly lower than typical beta-titanium and nickel-titanium archwires. The polymer wire has good instantaneous mechanical properties; tensile stress decayed about 2% over 2h depending on the initial stress relaxation for up to 120h. High formability allowed shape bending similar to that associated with stainless steel wires. The friction coefficients were lower than the metallic conventional archwires improving the slipping with the brackets. This new polymer could be a good candidate for aesthetic orthodontic archwires. PMID:25063084

  14. Peierls Brackets in Theoretical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Giampiero; Marmo, Giuseppe; Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2002-01-01

    Peierls brackets are part of the space-time approach to quantum field theory, and provide a Poisson bracket which, being defined for pairs of observables which are group invariant, is group invariant by construction. It is therefore well suited for combining the use of Poisson brackets and the full diffeomorphism group in general relativity. The present paper provides an introduction to the topic, with applications to field theory and point Lagrangians.

  15. Intrabracket space and interbracket distance: critical factors in clinical orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudy, G F; Schudy, F F

    1989-10-01

    The engineers who designed the Houston Astrodome, Walter Moore and Associates, were engaged to study the effect that different edgewise appliances have on the function of orthodontic beams or wires. They were supplied with tooth width, bracket width, wire size, slot size information, and stainless steel wire specifications. With these data their computer was programmed to model each appliance as a simple beam reflecting its different support conditions. In the study the 0.018, 0.022, and 0.016-inch traditionally slotted appliances were tested in single and twin brackets. In addition the 0.016-inch bimetric appliance (0.016 inch on anterior teeth, 0.022 inch on posterior teeth) was tested. The following wires were used for testing: 0.016 x 0.022 inch, 0.017 x 0.022 inch, 0.018 x 0.025 inch (0.018 inch); 0.018 x 0.025 inch, 0.019 x 0.025 inch, 0.022 x 0.028 inch (0.022 inch); 0.014 x 0.018 inch, 0.015 x 0.019 inch, 0.016 x 0.022 inch (0.016 inch and bimetric). The results as stated in the conclusion statement by Rick Horn, PhD, of Walter Moore and Associates, are (1) for a given appliance and wire size, the amount of deflection allowable at permanent set decreases with decreasing size of teeth; (2) for a given appliance and wire size, the force imparted to the teeth at permanent set increases with decreasing size of teeth; (3) for a given appliance, the amount of deflection at permanent set decreases with increasing wire size; (4) for a given appliance, the force imparted to the teeth at permanent set increases with increasing wire size; (5) the amount of deflection allowable at permanent set is larger for single brackets than double brackets and larger for bimetric brackets than single brackets; (6) the force imparted to the teeth at permanent set is smaller for single brackets than double brackets and smaller for bimetric brackets than single brackets; and (7) of the six types of appliances examined, the bimetric appliance is the most flexible, allowing the most deflection at permanent set with the smallest force imparted to the teeth. This study supports the following thesis: the only way to take advantage of smaller wires and thereby have an appliance deliver maximum resiliency with lighter forces and not loose control is through differential slot sizing. PMID:2801632

  16. Plaque Index in Multi-Bracket Fixed Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the plaque index in patients receiving multi-bracket fixed orthodontic treatment for various factors like age, gender, socio-economic status, brushing practices, meal habits, types of brackets, types of ligations, use of mouthwash and duration of treatment. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontics Clinic, The Aga Khan University Hospital, from September to November 2011. Methodology: Socio-demographic and clinical modalities were defined and recorded for 131 patients having multi-bracket fixed appliances. The plaque index of subjects were recorded according to the Silness and Loe plaque index method. Independent sample t-test was used to see difference in plaque index in factors having two variables. One way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey tests were used to see difference in plaque index in factors having three variables. Kappa statistics was used to assess inter examiner reliability. P-value 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results: The sample comprised of 37% males (n = 48) and 63% females (n = 83). The plaque index had statistically significant association with practice of brushing i.e., timing of brushing (p=0.001), method of brushing (p=0.08), type of ligatures (p=0.05) and frequency of visits (p=0.01). Conclusion: The plaque accumulation is significantly decreased in subjects who brush the teeth twice or more than twice a day and those who brush their teeth after breakfast. The use of interdental brush and stainless steel ligatures had significantly low plaque. Subjects presenting with more frequent appointments of short-period had significantly less plaque. (author)

  17. A computational fluid dynamic analysis of peri-bracket salivary flow influencing the microbial and periodontal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Lin, Han; Han, Yi; Lin, Yi; Xu, Yue; Zhang, Zhaoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Fixed vestibular appliances decrease the "self-cleansing" action of saliva and promote aggregation of dental plaque by disturbing the salivary flow field on tooth surfaces, leading to a higher prevalence of enamel demineralization and periodontal diseases. In the current study, we investigated the salivary dynamic characteristics of plaque retention and periodontal status around appliances during orthodontic treatment. By reconstructing lower central incisors and orthodontic appliances, we simulated saliva flow on the tooth surface and then characterized and quantified the salivary flow pattern surrounding the bracket and archwire. In parallel, we tested the total peri-bracket bacterial counts and periodontal status to assess interrelations. Our results demonstrate that orthodontic appliances disturb the salivary flow field on tooth surfaces and can lead to a decrease in salivary velocity and an increase in bacterial numbers. Local vortexes forming in the areas gingival to the bracket, together with the narrow space limitation, contributed to the periodontal inflammatory response. This study confirms that changes in salivary flow are an obvious predisposing factor for bacterial accumulation, and advances the ability to replicate, in vitro, the salivary characteristics of plaque retention and periodontal status around appliances during orthodontic treatment. PMID:23620815

  18. Evaluation of shear bond strength of different treatments of ceramic bracket surfaces Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de diferentes tratamentos na superfície de braquetes cerâmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helou Ramos Andrade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bonding strength of the ceramic bracket and composite resin restoration interface, using four types of treatment on the base of the bracket. METHODOLOGY: 48 photoactivated composite resin discs were used (FiltekTM Z250 contained in specimens and divided into 4 groups of 12 specimens for each group according to the type of treatment performed on the base of the brackets. Once the brackets were bonded, the specimens were subjected to shear stress carried out in a universal testing machine (MTS: 810 Material Test System calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5 mm / minute. The values obtained were recorded and compared by means of appropriate statistical tests - analysis of variance and then Tukey's test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The surfaces of ceramic brackets conditioned with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 1 minute, followed by aluminum oxide blasting, 50µ, after silane application and primer application, was considered the best method to prepare surfaces of ceramic brackets prior to orthodontic esthetic bonding.OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência à união da interface entre braquete cerâmico e restauração de resina composta, empregando quatro tipos de tratamento na base do braquete. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 48 discos de resina fotoativada (Filtek® Z250 incluídos em corpos de prova, divididos em quatro grupos, com 12 espécimes em cada grupo, de acordo com o tipo de tratamento realizado na base do braquete. Uma vez colados os braquetes, os corpos de prova foram submetidos à tensão de cisalhamento, realizado numa máquina universal de ensaios (MTS: 810 Material Test System calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/min. Os valores obtidos foram registrados e comparados por meio de médias, utilizando-se testes estatísticos adequados (análise de Variância e, posteriormente, teste de Tukey. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o condicionamento das superfícies dos braquetes cerâmicos com ácido hidrofluorídrico a 10% por 1 minuto, seguido do jateamento com óxido de alumínio com 50um de tamanho, e posterior aplicação do silano e, depois, aplicação de adesivo, foi considerado o melhor método para o preparo de superfícies de braquetes cerâmicos previamente à colagem estética ortodôntica.

  19. Evaluation of shear bond strength of different treatments of ceramic bracket surfaces / Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de diferentes tratamentos na superfície de braquetes cerâmicos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patrícia Helou Ramos, Andrade; Rogério Vieira, Reges; Marcos Augusto, Lenza.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência à união da interface entre braquete cerâmico e restauração de resina composta, empregando quatro tipos de tratamento na base do braquete. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 48 discos de resina fotoativada (Filtek® Z250) incluídos em corpos de prova, divididos em quatro grupos, [...] com 12 espécimes em cada grupo, de acordo com o tipo de tratamento realizado na base do braquete. Uma vez colados os braquetes, os corpos de prova foram submetidos à tensão de cisalhamento, realizado numa máquina universal de ensaios (MTS: 810 Material Test System) calibrada com velocidade fixa de 0,5mm/min. Os valores obtidos foram registrados e comparados por meio de médias, utilizando-se testes estatísticos adequados (análise de Variância e, posteriormente, teste de Tukey). RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o condicionamento das superfícies dos braquetes cerâmicos com ácido hidrofluorídrico a 10% por 1 minuto, seguido do jateamento com óxido de alumínio com 50um de tamanho, e posterior aplicação do silano e, depois, aplicação de adesivo, foi considerado o melhor método para o preparo de superfícies de braquetes cerâmicos previamente à colagem estética ortodôntica. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bonding strength of the ceramic bracket and composite resin restoration interface, using four types of treatment on the base of the bracket. METHODOLOGY: 48 photoactivated composite resin discs were used (FiltekTM Z250) contained in specimens and divided into 4 groups of 1 [...] 2 specimens for each group according to the type of treatment performed on the base of the brackets. Once the brackets were bonded, the specimens were subjected to shear stress carried out in a universal testing machine (MTS: 810 Material Test System) calibrated with a fixed speed of 0.5 mm / minute. The values obtained were recorded and compared by means of appropriate statistical tests - analysis of variance and then Tukey's test. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The surfaces of ceramic brackets conditioned with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 1 minute, followed by aluminum oxide blasting, 50µ, after silane application and primer application, was considered the best method to prepare surfaces of ceramic brackets prior to orthodontic esthetic bonding.

  20. Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes da técnica lingual colados sobre superfície cerâmica / Evaluation of shear strength of lingual brackets bonded to ceramic surfaces

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michele Balestrin, Imakami; Karyna Martins, Valle-Corotti; Paulo Eduardo Guedes, Carvalho; Ana Carla Raphaelli Nahás, Scocate.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos (American Orthodontics) utilizados na técnica lingual, colados em facetas de cerâmica. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 40 corpos de prova divididos em quatro grupos de 10, de acordo com o material de colagem e do preparo da porcelana: [...] Grupo I -resina Sondhi Rapid-Set e ácido fluorídrico; Grupo II -resina Sondhi Rapid-Set e óxido de alumínio; Grupo III -resina Transbond XT e ácido fluorídrico; e Grupo IV -resina Transbond XT e óxido de alumínio. Previamente à colagem, os braquetes foram preparados com base de resina de carga pesada (Z-250) e as facetas de cerâmica receberam aplicação de silano. O teste de cisalhamento foi realizado por uma máquina de ensaios Kratos à uma velocidade de 0,5mm/min. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente através do teste de Tukey (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear strength of lingual metal brackets (American Orthodontics) bonded to ceramic veneers. METHODS: A total of 40 specimens were divided into four groups of 10, according to bonding material and ceramics preparation: Group I -Sondhi Rapid-Set res [...] in and Hydrofluoric acid, Group II -Sondhi Rapid-Set resin and aluminum oxide, Group III -Transbond XT resin and Hydrofluoric acid, and Group IV -Transbond XT resin and aluminum oxide. Prior to bonding, the brackets were prepared with heavy-duty resin base (Z-250) and the ceramic veneers were treated with silane. The shear test was conducted with a Kratos testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. RESULTS: The results were statistically analyzed by the Tukey test (p

  1. Desmistificando os braquetes autoligáveis Demystifying self-ligating brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Sathler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, os braquetes autoligáveis têm sido associados a tratamentos mais rápidos e eficazes, o que desperta a curiosidade em compará-los ao sistema convencional. Ao contrário dos braquetes tradicionais, os autoligáveis não necessitam de ligaduras, sejam elásticas ou metálicas. A literatura é farta em concluir que essa característica diminui, ostensivamente, a resistência do atrito durante as mecânicas de deslize. Além disso, existem alegações sobre a dimimuição da necessidade de extrações e de expansão maxilar com o uso desses acessórios. Portanto, o objetivo dessa revisão de literatura foi buscar os mais novos estudos a respeito dos aparelhos autoligáveis atualmente utilizados nos tratamentos ortodônticos, confirmando ou retificando as especulações vigentes.Currently self-ligating brackets have been associated to faster and more efficient treatments, which arouse the curiosity to compare them to the conventional system. Unlike traditional appliances, self-ligating brackets do not require elastomeric or metal ligatures. The literature is abundant in concluding that this feature decreases, ostensibly, the friction resistance during the sliding mechanics. Moreover, there are reports on minimizing the need of extractions and maxillary expansion using these accessories. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review was to seek the newest studies about the self-ligating brackets currently used in orthodontic treatments, confirming or correcting current speculations.

  2. Desmistificando os braquetes autoligáveis / Demystifying self-ligating brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata, Sathler; Renata Gonçalves, Silva; Guilherme, Janson; Nuria Cabral Castello, Branco; Marcelo, Zanda.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, os braquetes autoligáveis têm sido associados a tratamentos mais rápidos e eficazes, o que desperta a curiosidade em compará-los ao sistema convencional. Ao contrário dos braquetes tradicionais, os autoligáveis não necessitam de ligaduras, sejam elásticas ou metálicas. A literatura é far [...] ta em concluir que essa característica diminui, ostensivamente, a resistência do atrito durante as mecânicas de deslize. Além disso, existem alegações sobre a dimimuição da necessidade de extrações e de expansão maxilar com o uso desses acessórios. Portanto, o objetivo dessa revisão de literatura foi buscar os mais novos estudos a respeito dos aparelhos autoligáveis atualmente utilizados nos tratamentos ortodônticos, confirmando ou retificando as especulações vigentes. Abstract in english Currently self-ligating brackets have been associated to faster and more efficient treatments, which arouse the curiosity to compare them to the conventional system. Unlike traditional appliances, self-ligating brackets do not require elastomeric or metal ligatures. The literature is abundant in con [...] cluding that this feature decreases, ostensibly, the friction resistance during the sliding mechanics. Moreover, there are reports on minimizing the need of extractions and maxillary expansion using these accessories. Therefore, the purpose of this literature review was to seek the newest studies about the self-ligating brackets currently used in orthodontic treatments, confirming or correcting current speculations.

  3. Cephalometry in orthodontic practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cephalometry is applied in orthodontic practice to: - obtain information on the growth of the skull - assist diagnosis of the relationship between the jaws and abnormalities in dentition - evaluate the results of treatment. The course of the diagnostic procedure with the aid of the Ricketts analysis and evaluation of the treatment results using five superimpositions is demonstrated by means of two examples. (Auth.)

  4. Effect of different enamel conditionings on the bond strength of glass ionomer cement and ceramic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dauro Douglas, Oliveira; Thomas Gerard, Bradley; Matheus Melo, Pithon; Mariele Cristina Garcia, Pantuzo; Emílio, Akaki; Virendra, Dhuru.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of different enamel conditionings on the shear bond strength (SBS) and bond failure patterns of a resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) used to bond ceramic brackets. Methods: 105 human premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were divided into 7 groups according [...] to the enamel surface treatments: conditioners (35% phosphoric acid and 10% polyacrylic acid), type of adhesive (Transbond(r) and Fuji Ortho LC Capsule(r)), washing time and drying of the surface. Results: A significant p0.05) to the group that had brackets bonded with composite resin. The two groups that had enamel prepared with polyacrylic acid and brackets bonded with GIC on a wet surface showed significantly lower shear bond strength than the control group (p

  5. Shear bond strength of orthodontic color-change adhesives with different light-curing times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Shahin; Ghassemi, Amirreza; Manafi, Safa; Delavarian, Mohadeseh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing time on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two orthodontic color-change adhesives (CCAs). Materials and Methods: A total of 72 extracted premolars were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 12 teeth each. Subsequent to primer application, a metal bracket was bonded to the buccal surface using an orthodontic adhesive. Two CCAs (Greengloo and Transbond Plus) were tested and one conventional light-cured adhesive (Resilience) served as control. For each adhesive, the specimens were light-cured for two different times of 20 and 40 s. All the specimens underwent mechanical testing using a universal testing machine to measure the SBS. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to assess the remnant adhesive material on the tooth surface. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. The significance level for all statistical tests was set at P ? 0.05. Results: The SBSs of the tested groups were in the range of 14.05-31.25 MPa. Greengloo adhesive showed the highest SBS values when light-cured for 40 s, and Transbond Plus adhesive showed the lowest values when light-cured for 20 s. ARI scores of Transbond Plus adhesive were significantly higher than those of controls, while other differences in ARI values were not significant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of his study, decreasing the light-curing time from 40 to 20 s decreased the SBS of the tested adhesives; however, this decline in SBS was statistically significant only in Transbond Plus adhesive PMID:26005468

  6. The effect of pretreatment with fluoride on the tensile strength of orthodontic bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White spot decalcifications and caries occurring adjacent to bonded orthodontic brackets have long been a concern to orthodontists. One procedure suggested to overcome this problem is fluoride treatment prior to bonding. The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of orthodontic self-cured resin from Concise on teeth rinsed 4 minutes in 1.23% APF with untreated controls. Measurements were made on an Instron machine. Debonding interfaces were observed with a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. Distributions were calculated. The tensile bond strengths of the fluoride-treated teeth and the untreated teeth were not significantly different. The debonding interfaces between resin and bracket base, within the resin itself, and between enamel and resin were similar in the two experimental groups. However, greater enamel detachment was seen within the fluoride pretreatment group. So while fluoride pretreatment does not significantly affect tensile bond strength, it may cause enamel detachment after debonding

  7. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires made of super engineering plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Minami; Kanno, Zuisei; Wada, Takahiro; Hongo, Toshio; Doi, Hisashi; Hanawa, Takao; Ono, Takashi; Uo, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Most orthodontic equipment is fabricated from alloys such as stainless steel, Co-Cr and Ni-Ti because of their excellent elastic properties. In recent years, increasing esthetic demands, metal allergy and interference of metals with magnetic resonance imaging have driven the development of non-metallic orthodontic materials. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using three super engineering plastics (PEEK, PES and PVDF) as orthodontic wires. PES and PVDF demonstrated excellent esthetics, although PEEK showed the highest bending strength and creep resistance. PEEK and PVDF showed quite low water absorption. Because of recent developments in coloration of PEEK, we conclude that PEEK has many advantageous properties that make it a suitable candidate for use as an esthetic metal-free orthodontic wire. PMID:25748467

  8. Release of Metal Ions from Orthodontic Appliances: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; CHOJNACKA, Katarzyna; Wo?niak, Barbara; Downarowicz, Patrycja

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an in vitro experiment on the release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances composed of alloys containing iron, chromium, nickel, silicon, and molybdenum into artificial saliva. The concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, calcium, titanium, vanadium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, nickel, and chromium were significantly higher in artificial saliva in which metal brackets, bands, and wires used in orthod...

  9. Canonical Brackets from Symmetry Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S; Malik, R P

    2009-01-01

    We deduce the canonical brackets for a two (1 + 1)-dimensional (2D) free Abelian 1-form gauge theory by exploiting the beauty and strength of the continuous symmetries of a Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) invariant Lagrangian density that respects, in totality, six continuous symmetries. All these symmetries lead to the derivation of exactly the same canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators that appear in the normal mode expansion of the basic fields of the theory. For the sake of precise comparison, the above canonical brackets are also derived by applying the canonical approach to the appropriate Lagrangian density of the theory.

  10. Orthodontic extrusion of horizontally impacted mandibular molars

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhigui; YANG, CHI; Zhang, ShanYong; Xie, Qianyang; Shen, Yuqing; Shen, Pei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To introduce and evaluate a novel approach in treating horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars. Materials and methods: An orthodontic technique was applied for treatment of horizontally impacted mandibular second and third molars, which included a push-type spring for rotation first, and then a cantilever for extrusion. There were 8 mandibular third molars (M3s) and 2 second molars (M2s) in this study. Tooth mobility, extraction time, the inclination and parallelis...

  11. Cytotoxicity of alginate for orthodontic use

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Melo Pithon; Rogério Lacerda dos Santos; Fernanda Otaviano Martins; Maria Teresa Villela Romanos

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of three different alginate impression materials for orthodontic use. METHODS: Three different brands of alginate were divided into three groups, namely, Group JCO (Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho), OP (Orthoprint) and CO (Cavex Orthotrace). Three control groups were also included: Group C+ (positive control), consisting of detergent Tween 80; Group C- (negative control), consisting of PBS, and Group CC (cell control), consisting of cells not exposed to any ma...

  12. Backscattering from dental restorations and splint materials during therapeutic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models were constructed to simulate as closely as possible the human oral cavity. Radiation absorbed doses were determined for controls and various test situations involving the presence of dental restorative and splint materials during cobalt-60 irradiation of the models. Adjacent gold full crowns and adjacent solid dental silver amalgam cores both increased the dose to the interproximal gingivae by 20%. Use of orthodontic full bands for splinting the jaws increased the dose to the buccal tissues by an average of 10%. Augmentation of dose through backscatter radiation was determined to be only slight for intracoronal amalgam fillings and stainless steel or plastic bracket splints

  13. Laser Applications in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Heidari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A laser is a collimated single wavelength of light which delivers a concentrated source of energy. Soon after different types of lasers were invented, investigators began to examine the effects of different wavelengths of laser energy on oral tissues, routine dental procedures and experimental applications. Orthodontists, along with other specialist in different fields of dentistry, can now benefit from several different advantages that lasers provide during the treatment process, from the beginning of the treatment, when separators are placed, to the time of resin residues removal from the tooth surface at the end of orthodontic treatment. This article outlines some of the most common usages of laser beam in orthodontics and also provides a comparison between laser and other conventional method that were the standard of care prior to the advent of laser in this field.

  14. Lasers in orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Nalcaci, Ruhi; Cokakoglu, Serpil

    2013-01-01

    Many types of dental lasers are currently available that can be efficiently used for soft and hard tissue applications in the field of orthodontics. For achieving the desired effects in the target tissue, knowledge of laser characteristics such as power, wavelength and timing, is necessary. Laser therapy is advantageous because it often avoids bleeding, can be pain free, is non-invasive and is relatively quick. The high cost is its primary disadvantage. It is very important to take the necess...

  15. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço; Mônica Tirre de Souza Araújo

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portugue...

  16. Orthodontic silver brazing alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhurst, P J; Pham, H L

    1989-10-01

    Orthodontic silver brazing alloys suffer from the presence of cadmium, excessive flow temperatures, and crevice corrosion on stainless steel. Seven alloys were examined. Two alloys contained cadmium. The lowest flow temperature observed was 629 degrees C for a cadmium alloy and 651 degrees C for two cadmium free alloys. Three alloys had corrosion resistance superior to the other solders. Addition of low melting temperature elements gallium and indium reduced flow temperature in some cases but produced brittleness in the brazing alloy. PMID:2576971

  17. A influência da variação da curvatura da base do braquete em uma união ortodôntica submetida a diferentes cargas, através do método dos elementos finitos / The influence of the variation of the bracket base curvature in a bonded orthodontic attachment submitted by different load cases using the finite element method

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudio Pereira, Viana; Ênio Tonani, Mazzieiro; Janes, Landre Júnior.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou avaliar, através do Método dos Elementos Finitos, a resistência ao deslocamento de quatro diferentes bases de braquetes "straight-wire" (Morelli, Unitek, A-Company e Abzil-Lancer) na aplicação de forças de torção e cisalhamento, correlacionando essa resistência à melhor adapta [...] ção das bases à superfície vestibular dentária. As curvaturas das bases de braquetes utilizados no presente estudo foram descritas em um estudo prévio, enquanto o contorno dentário foi obtido a partir do escaneamento e cálculo da curvatura média vestibular do canino inferior de uma amostra de 30 indivíduos brasileiros. Empregou-se a análise tridimensional por Elementos Finitos da interface esmalte vestibular/cimento/base do braquete para cada marca testada. Forças de 1N, promovendo deslocamento lateral e torção, foram aplicadas no centro da base do braquete e observou-se a distribuição desses esforços sobre os modelos assim como as tensões normais e de cisalhamento geradas. Os resultados mostraram que a base que melhor se adaptou à superfície vestibular construída foi a da marca Unitek, seguida pela marca A-Company, Abzil-Lancer e Morelli. As deformações sofridas pelos braquetes foram inversamente proporcionais à adaptação à superfície dentária. Os maiores picos de tensão localizaram-se nas proximidades do ponto de aplicação da força. A interface adesivo/esmalte foi mais sujeita à falha na adesão que a interface braquete/adesivo. A força de cisalhamento demonstrou ser mais provável de causar falha na adesão quando comparada à força de torção. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of the four straight-wire brackets bases (Morelli, Unitek, A-Company and Abzil-Lancer) to facial surface of a lower canine. The lower canine facial curvature data to be used in the three-dimensional finite element model were established by [...] 30 Brazilian adult individuals and the brackets bases curvature used were described in a prior study. The three-dimensional finite element analysis of the interface enamel/cement/base of bracket for each tested mark was used. Loads of 1N promoting lateral displacement and torsion had been applied in the center of the base of brackets and the distribution of these efforts on the models was observed as well as the normal and shear tensions generated. The results had shown that the base that better fit to facial surface was the one from Unitek, followed by the A-Company, Abzil-Lancer and Morelli.The brackets deformations were inversely proportional to its adaptation.The biggest peaks of tensions had been situated near to the point of force application. The cement/enamel interface was more likely to fail in the adhesion that the bracket/cement interface. The torsion load was less likely to cause damage in the adhesion when compared with the shear load.

  18. A influência da variação da curvatura da base do braquete em uma união ortodôntica submetida a diferentes cargas, através do método dos elementos finitos The influence of the variation of the bracket base curvature in a bonded orthodontic attachment submitted by different load cases using the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Pereira Viana

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procurou avaliar, através do Método dos Elementos Finitos, a resistência ao deslocamento de quatro diferentes bases de braquetes "straight-wire" (Morelli, Unitek, A-Company e Abzil-Lancer na aplicação de forças de torção e cisalhamento, correlacionando essa resistência à melhor adaptação das bases à superfície vestibular dentária. As curvaturas das bases de braquetes utilizados no presente estudo foram descritas em um estudo prévio, enquanto o contorno dentário foi obtido a partir do escaneamento e cálculo da curvatura média vestibular do canino inferior de uma amostra de 30 indivíduos brasileiros. Empregou-se a análise tridimensional por Elementos Finitos da interface esmalte vestibular/cimento/base do braquete para cada marca testada. Forças de 1N, promovendo deslocamento lateral e torção, foram aplicadas no centro da base do braquete e observou-se a distribuição desses esforços sobre os modelos assim como as tensões normais e de cisalhamento geradas. Os resultados mostraram que a base que melhor se adaptou à superfície vestibular construída foi a da marca Unitek, seguida pela marca A-Company, Abzil-Lancer e Morelli. As deformações sofridas pelos braquetes foram inversamente proporcionais à adaptação à superfície dentária. Os maiores picos de tensão localizaram-se nas proximidades do ponto de aplicação da força. A interface adesivo/esmalte foi mais sujeita à falha na adesão que a interface braquete/adesivo. A força de cisalhamento demonstrou ser mais provável de causar falha na adesão quando comparada à força de torção.The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of the four straight-wire brackets bases (Morelli, Unitek, A-Company and Abzil-Lancer to facial surface of a lower canine. The lower canine facial curvature data to be used in the three-dimensional finite element model were established by 30 Brazilian adult individuals and the brackets bases curvature used were described in a prior study. The three-dimensional finite element analysis of the interface enamel/cement/base of bracket for each tested mark was used. Loads of 1N promoting lateral displacement and torsion had been applied in the center of the base of brackets and the distribution of these efforts on the models was observed as well as the normal and shear tensions generated. The results had shown that the base that better fit to facial surface was the one from Unitek, followed by the A-Company, Abzil-Lancer and Morelli.The brackets deformations were inversely proportional to its adaptation.The biggest peaks of tensions had been situated near to the point of force application. The cement/enamel interface was more likely to fail in the adhesion that the bracket/cement interface. The torsion load was less likely to cause damage in the adhesion when compared with the shear load.

  19. Orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth: Contemporary views.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioulia Ioannidou-Marathiotou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To collect and assess the contemporary data referring to orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth.METHOD: Relevant original and review articles were retrieved from PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, Embase, and Scopus databases, until February 2010. RESULTS: Endodontically treated teeth can be moved equally well to vital teeth and for the same distances, without more frequent adverse consequences. They present a smaller degree of apical resorption in mean values compared to vital teeth, however this difference is not regarded to be statistically or clinically significant. Root resorption seems to be related more to the severity of trauma and the stage of root development rather than orthodontic or surgical manipulations. The obturating material of choice in the event of endodontic treatment of teeth with incomplete apex as well as in cases of teeth with complete apex under orthodontic movement, seems to be Ca(OH2, because of the evidence based action of Ca(OH2 against the frequently observed root resorption. In cases of fractures, a 12 month waiting period is suggested before the start of orthodontic treatment, while in cases with no radiographic findings treatment can begin relatively immediately. CONCLUSIONS: Orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth is feasible without negative consequences to the apex. Orthodontic treatment prognosis of endodontically treated teeth depends on the type, the severity and the timing of trauma, as well as the management of the case by the team of therapists.

  20. Long-term sterility of orthodontic-surgical appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, María I; Nastri, Natalia; Mosca, Christian O; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sterility of new dental appliances according to the non rigid wrapping employed and assess the effectiveness of sterilization in a steam autoclave at 134 degrees for 20 minutes using physical, chemical, and biological indicators. All the experimental (E) samples and the control samples (C) were assigned to one of three groups according to the type of packaging: paper bag (E1), paper/plastic pouch (E2), nylon tubing bag (E3). Each bag contained standardized orthodontic wires and brackets and sterility indicators. The samples were evaluated at the following experimental times: immediately, and 6, 12, 24 and 30 months post-sterilization. The samples were analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in keeping with the protocol currently in use at the Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. The group of control, non-sterilized samples (C1, C2, C3) were analyzed prior to the onset of the study, and were found to be contaminated. None of the sterilized samples in any of the three experimental groups evidenced contamination at any of the experimental times. The results showed that, under the present conditions, the packages and orthodontic appliances remained sterile for 30 months. These results show the importance of controlling sterility and the storage conditions over time for all the orthodontic/surgical appliances used in invasive treatments. PMID:15584258

  1. Relationship between self-concept and satisfaction with tooth alignment and demand for orthodontic treatment and professionally determined orthodontic needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Amnaie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Recognition of psychological factors plays an important role in determination of orthodontic treatment needs as well as achieving a successful treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-concept, dentofacial body image, subjective orthodontic treatment needs and professionally determined needs for orthodontic treatment among a group of university students.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 164 students of Isfahan Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery were studied based on a simple sampling procedure. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire consisting of 40 questions, including 3 parts for measurement of self-concept, dentofacial body image and self-perceived treatment need. Professionally determined orthodontic need was assessed using IOTN by two orthodontists. Data was analyzed using SPSS 11. Statistical methods for standardization of questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha, Student’s t-test and Spearman’s correlation were used at a significance level of 0.05.Results: Statistically significant correlations were seen between participants' self-concept, dentofacial body image, subjective orthodontic need and the professionally determined orthodontic need, with Spearman’s correlation coefficients of -0.16, 0.19 and -0.036, respectively (p value < 0.05.Conclusion: The majority of the students were satisfied with their teeth alignment and the more satisfied they were, the higher self-concept they had, with lower demand for orthodontic treatment. Moreover, the orthodontic needs determined by orthodontists were less among students with high self-concept. Key words: Health services needs and demand, Malocclusion, Self-assessment, Self-concept.

  2. Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... desktop! more... Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Article Chapters Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Orthodontics print full article print this chapter email ...

  3. Design Modification for Failed Grill Bracket using Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kulkarni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Grill is a part placed on vehicle located in front of the Engine cooling module by means of bracket. The purpose of the Grill is to protect the cooling module from front impact and at the same time provide appropriate aesthetic value to the vehicle. This report presents the failure analysis of grill bracket of Engine cooling module of a Truck using Finite Element Analysis. The Grill bracket has failed in the field before warranty period so it has to be replaced with new one. Replacing old bracket means economic loss to the company. The Failure of this Grill bracket is analysed using Finite Element Analysis. 3 D models were created using Pro –E CAD softwares and Finite element analysis was done using Medina and Permas softwares. After doing Finite Element Analysis it was observed that high stresses were coming at failure location on the Grill bracket. The high stresses were mainly observed due to accelerations loads. Several proposals for alternate designs were created considering the packaging data, availability of the standard materials and manufacturing feasibility. These alternate designs were again checked by finite element analysis. The most optimized design was finalized through this process. The finalized design showed 60% lower stress values at failure location compared to current design. New proposed design was found to pass the given warranty period (100000 miles. Thus Finite element analysis proved to be very suitable tool for the situation where quick solution is expected.

  4. Effects of enamel deproteinization on bracket bonding with conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tatiana Bahia Junqueira; Jansen, Wellington Corrêa; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effects of enamel deproteinization on bracket bonding with conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). One hundred premolars, extracted for orthodontic reasons, were divided into five groups (n = 20). Group 1 (control): enamel was etched with 35 per cent phosphoric acid, a thin layer of adhesive was applied, and the brackets were bonded with Transbond XT. Group 2: enamel was etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid and the brackets were bonded with conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC). Group 3: enamel was treated with 5.25 per cent NaOCl, etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid, and the brackets were bonded with conventional GIC. Group 4: enamel was etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid and the brackets were bonded with RMGIC. Group 5: enamel was treated with 5.25 per cent NaOCl, etched with 10 per cent polyacrylic acid, and the brackets were bonded with RMGIC. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours before they were submitted to shear testing. The results demonstrated that bond strength values of group 1 (17.08 ± 6.39 MPa) were significantly higher in comparison with the other groups. Groups 2 (3.43 ± 1.94 MPa) and 3 (3.92 ± 1.57 MPa) presented values below the average recommended in the literature. With regard to adhesive remnant index, the groups in which the enamel was treated with NaOCl showed a behaviour similar to that of the resin composite. It is conclude with enamel treatment with NaOCl increased bonding strength of brackets bonded with GIC and RMGIC, but increased bond strength was not statistically significant when compared to the untreated groups. PMID:22379131

  5. Magnets and orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, P J; Meghji, S; Murray, A M; Springate, S D; Sandy, J R; Crow, V; Reed, R T

    1989-11-01

    The first part of this paper is a literature review of magnets and their uses in orthodontics. The biological safety of magnets is considered and a report is given of experiments carried out on rat osteosarcoma cell line UMR-106. The second part of the paper describes a case where neodynium-iron-boron magnets were used to assist eruption of an unerupted, vertically impacted upper right canine. Previously, space was available for this tooth, but it failed to show signs of eruption. Following surgical attachment of a magnet, and the use of a second magnet attached to an upper removable appliance, rapid eruption occurred producing a favourable position for bonding. PMID:2684264

  6. A força de atrito em braquetes plásticos e de aço inoxidável com a utilização de quatro diferentes tipos de amarração / Frictional forces in stainless steel and plastic brackets using four types of wire ligation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Nínia Correia, Lima; Maria Elisa Rodrigues, Coimbra; Carla D' Agostini, Derech; Antônio Carlos de Oliveira, Ruellas.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a finalidade deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar e comparar a resistência friccional em braquetes de aço inoxidável e de policarbonato compósito amarrados com fio metálico e elastômeros. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados quatro braquetes de aço inoxidável e quatro de policarbonato compósito (PC) par [...] a pré-molares levados à máquina universal de ensaio mecânico para a tração de um segmento de fio de aço inoxidável 0,019" x 0,025" na velocidade de 0,5mm/min, com 8mm de deslocamento total. A forma de amarração variou entre as seguintes possibilidades: amarração metálica com pinça de Steiner, metálica com pinça Mathieu, elastômero da marca Morelli e elastômero da marca TP Orthodontics. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os módulos elastoméricos geraram mais atrito do que os metálicos e a amarração com pinça Mathieu provocou menor atrito quando comparada a todas as situações avaliadas. Os braquetes de PC geraram menor atrito do que os metálicos, porém, na escolha do material a ser utilizado na clínica, outras variáveis - tais como a resistência ao cisalhamento e à fratura, a estabilidade de cor e a aderência por microrganismos - devem ser consideradas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated and compared the frictional resistance of stainless steel and polycarbonate (PC) composite brackets tied with metal wire and elastomeric ligation. METHODS: Four stainless steel and four polycarbonate composite brackets for premolars were placed in a universal [...] testing machine for the traction of a piece of 0.019 x 0.025-in wire at 0.5 mm/min and total displacement of 8 mm. Ligations were performed according to the following alternatives: metal ligation with Steiner tying pliers; metal ligation using Mathieu tying pliers; Morelli™ elastomeric ligation; and TP Orthodontics™ elastomeric ligation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Elastomeric modules generated more friction than the metal ligations, and the ligation with the Mathieu tying pliers caused less friction than all the other conditions under study. PC brackets generated less friction than metal brackets, but the choice of material to be used in clinical conditions should take into consideration other variables, such as resistance to shearing and to fractures, as well as color stability and microorganism adherence.

  7. A força de atrito em braquetes plásticos e de aço inoxidável com a utilização de quatro diferentes tipos de amarração Frictional forces in stainless steel and plastic brackets using four types of wire ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Nínia Correia Lima

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a finalidade deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar e comparar a resistência friccional em braquetes de aço inoxidável e de policarbonato compósito amarrados com fio metálico e elastômeros. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados quatro braquetes de aço inoxidável e quatro de policarbonato compósito (PC para pré-molares levados à máquina universal de ensaio mecânico para a tração de um segmento de fio de aço inoxidável 0,019" x 0,025" na velocidade de 0,5mm/min, com 8mm de deslocamento total. A forma de amarração variou entre as seguintes possibilidades: amarração metálica com pinça de Steiner, metálica com pinça Mathieu, elastômero da marca Morelli e elastômero da marca TP Orthodontics. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os módulos elastoméricos geraram mais atrito do que os metálicos e a amarração com pinça Mathieu provocou menor atrito quando comparada a todas as situações avaliadas. Os braquetes de PC geraram menor atrito do que os metálicos, porém, na escolha do material a ser utilizado na clínica, outras variáveis - tais como a resistência ao cisalhamento e à fratura, a estabilidade de cor e a aderência por microrganismos - devem ser consideradas.OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated and compared the frictional resistance of stainless steel and polycarbonate (PC composite brackets tied with metal wire and elastomeric ligation. METHODS: Four stainless steel and four polycarbonate composite brackets for premolars were placed in a universal testing machine for the traction of a piece of 0.019 x 0.025-in wire at 0.5 mm/min and total displacement of 8 mm. Ligations were performed according to the following alternatives: metal ligation with Steiner tying pliers; metal ligation using Mathieu tying pliers; Morelli™ elastomeric ligation; and TP Orthodontics™ elastomeric ligation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Elastomeric modules generated more friction than the metal ligations, and the ligation with the Mathieu tying pliers caused less friction than all the other conditions under study. PC brackets generated less friction than metal brackets, but the choice of material to be used in clinical conditions should take into consideration other variables, such as resistance to shearing and to fractures, as well as color stability and microorganism adherence.

  8. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezdani, Arif; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged), molar bands and mouth mirrorsused in the patient 's mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups – Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate) and set B (0.025% betadine) and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse). The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. For sterility control,Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518) was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculatedwith the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min. PMID:26015686

  9. A Comparison of Apical Root Resorption in Incisors after Fixed Orthodontic Treatment with Standard Edgewise and Straight Wire (MBT) Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sm, Zahed Zahedani; Oshagh M; Momeni Danaei Sh.; Smm, Roeinpeikar

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: One of the major outcomes of orthodontic treatment is the apical root resorption of teeth moved during the treatment. Identifying the possible risk factors, are necessary for every orthodontist. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the rate of apical root resorption after fixed orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise and straight wire (MBT) method, and also to evaluate other factors effecting the rate of root resorption in orthodontic treatments.Materials a...

  10. Effect of dental bleaching after bracket bonding and debonding using three different adhesive systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucianna de Oliveira, Gomes; Paula, Mathias; Patricia, Rizzo; Telma Martins de, Araújo; Maria Cristina Teixeira, Cangussu.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a influência da colagem e descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos no clareamento caseiro, considerando três diferentes sistemas adesivos. MÉTODOS: quarenta e quatro incisivos bovinos foram divididos em quatro grupos, de acordo com o sistema adesivo utilizad [...] o para colagem dos braquetes. Após a descolagem dos braquetes, os dentes foram pigmentados por 96 horas e depois clareados com peróxido de carbamida a 10% por 6 horas diárias, durante duas semanas. Foram realizadas fotografias digitais padronizadas nos tempos: T0 (inicial); T1 (após descolagem); T2 (após pigmentação); T3, T4 e T5 representando 1, 7 e 14 dias de clareamento. Testes de repetitividade e de estabilidade foram realizados para avaliar a acurácia do método. As imagens foram avaliadas pelo software Adobe Photoshop 7.0, considerando os parâmetros de cor (L*a*b*) e a diferença total de cor adaptada para esse estudo (?;E'). RESULTADOS: os resultados do presente estudo (ANOVA e Tukey; p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of bonding and debonding of orthodontic brackets on dental in-home bleaching, taking into account three different adhesive systems. METHODS: Forty-four bovine incisors were divided into four groups according to the primer system used for orthodontic bracket bondi [...] ng. Following the debonding of orthodontic brackets, the teeth were stored in staining solution for 96 hours. Then, teeth were whitened using 10% carbamide peroxide for two weeks at a 6-hour-a-day regime. Standardized digital photographs were taken at the following intervals: T0 (initial); T1 (after debonding); T2 (after pigmentation); T3, T4 and T5 representing 1, 7, and 14 days of bleaching. Repeatability and stability tests were carried out to check the method accuracy. Images were analyzed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software considering (L*a*b*)color coordinate values and a modified color difference total (?;E'). RESULTS: The results of this study (ANOVA and Tukey; p

  11. Influence of in vitro pigmenting of esthetic orthodontic ligatures on smile attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ferraz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of dental students and orthodontists on the degree of influence that pigmented esthetic elastic ligatures have on smile attractiveness, by judging clinical photographs. METHODS: Sixteen clinical facial photographs of the smile and 16 close up images of the smile of a single patient wearing monocrystalline porcelain orthodontic brackets, Teflon coated NiTi wire brackets and esthetic elastic ligatures of five different commercial brands were distributed into eight groups, G1 to G8 (Morelli®, Ortho Tecnology™, TP Orthodontics™, Unitek/3M™clear, Unitek/3M™ obscure, American Orthodontics™ clear, American Orthodontics™ pearl and American Orthodontics™ metallic pearl. Twenty ligatures were used in each group, totaling 160 ligatures. Half of them were used in their natural state, and the other half after in vitro pigmentation. All the photographs were judged by 40 evaluators, 20 orthodontists and 20 dental students. RESULTS: For orthodontists, American™ pearl (G7 ligatures were those that least influenced the degree of attractiveness of the smile in the two types of photographs used. For the dental students, in the facial photographs of the smile, ligatures with the best performance were Morelli® (G1, American™ clear (G6 and American™ pearl (G7 and in the close up photographs of the smile, American™ pearl, metallic pearl and clear (G7, G8 and G6. CONCLUSIONS: For both orthodontists and dental students, pigmentation of the elastic ligatures had a negative influence on the degree of attractiveness of smiles in the two types of clinical photographs evaluated.OBJETIVO: avaliar, através de fotografias clínicas, entre estudantes de Odontologia e ortodontistas, o grau de influência que ligaduras elásticas estéticas pigmentadas exercem sobre a atratividade do sorriso. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 16 fotografias clínicas faciais do sorriso e 16 de sorriso aproximado de um único paciente portando braquetes ortodônticos de porcelana monocristalina, fio de NiTi teflonado e ligaduras elásticas estéticas de cinco marcas comerciais diferentes, distribuídas em oito grupos, G1 a G8 (Morelli, Ortho Technology, TP Orthodontics, 3M/Unitek clear, 3M/Unitek obscure, American Orthodontics clear, American Orthodontics pearl e American Orthodontics metalic pearl. Foram utilizadas 20 ligaduras de cada grupo, totalizando 160 ligaduras. Metade delas foi utilizada em estado natural e a outra metade após pigmentação in vitro. Todas as fotografias foram julgadas por 40 avaliadores, sendo 20 ortodontistas e 20 estudantes de Odontologia. RESULTADOS: para ortodontistas, as ligaduras American Orthodontics pearl (G7 foram as que menos influenciaram o grau de atratividade do sorriso nos dois tipos de fotografias utilizadas. Para os estudantes de Odontologia, nas fotografias faciais do sorriso, as que obtiveram o melhor desempenho foram Morelli (G1, American Orthodontics clear (G6 e American Orthodontics pearl (G7 e, nas fotografias de sorriso aproximado, American Orthodontics pearl, metalic pearl e clear (G7, G8 e G6, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: tanto para ortodontistas quanto para estudantes de Odontologia, a pigmentação das ligaduras elásticas influenciou de forma negativa o grau de atratividade dos sorrisos nos dois tipos de fotografias clínicas avaliadas.

  12. Influence of in vitro pigmenting of esthetic orthodontic ligatures on smile attractiveness

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila, Ferraz; Marcelo, Castellucci; Márcio, Sobral.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar, através de fotografias clínicas, entre estudantes de Odontologia e ortodontistas, o grau de influência que ligaduras elásticas estéticas pigmentadas exercem sobre a atratividade do sorriso. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 16 fotografias clínicas faciais do sorriso e 16 de sorriso aproxi [...] mado de um único paciente portando braquetes ortodônticos de porcelana monocristalina, fio de NiTi teflonado e ligaduras elásticas estéticas de cinco marcas comerciais diferentes, distribuídas em oito grupos, G1 a G8 (Morelli, Ortho Technology, TP Orthodontics, 3M/Unitek clear, 3M/Unitek obscure, American Orthodontics clear, American Orthodontics pearl e American Orthodontics metalic pearl). Foram utilizadas 20 ligaduras de cada grupo, totalizando 160 ligaduras. Metade delas foi utilizada em estado natural e a outra metade após pigmentação in vitro. Todas as fotografias foram julgadas por 40 avaliadores, sendo 20 ortodontistas e 20 estudantes de Odontologia. RESULTADOS: para ortodontistas, as ligaduras American Orthodontics pearl (G7) foram as que menos influenciaram o grau de atratividade do sorriso nos dois tipos de fotografias utilizadas. Para os estudantes de Odontologia, nas fotografias faciais do sorriso, as que obtiveram o melhor desempenho foram Morelli (G1), American Orthodontics clear (G6) e American Orthodontics pearl (G7) e, nas fotografias de sorriso aproximado, American Orthodontics pearl, metalic pearl e clear (G7, G8 e G6, respectivamente). CONCLUSÕES: tanto para ortodontistas quanto para estudantes de Odontologia, a pigmentação das ligaduras elásticas influenciou de forma negativa o grau de atratividade dos sorrisos nos dois tipos de fotografias clínicas avaliadas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of dental students and orthodontists on the degree of influence that pigmented esthetic elastic ligatures have on smile attractiveness, by judging clinical photographs. METHODS: Sixteen clinical facial photographs of the smile and 16 close up images of the smile [...] of a single patient wearing monocrystalline porcelain orthodontic brackets, Teflon coated NiTi wire brackets and esthetic elastic ligatures of five different commercial brands were distributed into eight groups, G1 to G8 (Morelli®, Ortho Tecnology™, TP Orthodontics™, Unitek/3M™clear, Unitek/3M™ obscure, American Orthodontics™ clear, American Orthodontics™ pearl and American Orthodontics™ metallic pearl). Twenty ligatures were used in each group, totaling 160 ligatures. Half of them were used in their natural state, and the other half after in vitro pigmentation. All the photographs were judged by 40 evaluators, 20 orthodontists and 20 dental students. RESULTS: For orthodontists, American™ pearl (G7) ligatures were those that least influenced the degree of attractiveness of the smile in the two types of photographs used. For the dental students, in the facial photographs of the smile, ligatures with the best performance were Morelli® (G1), American™ clear (G6) and American™ pearl (G7) and in the close up photographs of the smile, American™ pearl, metallic pearl and clear (G7, G8 and G6). CONCLUSIONS: For both orthodontists and dental students, pigmentation of the elastic ligatures had a negative influence on the degree of attractiveness of smiles in the two types of clinical photographs evaluated.

  13. A Recursive Approach to the Kauffman Bracket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rauf Nizami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a simple recursive relation and give an explicit formula of the Kauffman bracket of two-strand braid link . Then, we give general formulas of the bracket of the sequence of links of three-strand braids . Finally, we give an interesting result that the Kauffman bracket of the three-strand braid link is actually the product of the brackets of the two-strand braid links and . Moreover, a recursive relation for is also given.

  14. Temporary Anchorage Devices in Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Gowri Sankar Singaraju; Vasu Murthy

    2009-01-01

    Anchorage control is one of the main aspects of orthodontic treatment plan. A good appliance system should put minimum taxation of anchorage on the anchor units. The structures present with in the confinement of oral cavity are very less in number. In such cases the anchor unit gets its reinforcement from extraoral structures or intraoral appliances. Extraoral anchorages have their inherent drawbacks and most of them rely on patient cooperation. The use of implants in orthodontics to reinforc...

  15. The Pain Management in Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, Nandita; Shetty, Siddarth; Ahmed, Junaid; Shenoy K, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Pain and discomfort are the frequent side-effects of the orthodontic therapy with fixed appliances. The people who experience orthodontic pain are likely to self-medicate with nonprescription pain relievers before seeing the dentist. It is imperative for an orthodontist to address questions that might arise in a clinical setting from the viewpoint of the clinicians and the patients/parents. This article will provide an overview of the current management strategies which are employed for allev...

  16. Poisson brackets with prescribed Casimirs

    CERN Document Server

    Damianou, Pantelis A

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing Poisson brackets on smooth manifolds $M$ with prescribed Casimir functions. If $M$ is of even dimension, we achieve our construction by considering a suitable almost symplectic structure on $M$, while, in the case where $M$ is of odd dimension, our objective is achieved by using a convenient almost cosymplectic structure. Several examples and applications are presented.

  17. Immunosuppressants: implications in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There are medications capable of affecting bone metabolism and the rate of tooth movement. Among these medications are the immunosuppressants, which act by repressing the action of T lymphocytes, however they can cause bone loss and consequently lead to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a common complication following kidney, heart, liver or lung transplantation. The immunosuppressant treatment for preventing organ rejection after transplantation, in general, includes glucocorticoids, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus. All these drugs can have jeopardizing effects on bone mineral homeostasis and consequently influence tooth movement. In recent years, however, the increasing use of immunosuppressants has raised questions about their effects on bone metabolism in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review study was to inform orthodontists about the influence of immunosuppressants on bone metabolism and tooth movement.

  18. Immunosuppressants: implications in Orthodontics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Lacerda dos, Santos; Maria Cláudia Mesquita, Lacerda; Renato Torres, Gonçalves; Marco Aurélio, Martins; Margareth Maria Gomes de, Souza.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There are medications capable of affecting bone metabolism and the rate of tooth movement. Among these medications are the immunosuppressants, which act by repressing the action of T lymphocytes, however they can cause bone loss and consequently lead to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a [...] common complication following kidney, heart, liver or lung transplantation. The immunosuppressant treatment for preventing organ rejection after transplantation, in general, includes glucocorticoids, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus. All these drugs can have jeopardizing effects on bone mineral homeostasis and consequently influence tooth movement. In recent years, however, the increasing use of immunosuppressants has raised questions about their effects on bone metabolism in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review study was to inform orthodontists about the influence of immunosuppressants on bone metabolism and tooth movement.

  19. Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics: Review of a technique

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhamdi, Ali Saad Thafeed

    2009-01-01

    Corticotomy found to be effective in accelerating orthodontic treatment. The most important factors in the success of this technique is proper case selection and careful surgical and orthodontic treatment.

  20. Early Orthodontics May Mean Less Treatment Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early Orthodontics May Mean Less Treatment Later Making Braces Hip Still Take Getting Used To Beyond Braces Look at ... earlier age. Some patients with special problems begin orthodontic treatment at age 7 or younger. "The American ...

  1. Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO) - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Amit, Goyal; JPS, Kalra; Pankaj, Bhatiya; Suchinder, Singla; Parul, Bansal

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of adult patients coming to the orthodontic clinic, the orthodontic professional is constantly looking for ways to accelerate tooth movement. Surgical intervention to affect the alveolar housing and tooth movement has been described in various forms for over a hundred years. However, it is the spirit of interdisciplinary collaboration in orthodontics has expanded the realm of traditional orthodontic tooth movement protocols. Periodontal accelerated osteogenic orthodo...

  2. Preparation and evaluation of orthodontic setup

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Telma Martins de, Araújo; Lílian Martins, Fonseca; Luciana Duarte, Caldas; Roberto Amarante, Costa-Pinto.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An orthodontic or diagnostic setup consists in cutting and realigning the teeth in plaster models, making it an important resource in orthodontic treatment planning. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to provide a detailed description of a technique to build an orthodontic setup mod [...] el and a method to evaluate it. CONCLUSIONS: Although laborious, orthodontic setup procedure and analysis can provide important information such as the need for dental extractions, interproximal stripping, anchorage system, among others.

  3. Corrosion of weldments in orthodontic appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of corrosion-related problems of dental materials has undergone a considerable development in recent years in order to avoid the use of materials with insufficient corrosion resistance in patients mouth. The subject of the present work was to study a particular type of corrosion: galvanic corrosion. One of the most common case of galvanic couples in patients mouth are the orthodontic appliances. The materials studied in the present work were stainless steel strips and silver-copper wires, isolated and welded between them. The electrochemical tests were performed in a NaCl 0.1M and Lactic Acid 0.1 M solution (pH2.3), and after test, the specimens were observed using the optical and scanning electron microscope. The results show that when stainless steel is coupled with a silver solder, the last is the anode of the galvanic couple. As a consequence of this, the silver solder undergone a severe attack. Stainless steel orthodontic appliances with silver solder are feasibly destroyed due to a severe attack on the filler metal disjoining the welded parts. (author) 9 refs

  4. Problems in Standardization of Orthodontic Shear Bond Strength Tests; A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. A. Akhoundi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bonding brackets to the enamel surface has gained much popularity today. New adhesive systems have been introduced and marketed and a considerable increase in research regarding bond strength has been published. A considerable amount of these studies deal with shear bond strength of adhesives designed for orthodontic purpose.Previous studies have used variety of test designs. This diversity in test design is due to the fact that there is no standard method for evaluating shear bond strength in orthodontics. Therefore comparison of data obtained from different study is almost impossible.This article tries to briefly discuss the developments occurred in the process of shear bond strength measurement of orthodontic adhesives with an emphasis on the type of test set up and load application.Although the test designs for measuring shear bond strength in orthodontics are still far from ideal, attempts must be made to standardize these tests especially in order to makecomparison of different data easier. It is recommended that test designs be set up in such a manner that better matches with the purpose of the study.

  5. Comparison of the antibacterial effects of persica mouthwash with chlorhexidine on streptococcus mutans in orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi P.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine mouthwash has shown the highest antimicrobial effects in orthodontic patients, however, some complications have limited its widespread use. The goal of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effects of persica mouthwash with chlorhexidine in fixed orthodontics patients. Sixty patients (13-18 years old on fixed orthodontic treatment, with desirable oral health were randomly divided into three equal groups of control, clorhexidine and persica. Patients were educated to properly use these mouthwashes. The control group was asked to wash their mouth with water twice a day. The numbers of streptococcus mutans colonies available in the elastic rings around the two bracket bases were determined in culture mediums before and immediately after a single application of water or mouthwashes and also following their daily uses for three weeks. The number of bacterial colonies then were compared at these three graps. The use of persica resulted in a significant (p<0.001 reduction in the number of streptococcus mutans colonies, albeit it was not as potent as chlorhexidine. Thirteen and fourty percent of patients using persica mouthwash experienced tooth discoloration and changes in taste respectively. The corresponding figures for chlorhexidine were 86% and 73% respectively. Significant reduction of streptococcus mutans colonies by persica as well as its lower tooth discoloration effects and unpleasant taste relative to chlorhexidine might give credence to the use of complementary herbal compounds in orthodontics patients.

  6. Comparison between two methods for resin removing after bracket debonding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo De, Marchi; Luciana Manzotti De, Marchi; Raquel Sano Suga, Terada; Hélio Hissashi, Terada.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a eficácia de dois discos abrasivos de silicone e óxido de alumínio para a remoção da resina remanescente após a descolagem de braquetes ortodônticos. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 10 dentes bovinos selecionados al [...] eatoriamente, sendo 2 para o grupo controle e os demais divididos em dois grupos, os quais receberam colagem de braquetes ortodônticos com resina ortodôntica Concise (3M). Os métodos de remoção da resina após a descolagem dos acessórios ortodônticos em apenas uma etapa foram: Grupo A - disco Optimize (TDV); e Grupo B - disco Onegloss (Shofu), empregados em baixa rotação. Após a remoção da resina remanescente pelos métodos mencionados, os dentes foram preparados para serem submetidos à análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura, obtendo-se fotografias da superfície do esmalte com aumento de 50X. Seis examinadores avaliaram as fotografias seguindo a escala de avaliação de Zachrisson e Arthun (1979). RESULTADOS: no Grupo A, observou-se pequenos arranhões na superfície do esmalte, bem como pouco remanescente de resina em algumas das fotografias; enquanto, no Grupo B, observou-se maior lisura, pouco ou nenhum remanescente de resina e alguns riscos nas fotografias. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os dois métodos avaliados e o grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: os dois discos abrasivos mostraram-se eficientes para remoção da resina remanescente após a descolagem de braquete em única etapa. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess - using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) - the effectiveness of two abrasive discs, one made from silicon and one from aluminum oxide, in removing adhesive remnants (AR) after debonding orthodontic brackets. METHODS: Ten randomly selected bovine teeth [...] were used, i.e., 2 in the control group, and the other 8 divided into two groups, which had orthodontic brackets bonded to their surface with Concise Orthodontic Adhesive (3M). The following methods were employed - in one single step - to remove AR after debracketing: Group A, Optimize discs (TDV) and Group B, Onegloss discs (Shofu), used at low speed. After removing the AR with the aforementioned methods, the teeth were prepared to undergo SEM analysis, and photographs were taken of the enamel surface with 50x magnification. Six examiners evaluated the photographs applying the Zachrisson and Årtun enamel surface index (ESI) system (1979). RESULTS: Group A exhibited minor scratches on the enamel surface as well as some AR in some of the photographs, while Group B showed a smoother surface, little or no AR and some abrasion marks in the photographs. No statistically significant differences were found between the two methods and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The two abrasive discs were effective in removing the AR after bracket debonding in one single step.

  7. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camilo Aquino, Melgaço; Mônica Tirre de Souza, Araújo.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article [...] aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc) and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  8. Effects of silica coating and silane surface conditioning on the bond strength of rebonded metal and ceramic brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Saadet Atsü; Bülent Çatalba?; Ibrahim Erhan Gelgör

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tribochemical silica coating and silane surface conditioning on the bond strength of rebonded metal and ceramic brackets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty debonded metal and 20 debonded ceramic brackets were randomly assigned to receive one of the following surface treatments (n=10 for each group): (1) sandblasting (control); (2) tribochemical silica coating combined with silane. Brackets were rebonded to the enamel surface on the la...

  9. Metal Hypersensitivity in Orthodontic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Maheshwari Sanjeev K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment of individuals with metal hypersensitivity is a matter of concern for the orthodontist. Orthodontic appliances contain metals like Nickel, Cobalt and Chromium etc. Metals may cause allergic reactions and are known as allergens. Reaction to these metals is due to biodegradation of metals in the oral cavity. This may lead to the formation of corrosion products and their exposure to the patient. Nickel is the most common metal to cause hypersensitivity reaction. Chromium ranks second among the metals, known to trigger allergic reactions. The adverse biological reactions to these metals may include hypersensitivity, dermatitis and asthma. In addition, a significant carcinogenic and mutagenic potential has been demonstrated. The orthodontist must be familiar with the best possible alternative treatment modalities to provide the safest, most effective care possible in these cases. The present article focuses on the issue of metal hypersensitivity and its management in orthodontic

  10. Hausdorff Distance evaluation of orthodontic accessories' streaking artifacts in 3D model superimposition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Rino Neto; Fernando Penteado Lopes da, Silva; Israel, Chilvarquer; João Batista de, Paiva; Angélica Maria, Hernandez.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether image artifacts caused by orthodontic metal accessories interfere with the accuracy of 3D CBCT model superimposition. A human dry skull was subjected three times to a CBCT scan: at first without orthodontic brackets (T1), then with stainless steel brack [...] ets bonded without (T2) and with orthodontic arch wires (T3) inserted into the brackets' slots. The registration of image surfaces and the superimposition of 3D models were performed. Within-subject surface distances between T1-T2, T1-T3 and T2-T3 were computed and calculated for comparison among the three data sets. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distance units (HDu) computed between the corresponding data points of the T1 and T2 CBCT 3D surface images were 0.000000 and 0.049280 HDu, respectively, and the mean distance was 0.002497 HDu. The minimum and maximum Hausdorff Distances between T1 and T3 were 0.000000 and 0.047440 HDu, respectively, with a mean distance of 0.002585 HDu. In the comparison between T2 and T3, the minimum, maximum and mean Hausdorff Distances were 0.000000, 0.025616 and 0.000347 HDu, respectively. In the current study, the image artifacts caused by metal orthodontic accessories did not compromise the accuracy of the 3D model superimposition. Color-coded maps of overlaid structures complemented the computed Hausdorff Distances and demonstrated a precise fusion between the data sets.

  11. Genotoxic evaluation of orthodontic bonding adhesives exposed to electron beam irradiation: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the in vitro genotoxicity of two orthodontic adhesives and to determine the type of cell death they induce on human lymphocytes after exposing to Electron Beam Irradiation. The materials tested were 1. Light cure orthodontic adhesive with conventional primer (Transbond XT3M) and 2. Self cure orthodontic adhesive (Unite, 3M). Cured sterile individual masses were immersed in Phosphate Buffer saline and left at 370? for 24 h. Then a volume of 200 ?L of the extract medium was mixed with human peripheral blood lymphocyte tested for comet assay by single cell DNA damage assay and apoptosis by DNA diffusion agar assay. The results showed all parameters studied by comet assay were significant (P>0.05). In case of apoptosis, light cure orthodontic adhesive (188.92±55.05) and self cure orthodontic adhesives (255.23±76.43) showed increased diffusion of DNA compared to normal lymphocyte (111.22±8.78). However the level of DNA diffusion was not significantly different between the two adhesives. Light cure orthodontic and self cure orthodontic adhesives were induced apoptosis. Both the adhesives had no significant effect on the percentage of DNA tail and olive tail moment. (author)

  12. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delphine, MARET; Christine, MARCHAL-SIXOU; Jean-Noel, VERGNES; Olivier, HAMEL; Marie, GEORGELIN-GURGEL; Lucas, VAN DER SLUIS; Michel, SIXOU.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Fort [...] y-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively), independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  13. On covariant Poisson brackets in field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Alexey A

    2014-01-01

    A general approach is proposed to constructing covariant Poisson brackets in the space of histories of a classical field-theoretical model. The approach is based on the concept of Lagrange anchor, which was originally developed as a tool for path-integral quantization of Lagrangian and non-Lagrangian dynamics. The proposed covariant Poisson brackets generalize the Peierls' bracket construction known in the Lagrangian field theory.

  14. The Hybrid Aesthetic Functional (HAF) Appliance: A Less Visible Proposal for Functional Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Christos Livas

    2013-01-01

    In modern orthodontics, aesthetics appear to have a decisive influence on orthodontic appliance preferences and acceptability. This paper reports the early application of a newly emerged functional device with enhanced aesthetics in a Class II treatment. Patient perspectives and technical considerations are discussed along with recommendations for further design development. It can be assumed that the use of thermoplastic material-based appliances may meet both the therapeutic and aesthetic d...

  15. A critical review of older and contemporary applications of biomechanical methods in orthodontics.

    OpenAIRE

    Ch. G. Provatidis; N.E. Toutountzakis

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempts a review of the literature related to the applications and conclusions of methods of theoretical and applied mechanics, experimental strength of materials as well as contemporary computerized methods used in Orthodontics. These methods are evaluated based on contemporary data from both scientific fields, i.e. Mechanics and Orthodontics. Special reference and discussion is made concerning the finite element method which seems to be the best of all. There is also a brief ref...

  16. TNF-? and RANKL facilitates the development of orthodontically-induced inflammatory root resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Tadashi Kojima; Masaru Yamaguchi; Tomokazu Yoshino; Mami Shimizu; Kunihiko Yamada; Takemi Goseki; Kazutaka Kasai

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients with severe root resorption after orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Ten patients who had been receiving orthodontic treatment (5-control subjects and 5-severe root resorption subjects) participated in this study. GCF was collected from all patients. Subjec...

  17. Investigation of the maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and associated dental anomalies in an orthodontic patient population

    OpenAIRE

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Kamak, Hasan; Yildirim, Hanifi; Ceylan, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor (MLI) agenesis and associated dental anomalies as well as skeletal patterns in an orthodontic population, and then to compare it with the prevalence of these anomalies in the general population. Study Design: The material of the present study included the records of the 3872 orthodontic patients. The followings were recorded for each subject with the agenesis of MLI: Age, sex, unilateral or bil...

  18. Effect of Tramadol (?-opioid receptor agonist) on orthodontic tooth movements in a rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Javadi, E.; Alaeddini, M.; Ar, Dehpour; Ahmad Akhoundi, M. S.; Noroozi, H.; Rashidpour, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Tramadol is a synthetic analgesic of opioids which has more flexible mechanisms of action than typical opioids. Since it has been reported in previous study that typical opioids like morphine can affect the bone homeostasis, it is worthwhile to examine the effects of tramadol on tooth movement. In this study we investigated effects of tramadol on orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Materials and Methods: 30 male wistar rats were selected and received orthodontic appliance. 3 groups ...

  19. The correlation between pain perception among patients with six different orthodontic archwires and the degree of dental crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovi? Evgenija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Forces generated in orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances create tension and compression zones in the periodontal ligament resulting in a painful experience for patients. In the first phase of orthodontic treatment, when leveling of teeth is needed, nickel-titanium (NiTi archwires can be completely engaged in brackets, even in the cases of extreme crowding, exerting small forces. There is a great individual variation in the pain perception related to the application of orthodontic forces. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the pain perception among patients with dental crowding after insertion of six different NiTi orthodontic archwires as a part of fixed appliances in the first stage of orthodontic treatment. Methods. The study was conducted on a sample of 189 orthodontic patients receiving one of six different either superelastic or heat activated NiTi archwires, in the first phase of orthodontic treatment. Pain perception was evaluated in groups of patients with different degree of crowding. The modified McGill Pain Questionnaire with Visual Analogue Scale was used to evaluate the quality and intensity of pain. Statistical analysis was performed using simple descriptive statistics, and Pearson`s chi-square test with statistical significance of p<0.05. Results. Majority of patients reported pain as discomfort or pressure of moderate intensity caused by chewing or biting, started within 12 hours, carried on for 3-4 days, and decreased over time without self-medication. Conclusion. No correlation was found between pain perception among patients with different types of NiTi archwires and the degree of crowding.

  20. An update on periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannan Aous

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Talking about periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships is related primarily to the 1960s, where a generalized increase in salivary bacterial counts, especially Lactobacillus, had been shown after orthodontic band placement. The purpose of this article is to provide the dental practitioner with basic understanding of the interrelationship between periodontics and orthodontics by means of representing classical studies, and, to give an update on this topic by demonstrating the most recent opinions concerning periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships. Specific areas reviewed are the ability of orthodontic treatment to afford some degree of protection against periodontal breakdown, short-term and long-term effects of orthodontic treatment on the periodontium, and some mucogingival considerations. Topics considering orthodontic treatment in periodontally compromised patients were not included in this review. While past studies have shown that orthodontic treatment can positively affect the periodontal health, recent reviews indicate an absence of reliable evidence for the positive effects of orthodontic therapy on patients? periodontal status. Periodontic-orthodontic interrelationships are still controversial issues. However, a standard language between the periodontist and the orthodontist must always be established to eliminate the existing communications barrier, and to improve the outcomes of the whole treatment.

  1. Fricção em braquetes gerada por fios de aço inoxidável, superelásticos com IonGuard e sem IonGuard / Friction force on brackets generated by stainless steel wire and superelastic wires with and without IonGuard

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Carlos Campos, Braga; Mario, Vedovello Filho; Mayury, Kuramae; Heloísa Cristina, Valdrighi; Sílvia Amélia Scudeler, Vedovello; Américo Bortolazzo, Correr.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a fricção no braquete (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3,2mm, largura 0,022" x 0,030", Torque -2° e angulação +13°, Morelli®, Brasil), utilizando fios ortodônticos retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" de aço inoxidável (Morelli®, Brasil) e de níquel-titânio sup [...] erelásticos Bioforce com IonGuard e sem IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, EUA). MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 24 conjuntos braquetes/segmento de fio, divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o fio. Cada conjunto braquete/segmento de fio foi testado 3 vezes e obtida uma média. Os ensaios foram realizados em máquina universal de ensaios EMIC DL2000®. Os dados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância com significância de 95%. RESULTADOS: o fio retangular Bioforce com IonGuard apresentou fricção significativamente menor que o Bioforce sem IonGuard, porém sem diferença do fio de aço inoxidável. Entretanto, o coeficiente de variação dos fios Bioforce com e sem IonGuard foi menor que o do fio de aço inoxidável. CONCLUSÃO: os fios retangulares de 0,019" x 0,025" Bioforce com IonGuard apresentam menor fricção que o fio Bioforce sem IonGuard, sem diferença para o fio de aço inoxidável. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the friction forces on brackets (Roth, Composite, 10.17.005, 3.2 mm, width 0.022" x 0.030 ", Torque -2° and angulation +13°, Morelli®, Brazil), with stainless steel orthodontic rectangular wire (Morelli®, Brazil) and nickel titanium superelastic Biofo [...] rce wires with and without IonGuard (Bioforce, GAC®, USA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four brackets/wire segment combinations were used, distributed into three groups according to the orthodontic wire. Each bracket/wire segment combination was tested three times. The tests were performed in a universal testing machine Emic DL2000®. The data was submitted to ANOVA one way followed by Tukey's post hoc test (p

  2. Effect of pre-strain on microstructure of Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important applications of shape memory alloy is in medicine, especially orthodontic archwires. In this category Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires is one of the oldest used materials. Biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, super elasticity, etc. are its outstanding properties. In spite of the importance of dependency of pre-strain on microstructure of Ni-Ti there are limited sources concentrated on the subject. For this reason the main purpose of the current study is determination of the effect of pre-strain on microstructure of Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires. In this regard, three-point bending was performed on the orthodontic archwire specimens to apply different amount of strain. The microstructures were compared with the un-strained wire using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The results showed that the stable phase depends strongly on the value of pre-strain. Increasing pre-strain causes to decrease martensite laths and leads the microstructure toward austenite phase

  3. Opening and closure forces of sliding mechanisms of different self-ligating brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    GANDINI, Paola; ORSI, Linda; SFONDRINI, Maria Francesca; SCRIBANTE, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Self-ligating brackets engage the wire by means of a slide mechanism. Forces that have to be applied to open and close the sliding mechanism of brackets are still unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to measure and compare the opening and closure forces of different self-ligating brackets. Material and Methods: Three different stainless steel self-ligating brackets (Carriere LX, Ortho Organizers; F1000, Leone; Damon Q, Ormco) were tested. For each different bracket, 20 maxillary right central incisors and 20 mandibular right central incisors were used. Opening and closure forces were measured using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Statistical analysis was performed and ANOVA and Tukey tests were carried out. Results: Opening forces were registered between 1.1 N and 5.6 N, whereas closure forces were recorded between 1.57 N and 4.87 N. Significant differences were detected among the different brackets and between the two prescriptions tested. Conclusion: The knowledge of different opening and closure forces of self-ligating brackets can help the orthodontist in the clinical management of these devices. PMID:23857652

  4. Computer-Aided Designing and Manufacturing of Lingual Fixed Orthodontic Appliance Using 2D/3D Registration Software and Rapid Prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Soon-Yong Kwon; Yong Kim; Hyo-Won Ahn; Ki-Beom Kim; Kyu-Rhim Chung; Seong-Hun Kim

    2014-01-01

    The availability of 3D dental model scanning technology, combined with the ability to register CBCT data with digital models, has enabled the fabrication of orthognathic surgical CAD/CAM designed splints, customized brackets, and indirect bonding systems. In this study, custom lingual orthodontic appliances were virtually designed by merging 3D model images with lateral and posterior-anterior cephalograms. By exporting design information to 3D CAD software, we have produced a stereolithograph...

  5. Orthodontics at a Pivotal Point of Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Jeremy J.

    2010-01-01

    The profession of orthodontics is projected to face a multitude of challenges. Do cyclic forces accelerate the rate of tooth movement and hence the speed of orthodontic treatment? Would bioengineered cementum and dentine be a solution to root resorption? What would orthodontics be like when bioengineered periodontal ligament and alveolar bone become clinical practice, or one day, entire teeth are bioengineered? Would it be possible to selectively differentiate stem cells into osteoblasts or o...

  6. Multidimensional scaling for orthodontic root resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cristina Baleanu; Dumitru Baleanu; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; Elena Preoteasa; Cristina Teodora Preoteasa; Ecaterina Ionescu

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the risk factors for the severity of orthodontic root resorption. The multidimensional scaling (MDS) visualization method is used to investigate the experimental data from patients who received orthodontic treatment at the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Faculty of Dentistry, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, during a period of 4 years. The clusters emerging in the MDS plots reveal features and properties not easily captured...

  7. In vitro corrosion behavior of lingual orthodontic archwires

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Suárez; Teresa Vilar; Pablo Sevilla; Javier Gil

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro electrochemical corrosive behavior of archwires used in lingual orthodontics and the effects on the phase transition temperatures. Materials and Methods. Six different types of archwires of stainless steel, titanium-molybdenum, nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium-copper were used. Corrosion tests were performed following ISO-standard 10993-15:2000. Differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy were used. Results. The stainless steel ar...

  8. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances. PMID:24583645

  9. Orthodontic movement in deciduous teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Deciduous teeth exfoliate as a result of apoptosis induced by cementoblasts, a process that reveals the mineralized portion of the root while attracting clasts. Root resorption in deciduous teeth is slow due to lack of mediators necessary to speed it up; however, it accelerates and spreads in one single direction whenever a permanent tooth pericoronal follicle, rich in epithelial growth factor (EGF), or other bone resorption mediators come near. The latter are responsible for bone resorption during eruption, and deciduous teeth root resorption and exfoliation. Should deciduous teeth be subjected to orthodontic movement or anchorage, mediators local levels will increase. Thus, one should be fully aware that root resorption in deciduous teeth will speed up and exfoliation will early occur. Treatment planning involving deciduous teeth orthodontic movement and/or anchorage should consider: Are clinical benefits relevant enough as to be worth the risk of undergoing early inconvenient root resorption? PMID:25992982

  10. Effect of fluoride varnish on demineralization adjacent to brackets bonded with RMGI cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Jason L; Staley, Robert N; Wefel, James S; Kanellis, Michael; Jakobsen, Jane R; Keenan, Peter J

    2002-08-01

    Far too often a less-than-optimal esthetic result occurs after orthodontic treatment due to demineralization of enamel adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances in patients with inadequate oral hygiene. In vitro studies have shown that a resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) cement and a fluoride varnish might help clinicians combat this problem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the effect of a fluoride-releasing cavity varnish on inhibition of enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets bonded with RMGI and composite resin cements. Brackets were bonded to 48 extracted human third molars. Half were bonded with a composite resin (Transbond, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and half with an RMGI (Fuji Ortho LC, GC America, Alsip, Ill). Each group was further divided into 2, with half receiving an application of fluoride-releasing varnish (Duraflor, Pharmascience, Montreal, Québec, Canada). The samples were cycled in an artificial caries solution for an hour twice daily for 31 days. After each caries challenge, the teeth were brushed with a soft toothbrush to simulate normal mechanical wear of the varnish. The loss of fluoride varnish was timed. Teeth were sectioned longitudinally and photographed under polarized light microscopy. Mean lesion depth was measured, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) (P bracket. A chi-square test showed that the fluoride varnish was lost significantly faster in samples bonded with Fuji Ortho LC (P =.013). Although the fluoride varnish could not prevent demineralization, it appears to be beneficial in reducing lesion formation. Clinicians should consider applying fluoride varnish on areas of enamel that exhibit demineralization or are at risk of demineralization in patients with poor oral hygiene. PMID:12165766

  11. Bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite bars for orthodontic attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthaler, J W; Tischler, G K; Burstone, C J

    2001-12-01

    Long fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) have been shown to have enhanced mechanical properties that allow their use in orthodontic appliances as bars that join teeth to form either anchorage or active units. This study was designed to determine if the bonding of an orthodontic attachment has sufficient strength to withstand loading during clinical use. The experimental model consisted of a hydroxyapatite stone that simulated enamel, FRC bars, and a bonded metal hook. Three specimen types were compared: (1) a metal hook-pad (the control), (2) a woven FRC with a hook-pad, and (3) a unidirectional FRC with a hook-pad. Loads were applied both parallel and at 90 degrees to the tooth surface. Under no condition was the FRC pad combination weaker than the control pad. Under some loading conditions, the loads before failure were as much as 3 times greater than those for the control. The lowest strength was found with loads at 90 degrees to the tooth surface for all 3 types. Failure normally occurred in the FRC and rarely at the bracket or tooth interface. The excellent bonding of the orthodontic attachment to the FRC and the high strengths of the FRC attachment combination demonstrate the ability to form connecting bars between teeth for either anchorage or active segmental movements. These bars offer advantages in simplicity in treatment by reducing the need for some bands, attachments, or wires. PMID:11742310

  12. CBCT imaging – A boon to orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Genevive L.

    2014-01-01

    The application of innovative technologies in dentistry and orthodontics has been very interesting to observe. The development of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a preferred imaging procedure for comprehensive orthodontic treatment is of particular interest. The information obtained from CBCT imaging provides several substantial advantages. For example, CBCT imaging provides accurate measurements, improves localization of impacted teeth, provides visualization of airway abnormalities,...

  13. Mechanical properties of one and two-step fluoridated orthodontic resins submitted to different pH cycling regimes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula, Passalini; Tatiana Kelly da Silva, Fidalgo; Erika Machado, Caldeira; Rogério, Gleiser; Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves, Nojima; Lucianne Cople, Maia.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the in vitro shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of one and two-step fluoridated orthodontic resins under conditions that simulate high cariogenic challenge. Edgewise brackets for maxillary central incisors were randomly bonded to 80 bovine incisor [...] s, using either TransbondTM Plus Color Change orthodontic resin and a self-etching primer adhesive (G1; n = 40) or Orthodontic Fill Magic with a conventional acid-etch technique (G2; n = 40). Each group of resin (n = 10) was divided into: immediate shear (A- pre-cycling control), immersion in artificial remineralizing saliva (neutral saliva) for 14 days (B- post-cycling control) and pH cycling with high cariogenic challenge (C- acid saliva with pH 5.5 and D- acid saliva with pH 4.5). After 14 days of pH cycling, the shear bond strength and ARI were evaluated. Considering the shear bond strength, TransbondTM Plus Color Change resin was stronger than Orthodontic Fill Magic when it was submitted to high cariogenic challenge (p

  14. Alveolar process reconstruction after tooth extraction by orthodontic indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev ?.?.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine indications for alveolar bone reconstruction after tooth extraction according to orthodontic indications. Material and methods. 62 patients (first maturity level with dental arch asymmetry due to loss of a premolar on one side of the mouth were examined and treated. Frontal-diagonal coefficient of the dental arch was used to determine the correlation between tooth size and dental arch parameters. Results. It has been demonstrated that changes of the alveolar ridge following the extraction of the first premolars in patients of the experimental group were less significant as compared with the controls. Conclusion. It is reasonable to apply this method simultaneously with the removal of a tooth for orthodontic indications or when the alveolar ridge in the post-extraction socket leaves insufficient bone volume.

  15. Evaluation of frictional forces between ceramic brackets and archwires of different alloys compared with metal brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Pulido Guerrero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, frictional forces produced by ceramic brackets and arch wires of different alloys. Frictional tests were performed on three ceramic brackets: monocrystalline (Inspire ICE, polycrystalline (InVu, polycrystalline with metal slot (Clarity, and one stainless steel bracket (Dyna-Lock. Thirty brackets of each were tested, all with .022" slots, in combination with stainless steel and nickel-titanium wires .019" × .025", at 0° and 10° angulation, in artificial saliva. Arch wires were pulled through the slots at a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min. There were statistically significant differences between the groups of brackets and wires studied (p < .05. The polycrystalline brackets with metal slots had values similar to those of conventional polycrystalline brackets, and the monocrystalline brackets had the highest frictional forces. The nickel-titanium wires produced the lowest friction. The addition of metal slots in the polycrystalline brackets did not significantly decrease frictional values. Nickel-titanium wires produced lower friction than those of stainless steel.

  16. On the Quantization of Nambu Brackets

    CERN Document Server

    Awata, H; Minic, D; Yoneya, T; Awata, Hidetoshi; Li, Miao; Minic, Djordje; Yoneya, Tamiaki

    2001-01-01

    We present several non-trivial examples of the three-dimensional quantum Nambu bracket which involve square matrices or three-index objects. Our examples satisfy two fundamental properties of the classical Nambu bracket: they are skew-symmetric and they obey the Fundamental Identity. We contrast our approach to the existing literature on the quantum deformations of Nambu mechanics. We also discuss possible applications of our results in M-theory.

  17. On the quantization of Nambu brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present several non-trivial examples of the three-dimensional quantum Nambu bracket which involve square matrices or three-index objects. Our examples satisfy two fundamental properties of the classical Nambu bracket: they are skew-symmetric and they obey the Fundamental Identity. We contrast our approach to the existing literature on the quantum deformations of Nambu mechanics. We also discuss possible applications of our results in M-theory. (author)

  18. Dental enamel around fixed orthodontic appliances after fluoride varnish application

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, Gontijo; Roberval de Almeida, Cruz; Paulo Roberto Gomes, Brandão.

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas enfrentados na clínica ortodôntica é a dificuldade de higienização em função da presença do aparelho fixo e seus componentes. Associado muitas vezes à pouca colaboração do paciente, o tratamento ortodôntico pode criar condições para a perda de estrutura mineral do esmalte, r [...] efletida por manchas brancas e até cavitações nos casos mais severos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a aplicabilidade do verniz fluoretado como método preventivo na clínica ortodôntica. Assim, procurou-se investigar o aspecto do esmalte dental adjacente aos acessórios ortodônticos, bem como determinar o conteúdo dos elementos cálcio, fósforo e flúor nas superfícies tratadas com o verniz em comparação com um controle. Os resultados mostraram, por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o produto reacional (semelhante ao fluoreto de cálcio) decorrente da aplicação local. A espectrometria de raios X por dispersão de energia mostrou ainda ter havido maior teor de cálcio e flúor no esmalte tratado. Conclui-se que o verniz fluoretado pode efetivamente conferir proteção ao esmalte dental, durante os desafios cariogênicos, tendo indicação para o emprego nos pacientes em tratamento ortodôntico. Abstract in english Poor oral hygiene has been considered one of the main problems routinely faced in the orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic appliance creates an environment that provides mineral loss from the dental enamel. Such condition is clinically seen as white spot lesions and cavitations in the most severe case [...] s. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a fluoride varnish application as a caries prevention method for clinical orthodontics. The experiment analyzed dental enamel adjacent to orthodontics accessories after treatment. In addition, it was observed the calcium, phosphorus and fluoride contents on enamel treated with a fluoride varnish. The results showed that fluoride varnish application is a simple and fast technique that could be useful in preventing enamel demineralization associated to orthodontic treatment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed significant amount of calcium fluoride-like material deposited on enamel and energy dispersive x-ray analysis demonstrated a large incorporation of calcium and fluoride to the enamel of the treated specimens. It was concluded that fluoride varnish could indeed be considered an efficient preventive method to enhance enamel resistance against the cariogenic challenges during orthodontic therapy.

  19. Influence of Ortho Primer Morelli adhesion booster on orthodontic brackets shear bond strength

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sabrina de Mendonça, Invernici; Ivan Toshio, Maruo; Elisa Souza, Camargo; Thais Miyuki, Hirata; Hiroshi, Maruo; Odilon, Guariza Filho; Orlando, Tanaka.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This work aimed at assessing the bond strength (AS), the site of the flaw and the relation between them and Ortho Primer Morelli® (OPM) adhesion optimizer. METHODS: Sixty test specimens, made out of bovine permanent lower incisors, were divided into three groups: TXT Primer (control), in [...] which a conventional adhesive system was applied (primer and paste); OPM, in which TXT primer was replaced by OPM; and TXT without Primer, in which only TXT paste was used. A shear force was applied at a speed of 0,5 mm/min. Failure site was assessed by the Remaining Adhesion Index (RAI). RESULTS: Kruskal-Wallis demonstrated that OPM (8.54 ± 1.86 MPa) presented a statistically higher AS (p 0.05) between TXT with or without Primer (6.42 ± 2.12 MPa). Regarding the RAI, the K test demonstrated that TXT Primer and OPM (prevailing scores 2 and 3) showed higher values (p 0.05). CONCLUSION: OPM increases AS and presents the same bond failure location if compared to a conventional adhesive system; the use of the TXT adhesive system paste only was shown to have the same AS if compared to conventional systems, except it does not allow to predict the adhesive failure site; there is no correlation between AS and bond failure location, regardless of the use of any adhesion optimizer.

  20. Opening and closure forces of sliding mechanisms of different self-ligating brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paola, GANDINI; Linda, ORSI; Maria Francesca, SFONDRINI; Andrea, SCRIBANTE.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-ligating brackets engage the wire by means of a slide mechanism. Forces that have to be applied to open and close the sliding mechanism of brackets are still unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to measure and compare the opening and closure forces of different self-ligating b [...] rackets. Material and Methods Three different stainless steel self-ligating brackets (Carriere LX, Ortho Organizers; F1000, Leone; Damon Q, Ormco) were tested. For each different bracket, 20 maxillary right central incisors and 20 mandibular right central incisors were used. Opening and closure forces were measured using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Statistical analysis was performed and ANOVA and Tukey tests were carried out. Results Opening forces were registered between 1.1 N and 5.6 N, whereas closure forces were recorded between 1.57 N and 4.87 N. Significant differences were detected among the different brackets and between the two prescriptions tested. Conclusion The knowledge of different opening and closure forces of self-ligating brackets can help the orthodontist in the clinical management of these devices.

  1. Customized orthodontics: The Insignia System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Alessandro; Gracco, Antonio; Siviero, Laura; Parenti, Incerti Serena; Ippolito, Daniela Rita

    2014-01-01

    Customized treatment systems offer both patient and clinician numerous advantages, first and foremost the possibility of viewing a computerized rendering of the dentition in three dimensions. This allows the orthodontist to perform accurate measurements, analyses and simulations, and for both to be able to view the end result on screen. Thus, computerized technology consents optimization of not only the diagnostic phase, by means of extremely accurate three-dimensional imaging systems, but also the operative phase, by supplying individualized appliances with little or no correction while the treatment is in progress. In this article we present a customized orthodontic system called Insignia and how it works through two different clinical cases. PMID:25745705

  2. Assessment of the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements for orthodontic cementation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcel M., Farret; Eduardo Martinelli de, Lima; Eduardo Gonçalves, Mota; Hugo Mitsuo S., Oshima; Gabriela, Maguilnik; Patrícia Alves, Scheid.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as propriedades mecânicas de três cimentos de ionômero de vidro (CIVs) utilizados para cimentação de anéis ortodônticos. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados dois CIVs convencionais (Ketac Cem Easy mix/3M-ESPE e Meron/Voco) e um CIV modificado por resina (Multi-Cure Glass ionomer/3M-Unitek). [...] Para os testes de resistência à compressão e tração diametral, foram confeccionados 12 corpos de prova de cada material. Para os testes de microdureza, foram confeccionados 15 corpos de prova de cada material; para os testes de resistência de união ao cisalhamento, foram utilizados 45 dentes bovinos incluídos em resina acrílica, sobre os quais foi cimentada uma lâmina de anel ortodôntico com braquete soldado a ela para a realização dos ensaios. Para os testes de compressão, tração diametral e cisalhamento, foi utilizada uma máquina universal de ensaios a uma velocidade de 1mm/min; para os testes de microdureza Vickers, foi utilizado um microdurômetro com 200g de carga durante 15 segundos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística ANOVA, complementada pelo teste de Tukey ao nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que o Multi-Cure Glass Ionomer apresentou resistência à tração diametral significativamente maior (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mechanical properties of three glass ionomers cements (GICs) used for band cementation in Orthodontics. METHODS: Two conventional glass ionomers (Ketac Cem Easy mix/3M-ESPE and Meron/Voco) and one resin modified glass ionomer (Multi-cure Glass ionomer/3M-Unitek) were selec [...] ted. For the compressive strength and diametral tensile strength tests, 12 specimens were made of each material. For the microhardness test 15 specimens were made of each material and for the shear bond strength tests 45 bovine permanent incisors were used mounted in a self-cure acrylic resin. Then, band segments with a welded bracket were cemented on the buccal surface of the crowns. For the mechanical tests of compressive and diametral tensile strength and shear bond strength a universal testing machine was used with a crosshead speed of 1,0 mm/min and for the Vickers microhardness analysis tests a Microdurometer was used with 200 g of load during 15 seconds. The results were submitted to statistical analysis through ANOVA complemented by Tukey's test at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The results shown that the Multi-Cure Glass Ionomer presented higher diametral tensile strength (p

  3. [A call for qualitative research in Orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitschaky, O; Hofnung, T; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research is an umbrella term for an array of attitudes and strategies for conducting inquiries that are aimed at discerning how human beings understand, experience, and interpret the social world. It is employed in many different academic disciplines most particularly in the social sciences and humanities, however recently more and more qualitative research is being conducted under the medical sciences including dentistry and orthodontics. This is due to its nature of in-depth investigation, which can provide answers to questions that cannot be satisfactorily answered using quantitative methods alone. The aims of this article are to discuss the characteristics of qualitative research, to review the orthodontic English literature, and to highlight the advantages of qualitative research in orthodontics. The literature review yielded several important conclusions regarding qualitative research in orthodontics: 1. most of the qualitative research done in orthodontics chose to use semi structured in-depth interviews for data collection; 2. qualitative research highlights aspects that are very important, and sometimes crucial to everyday practice and long term treatment; 3. there is a lack of qualitative studies in the field of orthodontics. Taking into account the nature of the orthodontic treatment, which is a prolonged one, demanding of a good orthodontist-patient rapport, and a wide perspective on behalf of the clinician, filling the gap in the discipline through conducting more qualitative studies aimed at understanding the point of view of the patient, as well as that of the clinician, may be beneficial for the improvement of the treatment. PMID:25799792

  4. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Haghanifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption, G1: mild resorption with blunt roots or ? 1/4 of root length, G2: moderate to severe resorption or > 1/4 to 1/2 of root length. Relationship between root resorption and sex and treatment duration was analyzed with Mann-whitney and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively.Results: The findings showed that 345 teeth were categorized as Grade 1. Grade 2 of root resorption was not found in this study. The highest amount of root resorption was recorded for the mandibular lateral incisor. In both gender, the root resorption of the mandible was more than that of the maxilla. The males showed significantly higher rate of resorption than the females (P0.05.Conclusion: The mandible and male patients showed higher amount of root resorption. In addition, root resorption was not related to the treatment duration and the side of the jaws.

  5. Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics: An interdisciplinary approach for faster orthodontic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Adusumilli, Srikanth; Yalamanchi, Lohith; Yalamanchili, Pallavi Samatha

    2014-01-01

    Periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics is a relatively new procedure designed to minimize the time taken for orthodontic treatment. The orthodontist avails of the aid of a periodontist to perform decortication of the bone and places bone graft for rapid orthodontic correction of malocclusion. A PubMed search was carried out to identify papers describing the procedure, and the data were organized in the current format.

  6. Evaluation of frictional forces between ceramic brackets and archwires of different alloys compared with metal brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ariana Pulido, Guerrero; Odilon, Guariza Filho; Orlando, Tanaka; Elisa Souza, Camargo; Sérgio, Vieira.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, frictional forces produced by ceramic brackets and arch wires of different alloys. Frictional tests were performed on three ceramic brackets: monocrystalline (Inspire ICE), polycrystalline (InVu), polycrystalline with metal slot (Clarity), and one sta [...] inless steel bracket (Dyna-Lock). Thirty brackets of each were tested, all with .022" slots, in combination with stainless steel and nickel-titanium wires .019" × .025", at 0° and 10° angulation, in artificial saliva. Arch wires were pulled through the slots at a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min. There were statistically significant differences between the groups of brackets and wires studied (p

  7. Rapid Orthodontics with Flapless Piezoelectric Corticotomies: First Clinical Experiences / Ortodoncia Rápida con Corticotomías Piezoeléctricas sin Colgajo: Primeras Experiencias Clínicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Jofre; Julio, Montenegro; Roberto, Arroyo.

    Full Text Available Uno de los mayores desafíos que enfrenta un paciente de ortodoncia es el tiempo que lleva usar brackets. A través de los años, varias técnicas quirúrgicas se han desarrollado para hacer frente a este problema y reducir el tiempo total de tratamiento. Estas combinan los mecanismos de cicatrización ós [...] ea, con cargas de ortodoncia para acelerar el movimiento de los dientes. Aunque eficaz, estas técnicas son bastante invasivas, que requieren la elevación de colgajos bucales y linguales de espesor total con decorticaciones extensas del hueso alveolar bucal y lingual. Por otra parte, con estas técnicas se corre el riesgo de desvitalización dentaria, necrosis avascular del bloque óseo, reabsorción alveolar, y los riesgos de complicaciones, con baja aceptación por parte del paciente. Este trabajo reporta tres casos tratados con un nuevo enfoque sin colgajo para ortodoncia rápida mínimamente invasiva (MIRO - minimally invasive rapid orthodontic). Este procedimiento incluye microincisiones guiadas por radiografías y corticotomías piezoeléctricas localizadas. Las implicaciones clínicas de esta técnica se analizan en este documento. MIRO reduce el tiempo de tratamiento de ortodoncia, evitando los efectos adversos reportados por la ortodoncia acelerada. Abstract in english One of the biggest challenges an orthodontic patient faces is the time spent wearing brackets. Over the years, several surgical techniques have been developed to address this issue and reduce the overall treatment time. These combine bone-healing mechanisms with orthodontic loads to accelerate tooth [...] movement. Although effective, these techniques are also quite invasive in nature, requiring the elevation of buccal and lingual full-thickness flaps with extensive decortications of the buccal and lingual alveolar bone. Moreover, these techniques run the risk of teeth devitalization, avascular necrosis of the osseous block, alveolar resorption, and the risks of complications, with low acceptance by the patient. This manuscript reports three cases treated with a novel, flapless approach for minimally invasive rapid orthodontic (MIRO). This procedure includes radiographic-guided micro incisions and localized piezoelectric corticotomies. The clinical implications of this technique are discussed herein. MIRO reduces orthodontic treatment time, avoiding the reported adverse effects of accelerated orthodontics.

  8. The Influence of Surface Conditioning of Ceramic Restorations before Metal Bracket Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Reicheneder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength and Adhesive Remnant Index of four different veneering ceramic materials to metal brackets. Additionally, it should be examined whether it is possible to overcome the etching method using hydrofluoric acid which is noxious. Instead of this treatment, air particle abrasion with 25 µm aluminium trioxide, silane coupling application and etching with 37.0 per cent orthophosphoric acid as pre-treatment procedures of the veneering ceramics before bonding was investigated. Two surface conditioning methods of four ceramic materials before bonding brackets were examined: in group 1 an air particle abrasion with 25 µm aluminium trioxide (4 seconds at a pressure of 2.5 bars and subsequently a silane coupling agent (Espe Sil, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA was applicated on one side of each ceramic specimen (10 per group. In group 2 one side of each sample (10 per group was etched with 37.0 per cent orthophosphoric acid for two minutes and was followed by a silane application (Espe Sil, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA. After this procedure the self-ligating metal brackets SmartClip (3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA brackets were bonded to the ceramic blocks and a thermocycling process started (5°C - 55°C, 6000 cycles. Then, shear bond strength and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI were measured. To determine statistical differences Oneway-ANOVA and Tukey Post-hoc test were performed. The level of significance was set at ? = 0.05. On the basis of the results of the current study, it could be concluded that sandblasting with 25 µm aluminium trioxide and the use of orthophosphoric acid (37.0 per cent seem to prepare the surface of the ceramic restoration sufficiently before bracket bonding. The found level of shear bond strength values seem be sufficient for bracket bonding. Hydrofluoric acid seems not to be justifiable anymore for preparing the surface of dental ceramic restorations before bracket bonding.

  9. Effect of Orthodontic Debonding and Adhesive Removal on the Enamel – Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives – a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Szatkiewicz, Tomasz; Tomkowski, Robert; Tandecka, Katarzyna; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    After orthodontic treatment, brackets are debonded and residual adhesive is removed, causing iatrogenic enamel damage. The aim of this study was to review the methods of orthodontic adhesive removal, find clear evidence, and provide a rationale for this procedure. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Dentistry and Oral Sciences, Scopus, Cochrane, Google, and Google Scholar using keywords: orthodontic adhesive removal, orthodontic debonding, orthodontic clean-up. Studies concerning human enamel roughness or loss from debonding and adhesive removal were considered. Forty-four full-text articles were analyzed and 3 were rejected after detailed reading; finally 41 papers were included. Fifteen qualitative studies, 13 studies based on indices of enamel surface, and 13 quantitative studies were found. No meta-analysis could be performed due to a lack of homogenous quantitative evidence. The most popular tools were tungsten carbide burs, which were faster and more effective than Sof-Lex discs, ultrasonic tools, hand instruments, rubbers, or composite burs. They remove a substantial layer of enamel and roughen its surface, but are less destructive than Arkansas stones, green stones, diamond burs, steel burs, and lasers. Multi-step Sof-Lex discs and pumice slurry are the most predictable enamel polishing tools. Arkansas stones, green stones, diamond burs, steel burs, and lasers should not be used for adhesive removal. The use of tungsten carbide bur requires multistep polishing. Further efforts should be made to find tools and methods for complete removal of adhesive remnants, minimizing enamel loss and achieving a smooth surface. PMID:25327612

  10. Effect of orthodontic debonding and adhesive removal on the enamel - current knowledge and future perspectives - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Szatkiewicz, Tomasz; Tomkowski, Robert; Tandecka, Katarzyna; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    After orthodontic treatment, brackets are debonded and residual adhesive is removed, causing iatrogenic enamel damage. The aim of this study was to review the methods of orthodontic adhesive removal, find clear evidence, and provide a rationale for this procedure. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Dentistry and Oral Sciences, Scopus, Cochrane, Google, and Google Scholar using keywords: orthodontic adhesive removal, orthodontic debonding, orthodontic clean-up. Studies concerning human enamel roughness or loss from debonding and adhesive removal were considered. Forty-four full-text articles were analyzed and 3 were rejected after detailed reading; finally 41 papers were included. Fifteen qualitative studies, 13 studies based on indices of enamel surface, and 13 quantitative studies were found. No meta-analysis could be performed due to a lack of homogenous quantitative evidence. The most popular tools were tungsten carbide burs, which were faster and more effective than Sof-Lex discs, ultrasonic tools, hand instruments, rubbers, or composite burs. They remove a substantial layer of enamel and roughen its surface, but are less destructive than Arkansas stones, green stones, diamond burs, steel burs, and lasers. Multi-step Sof-Lex discs and pumice slurry are the most predictable enamel polishing tools. Arkansas stones, green stones, diamond burs, steel burs, and lasers should not be used for adhesive removal. The use of tungsten carbide bur requires multistep polishing. Further efforts should be made to find tools and methods for complete removal of adhesive remnants, minimizing enamel loss and achieving a smooth surface. PMID:25327612

  11. Association between gingivitis and anterior gingival enlargement in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabricio Batistin, Zanatta; Thiago Machado, Ardenghi; Raquel Pippi, Antoniazzi; Tatiana Militz Perrone, Pinto; Cassiano Kuchenbecker, Rösing.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse estudo foi verificar a associação entre volume gengival (AG) com condições periodontais e características sócio-demográficas em sujeitos com aparelho ortodônticos fixo. MÉTODOS: uma amostra, de 330 participantes com aparelho ortodôntico fixo, por pelo menos seis mese [...] s, foi examinada, por um único examinador calibrado, para os índices de placa e gengivais, profundidade de sondagem, nível de inserção clínico e aumento de volume gengival. O status socioeconômico, tempo com aparelho ortodôntico fixo e uso de fio dental foram verificados por entrevista oral. A verificação das associações foi realizada por meio de modelos de regressão de Poisson sem ajuste e ajustados. RESULTADOS: a presença de sangramento gengival (RR 1.01; 95% IC 1.00-1.01) e o excesso de resina em torno dos braquetes (RR 1.02; 95% IC 1.02-1.03) foram associadas a um aumento do AG. Não foram encontradas associações entre características sócio-demográficas e AG. CONCLUSÃO: sangramento gengival proximal na região anterior e excesso de resina no entorno dos braquetes estão associados a níveis mais altos de aumento de volume gengival na região anterior em sujeitos com aparelho ortodôntico fixo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association among gingival enlargement (GE), periodontal conditions and socio-demographic characteristics in subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A sample of 330 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment for at [...] least 6 months were examined by a single calibrated examiner for plaque and gingival indexes, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss and gingival enlargement. Socio-economic background, orthodontic treatment duration and use of dental floss were assessed by oral interviews. Associations were assessed by means of unadjusted and adjusted Poisson's regression models. RESULTS: The presence of gingival bleeding (RR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00-1.01) and excess resin around brackets (RR 1.02; 95% CI 1.02-1.03) were associated with an increase in GE. No associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and GE. CONCLUSION: Proximal anterior gingival bleeding and excess resin around brackets are associated with higher levels of anterior gingival enlargement in subjects under orthodontic treatment.

  12. Effect of different surface treatments for ceramic bracket base on bond strength of rebonded brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarita, Monique Kruger; Moresca, Alexa Helena Köhler; Losso, Estela Maris; Moro, Alexandre; Moresca, Ricardo Cesar; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of rebonded ceramic brackets after subjecting the bracket base to different treatments. Seventy-five premolars were selected and randomly distributed into five groups (n=15), according to the type of the bracket surface treatment: I, no treatment, first bonding (control); II, sandblasting with aluminum oxide; III, sandblasting + silane; IV, silica coating + silane; and V, silicatization performed in a laboratory (Rocatec system). The brackets were fixed on an enamel surface with Transbond XT resin without acid etching. The brackets were then removed and their bases were subjected to different treatments. Thereafter, the brackets were fixed again to the enamel surface and the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) test. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was then evaluated for each specimen. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests (?=0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed only between Rocatec and the other groups; the Rocatec group showed the lowest SBS values. The highest SBS values were observed for group 1, without any significant difference from the values for groups II, III and IV. Most groups had a higher percentage of failures at the enamel-resin interface (score 1). It was concluded that the surface treatments of rebonded ceramic brackets were effective, with SBS values similar to that of the control group, except Rocatec group. PMID:25672386

  13. Clinical applications of magnets in orthodontics.

    OpenAIRE

    M.A.Papadopoulos

    1999-01-01

    Rare earth magnets, especially the samarium-cobalt (SmCo5, Sm2Co17) and neodymium-iron-boron (Nd2Fe14B) types, have many applications in orthodontics. They can be used to move teeth, to expand the upper dental arch, to correct Class II and Class III malocclusions combined with functional appliances and to retain the therapeutic results achieved. Although the superiority of treatment results with various magnetic appliances in comparison to the conventional orthodontic appliances is supported ...

  14. Surgery preceding orthodontics in bimaxillary cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Saravana; Dakir, Abu; Krishnan, Bala; Ebenezer, Vijay; Muthumani; Kumar, Kishore; Arvind, Waikhom

    2015-01-01

    Orthognathic surgery is performed to alter the shape of the jaws to increase the facial esthetic and improve the occlusions. Surgery prior orthodontics reduces the total length of the treatment of the patients, followed by orthodontics treatment. Advantages is positive outcome in short period of time. Surgical procedure includes Anterior Maxillary osteotomy and Anterior subapical mandibular osteotomy. Complication includes haemorrhage, paraesthesia, malunion of bone, etc. PMID:26015684

  15. Malocclusion Pattern (Angle's) in Mauritian Orthodontic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Al Kheraif, Abdul Aziz A.; Basavaraj Subashchandra Phulari; Durgesh, B. H.; Ravikumar Ramakrishnaiah; Prashanth Prakash

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the pattern of malocclusion in different ethnic group of Mauritian population visiting the Orthodontic Department at Mauras College of Dentistry and Hospital, Republic of Mauritius. The study population comprised of 624 patients who visited the orthodontic department during 2010. The clinical examination was conducted by a well-calibrated orthodontist. The data were recorded in the case sheets and was analyzed for presence of angles class I, class II, and cl...

  16. A critical review of older and contemporary applications of biomechanical methods in orthodontics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. G. Provatidis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts a review of the literature related to the applications and conclusions of methods of theoretical and applied mechanics, experimental strength of materials as well as contemporary computerized methods used in Orthodontics. These methods are evaluated based on contemporary data from both scientific fields, i.e. Mechanics and Orthodontics. Special reference and discussion is made concerning the finite element method which seems to be the best of all. There is also a brief reference of the most recent achievements of Informatics that may be used by clinical orthodontists in the near future.

  17. Orthodontic movement in deciduous teeth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Consolaro.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O dente decíduo é esfoliado graças à apoptose em seus cementoblastos, que desnuda a parte mineralizada da raiz e atrai os clastos. A rizólise é lenta, pois faltam mediadores em quantidade para acelerar o processo, mas ela se acelera e unidireciona quando se aproxima um folículo pericoronário de dent [...] e permanente rico em EGF e outros mediadores da reabsorção óssea - os responsáveis pelas reabsorções óssea na erupção e dentária decídua na rizólise e esfoliação. Se houver movimentação ortodôntica ou ancoragem em dentes decíduos, aumenta-se, também, o nível local desses mesmos mediadores, devendo-se estar bem consciente de que haverá uma aceleração da rizólise e, em decorrência, uma antecipação de sua esfoliação. No planejamento de casos em que dentes decíduos estejam envolvidos na movimentação ortodôntica e/ou ancoragem, deve-se ponderar: o benefício clínico para o paciente será relevante, a ponto de valer o risco de uma rizólise abreviada e inconveniente? Abstract in english Deciduous teeth exfoliate as a result of apoptosis induced by cementoblasts, a process that reveals the mineralized portion of the root while attracting clasts. Root resorption in deciduous teeth is slow due to lack of mediators necessary to speed it up; however, it accelerates and spreads in one si [...] ngle direction whenever a permanent tooth pericoronal follicle, rich in epithelial growth factor (EGF), or other bone resorption mediators come near. The latter are responsible for bone resorption during eruption, and deciduous teeth root resorption and exfoliation. Should deciduous teeth be subjected to orthodontic movement or anchorage, mediators local levels will increase. Thus, one should be fully aware that root resorption in deciduous teeth will speed up and exfoliation will early occur. Treatment planning involving deciduous teeth orthodontic movement and/or anchorage should consider: Are clinical benefits relevant enough as to be worth the risk of undergoing early inconvenient root resorption?

  18. Ortodoncia acelerada y ortodoncia de transito expreso (OTE)®, un concepto contemporáneo de alta eficiencia / Accelerated orthodontics and express transit orthodontics (ETO)®, a contemporary concept of high efficiency

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Fernando, Aristizábal-P.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Acelerar un tratamiento de Ortodoncia permite disminuir los riesgos naturales de desmineralización del esmalte, compromiso periodontal y reabsorción radicular, además de contribuir a tener pacientes mas satisfechos y profesionales con consultas mas eficientes. Varios métodos se han evaluado [...] para mejorar la rata, magnitud y estabilidad del movimiento ortodóncico, entre ellos están, abordajes quirúrgicos, bioquímicos, farmacológicos y terapia con láser. Por otro lado, en el panorama mecánico, la evolución de los sistemas de brackets ha permitido que lleguen al mercado sistemas contemporáneos que garantizan mejores abordajes biológicos por lo menos desde el punto de vista de niveles de fuerza. La sumatoria de aproximaciones diagnósticas de alta calidad, mecanoterapias eficientes y complementos de orden físico y/o biológico y quirúrgico para acelerar los movimientos es lo que llamamos Ortodoncia de Tránsito Expreso (OTE)®, la cual es una alternativa importante para tratamientos de alta calidad y eficiencia. El propósito de esta revisión de literatura, es analizar las nuevas aproximaciones para acelerar el movimiento dentario desde el abordaje biológico, físico y quirúrgico, en sinergia con un complemento mecánico, ya sea con sistemas de Autoligado pasivo convencional o personalizado Abstract in english Accelerated Orthodontic treatment can reduce risks of enamel demineralization, root resorption and periodontal problems, and contribute to have more satisfied patients and professionals with more efficient practices. Several methods have been evaluated to improve the rate, magnitude and stability of [...] orthodontic movement, which include surgical, biochemical, pharmacological and laser therapy approaches. Furthermore, in the mechanical scope, the evolution of brackets systems has allowed contemporary systems to reach the market which guarantee better biological approaches at least from the point of view of strength levels. The sum of high quality diagnostic approaches, efficient mechanics and physical and / or biological and surgical accessories in order to accelerate the movement is what we call Express Transit Orthodontics (OTE)®, which is an important alternative for high quality and efficient treatments. The purpose of this literature review is to analyze new approaches to accelerate tooth movement from the biological, physical and surgical approach, in synergy with a mechanical complement, either conventional or customized self-ligature systems

  19. Spectral killers and Poisson bracket invariants

    OpenAIRE

    Seyfaddini, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    We find optimal upper bounds for spectral invariants of a Hamiltonian whose support is contained in a union of mutually disjoint displaceable balls. This gives a partial answer to a question posed by Leonid Polterovich in connection with his recent work on Poisson bracket invariants of coverings.

  20. Path integral and noncommutative poisson brackets

    CERN Document Server

    Valtancoli, P

    2015-01-01

    We find that in presence of noncommutative poisson brackets the relation between Lagrangian and Hamiltonian is modified. We discuss this property by using the path integral formalism for non-relativistic systems. We apply this procedure to the harmonic oscillator with a minimal length.

  1. Notes on the Super Nambu Bracket

    OpenAIRE

    Sakakibara, M

    2002-01-01

    We define a super Nambu-Poisson algebra over a super manifold. A super Nambu bracket does not satisfy the usual skew-symmetric property, and we propose another skew-symmetric property. We show that the divergence of super Nambu-Hamiltonian vector fields leads to a generalization of the Batalin-Vilkovisky algebra.

  2. Deformations of Lie brackets: cohomological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Crainic, M.; Moerdijk, I.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a new cohomology for Lie algebroids, and prove that it provides a differential graded Lie algebra which ``controls'' deformations of the structure bracket of the algebroid. We also have a closer look at various special cases such as Lie algebras, Poisson manifolds, foliations, Lie algebra actions on manifolds.

  3. Randomized Clinical Trial of Interceptive and Comprehensive Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    King, G. J.(University of Victoria, V8W 3P6, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada); Spiekerman, C.F.; Greenlee, G.M.; Huang, G J

    2012-01-01

    Focusing public insurance programs on interceptive orthodontics (IO) may increase access for low-income children. This report presents outcomes from a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing IO with comprehensive orthodontics (CO) in Medicaid patients.

  4. Estudo comparativo da resistência adesiva da interface resina/braquete, sob esforços de cisalhamento, empregando três resinas compostas e três tipos de tratamento na base do braquete / Comparative study of the shear bond strength of the resin/bracket interface, using three different resin composites and three different treatments in the base of the bracket

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Lia, Mondelli; Marcos Roberto de, Feitas.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: considerando que, até o momento, a união braquete/resina é conseguida mecânica e quimicamente, esse estudo propôs avaliar: 1) a eficiência da metodologia empregada para avaliação da força de união da interface resina/braquete; 2) a resistência adesiva da interface resina/braquete sob esfor [...] ços de cisalhamento, empregando três marcas comerciais de resina composta (Concise ortodôntico, Transbond-XT e Filtek-Z-250); 3) o efeito, nesta resistência adesiva, do jateamento com óxido de alumínio, aplicado na base do braquete metálico, associado ou não ao sistema adesivo resinoso dentário. METODOLOGIA: para avaliar a união adesiva, especificamente na interface resina/braquete, empregou-se uma máquina universal de ensaios e o teste preconizado foi o de cisalhamento. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: após análise estatística (análise de Variância e, posteriormente, teste de Tukey) e discussão dos resultados, conclui-se que: a ocorrência de 12,5% de fraturas coesivas pode ser considerada mínima, indicando que a metodologia empregada pode ser considerada confiável para avaliar especificamente a força de união da interface resina/braquete; em relação aos tipos de materiais empregados, sem nenhum tratamento prévio, as resinas compostas Concise ortodôntico, Transbond-XT e Filtek-Z-250 apresentaram valores similares de resistência adesiva sob esforços de cisalhamento; os tratamentos que incluíam a aplicação do adesivo específico, com ou sem jateamento com óxido de alumínio na base do braquete, foram mais efetivos para a resina composta Concise ortodôntico, quando comparados ao seu grupo controle; os tratamentos de jateamento com óxido de alumínio, associado ou não ao adesivo específico na base do braquete, foram mais efetivos estatisticamente para a resina composta Transbond-XT, quando comparados ao seu grupo controle; para a resina composta Filtek-Z-250, quando utilizado o adesivo Single Bond na base do braquete, associado ou não ao jateamento com óxido de alumínio, houve uma queda dos valores de resistência ao cisalhamento. O tratamento com jateamento de óxido de alumínio na base dos braquetes melhorou todos os valores de adesividade para todos os materiais de colagem utilizados nesta pesquisa. Abstract in english AIM: Considering that the adhesion between the brackets and the resin is chemo-mechanical, the aim of this study was to investigate: 1) the efficacy of the method used to assess the bond strength at the resin/bracket interface; 2) the shear bond strength of the resin/bracket interface using three re [...] sin composites (Concise orthodontic, Transbond XT and Filtek Z-250); 3) the effect of sandblasting of the base of the metallic bracket with aluminum oxide, associated or not to the application of adhesive. METHODS: Shear bond strength was carried out at a universal testing machine. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison test. RESULS AND CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of 12.5% of cohesive failures may be considered minimal, thus indicating that the method is appropriate to assess the bond strength at the resin/bracket interface. The different resin composites (Concise Orthodontic, Transbond XT and Filtek Z-250) used for bonding without any previous surface treatment of the bracket (control groups) resulted in similar shear bond strength. The application of adhesive, with or without previous sandblasting of the base of the bracket, improved the shear bond strength for the Concise orthodontic resin composite, when compared to its control group. Sandblasting of the bracket, regardless of the combined use of adhesive, was statistically superior for the Transbond XT resin composite when compared to its control group. The application of the adhesive Single Bond in the base of the bracket, with or without previous sandblasting, promoted a decrease in the shear bond strength for the Filtek Z-250 resin composite. Sandblasting of the metallic bracket with aluminum oxide improved the adhesion at the resin/bracket interface

  5. Biophysical parameters of the oral fluid and cells of the buccal epithelium in children with diseases of the thyroid gland in the course of orthodontic treatment of maxillodental anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnik K.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid status disturbance may be reflected on the biological processes which underlie orthodontic tooth movement. Aim of research – to study state of the oral fluid and buccal epithelium cells (BEC in the course of a complex orthodontic treatment of children with thyroid gland diseases. In 79 children with a diffuse nontoxic goiter (DNG of the I-III degrees, stability of oral fluid pH (?pH, rate of mobile nuclei of BEC, ratio of electrophoretic displacement range of nuclei and plasmolemms was estimated. Estimation of corresponding parameters in the initial state, in 1, 3, 6 and 8 months after fixation of the fixed orthodontic apparatus was carried out. Children of the basic group according to pathology degree in addition received a prophylactic complex including preparations: “Vitrum Perfomens", "Teraflex", "Kalcicor", «Potassium iodide», «Echinacea compositum C», "Lizodent", "Osteobios". Ap¬plication of the prophylactic complex in orthodontic treatment of children with DNG prevented growth of ??? after fixation of brackets. Throughout all time of supervision it promoted reduction of this rate which slightly exceeded average rate for the given age of children in 8 months. Application of this prophylactic complex already in 1 month after fixation of brackets has raised quantity of mobile BEC nuclei by 44% and by 1,64 times has increased the relation of ranges of plasmolemms and nuclei displacement. In 8 months of supervision percent of mobile nuclei BEC and the relation of Apl/Aya in the basic group was by 2 times more, than in a comparison group, approaching to average rate. ?hildren with thyroid gland diseases need active treatment-and-prophylactic measures at stages of active apparatus treatment. The developed therapeutic complexes of orthodontic treatment of maxillo-dental anomalies in children with DNG allows to effectively support and improve functional reactions in the organism and in the oral cavity, compensating stressful action of fixed orthodontic apparatuses.

  6. Orthodontic Management of a Severely Rotated Maxillary Central Incisor in the Mixed Dentition: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case report was to introduce an appliance for correcting severe rotation of anterior teeth in the mixed dentition period. A 9-year-old Iranian boy with a mixed dentition Class I malocclusion complained of a severely rotated of upper right central incisor. There was a mesiodens between the central incisors. The supernumerary tooth was first extracted and then a Whip appliance which is composed of a removable plate, a cantilever spring and a central bracket on the rotated tooth was utilized. After 8 months, the upper right central incisor was orthodontically brought into proper alignment. Circumferential supracrestal fibrotomy was performed on the overcorrected tooth. One week after surgery, the device was removed and the retention was started. The whip appliance is a removable appliance that can effectively correct severe rotation of anterior teeth especially during the mixed dentition period.

  7. Risk factors and management of white spot lesions in orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Kamna; Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Sachan, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    The formation of white spot lesions or enamel demineralization around fixed orthodontic attachments is a common complication during and following fixed orthodontic treatment, which mars the result of a successfully completed case. This article is a contemporary review of the risk factors, preventive methods and fate of these orthodontics scars. The importance of excellent oral hygiene practice during fixed orthodontic treatment must be explained. Preventive programs must be emphasized to all ...

  8. General dentist orthodontic practice in foreign legal systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Toshio Maruo; Armando Saga; Maria da Glória Colucci; Orlando Tanaka; Hiroshi Maruo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: General dentist orthodontic practice is a controversial issue and this paper aims to analyze it comparing foreign laws to Brazilian Legal System. METHODS: Regulations and scientific texts concerning orthodontic practice by general dentists, in Portuguese or English language, were sought. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Portugal clearly forbids general dentist orthodontic practice; United States of America do not clearly forbid general dentist orthodontic practice, but do regulate and promo...

  9. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggestypes of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  10. ANALISA KEKUATAN KONSTRUKSI BRACKET TOWING HOOK PADA TB. BONTANG DENGAN METODE ELEMEN HINGGA DAN RULES BKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Pujo Mulyatno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bracket towing hook construction planning is to make a construction that has the stress level of the allowable limit and can be accepted by the construction. Requirements for towing hook are structural strength if the stress levels that occur below the elastic region. By calculating the value of the maximum load, maximum stress, von mises stress and deflection (displasment that occur in the construction of bracket towing hook, so that known security level of construction that has been designed. Research on construction of the strength bracket towing hook need to be considered and carried out, where the stress caused by load about them should not exceed the maximum limit ?yield materials and ?allow based on the rules from the class. The reference to rules used in this research is based on the rules of Bureau Classification Indonesia. Analysis of the strength bracket towing hook construction is done by using finite element methode. The analysis used is a static load analysis to determine the characteristics and location of greatest stress on the construction bracket towing hook based on three variations of loading. Analysis results obtained using finite element methode based program of greatest stress maximum occurs in the condition of the bracket towing hook  with maximum horse power load that is equal to 44,2 N/mm2 where the most critical area occurs at node 457 which is located at frame number 23 lengthwise section and stiffener number 7 cross section. This stress is still in a safe condition because after compared with material ?yield of 400 N/mm2 and ?allow based BKI rules of 178,12 N/mm2 produce safety factor value of 9,05 and 4,03

  11. Shear bond strength of metallic brackets photo-activated with light-emitting diode (LED) at different exposure times

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Emanuel Braga, Rêgo; Fábio Lourenço, Romano.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of orthodontic metallic brackets photo-activated with two different light-curing sources at different exposure times: halogen light (XL 1500, 3M ESPE) and LED light (Ortholux, 3M Unitek). Sixty bovine permanent lower incisors were inse [...] rted into PVC tubes containing plaster. The buccal surfaces were cleaned with pumice and water, and then etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel. The XT Primer bonding agent (3M Unitek) was applied to the enamel surfaces and the metallic pre-coated brackets (Transbond APC II system, 3M Unitek) were attached to upper central incisors. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=15). In Group I (Control), halogen light was used for 40 seconds, while in Groups II, III, and IV were light-cured with LED light unit for 40, 10, and 5 seconds, respectively. The teeth were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The brackets were submitted to shear bond strength test in universal testing machine (Instron) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Shear bond strength means (MPa) were 4.87 for Group I; 5.89 for Group II; 4.83 for Group III, and 4.39 for Group IV. Tukey's test detected no statistically significant differences among the groups regarding the shear bond strength (p>0.05). Neither of the types of light-curing sources or exposure times influenced the shear bond strength of metallic brackets.

  12. Long -term antibacterial properties of fluoride-releasing orthodontic bonding adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, F?rat; Toy, Ebubekir; Arslan, Ugur; Hatunoglu, Erdem; Aksakalli, Sertac

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare antibacterial properties of 3 different fluoride-releasing orthodontic adhesives during three months by using the direct contact test (DCT). Materials and Methods: The materials tested in the present study were Transbond Plus (3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA), Light Bond (Reliance Ortho Prod. Inc. Itasca, IL, USA), and Kurasper F (Kuraray Medical Inc., Okayama, Japan). Eight specimens of each material type were prepared for estimation. For the DCT, w...

  13. Influence of anatomical barriers on maxillary incisor root resorption after orthodontic treatment with premolar extractions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Geraldo de, Oliveira; Fabiana Guilhermina Ferreira, Castro.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Apical root resorption is a frequent and occasionally critical problem in orthodontic patients undergoing induced tooth movement. One of the factors that might influence prognosis, especially in maxillary incisors, which most frequently present resorptions, are the so-called the anatom [...] ical barriers; that is, proximity of the buccal and palatal cortical bones to the maxillary incisor roots. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate whether patients with excessive vertical growth really present a small distance between the alveolar cortical bones and the maxillary incisor roots, and whether there is a correlation between this distance and the root resorption index in comparison with patients presenting horizontal growth. METHODS: The sample comprised orthodontic records of 18 patients with extraction planning of first maxillary premolars and treatment by the standard and/or preadjusted edgewise brackets. Their initial and final periapical radiographs were evaluated to determine the amount of root resorption that occurred. RESULTS: On the palatal side, patients with excessive vertical growth (Group 2 - SN-GoGn > 43º) showed a narrower alveolar bone than the horizontal growth patients (Group 1 - SN-GoGn

  14. The Relationship between Patient, Parent and Orthodontic Treatment Need and Demand in 17-Year-Old Studentsresiding in Abade/Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh Nik, T.; Sh. Nourozi; Mj, Kharazi Fard; Noroozi, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The planning of orthodontic treatment within a public health system requires information on the orthodontic treatment needs of the population. The aims of this study were to assess the student, parent and clinician normative need and demand for orthodon-tic treatment in a sample of Iranian students using the IOTN and to compare the treatment need levels according to sex and socio-economic status of the students and parents in ur-ban and rural areas.Material and Methods: A sample of...

  15. Assessment of surface friction of self-ligating brackets under conditions of angulated traction / Avaliação da fricção superficial apresentada por braquetes autoligáveis em condições de tracionamento sob angulação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta, Buzzoni; Carlos N., Elias; Daniel J., Fernandes; José Augusto M., Miguel.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a fricção apresentada por braquetes autoligáveis de aço inoxidável com sistema passivo de tampa deslizante sob angulação de 0 grau e 2,5 graus, e comparar o comportamento desse grupo sob angulação nula com o de um grupo de braquetes autoligáveis com sistema ativo de tampa resilient [...] e. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 25 braquetes de caninos superiores, divididos em 5 grupos - braquetes autoligáveis passivos Damon SL II sob angulação de 0 grau e de 2,5 graus; braquetes convencionais Gemini amarrados com ligaduras elásticas sob as mesmas angulações; e um grupo formado pelo sistema ativo Time 2, sob angulação nula. A hipótese a ser testada é se artefatos autoligáveis com sistema de tampa passiva são mais efetivos no controle da fricção do que dispositivos contendo coberturas ativas. O tracionamento foi realizado segundo emprego de 25 segmentos de fio de aço inoxidável 0,020" na máquina de ensaios EMIC DL 10000 com célula de carga de 2,0kg. Cada conjunto braquete/fio foi responsável pela geração de quatro corpos de prova, totalizando-se 100 leituras. As comparações entre médias dos valores foram realizadas através da Análise de Variância (one-way ANOVA) com correções pelo coeficiente de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: as médias de fricção encontradas confirmaram a hipótese em teste, de que o sistema de braquetes Damon SL II é mais eficiente no controle do atrito do que o sistema de tampa ativa sob angulação de 0 grau (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess resistance to sliding of stainless steel passive self-ligating brackets with 0° and 2.5° angulations and to compare them to active self-ligating brackets at zero angulation. The hypothesis to be tested was that passive self-ligating brackets produce low [...] er frictional forces than active self-ligating brackets. METHODS: Twenty five 0.022 x 0.028-in slot maxillary canine brackets were divided into 5 groups of 5 brackets: Damon SL II (Ormco, CA, USA) self-ligating bracket and Gemini (3M/Unitek, CA, USA) conventional bracket with angulation of 0 and 2.5° and a group of Speed 2 (American Orthodontics, WI, USA) active clip self-ligating system with zero angulation. Twenty five segments of stainless steel 0.020-in archwire (TP Orthodontics, IN, USA) were tested and each bracket/wire interface was evaluated at 4 successive points during sliding. Overall, 100 frictional values were analyzed by parametric analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Frictional tests were performed with an Emic DL 10000 testing machine (Emic, Brazil) with a load cell of one kilogram. Passive self-ligating brackets produced lower frictional forces than active self-ligating brackets (p

  16. Assessment of surface friction of self-ligating brackets under conditions of angulated traction Avaliação da fricção superficial apresentada por braquetes autoligáveis em condições de tracionamento sob angulação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Buzzoni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess resistance to sliding of stainless steel passive self-ligating brackets with 0° and 2.5° angulations and to compare them to active self-ligating brackets at zero angulation. The hypothesis to be tested was that passive self-ligating brackets produce lower frictional forces than active self-ligating brackets. METHODS: Twenty five 0.022 x 0.028-in slot maxillary canine brackets were divided into 5 groups of 5 brackets: Damon SL II (Ormco, CA, USA self-ligating bracket and Gemini (3M/Unitek, CA, USA conventional bracket with angulation of 0 and 2.5° and a group of Speed 2 (American Orthodontics, WI, USA active clip self-ligating system with zero angulation. Twenty five segments of stainless steel 0.020-in archwire (TP Orthodontics, IN, USA were tested and each bracket/wire interface was evaluated at 4 successive points during sliding. Overall, 100 frictional values were analyzed by parametric analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Frictional tests were performed with an Emic DL 10000 testing machine (Emic, Brazil with a load cell of one kilogram. Passive self-ligating brackets produced lower frictional forces than active self-ligating brackets (p OBJETIVO: avaliar a fricção apresentada por braquetes autoligáveis de aço inoxidável com sistema passivo de tampa deslizante sob angulação de 0 grau e 2,5 graus, e comparar o comportamento desse grupo sob angulação nula com o de um grupo de braquetes autoligáveis com sistema ativo de tampa resiliente. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 25 braquetes de caninos superiores, divididos em 5 grupos - braquetes autoligáveis passivos Damon SL II sob angulação de 0 grau e de 2,5 graus; braquetes convencionais Gemini amarrados com ligaduras elásticas sob as mesmas angulações; e um grupo formado pelo sistema ativo Time 2, sob angulação nula. A hipótese a ser testada é se artefatos autoligáveis com sistema de tampa passiva são mais efetivos no controle da fricção do que dispositivos contendo coberturas ativas. O tracionamento foi realizado segundo emprego de 25 segmentos de fio de aço inoxidável 0,020" na máquina de ensaios EMIC DL 10000 com célula de carga de 2,0kg. Cada conjunto braquete/fio foi responsável pela geração de quatro corpos de prova, totalizando-se 100 leituras. As comparações entre médias dos valores foram realizadas através da Análise de Variância (one-way ANOVA com correções pelo coeficiente de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: as médias de fricção encontradas confirmaram a hipótese em teste, de que o sistema de braquetes Damon SL II é mais eficiente no controle do atrito do que o sistema de tampa ativa sob angulação de 0 grau (p<0,01. Quando submetidos a angulações de 2,5 graus, a fricção aumentou significativamente (p<0,01, porém mantendo-se ainda muito inferior aos patamares evidenciados no grupo de braquetes convencionais amarrados com ligaduras elásticas.

  17. Protocol for absolute anchorage in orthodontics: miniscrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Silva de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchorage is one of the most important points in orthodontic treatment. With the object of reducing the need for cooperation from patients, and enlarge the treatment possibilities, miniscrews have been used as aids in orthodontic treatment, providing the possibility of absolute anchorage. The purpose of this article was to present a clinical protocol in order to facilitate the planning and performance of miniscrew application. When installing miniscrews, there is the transmucous technique, in which perforation is performed directly in the mucosa using a bur, indicated for keratinized mucosa; and the flap technique, in which bone is exposed with the aid of a flap and perforation is made in the bone, indicated in alveolar mucosa. When well planned and performed, miniscrews provide very satisfactory results and are an excellent method of orthodontic anchorage.

  18. Malocclusion Pattern (Angle's) in Mauritian Orthodontic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgesh, B H; Prakash, Prashanth; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Subashchandra Phulari, Basavaraj; Al Kheraif, Abdul Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the pattern of malocclusion in different ethnic group of Mauritian population visiting the Orthodontic Department at Mauras College of Dentistry and Hospital, Republic of Mauritius. The study population comprised of 624 patients who visited the orthodontic department during 2010. The clinical examination was conducted by a well-calibrated orthodontist. The data were recorded in the case sheets and was analyzed for presence of angles class I, class II, and class III malocclusion in both male and female patients of Asian, African, Caucasian, and Chinese ethnicity aged 5-55 years. Malocclusion was found to be high in females compared to males. 414 patients (150 male?+?264 female) presented with class I, 182 patients (52 male?+?130 female) presented with class II, and 28 patients (12 male + 16 female) presented with class III. Asian ethnic group were more affected and patient seeking orthodontic treatment was high in 11-15 years age group. PMID:22655203

  19. Clinical applications of magnets in orthodontics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Papadopoulos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth magnets, especially the samarium-cobalt (SmCo5, Sm2Co17 and neodymium-iron-boron (Nd2Fe14B types, have many applications in orthodontics. They can be used to move teeth, to expand the upper dental arch, to correct Class II and Class III malocclusions combined with functional appliances and to retain the therapeutic results achieved. Although the superiority of treatment results with various magnetic appliances in comparison to the conventional orthodontic appliances is supported by several researchers, this still remains a controversial issue. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss contemporary clinical views and practical applications of magnetic force systems most often used in orthodontic and orthopedic treatment.

  20. Anxiety among adolescents and its affect on orthodontic compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trakyali G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Investigations have suggested that poor compliance could be an indicator of poor relationship with family and could be related to the person?s personality traits. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parents attitude, the anxiety during treatment and self-confidence/self-care of the patient on cooperation during orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The study material consisted of questionnaires completed by 82 adolescent patients and their parents. The patients were divided into two groups of 42 compliant and 40 non-compliant patients. The above-mentioned questionnaries were State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-STAI, Piers-Harris Children?s Self Concept Scale and The Exercise of Self-Care Agency for the patients and Mc Master Family Assessment Device and Parental Attitude Research Instrument-PARI for the parents. Results: The problem solving and caring attitude of the father and his determinative role in the family had a positive infulence on the compliance of the child. The patients who showed better compliance also had a lower state of anxiety, which could also be explained by the positive effect of the attitude of the father in the family. Conclusion: It would be useful to overcome the increased state of anxiety of the child in the orthodontic clinic by using educational and relaxation techniques. Besides, it would be wise to ask the father to be present at the first appointment during part of the education of the child.

  1. Conceptual design for PSP mounting bracket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, G.; Stein, R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Protective structural packages (PSP`s or overpacks) used to ship 2 1/2-ton UF{sub 6} product cylinders are bolted to truck trailers. All bolts penetrate two longitudinal rows of wooden planks. Removal and replacement is required at various intervals for maintenance and routine testing. A conceptual design is presented for mounting brackets which would securely attach PSP`s to trailer frames, reduce removal and replacement time, and minimize risk of personnel injury.

  2. General dentist orthodontic practice in foreign legal systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan Toshio, Maruo; Armando, Saga; Maria da Glória, Colucci; Orlando, Tanaka; Hiroshi, Maruo.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: General dentist orthodontic practice is a controversial issue and this paper aims to analyze it comparing foreign laws to Brazilian Legal System. METHODS: Regulations and scientific texts concerning orthodontic practice by general dentists, in Portuguese or English language, were sought. [...] RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Portugal clearly forbids general dentist orthodontic practice; United States of America do not clearly forbid general dentist orthodontic practice, but do regulate and promote campaigns to encourage public to seek specialist service; in Australia and England, corrective orthodontics are offered both by orthodontists and general dentists; it was not possible to evaluate how orthodontic services are provided in Eastern Europe; and the fact that general dentists are forbidden to practice corrective orthodontics in Brazilian Legal System is compatible to other countries policy.

  3. Ortodoncia y periodoncia Orthodontics and periontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tortolini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El paciente periodontal se puede beneficiar con un tratamiento combinado de ortodoncia y periodoncia, ya que determinados movimientos dentarios como la extrusión, la intrusión, la rotación, el enderezamiento, etc pueden ser favorables para el periodonto enfermo. Lo que es fundamental antes de empezar el tratamiento de ortodoncia de un paciente periodontal es eliminar la inflamación activa de los tejidos.Periodontal patients can benefit from a combined treatment of orthodontics and periodontics, because certain tooth movements as extrusión, intrusion, rotation, straightening, etc. may be favorable for the periodontal patient. Which is essential before starting orthodontic treatment of a periodontal patient is to eliminate active inflammation of the tissues.

  4. Microbial colonization in orthodontic mini-implants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amanda Osório Ayres de, Freitas; Celuta Sales, Alviano; Daniela Sales, Alviano; José Freitas, Siqueira Jr; Lincoln Issamu, Nojima; Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves, Nojima.

    Full Text Available A inflamação peri-implantar contribui para a perda da estabilidade secundária dos mini-implantes ortodônticos. A investigação da colonização microbiana desta área beneficiaria o seu controle e, consequentemente, favoreceria o sucesso dos mini-implantes a longo prazo. Portanto, o objetivo dos autores [...] foi determinar o estabelecimento e evolução do processo de colonização microbiana em mini-implantes ortodônticos por três meses desde a instalação. Cento e cinquenta amostras coletadas de 15 mini-implantes foram investigadas desde o tempo inicial até 3 meses. O material biológico foi obtido da área peri-implantar com auxílio de cones de papel absorvente. As colonizações inespecíficas de Streptococcus spp, Lactobacillus casei e Candida spp foram analisadas por métodos de crescimento celular. A colonização por Porphyromonas gingivalis foi observada por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase 16S rDNA. Os dados do crescimento celular foram submetidos ao teste de Wilcoxon sign rank e os resultados da biologia molecular foram apresentados de modo descritivo. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante da colonização microbiana entre os intervalos de tempo avaliados, exceto para Streptococcus spp entre os tempos inicial e 24 h, o que caracterizou o início da colonização neste intervalo de tempo. As colonizações por Lactobacillus casei e Candida spp foram insignificantes. Não foi detectada a presença de Porphyromonas gingivalis nas amostras analisadas. A colonização microbiana nos mini-implantes não se alterou significativamente durante o estudo. No entanto, deve ser monitorada por ortodontistas, uma vez que é um fator importante para o sucesso dos mini-implantes Abstract in english Peri-implant inflammation contributes for loss of secondary stability of orthodontic mini-implants. The investigation of microbial colonization in this area would benefit its control, and consequently favor the long-term success of mini-implants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the [...] establishment and the evolution of microbial colonization process in orthodontic mini-implants for 3 months, since the time of their installation. One-hundred and fifty samples collected from 15 mini-implants were investigated from baseline up to 3 months. The biological material was obtained from peri-implant area using paper points. Nonspecific, Streptococcus spp, Lactobacillus casei and Candida spp colonizations were analyzed by cell growth methods. Porphyromonas gingivalis colonization was observed by 16S rDNA-directed polymerase chain reaction. Data from cell growth were submitted to the Wilcoxon sign rank test and results from molecular analysis were presented in a descriptive way. There was no significant difference in the microbial colonization among the examined time intervals, except for Streptococcus spp, between baseline and 24 h, which characterized the initial colonization in this time interval. Lactobacillus casei and Candida spp colonizations were insignificant. No Porphyromonas gingivalis was detected among the analyzed samples. The microbial colonization of mini-implants did not significantly change during the study. However, it should be monitored by orthodontists, since it is an important factor for mini-implants success.

  5. Effects of silica coating and silane surface conditioning on the bond strength of rebonded metal and ceramic brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet Atsü

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tribochemical silica coating and silane surface conditioning on the bond strength of rebonded metal and ceramic brackets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty debonded metal and 20 debonded ceramic brackets were randomly assigned to receive one of the following surface treatments (n=10 for each group: (1 sandblasting (control; (2 tribochemical silica coating combined with silane. Brackets were rebonded to the enamel surface on the labial and lingual sides of premolars with a light-polymerized resin composite. All specimens were stored in distilled water for 1 week and then thermocycled (5,000 cycles between 5-55ºC. Shear bond strength values were measured using a universal testing machine. Student's t-test was used to compare the data (?=0.05. Failure mode was assessed using a stereomicroscope, and the treated and non-treated bracket surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Rebonded ceramic brackets treated with silica coating followed by silanization had significantly greater bond strength values (17.7±4.4 MPa than the sandblasting group (2.4±0.8 MPa, P<0.001. No significant difference was observed between the rebonded metal brackets treated with silica coating with silanization (15±3.9 MPa and the sandblasted brackets (13.6±3.9 MPa. Treated rebonded ceramic specimens primarily exhibited cohesive failure in resin and adhesive failure at the enamel-adhesive interface. CONCLUSIONS: In comparison to sandblasting, silica coating with aluminum trioxide particles followed by silanization resulted in higher bond strengths of rebonded ceramic brackets.

  6. Avaliação do atrito em braquetes autoligáveis submetidos à mecânica de deslizamento: um estudo in vitro / Evaluation of friction in self-ligating brackets subjected to sliding mechanics: an in vitro study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana Ribeiro, Pacheco; Dauro Douglas, Oliveira; Perrin, Smith Neto; Wellington Correa, Jansen.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: o atrito gerado na interface braquete/fio durante a mecânica de deslizamento pode reduzir a eficiência da movimentação ortodôntica. O método de ligação do fio ao braquete exerce importante papel na determinação desse atrito. MÉTODOS: o presente estudo comparou a força de atrito gerada po [...] r quatro tipos de braquetes autoligáveis (Time®; Damon 2®; In-Ovation R® e Smart Clip®) com um grupo de braquetes ortodônticos convencionais (Dynalock®) associados a ligaduras elásticas tradicionais (Dispens-A-Stix®), que serviu como grupo controle. A força de atrito estático foi mensurada através da máquina universal de ensaios EMIC® DL 500 com dois fios de aço inoxidável com secção transversal 0,018" e 0,017" x 0,025". RESULTADOS: a análise de variância ANOVA e o teste de Tukey mostraram baixos níveis de atrito nos quatro braquetes autoligáveis associados ao fio 0,018" (P Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface during sliding mechanics can reduce the efficiency of orthodontic movement. The ligation method employed to tie the archwire to the bracket plays an important role in determining this friction. METHODS: This study compared the fricti [...] onal force generated by four different types of self-ligating brackets (Time™, Damon 2™, In-Ovation R™ and Smart Clip™) with a group of conventional orthodontic brackets (Dynalock™) that require the use of traditional elastomeric ligatures (ExDispens-A-Stix™), which served as the control group. Static friction force was measured using an EMIC DL™ 500 universal testing machine using stainless steel round 0.018-in and rectangular 0.017x0.025-in archwires. RESULTS: ANOVA and Tukey's test showed low levels of friction in the four self-ligating brackets in tests with the 0.018-in wire (P

  7. Effect of Low Llevel Therapy on Orthodontic Movement in Human

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    Hosseini MH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Lasers with different characteristics have been used to stimulate orthodontic tooth movement. Considering the contradictory findings in this regard, this study was designed to assess the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement.Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 12 patients (4 boys and 8 girls; average age:16.9 ± 3.4 with extracted upper first premolars and required canine retraction into extraction site were included. While in both sides canines were retracted by NiTi coil spring, one side was exposed to GaAlAs laser (890 nm. LLLT was done (on the buccal and palatal mucosa by slow movement of probe at the beginning of the first month. Impression and cast fabrication performed at the beginning of retraction, one and two months later. The amount of retraction on the cast was measured with the aid of a reference plaque fabricated on the rogae using a digital caliper. Data were analyzed using paired sample T-test and one-sample Kolmogorov-Simirnov test. Results: There was no significant difference in the amounts of canine movement between laser exposed and control sides (P>0.05. Conclusion: The energy dose of laser used in this study (72 J per each tooth was not appropriate for increasing dental movement.

  8. Three-dimensional analysis of an orthodontic delta spring

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio Rodrigo Mandello, Rodrigues; Paulo César, Borges; Marco Antônio, Luersen; Marcelo do Amaral, Ferreira.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to analyze the force system, moment-force ratios (M/F) and von Mises stresses in an orthodontic delta spring using a 3D finite element model. The M/F ratio produced by an orthodontic spring is related to the different types of tooth movement that are likel [...] y to occur in the sagittal and occlusal planes. METHODS: Analyses were performed using a 3D finite element model, and a data acquisition system was used to validate the numerical results. RESULTS: Reactive forces between 0.0 and 2.0 N were observed along the x-axis, while null values were observed along the y- and z-axes. The maximum activation that ensured geometric stability and mechanical stresses below the elastic limit of the material was 10.0 mm. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that a delta spring can provide (i) uncontrolled tipping for activation of less than 1.0 mm; (ii) controlled counterclockwise tipping for activation between 1.0 and 4.5 mm; (iii) translation for activation between 4.5 and 5.0 mm; and (iv) controlled clockwise tipping in the sagittal plane for activation between 5.0 and 10.0 mm. No tooth movement was observed in the occlusal plane for the M/F ratios observed.

  9. Orthodontic treatment plan changed by 3D images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical application of CBCT is most often enforced in dental phenomenon of impacted teeth, hyperodontia, transposition, ankyloses or root resorption and other pathologies in the maxillofacial area. The goal, we put ourselves, is to show how the information from 3D images changes the protocol of the orthodontic treatment. The material, we presented six our clinical cases and the change in the plan of the treatment, which has used after analyzing the information carried on the three planes of CBCT. These cases are casuistic in the orthodontic practice and require individual approach to each of them during their analysis and decision taken. The discussion made by us is in line with reveal of the impacted teeth, where we need to evaluate their vertical depth and mediodistal ratios with the bond structures. At patients with hyperodontia, the assessment is of outmost importance to decide which of the teeth to be extracted and which one to be arranged into the dental arch. The conclusion we make is that diagnostic information is essential for decisions about treatment plan. The exact graphs will lead to better treatment plan and more predictable results. (authors) Key words: CBCT. IMPACTED CANINES. HYPERODONTIA. TRANSPOSITION

  10. Biocompatibility of orthodontic adhesives in rat subcutaneous tissue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Lacerda dos, Santos; Matheus Melo, Pithon; Alline Birra Nolasco, Fernandes; Márcia Grillo, Cabral; Antônio Carlos de Oliveira, Ruellas.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to verify the hypothesis that no difference in biocompatibility exists between different orthodontic adhesives. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were used in this study and divided into five groups (n=6): Group 1 (control, disti [...] lled water), Group 2 (Concise), Group 3 (Xeno III), Group 4 (Transbond XT), and Group 5 (Transbond plus Self-Etching Primer). Two cavities were performed in the subcutaneous dorsum of each animal to place a polyvinyl sponge soaked with 2 drops of the respective adhesive in each surgical loci. Two animals of each group were sacrificed after 7, 15, and 30 days, and their tissues were analyzed by using an optical microscope. RESULTS: At day 7, Groups 3 (Transbond XT) and 4 (Xeno III) showed intense mono- and polymorphonuclear inflammatory infiltrate with no differences between them, whereas Groups 1 (control) and 2 (Concise) showed moderate mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. At day 15, severe inflammation was observed in Group 3 (Transbond XT) compared to other groups. At day 30, the same group showed a more expressive mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate compared to other groups. CONCLUSION: Among the orthodontic adhesive analyzed, it may be concluded that Transbond XT exhibited the worst biocompatibility. However, one cannot interpret the specificity of the data generated in vivo animal models as a human response.

  11. Biological aspects of the use of permanent magnets and static magnetic fields in Orthodontics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Papadopoulos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to address the possible biologic effects of the use of permanent magnets and static magnetic fields in orthodontics. In recent decades, the development of new, small and highly effective rare earth magnets, producing static magnetic fields, as well as their potential for multiple applications in orthodontics have significantly increased the interest in their use. The influence of static magnetic fields on osteoblastic activity and orthodontic movement still remains an issue requiring further investigation. The author examined the effect of static magnetic fields on osteoblastic cell cultures under the influence magnetic fields with an intensity of 178 mT (miliTesla, produced by neodymium-iron-boron (Ne2Fe14B magnets. The results of this in vitro study, did not show any influence of static magnetic fields on osteoblastic activity. Today, it is well known that static magnetic fields produced by small, permanent, rare earth magnets used in orthodontics have no harmful effect on tissues or cells. It seems that the better or quicker therapeutic results achieved by some researchers with permanent magnets, are due more to the biomechanical properties of some magnetic systems and less to the biologic effects of magnetic fields. When used in clinical practice, permanent magnets should be plated with biocompatible materials in order to avoid corrosion and toxicity.

  12. Clinical evaluation of periodontal health during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H?n?oiu T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fixed orthodontic appliances make daily application of oral hygiene standard procedures more difficult and in time may lead to accumulation of oral biofilms and development of gingivitis and hyperplasia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the periodontal health expressed by clinical indices in patients under orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, according to different oral hygene maintenance programs. Material and method: We performed a randomized prospective study on 60 patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (17-25 years of age devided in three study groups. The clnical indices recorded were: modified gingival index, plaque index and sulcular bleeding index. Statistical analysis or the results were carried out using Student t test. Results: The patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A-patients were instructed to use electric brush, water flosser and interdental brush, group B- electric brush, interdental brush and fluoride and group C- manual brushing and fluoride. Statistical comparison of the values of the indexes with the Student t test for independent samples showed statistically significant differences in all three groups of patients studied between initial and final values of all recorded clinical parameters. Conclusions: Fixed orthodontics do not induce periodontal disease if basic principles of oral hygiene are followed in compliant patients, which are correctly instructed to deal with real challenge, represented by complete elimination of debris and bacterial accumulation.

  13. Peierls brackets in non-Lagrangian field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, A. A.

    2014-10-01

    The concept of Lagrange structure allows one to systematically quantize the Lagrangian and non-Lagrangian dynamics within the path-integral approach. In this paper, I show that any Lagrange structure gives rise to a covariant Poisson bracket on the space of solutions to the classical equations of motion, be they Lagrangian or not. The bracket generalize the well-known Peierls' bracket construction and make a bridge between the path-integral and the deformation quantization of non-Lagrangian dynamics.

  14. Peierls brackets in non-Lagrangian field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The concept of Lagrange structure allows one to systematically quantize the Lagrangian and non-Lagrangian dynamics within the path-integral approach. In this paper, I show that any Lagrange structure gives rise to a covariant Poisson brackets on the space of solutions to the classical equations of motion, be they Lagrangian or not. The brackets generalize the well-known Peierls' bracket construction and make a bridge between the path-integral and the deformation quantization of non-Lagrangian dynamics.

  15. The Poisson bracket on free null initial data for gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenberger, Michael P

    2008-11-21

    Free initial data for general relativity on a pair of intersecting null hypersurfaces are well known, but the lack of Poisson brackets and concerns about caustics have stymied the development of a constraint free canonical theory. Here it is pointed out how caustics and generator crossings can be neatly avoided and Poisson brackets on free data are given. On sufficiently regular functions of the solution spacetime geometry these brackets match the Poisson brackets defined on such functions by the Hilbert action via Peierls' prescription. The symplectic 2-form is also given in terms of free data. PMID:19113400

  16. Consequences of enamel preparation with sodium hypochlorite, polyacrylic and phosphoric acids for the bonding of brackets with resin-modified glass ionomer cements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra Marques, Trindade; Tatiana Bahia Junqueira, Pereira; Perrin, Smith Neto; Martinho Campolina Rebello, Horta; Matheus Melo, Pithon; Emílio, Akaki; Dauro Douglas, Oliveira.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of deproteinization with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) prior to enamel conditioning with 10% polyacrylic acid (PAA) and 35% phosphoric acid (PA) on the bond strength (BS) of brackets bonded with resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). One hu [...] ndred human premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were divided into 5 groups (n = 20 in each group): G1 (control), enamel conditioning with PA, application of adhesive and bonding of brackets with TransbondTM XT composite resin (3M/Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); G2, enamel conditioning with PAA and bonding with RMGIC (Fuji OrthoTM LC, GC America, Alsip, IL, USA); G3, NaOCl-treated enamel, conditioning with PAA and bonding with RMGIC; G4, enamel conditioning with PA and bonding with RMGIC; and G5, NaOCl-treated enamel, conditioning with PA and bonding with RMGIC. Once the brackets were bonded, the teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at room temperature and pressure until being subjected to shear stress in a Universal Mechanical Testing Machine (EMIC® DL 500, São José dos Pinhais, PR, Brazil). The BS value was higher in G1 (17.08 ± 6.39) than in any of the experimental groups (p 0.05), except between G3 (9.86 ± 2.90) and G5 (5.00 ± 2.49). No statistically significant differences were noted between the mean Adhesive Remnant Index values among the evaluated groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The use of NaOCl combined with PAA increased the BS of brackets bonded with RMGIC. The deproteinization of the group treated with PA reduced the shear bond strength of the brackets.

  17. The quaternionic commutator bracket and its implications

    CERN Document Server

    Arbab, Arbab I

    2014-01-01

    A quaternionic commutator bracket for position and momentum shows that the quaternionic wave function, \\emph{viz.} $\\widetilde{\\psi}=(\\frac{i}{c}\\,\\psi_0\\,,\\vec{\\psi})$, represents a state of a particle with orbital angular momentum, $L=3\\,\\hbar$, resulting from the internal structure of the particle. This angular momentum can be attributed to spin of the particle. The vector $\\vec{\\psi}$, points along the direction of $\\vec{L}$. When a charged particle is placed in an electromagnetic fields the interaction energy reveals that the magnetic moments interact with the electric and magnetic fields giving rise to terms similar to Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher effects.

  18. From Peierls brackets to a generalized Moyal bracket for type-I gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, G; Esposito, Giampiero; Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2006-01-01

    In the space-of-histories approach to gauge fields and their quantization, the Maxwell, Yang--Mills and gravitational field are well known to share the property of being type-I theories, i.e. Lie brackets of the vector fields which leave the action functional invariant are linear combinations of such vector fields, with coefficients of linear combination given by structure constants. The corresponding gauge-field operator in the functional integral for the in-out amplitude is an invertible second-order differential operator. For such an operator, we consider advanced and retarded Green functions giving rise to a Peierls bracket among group-invariant functionals. Our Peierls bracket is a Poisson bracket on the space of all group-invariant functionals in two cases only: either the gauge-fixing is arbitrary but the gauge fields lie on the dynamical sub-space; or the gauge-fixing is a linear functional of gauge fields, which are generic points of the space of histories. In both cases, the resulting Peierls bracke...

  19. Treatment of Longitudinal Epiphyseal Bracket by Excision and Polymethylmethacrylate Insertion at the Preossified Disease Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Noam; Rozen, Nimrod; Rubin, Guy

    2014-10-23

    Longitudinal epiphyseal bracket is a rare ossification anomaly involving the tubular bones of the hand or foot that have a proximal epiphysis, which becomes deformed as a result of the bracket. Untreated, the deformity becomes worse with age, because longitudinal growth cannot occur. The present report discusses the use of polymethylmethacrylate at the preossified disease stage in 2 patients with first metatarsal involvement. A medical record and radiographic review was performed for 2 children (3 feet), aged 1 year and 2 years and 5 months, who were treated with insertion of polymethylmethacrylate after excision of the aberrant epiphyseal bracket. Two different radiographic parameters (i.e., the intraosseous angulation and the metadiaphyseal length index) were used to measure the effect of treatment on the subsequent longitudinal growth of the metatarsals. An excellent clinical result after a long follow-up period was observed in 2 feet, and a good result was documented in 1 foot, which developed hallux valgus angulation. The use of polymethylmethacrylate as an interposition material after excision of the aberrant metatarsal epiphyseal bracket appeared to be an effective method of treatment during the preossified first stage of the disease, despite the general recommendation to use a cement spacer during the third ossified stage. Normal longitudinal growth of the metatarsals was noted without complications or risk of deformity recurrence. PMID:25441856

  20. Three-D imaging of dental alveolar bone change after fixed orthodontic treatment in patients with periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Gui; Yang, Chi; Fang, Bing; Xia, Yun-Hui; Mao, Li-Xia; Feng, Yi-Miao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to radiographically quantify bone height and bone density in patients with periodontitis after fixed orthodontic treatment using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: A total of 81 patients including 40 patients with chronic periodontitis (group 1) and 41 patients with normal periodontal tissues (group 2) were selected. CBCT scanning for anterior teeth were taken before and after orthodontic treatment. Measurements of bone height and bone density were performed using CBCT software. Results: The group 1 presented a statistically lesser bone density and bone height when compared to group 2 before treatment. There was a significant loss of bone density for both groups after orthodontic treatment, but bone density loss was significantly greater in the group 1. There was no statistically significant bone height change in two groups after treatment. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that orthodontic treatment can preserve bone height but not capable of maintaining bone density, especially for patients with periodontitis. It is indicated that the change of bone density may be more susceptible than that of bone height when radiographically evaluating bone status under this combined periodontal and orthodontic therapy. PMID:25932177

  1. An insight into four orthodontic treatment need indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    2011-11-01

    Occlusal indices have been introduced and used to rank or categorize the occlusion. According to Dr. William Shaw and colleagues (1995), there are five types of occlusal indices, diagnostic, epidemiologic, orthodontic treatment need, orthodontic treatment outcome, and treatment complexity indices. Orthodontic treatment need indices are used to rank the malocclusion. They were devised to minimize the subjectivity associated with the diagnosis, referral and complexity assessment of malocclusion. Some are also multifunctional and used to assess the outcome of orthodontic treatment. The overall aim of the present article is to provide an overview on four commonly used American and European orthodontic treatment need indices, review their modifications, advantages, and limitations. These indices are the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), the Handicapping Labio-Lingual Deviation index (HLD), and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON). PMID:22074838

  2. Risk factors for low molar bite force in adult orthodontic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene Krogh; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to analyse which parameters in a standard orthodontic material are most important for identifying factors for low bite force. Such analyses have not previously been reported in adult orthodontic patients. The sample comprised 95 adults (67 females and 28 males) aged 18-55 years sequentially admitted for conventional orthodontic treatment. All subjects had moderate to severe malocclusions. Bite force was measured by a pressure transducer, craniofacial dimensions and head posture were measured on profile radiographs, number of teeth in contact were evaluated with a plastic strip in intercuspidal position, and symptoms and signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were evaluated by TMD screening. Associations were assessed by Spearman correlations, Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test, and multiple stepwise regression analyses. Associations were found between bite force and craniofacial dimensions as mandibular prognathia (S-N-Pg, P <0.05; S-N-sm, P <0.05), sagittal jaw relationship (SS-N-Pg, P <0.05), mandibular inclination (NSL/ML, P <0.05), and mandibular plane angle (ML/RL, P <0.01) and between bite force and TMD symptoms (P <0.05) and TMD signs (P <0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that gender (P <0.001), TMD symptoms (P <0.01), and mandibular plane angle (P <0.001) were the most important factors for the magnitude of the bite force in adult orthodontic patients (R(2) = 0.32). The results showed that particularly women with TMD symptoms and an increased mandibular plane angle are at risk of having low bite force. This may prove valuable in the clinic, especially in orthodontic cases with an increased need for vertical anchorage during treatment.

  3. Effects of PGI2 and TxA2 analogs and inhibitors in orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurton, Arif Umit; Akin, Erol; Sagdic, Deniz; Olmez, Huseyin

    2004-08-01

    This study evaluates the effects of prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) in orthodontic tooth movement and osteoclastic activity in rats. The study sample consisted of 150 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into five equal groups, and each group was again equally divided into three subgroups (SGs). Twenty grams of reciprocal force was applied to maxillary incisors of the rats with a spring bent from 0.35 mm stainless steel wire, except for the rats in the last SG. Iloprost (PGI2 analog), indomethacin (PGI2 inhibitor), U 46619 (TxA2 analog), and imidazole (TxA2 inhibitor) were dissolved in 0.9% NaCl (saline solution), and each material was prepared in three different concentrations (10(-4), 10(-5), and 10(-6) M/L). Iloprost was administered (20 microL/12 hours) in the first three SGs with the sequence of 10(-4), 10(-5), and 10(-6) M/L. Indomethacin, U 46619, and imidazole were administered in the next nine SGs with the same sequence and dose. In SG 13, 0.9% NaCl solution was administered (20 microL/ 12 hours) to the rats together with orthodontic force. Only orthodontic force was not used in SG 14, and neither any solution nor orthodontic force was used in the last SG. The rats were sacrificed on the fifth day of the experiment, premaxillae were dissected, and cross samples were taken. The results showed that PGI2 and TxA2 analogs increased the number of multinuclear osteoclasts, osteoclastic bone resorption, and rate of orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:15387032

  4. Dentoalveolar mandibular changes with self-ligating versus conventional bracket systems: A CBCT and dental cast study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcio Rodrigues de, Almeida; Cristina, Futagami; Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira, Conti; Paula Vanessa Pedron, Oltramari-Navarro; Ricardo de Lima, Navarro.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar as alterações dentoalveolares transversais e a espessura óssea da arcada inferior em pacientes submetidos ao tratamento ortodôntico utilizando sistemas de braquetes autoligáveis ou convencionais. MÉTODOS: uma amostra de 25 pacientes requerendo tr [...] atamento ortodôntico foi recrutada com base no tipo de braquete. No Grupo 1, 13 pacientes foram tratados com braquetes autoligáveis (SLB, slot 0,022"); o Grupo 2 incluiu 12 pacientes, nos quais foram colados braquetes convencionais (CLB, slot 0,022"). Utilizou-se tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico e um programa 3D (Dolphin) para avaliar as alterações pré-tratamento (T1) e 7 meses após o início desse (T2). As medições em modelos de gesso foram realizadas com o auxílio de um paquímetro digital. As diferenças intergrupos, bem como intragrupo, foram analisadas por meio de teste t de Student. Além disso, o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson foi utilizado. RESULTADOS: alterações dentoalveolares significativas foram observadas em ambos os grupos. Entretanto, não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos. Houve uma diminuição da espessura óssea na região posterior e das medidas transversais em ambos os grupos. Não houve uma correlação significativa entre a espessura óssea posterior e a expansão da arcada dentária, em nenhum dos dois sistemas de braquetes utilizados. CONCLUSÕES: comparando-se o uso dos aparelhos autoligáveis e convencionais, concluiu-se que não houve diferenças dentoalveolares significativas quanto à expansão da arcada inferior e quanto à espessura óssea posterior. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare dentoalveolar changes in mandibular arch, regarding transversal measures and buccal bone thickness, in patients undergoing the initial phase of orthodontic treatment with self-ligating or conventional bracket systems. METHODS: A sample of 25 pa [...] tients requiring orthodontic treatment was assessed based on the bracket type. Group 1 comprised 13 patients bonded with 0.022-in self-ligating brackets (SLB). Group 2 included 12 patients bonded with 0.022-in conventional brackets (CLB). Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and a 3D program (Dolphin) assessed changes in transversal width of buccal bone (TWBB) and buccal bone thickness (BBT) before (T1) and 7 months after treatment onset (T2). Measurements on dental casts were performed using a digital caliper. Differences between and within groups were analyzed by Student's t-test; Pearson correlation coefficient was also calculated. RESULTS: Significant mandibular expansion was observed for both groups; however, no significant differences were found between groups. There was significant decrease in mandibular buccal bone thickness and transversal width of buccal bone in both groups. There was no significant correlation between buccal bone thickness and dental arch expansion. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant differences between self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets systems regarding mandibular arch expansion and changes in buccal bone thickness or transversal width of buccal bone.

  5. Comparative study of the effect of in vitro and in vivo aging on morphology, microstructure and elemental composition of nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zinelis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Comparative study of microstructure, morphology and elemental composition of archwires retrieved and aged in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHOD: NiTi archwires were retrieved following a 2-month intraoral placement in 20 fully bonded orthodontic patients, whereas another 20 archwires were submerged in a 0.1 M lactic acid solution for the same time period. Morphology was studied with optical and scanning electron microscopy, elemental surface composition and molecular analysis of deposits were studied using X-ray microanalysis and ultra-red spectrometry, respectively; composition of wire mass was studied using fluorescent spectrometry and metal ion release in the aging solution was investigated using atomic emission spectrometry of inductively coupled plasma. RESULTS: Retrieved archwires demonstrated rough surfaces with craters, K and Na deposits, localized formations of Ca-P crystals and absorption of proteins and alcohols, in contrast to archwires aged in vitro which presented a slight increase in roughness. The microstructure of retrieved wires demonstrated localized crystal network destruction of the martensitic formations, probably due to loads developing during wire engagement in the bracket slot; on the other hand, wires aged in vitro showed no change. Nickel wire content ranged from 47% to 53%. The aging solution showed higher ferrum concentration resulting from the manufacturing process and attributed to higher ferrum solubility in relation to other alloy elements; nickel and titanium were in the order of one hundredth ppm. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that in vitro aging of NiTi archwires is not comparable to their clinical aging. As a result, application of this process does not provide any clinically valuable information.

  6. Referent geometric entities in orthodontics on 3D models

    OpenAIRE

    Majstorovi? Nemanja V.; Ma?uži? Jelena; Gliši? Branislav

    2014-01-01

    3D modeling is often used in orthodontics. Most commonly used software today is problem- oriented CAD system (OrthoCAD and others), as well as general CAD software for engineering modeling. Both methods require definition and use of various geometric entities to describe and monitor orthodontic status, but still there have been more than one approach to definition of geometric entities that characterize orthodontic parameters. The aim of this study was to d...

  7. Mechanisms of Tooth Eruption and Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, G.E.; King, G. J.(University of Victoria, V8W 3P6, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada)

    2008-01-01

    Teeth move through alveolar bone, whether through the normal process of tooth eruption or by strains generated by orthodontic appliances. Both eruption and orthodontics accomplish this feat through similar fundamental biological processes, osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis, but there are differences that make their mechanisms unique. A better appreciation of the molecular and cellular events that regulate osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis in eruption and orthodontics is not only central t...

  8. The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nimeri G; Kau CH; Corona R; Shelly J

    2014-01-01

    Ghada Nimeri, Chung H Kau, Rachel Corona, Jeffery Shelly Department of Orthodontics, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of...

  9. Assessment of the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements for orthodontic cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel M. Farret

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mechanical properties of three glass ionomers cements (GICs used for band cementation in Orthodontics. METHODS: Two conventional glass ionomers (Ketac Cem Easy mix/3M-ESPE and Meron/Voco and one resin modified glass ionomer (Multi-cure Glass ionomer/3M-Unitek were selected. For the compressive strength and diametral tensile strength tests, 12 specimens were made of each material. For the microhardness test 15 specimens were made of each material and for the shear bond strength tests 45 bovine permanent incisors were used mounted in a self-cure acrylic resin. Then, band segments with a welded bracket were cemented on the buccal surface of the crowns. For the mechanical tests of compressive and diametral tensile strength and shear bond strength a universal testing machine was used with a crosshead speed of 1,0 mm/min and for the Vickers microhardness analysis tests a Microdurometer was used with 200 g of load during 15 seconds. The results were submitted to statistical analysis through ANOVA complemented by Tukey's test at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The results shown that the Multi-Cure Glass Ionomer presented higher diametral tensile strength (p OBJETIVO: avaliar as propriedades mecânicas de três cimentos de ionômero de vidro (CIVs utilizados para cimentação de anéis ortodônticos. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados dois CIVs convencionais (Ketac Cem Easy mix/3M-ESPE e Meron/Voco e um CIV modificado por resina (Multi-Cure Glass ionomer/3M-Unitek. Para os testes de resistência à compressão e tração diametral, foram confeccionados 12 corpos de prova de cada material. Para os testes de microdureza, foram confeccionados 15 corpos de prova de cada material; para os testes de resistência de união ao cisalhamento, foram utilizados 45 dentes bovinos incluídos em resina acrílica, sobre os quais foi cimentada uma lâmina de anel ortodôntico com braquete soldado a ela para a realização dos ensaios. Para os testes de compressão, tração diametral e cisalhamento, foi utilizada uma máquina universal de ensaios a uma velocidade de 1mm/min; para os testes de microdureza Vickers, foi utilizado um microdurômetro com 200g de carga durante 15 segundos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística ANOVA, complementada pelo teste de Tukey ao nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que o Multi-Cure Glass Ionomer apresentou resistência à tração diametral significativamente maior (p < 0,01 e maior resistência à compressão (p = 0,08 em relação aos CIVs convencionais. Além disso, o Ketac Cem apresentou microdureza significativamente maior que os demais materiais (p < 0,01. CONCLUSÃO: o CIV modificado por resina apresentou propriedades mecânicas superiores às dos CIVs convencionais, que, por sua vez, apresentaram poucas diferenças entre si.

  10. Derived bracket construction up to homotopy and Schroder numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Uchino, K.

    2012-01-01

    We will introduce the notion of higher derived bracket construction in the category of operads and prove that the higher derived bracket construction of Lie operad is equivalent to the cobar construction of Leibniz operad. The theorem is proved by computing Schroder number.

  11. The method of brackets. Part 2: examples and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Ivan; Victor H. Moll; Straub, Armin

    2010-01-01

    A new heuristic method for the evaluation of definite integrals is presented. This method of brackets has its origin in methods developed for the evaluation of Feynman diagrams. The operational rules are described and the method is illustrated with several examples. The method of brackets reduces the evaluation of a large class of definite integrals to the solution of a linear system of equations.

  12. Definite integrals by the method of brackets. Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Ivan; Victor H. Moll

    2008-01-01

    A new heuristic method for the evaluation of definite integrals is presented. This method of brackets has its origin in methods developed for theevaluation of Feynman diagrams. We describe the operational rules and illustrate the method with several examples. The method of brackets reduces the evaluation of a large class of definite integrals to the solution of a linear system of equations.

  13. In vitro analysis of femtosecond laser as an alternative to acid etching for achieving suitable bond strength of brackets to human enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, M C; Portillo, M; Moreno, P; Montero, J; Castillo-Oyagüe, R; García, A; Albaladejo, A

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of laser irradiation and orthophosphoric acid etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets to enamel. Three groups (n = 20) of extracted premolar teeth were randomly established depending on the laser treatment performed on the buccal surfaces: (1) no laser (control); (2) Er:YAG laser (2,940 nm, 0.8 W, 100 ?s/pulse, 10 Hz) and; (3) Ti:Sapphire laser (795 nm, 1 W, 120 fs/pulse, 1 kHz). Each group was divided into two subgroups according to whether 37%-orthophosphoric acid etching was made after laser irradiation or not. Brackets were randomly luted with Transbond(TM) XT adhesive resin. After 72 h, a SBS test was developed in a universal testing machine (crosshead speed, 0.5 mm/min). Representative specimens from each experimental subgroup were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. Cement residuals remaining on the premolar surfaces were assessed using the adhesive remnant index. ANOVA, post-hoc tests for intergroup comparisons, chi-square test and linear regression were run for data analyses (? = 0.05). After acid etching, SBS values did not differ regardless the laser treatment. When phosphoric acid was not applied, the SBS values of the femtosecond laser group were significantly higher than for the other groups. Femtosecond laser without acid seems to be the most suitable method to improve bond strengths at the bracket/enamel interface, thus avoiding the disadvantages inherent to acid etching. PMID:23483297

  14. A Systematic Review of Individual Motivational Factors in Orthodontic Treatment: Facial Attractiveness as the Main Motivational Factor in Orthodontic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lusine Samsonyanová; Zdenek Broukal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Physical, mental, and social consequences of malocclusion may impact the quality of life. The aim of this review is to describe main factors motivating parents for orthodontic treatment for their children. Methods. A systematic review study design was used to identify articles analyzing different motivational factors in orthodontic treatment appearing in Medline database, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. The search terms used were teasing, motivating factors, orthodontics, malocclusi...

  15. Comparative analysis of standard and computerized profile cephalometric diagnostics in orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Nikoli? Predrag; Nedeljkovi? Nenad; Milutinovi? Jovana

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research was to compare the standard and computerized method of cephalogram analysis. In this research 32 patients visiting Belgrade University School of Dentistry, dept. of orthodontics were involved. Material and Method: This research was based on cephalogram analysis for every patient. All of the cephalograms were analyzed in two ways: 1. standrad method and 2. computerized method using Nemotec Dental Studio NX 2005 software. Results: Additional possibilities and prope...

  16. Influence of exogenous pigmentation on the optical properties of orthodontic elastic ligatures

    OpenAIRE

    Alline Birra Nolasco Fernandes; Alexandre Antonio Ribeiro; Marcus Vinicius Almeida de Araujo; Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the optical properties of orthodontic elastic ligatures under the influence of exogenous pigments contained in the daily diet. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the analysis, colorless (clear) elastic segments (ORTHO Organizers, lot 660625A10) were used as received from the manufacturer, and were divided into 8 groups of 3 segments each. Each group was immersed in 200 mL of a solution containing a determined substance, as follows: distilled water (contr...

  17. Ortodoncia y periodoncia / Orthodontics and periontics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Tortolini; E., Fernández Bodereau.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El paciente periodontal se puede beneficiar con un tratamiento combinado de ortodoncia y periodoncia, ya que determinados movimientos dentarios como la extrusión, la intrusión, la rotación, el enderezamiento, etc pueden ser favorables para el periodonto enfermo. Lo que es fundamental antes de empeza [...] r el tratamiento de ortodoncia de un paciente periodontal es eliminar la inflamación activa de los tejidos. Abstract in english Periodontal patients can benefit from a combined treatment of orthodontics and periodontics, because certain tooth movements as extrusión, intrusion, rotation, straightening, etc. may be favorable for the periodontal patient. Which is essential before starting orthodontic treatment of a periodontal [...] patient is to eliminate active inflammation of the tissues.

  18. Postgraduate training in orthodontics in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anwar Ali; Sandler, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly describes the postgraduate pathways in orthodontics in the United Kingdom. It is hoped that this will assist potential trainees who want to pursue postgraduate training to understand the different career pathways available to them. It may also add to the knowledge of some senior colleagues who can explain these career opportunities to their students, as not all potential trainees will have the opportunity to read this article. In the following pages we will discuss the di...

  19. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Konta, Brigitte; Pfaller, Karin; Frank, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is the...

  20. Adult orthodontics: multi- or interdisciplinary treatment approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of adult patients seen in the orthodontic offices are presenting with an ongoing degeneration caused either by loss of one or more teeth and/or progressing periodontal disease. The treatment of these patients can rarely stand alone and both diagnosis and treatment planning should be a production of a close interaction between orthodontists, periodontists and prosthodontists eventually assisted by gnathologists, implantologists and oral surgeons. The close interaction with the periodontist before and during the treatment cannot be stressed enough. In spite of the conservative approach practiced in many places within periodontology, it should be appreciated that any orthodontic tooth movement involving intrusive components should not be performed in the presence of pathological pockets. New regenerative periodontal treatment procedures have improved the prognosis for treatment of tooth movement even of teeth with vertical defects. The appliances should be selected taking the periodontal status and the eventual metabolic factors into consideration. The importance of the correct biomechanical system has a crucial influence on long-term prognosis for the dentition. Animal experiments carried out on monkeys and dogs have repeatedly demonstrated that it is possible to regain lost attachment even in the case of horizontal bone loss through a carefully conducted combined periodontal- and orthodontic treatment and long-term follow-up have confirmed that the results can be maintained over decennia. Improved understanding of the tissue reaction generated during tooth movement have opened new aspects of tooth movement ‘with bone' and the regeneration of atrophic alveolar processes through tooth movements have created a new basis for major reconstructions. The spectrum of orthodontics has been widened further through the introduction of the skeletal anchorage systems. A result characterized by an ideal occlusion may not be obtainable but the possible treatment goal should be defined and agreed upon between involved colleagues and between the therapeutic team and the patient before initiating the treatment. Cost benefit both in term of time and money required in relation to different alternatives should be discussed.

  1. Class III Malocclusion Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Alves Furquim; Karina Maria Salvatore de Freitas; Guilherme Janson; Luis Fernando Simoneti; Marcos Roberto de Freitas; Daniel Salvatore de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion. She had significant anteroposterior and transverse discrepancies, a concave profile, and strained lip closure. Intraorally, she had a negative overjet of 5?mm and an overbite of 5?mm. The treatment objectives were to correct the malocclusion, and facial esthetic and also return...

  2. Clinicians' Choices in Selecting Orthodontic Archwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Izabella Pop

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the choices made by clinicians in selecting archwires during the initial, intermediate and final stages of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Methods: We carried out a questionnaire-based study at the Orthodontics and Pedodontics Clinic Târgu Mure?, between March 2012 and September 2012. The questionnaires consisted of two parts: the first included questions related to the dimension, alloy used in fabrication, section (round or rectangular and manufacturer of the archwires used by the orthodontists in their orthodontic practice, the second part was concerned with their personal opinion about the physical properties and disadvantages of the archwires. Results: From a total number of 90 distributed questionnaires, 62 were returned. The majority of clinicians are using stainless steel (SS and nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi wires in their fixed orthodontic treatments, very few are using beta-titanium (Beta Ti, copper nickel-titanium (Co- NiTi and esthetic archwires. The preferred dimension seem to be 0.022 inches in the appliance system. Regarding the wire dimensions, 0.014, 0.016 inch wires are mostly used from the round section group and 0.016 × 0.022 inch, 0.017 × 0.025 inch from the rectangular ones. Conclusions: There is a general lack of agreement between the clinicians surveyed regarding the properties of an ideal archwire and the disadvantages of the used wires. The most frequently used alloys seemed to be the SS and NiTi

  3. Facial harmony in orthodontic diagnosis and planning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Batista de, Paiva; Miguel Ferragut, Attizzani; Hiroshi, Miasiro Júnior; José, Rino Neto.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial Harmony is one of the main goals of orthodontic treatment, and it is not always correlated with the attainment of cephalometric objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two groups of subjects presenting a clinically balanced soft tissue profile using cephalometric radiographs. Th [...] irty lateral cephalometric radiographs of white females, divided in two groups, one with excellent facial profile (Group 1), and the other with good facial profile (Group 2) were used. Student's t-test (P?

  4. Orthodontic movement of endodontically treated teeth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Consolaro; Renata Bianco, Consolaro.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Com frequência, há a necessidade de movimentar-se dentes endodonticamente tratados ou ainda em tratamento endodôntico. Para colaborar com a compreensão e fundamentação do assunto, abordaremos: 1) a movimentação ortodôntica em dentes endodonticamente tratados sem lesão periapical; 2) a movimentação o [...] rtodôntica em dentes endodonticamente tratados com lesão periapical inflamatória; e 3) a movimentação ortodôntica em dentes endodonticamente tratados de necrose pulpar asséptica por traumatismo dentário. Em praticamente todas as situações, dentes endodonticamente tratados a serem movimentados ortodonticamente devem ser submetidos a uma avaliação criteriosa, por parte do endodontista, sobre as condições adequadas ou não do tratamento endodôntico. Em seguida, no presente trabalho procurou-se, singelamente, induzir um insight para novas pesquisas clínicas sobre o tema, que possam definitivamente comprovar os conhecimentos obtidos pela inter-relação de conhecimentos em paralelo à prática clínica. Abstract in english Often there is the need of moving teeth endodontically treated or teeth still in endodontic treatment. In order to collaborate with the comprehension and substantiation of the following subjects will be discussed: 1) Orthodontic movement in endodontically treated teeth without periapical lesion, 2) [...] Orthodontic movement in endodontically treated teeth with inflammatory periapical lesion, and 3) Orthodontic movement in teeth endodontically treated due to aseptic pulp necrosis by dental trauma. In practically all situations, endodontically treated teeth to be orthodontically moved must be subjected to a careful evaluation by the endodontist about the conditions, adequate or not, of the endodontic treatment. Then, in this paper it was sought to induce an insight for new clinical researches about the theme that may definitely prove the information obtained by interrelations of information in parallel to clinical practice.

  5. Cytotoxicity of alginate for orthodontic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of three different alginate impression materials for orthodontic use. METHODS: Three different brands of alginate were divided into three groups, namely, Group JCO (Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho, OP (Orthoprint and CO (Cavex Orthotrace. Three control groups were also included: Group C+ (positive control, consisting of detergent Tween 80; Group C- (negative control, consisting of PBS, and Group CC (cell control, consisting of cells not exposed to any material. After manipulating the materials according to the respective manufacturer instructions, samples were made with the use of silicon rings. Then the samples were immersed in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM for 2 minutes. The supernatants were then removed and brought into direct contact with L929 fibroblasts. After exposure to the medium, the cells were incubated for 24 hours. Then 100 µl of 0.01% neutral red dye were added. The cells were incubated again for 3 hours so that the dye could be absorbed. After this 3-hour period, the cells were fixed to perform the viable cell count, using a spectrophotometer (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA at a wavelength of 492 nm. RESULTS: Statistical differences were found when Groups CC and C- were compared with the other experimental groups. Group JCO had the highest cytotoxicity, followed by Groups OP and CO. CONCLUSION: Based on the results obtained in this work, it was concluded that all alginate impression materials are potentially cytotoxic.OBJETIVO: avaliar a citotoxicidade de três diferentes alginatos de uso ortodôntico. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados três diferentes alginatos divididos em três grupos, denominados grupo JCO (Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho, OP (Orthoprint e CO (Carrex Orthotrace. Três grupos controle também participaram: controle + (C+, constituído pelo detergente celular Tween 80; controle - (C- PBS; e controle de célula (CC onde as células não foram expostas a nenhum material. Após manipulação dos materiais, seguindo as orientações do fabricante, foram confeccionados corpos de prova utilizando-se anéis de silicone. Em seguida, esses foram imersos em meio mínimo essencial de Eagle (MEM por 2min, onde, então, procedeu-se à remoção do sobrenadante e à colocação em contato com fibroblastos L929. Após contato com o meio, as células foram incubadas por mais 24h onde, então, foi adicionado o corante vermelho neutro a 0,01%. Passado esse período, foram fixadas e, então, realizada contagem de células viáveis em espectrofotômetro (BioTek, Vermont, EUA em um comprimento de onda de 492nm. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram diferenças estatística entre os grupos CC e C- com os demais. O grupo experimental JCO mostrou-se com maior citotoxicidade, seguido pelos grupso OP e CO. CONCLUSÕES: pode-se concluir, com a realização desse trabalho, que todos os alginatos testados mostraram caráter citotóxico.

  6. Cytotoxicity of alginate for orthodontic use

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matheus Melo, Pithon; Rogério Lacerda dos, Santos; Fernanda Otaviano, Martins; Maria Teresa Villela, Romanos.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a citotoxicidade de três diferentes alginatos de uso ortodôntico. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados três diferentes alginatos divididos em três grupos, denominados grupo JCO (Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho), OP (Orthoprint) e CO (Carrex Orthotrace). Três grupos controle também participaram: contr [...] ole + (C+), constituído pelo detergente celular Tween 80; controle - (C-) PBS; e controle de célula (CC) onde as células não foram expostas a nenhum material. Após manipulação dos materiais, seguindo as orientações do fabricante, foram confeccionados corpos de prova utilizando-se anéis de silicone. Em seguida, esses foram imersos em meio mínimo essencial de Eagle (MEM) por 2min, onde, então, procedeu-se à remoção do sobrenadante e à colocação em contato com fibroblastos L929. Após contato com o meio, as células foram incubadas por mais 24h onde, então, foi adicionado o corante vermelho neutro a 0,01%. Passado esse período, foram fixadas e, então, realizada contagem de células viáveis em espectrofotômetro (BioTek, Vermont, EUA) em um comprimento de onda de 492nm. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram diferenças estatística entre os grupos CC e C- com os demais. O grupo experimental JCO mostrou-se com maior citotoxicidade, seguido pelos grupso OP e CO. CONCLUSÕES: pode-se concluir, com a realização desse trabalho, que todos os alginatos testados mostraram caráter citotóxico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of three different alginate impression materials for orthodontic use. METHODS: Three different brands of alginate were divided into three groups, namely, Group JCO (Jeltrate Chromatic Ortho), OP (Orthoprint) and CO (Cavex Orthotrace). Three control groups were [...] also included: Group C+ (positive control), consisting of detergent Tween 80; Group C- (negative control), consisting of PBS, and Group CC (cell control), consisting of cells not exposed to any material. After manipulating the materials according to the respective manufacturer instructions, samples were made with the use of silicon rings. Then the samples were immersed in Eagle's minimum essential medium (MEM) for 2 minutes. The supernatants were then removed and brought into direct contact with L929 fibroblasts. After exposure to the medium, the cells were incubated for 24 hours. Then 100 µl of 0.01% neutral red dye were added. The cells were incubated again for 3 hours so that the dye could be absorbed. After this 3-hour period, the cells were fixed to perform the viable cell count, using a spectrophotometer (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA) at a wavelength of 492 nm. RESULTS: Statistical differences were found when Groups CC and C- were compared with the other experimental groups. Group JCO had the highest cytotoxicity, followed by Groups OP and CO. CONCLUSION: Based on the results obtained in this work, it was concluded that all alginate impression materials are potentially cytotoxic.

  7. Tensile bond strength of metal bracket bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces with different surface conditionings

    OpenAIRE

    Imani, M.; Sh, Mahmood Hashemi; Rahmati Kamel, M.; Ms, Ahmad Akhoundi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength of metal brackets bonding to glazed ceramic surfaces using three various surface treatments.Materials and Methods: Forty two glazed ceramic disks were assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups the specimens were etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HFA). Subsequently in first group, ceramic primer and adhesive were applied, but in second group a bonding agent alone was used. In third group, specimens...

  8. The Influence of Surface Conditioning of Ceramic Restorations before Metal Bracket Bonding

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Reicheneder; Piero Roemer; Andreas Faltermeier; Peter Proff; Thomas Klinke

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength and Adhesive Remnant Index of four different veneering ceramic materials to metal brackets. Additionally, it should be examined whether it is possible to overcome the etching method using hydrofluoric acid which is noxious. Instead of this treatment, air particle abrasion with 25 µm aluminium trioxide, silane coupling application and etching with 37.0 per cent orthophosphoric acid as pre-treatment procedures of the veneering cerami...

  9. Finite element study on modification of bracket base and its effects on bond strength

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tarulatha R., Shyagali; Deepak P., Bhayya; Chandralekha B., Urs; Shashikala, Subramaniam.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente artigo é analisar a diferença entre as tensões geradas na interface braquete-cemento-dente por meio do teste peel load em bases de braquete de malha simples e dupla e do método de elementos finitos tridimensional. MÉTODOS: foi construído um modelo de elementos finit [...] os do sistema composto pela interface braquete-cemento-dente. Esse modelo consistiu de 40.536 nós e 49.201 elementos finitos. A análise foi feita com a ajuda do programa ANSYS 7.0. Tanto a base de braquete de malha única quanto a de malha dupla sofreram modificações no diâmetro, que variou de 100 a 400µm, progressivamente. O espaço entre os fios das malhas foi mantido a 300µm para o diâmetro de cada fio. O teste peel load foi aplicado ao modelo para investigar as tensões geradas nas diferentes camadas. RESULTADOS: quando comparadas às bases de braquetes de malha simples, as bases de braquetes de malha dupla geraram menos tensão no esmalte dentário. Não foram detectadas diferenças entre as tensões geradas na superfície dos braquetes com bases de malha simples e dupla. Na malha de fios impregnados (MFI), houve um aumento na tensão com o aumento do diâmetro dos fios que compõem a malha. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados revelam que as modificações no desenho do braquete podem aumentar a colagem e, ao mesmo tempo, minimizar os danos causados no esmalte durante o processo de descolagem. Esses fatos podem ser utilizados no desenvolvimento de desenhos de braquetes inovadores, destinados à utilização clínica. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: This article aims to analyze the difference in stresses generated in the bracket-cement-tooth system by means of a peel load in single and double-mesh bracket bases using a three-dimensional finite element computer model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A three-dimensional finite element model of [...] the bracket-cement-tooth system was constructed and consisted of 40,536 bonds and 49,201 finite elements using a commercial mesh generating programmer (ANSYS 7.0). Both single and double-mesh bracket bases were modified by varying the diameter from 100-400 µm progressively, and the spacing between the mesh wires was kept at 300 µm for each diameter of wire. A peel load was applied on the model to study the stresses generated in different layers. RESULTS: In case of double-mesh bracket base, there was reduction in stress generation at the enamel in comparison to single-mesh bracket base. There was no difference in stress generated at the bracket layer between single and double-mesh bracket bases. At the impregnated wire mesh (IWM), layer stresses increased as the wire diameter of the mesh increased. CONCLUSION: Results show that bracket design modification can improve bonding abilities and simultaneously reduce enamel damage while debonding. These facts may be used in bringing about the new innovative bracket designs for clinical use.

  10. The evolution of cephalometric diagnosis in Orthodontics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurício Barbosa Guerra da, Silva; Eduardo Franzotti, Sant' Anna.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: apesar do desenvolvimento da tomografia computadorizada ter representado um marco na área do diagnóstico por imagem, sua utilização em Odontologia deu-se de forma muito discreta ao longo dos anos. Com o surgimento de programas para análises de imagens tridimensionais, específicos para Or [...] todontia e Cirurgia Ortognática, uma nova realidade está sendo construída. OBJETIVO: os autores do presente artigo têm o objetivo de informar à sociedade ortodôntica fundamentos sobre imagem radiográfica cefalométrica digital e tomografia computadorizada, discutindo sobre o campo de visão (FOV), doses de radiação, exigências para o uso em Ortodontia e simulações radiográficas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Although the development of CT have represented a landmark in diagnostic imaging, its use in Dentistry turned out very discretely over the years. With the appearance of programs for analysis of three-dimensional images, specific for Orthodontics and Orthognathic surgery, a new reality [...] is being built. OBJECTIVE: The authors of this study aim to inform the orthodontic society of fundamentals about digital cephalometric radiographic image and computed tomography, discussing about: Field of view (FOV), radiation doses, demands for the use in Orthodontics and radiographic simulations.

  11. Computerized analysis of the smile in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Vicente de Moura LOPES

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In most cases the search for orthodontic treatment is related withesthetics cause. Nowadays, a beautiful smile is extremely importantfor the society. Establishing elements for diagnosis and planning,looking at a harmonious and well-balanced smile became an obligation at dentistry offices. The esthetics is evaluated by the outline of the bone tissues and its relation with the soft tissues. A good way to get this evaluation is using photographs. The purpose of this research was to analyze computer standard pictures of the maximum smile, as complement to the orthodontic documentation to help not only in the diagnostic and planning but also in the valuation of obtained results. Standard pictures of the maximum smile were obtained in the natural position of the head. Linear,angular and proportional measures were evaluated through the computerized program (CEFX2001 – CDT. The sample consisted of 28 patients, white, male, age between 19 and 25 years old, with Class I occlusion and no previous orthodontic treatment. The values of the descriptive statistics and error analysis were obtained. The results were compared with the values found in the literature, and the values found at a study using the same computerized program CEFX2001 – CDT, but with female patients. The final results were similar to the values found in the literature and the values found in a study using the same computerized program CEFX2001 – CDT,but with female patients.

  12. Esthetic perception and economic value of orthodontic appliances by lay Brazilian adults

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela, Feu; Fernanda, Catharino; Candice Belchior, Duplat; Jonas, Capelli Junior.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a percepção de brasileiros adultos leigos para diferentes aparelhos ortodônticos e sua influência na valorização econômica do tratamento, considerando o nível socioeconômico, idade e sexo dos avaliadores. MÉTODOS: oito combinações de aparelhos ortodônticos e alinhadores foram coloc [...] adas em um adulto com bom alinhamento dentário, e fotografias frontais foram feitas para compor um álbum de imagens de pesquisa. Uma amostra de adultos (n = 252, mediana = 26 anos) classificou cada imagem por (1) atratividade, em uma escala visual analógica, e (2) disposição a pagar a mais para realizar o tratamento com um aparelho estético em relação a um aparelho metálico e em relação a um alinhador. Comparações da atratividade dos aparelhos foram realizadas utilizando-se o teste de Friedman e o post-hoc de Dann. A correlação entre a valorização econômica, nível socioeconômico, idade, sexo e percepção estética foi calculada com a análise de correlação de Spearman. RESULTADOS: a atratividade dos aparelhos ortodônticos variou significativamente, na seguinte hierarquia: alinhadores > aparelhos de safira > aparelhos metálicos tradicionais e autoligáveis > aparelhos dourados. A correlação entre a atratividade dos aparelhos e a disposição em pagar mais por eles foi fraca. Contudo, ter melhor nível socioeconômico e idade entre 17 e 26 anos aumentou significativamente a disposição de pagar dos avaliadores. CONCLUSÕES: alinhadores e braquetes de safira com fio estético foram considerados as opções de maior atratividade para essa amostra. Entretanto, os avaliadores não estiveram dispostos a pagar a mais para realizar seus tratamentos com os dispositivos que julgaram mais estéticos, sendo, contudo, significativamente influenciados por seu nível socioeconômico e idade. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the esthetic perception of different appliances by Brazilian lay adults and its influence in the attributed value of orthodontic treatment, considering evaluators' socioeconomic status, age and gender. METHODS: Eight different combinations of orthodontic appliances and clear t [...] ray aligners were placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile. Standardized frontal photographs were captured and incorporated into a research album. A sample of adults (n = 252, median = 26 years old) were asked to rate each image for (1) its attractiveness on a visual analog scale and (2) the willingness to pay (WTP) for a cosmetic appliance when compared to a standard metalic appliance and a clear tray aligner. Comparisons between the appliances' attractiveness were performed using the Friedman's test and Dann's post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances' attributed value, socioeconomic status, age, gender, and esthetic perception was assessed using Spearman's correlation analysis. RESULTS: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied significantly in the following hierarchy: Clear aligners>sapphire brackets>self-ligating/conventional stainless steel brackets>and golden metal appliances. The correlation between WTP and esthetic perception was week. However, for individuals with better socioeconomic status and aged between 17-26 years old significantly, a significantly higher WTP was found. CONCLUSION: Clear aligners and sapphire brackets with esthetic archwire were considered better esthetic options in this sample. Nevertheless, patients were not willing to pay more money for appliances they deemed more esthetic, however, they were significantly influenced by their socioeconomic level and age.

  13. Comparación de la Respuesta Biológica generada por un sistema de brackets Convencional y brackets de Autoligado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liseth Wilches Buitrago

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: No existe evidencia científica suficiente que soporte las ventajas del sistema de fuerzas de autoligado sobre el sistema de fuerzas convencional en ortodoncia. El objetivo de esta investigación  fue Comparar la expresión de OPG y RANKL en el ligamento periodontal de dientes sometido a fuerzas ortodóncicas generadas por un sistema de brackets de autoligado y un sistema convencional. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizó  la expresión de OPG y RANKL mediante RT-PCR en el  ligamento periodontal de 40 dientes con indicación de extracción terapéutica para ortodoncia. El grupo experimental estuvo conformado por  diez premolares que recibieron fuerzas con brackets de autoligado durante quince días  y diez premolares recibieron fuerzas  con brackets de arco recto durante 15 días antes de la extracción y 20 premolares sirvieron como grupo control. Los datos fueron analizados mediante la prueba de Kruskal–Wallis. Resultados: RANKL demostró un aumento estadísticamente significativo en el lado de presión de los dientes sometidos a los dos sistemas de fuerzas ortodóncicas. OPG no mostró diferencias entre las zonas o entre los dos sistemas de fuerzas analizados. Conclusiones: No se encontraron diferencias en la expresión de RANKL y OPG  en el ligamento periodontal de dientes movidos con técnica de ortodoncia de autoligado  comparados con los movidos con técnica de arco recto.

  14. Effects of silica coating and silane surface conditioning on the bond strength of rebonded metal and ceramic brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saadet, Atsü; Bülent, Çatalba& #351; ; Ibrahim Erhan, Gelgör.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tribochemical silica coating and silane surface conditioning on the bond strength of rebonded metal and ceramic brackets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty debonded metal and 20 debonded ceramic brackets were randomly assigned to receive one [...] of the following surface treatments (n=10 for each group): (1) sandblasting (control); (2) tribochemical silica coating combined with silane. Brackets were rebonded to the enamel surface on the labial and lingual sides of premolars with a light-polymerized resin composite. All specimens were stored in distilled water for 1 week and then thermocycled (5,000 cycles) between 5-55ºC. Shear bond strength values were measured using a universal testing machine. Student's t-test was used to compare the data (?=0.05). Failure mode was assessed using a stereomicroscope, and the treated and non-treated bracket surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Rebonded ceramic brackets treated with silica coating followed by silanization had significantly greater bond strength values (17.7±4.4 MPa) than the sandblasting group (2.4±0.8 MPa, P

  15. Labio-lingual root control of lower anterior teeth and canines obtained by active and passive self-ligating brackets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Paolo M; Salih, Raaid A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the torque capabilities of passive and active self-ligating (SL) brackets on mandibular incisors and canines using three-dimensional (3D) imaging analysis. Materials and Methods: Two types of SL bracket systems were analyzed: a passive and an active. Both brackets had a 0.022 × 0.028-inch slot size. Treatment protocol and wire sequences were followed as recommended by the manufacturers. Twenty-six patients were included in the passive group and 20 were included in the active group; all received pretreatment and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanning. Based on the CBCT scans, a customized 3D analysis was developed to assess labiolingual inclination of the roots of mandibular canines and incisors with respect to the occlusal plane before and after treatment. Results: Following treatment, a statistically significant labiolingual proclination of the teeth was seen in both groups. Moreover, in both SL systems the roots exhibited a large variation in labiolingual inclination between adjacent teeth even after treatment. Conclusions: A significant proclination was seen for the mandibular front teeth; the claimed third-order torque control of SL systems could not be demonstrated. Therefore, a considerable play between the wire and the brackets could be hypothesized, even more in relation to the passive than the active SL brackets.

  16. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn [Dept. of Dentistry, Overbrook Hospital, Chiang Rai (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus [Dept. of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39{+-}1.27 (8.24{+-}7.22%) and 1.69{+-}1.14 mm (10.16{+-}6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  17. Orthodontics Without Braces and Wires!! ....... A New Paradigm.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasu Murthy S; Vijay

    2011-01-01

    The very need of orthodontic treatment by a majority of patients is often for reasons of enhancement or improvement in dental alignment and facial esthetics. Reluctance for use of labial fixed metallic appliances is due to poor esthetics and fear of pain. Clear plastic aligners offer an excellent alternative to esthetic orthodontic treatment especially for young adults in their permanent dentition.

  18. Orthodontics Without Braces and Wires!! ....... A New Paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasu Murthy S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The very need of orthodontic treatment by a majority of patients is often for reasons of enhancement or improvement in dental alignment and facial esthetics. Reluctance for use of labial fixed metallic appliances is due to poor esthetics and fear of pain. Clear plastic aligners offer an excellent alternative to esthetic orthodontic treatment especially for young adults in their permanent dentition.

  19. The management of traumatic ankylosis during orthodontics: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T G

    2000-01-01

    Dental ankylosis may be a significant complication in orthodontic clinical practice. This case report describes the management of a malocclusion, complicated by an ankylosed maxillary central incisor, which arose during orthodontic treatment, following an acute traumatic injury. The use of the ankylosed incisor in successfully managing the significant Class II division 1 malocclusion is described.

  20. Assessment of torque angle of brackets from different brands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anelisa dos, Anjos; Daniela Daufenback, Pompeo; Gilson José Enricone dos, Anjos; Gustavo Mussi Stefan, Oliveira; Henrique Damian, Rosário.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To measure torque angle values of brackets designed for canines, comparing it to their prescription values. METHODS: One hundred and sixty maxillary -2o and mandibular -11o canine brackets of Roth prescription from the following brands were selected: Abzil, Eurodonto, Morelli and Ormco. The br [...] ackets were set in wax and images were obtained by scanning. Reference points were determined over these images, lines drawn and the torque angle was measured. The Student's t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: For maxillary canine brackets, the medium torque angle values were: Abzil -0.93o ± 0.88o; Eurodonto 0.13o ± 0.34o; Morelli -2.56o ± 0.50o, and Ormco -1.16o ± 1.27o. For mandibular canine brackets, the values were: Abzil -11.76o ± 0.40o; Eurodonto -10.40o ± 0.25o; Morelli -11.18o ± 0.56o, and Ormco -11.36o ± 0.30o. For maxillary canine brackets, the brands Abzil, Morelli, and Ormco presented statistically diferente values from those indicated for prescription. For mandibular canine brackets, the brands Abzil, Eurodonto, and Ormco presented statistically different values from the prescribed ones. CONCLUSIONS: Some marketed brands present differences between the torque angle found in the brackets and those recommended in the prescription. However, these differences are clinically acceptable.

  1. Preliminary Process Design of ITER ELM Coil Bracket Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Xiangbin; SHI, Yi

    2015-03-01

    With the technical requirement of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, the manufacture and assembly technology of the mid Edge Localized Modes (ELM) coil was developed by the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ASIPP). As the gap between the bracket and the Stainless Steel jacketed and Mineral Insulated Conductor (SSMIC) can be larger than 0.5 mm instead of 0.01 mm to 0.1 mm as in normal industrial cases, the process of mid ELM coil bracket brazing to the SSMICT becomes quiet challenging, from a technical viewpoint. This paper described the preliminary design of ELM coil bracket brazing to the SSMIC process, the optimal bracket brazing curve and the thermal simulation of the bracket furnace brazing method developed by ANSYS. BAg-6 foil (Bag50Cu34Zn16) plus BAg-1a paste (Bag45CuZnCd) solders were chosen as the brazing filler. By testing an SSMICT prototype, it is shown that the average gap between the bracket and the SSMIC could be controlled to 0.2-0.3 mm, and that there were few voids in the brazing surface. The results also verified that the preliminary design had a favorable heat conducting performance in the bracket.

  2. Calculation of four-particle harmonic-oscillator transformation brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanas, D.; Kalinauskas, R. K.; Mickevi?ius, S.

    2010-02-01

    A procedure for precise calculation of the three- and four-particle harmonic-oscillator (HO) transformation brackets is presented. The analytical expressions of the four-particle HO transformation brackets are given. The computer code for the calculations of HO transformation brackets proves to be quick, efficient and produces results with small numerical uncertainties. Program summaryProgram title: HOTB Catalogue identifier: AEFQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1247 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6659 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 90 Computer: Any computer with FORTRAN 90 compiler Operating system: Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, True64 Unix RAM: 8 MB Classification: 17.17 Nature of problem: Calculation of the three-particle and four-particle harmonic-oscillator transformation brackets. Solution method: The method is based on compact expressions of the three-particle harmonics oscillator brackets, presented in [1] and expressions of the four-particle harmonics oscillator brackets, presented in this paper. Restrictions: The three- and four-particle harmonic-oscillator transformation brackets up to the e=28. Unusual features: Possibility of calculating the four-particle harmonic-oscillator transformation brackets. Running time: Less than one second for the single harmonic-oscillator transformation bracket. References:G.P. Kamuntavi?ius, R.K. Kalinauskas, B.R. Barret, S. Mickevi?ius, D. Germanas, Nuclear Physics A 695 (2001) 191.

  3. Design manual for HANARO in-chimney bracket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a supplementary structure supporting the irradiation facilities, the in-chimney bracket holds guide tubes whose holding position in CT or IR is the middle part of the instrumented facility between the hole spider and the robot arm already provided in the reactor pool liner. Also, the bracket grips the upper part of the guide tubes when it is applied to hold the instrumented facility loaded in OR sites. The irradiation test will be successfully conducted since this bracket reduces the flow-induced vibration (FIV) and the dynamic response to seismic load. The installation position of the bracket is 60 cm below the top of the chimney, i.e., thermo siphoning hole position. To evaluate the structural integrity on the in-chimney bracket and the related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response analyses were performed for the in-chimney bracket and the related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE. The analysis results show that the stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when the in-chimney bracket is installed at the upper part of the reactor chimney. This bracket had been designed and manufactured based on the dimensions of the as-built chimney. In the process of design and preliminary installation, chimney measurement tools, dummy chimney, and installation tools were developed and the installation procedure was prepared and verified through the installation rehearsal

  4. Effect of Different Surface Treatments for Ceramic Bracket Base on Bond Strength of Rebonded Brackets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Monique Kruger, Guarita; Alexa Helena Köhler, Moresca; Estela Maris, Losso; Alexandre, Moro; Ricardo Cesar, Moresca; Gisele Maria, Correr.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito de tratamentos da base de bráquetes cerâmicos monocristalinos na resistência de união ao esmalte após recolagem. Setenta e cinco pré-molares foram selecionados e aleatoriamente distribuídos em 5 grupos (n=15) de acordo com o tratamento da base do bráquete: I [...] - sem tratamento, primeira colagem (controle), II - jateamento com óxido de alumínio, III - jateamento seguido da aplicação de silano, IV - jateamento com partículas de dióxido de sílica (silicatização) seguido de silano, V - silicatização realizada em laboratório (Sistema Rocatec). Os bráquetes foram colados no esmalte com Transbond XT sem condicionamento ácido. Em seguida, os bráquetes foram removidos e suas bases foram submetidas aos diferentes tratamentos. Os bráquetes foram recolados, armazenados por 24 h e submetidos ao ensaio mecânico de cisalhamento com velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Após, o índice de remanescente adesivo (IRA) foi avaliado em cada espécime. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey (?=0,05). Pode-se observar que houve diferença significativa apenas entre o sistema Rocatec e os demais grupos, o qual apresentou os menores valores de resistência. Os maiores valores de resistência foram observados para o grupo I (controle), sem diferença significativa dos grupos II, III e IV. A maioria dos grupos apresentou maior porcentagem de falhas na interface esmalte/resina (escore 1). Pode-se concluir que os tratamentos da base do bráquete cerâmico foram efetivos, apresentando valores similares ao grupo controle, exceto para o grupo em que foi usado Rocatec. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of rebonded ceramic brackets after subjecting the bracket base to different treatments. Seventy-five premolars were selected and randomly distributed into five groups (n=15), according to the type of the bracket surface treatment: I, no t [...] reatment, first bonding (control); II, sandblasting with aluminum oxide; III, sandblasting + silane; IV, silica coating + silane; and V, silicatization performed in a laboratory (Rocatec system). The brackets were fixed on an enamel surface with Transbond XT resin without acid etching. The brackets were then removed and their bases were subjected to different treatments. Thereafter, the brackets were fixed again to the enamel surface and the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) test. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) was then evaluated for each specimen. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests (?=0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed only between Rocatec and the other groups; the Rocatec group showed the lowest SBS values. The highest SBS values were observed for group 1, without any significant difference from the values for groups II, III and IV. Most groups had a higher percentage of failures at the enamel-resin interface (score 1). It was concluded that the surface treatments of rebonded ceramic brackets were effective, with SBS values similar to that of the control group, except Rocatec group.

  5. The role of hypoxia in orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, A; Proff, P; Gosau, M; Römer, P

    2013-01-01

    Orthodontic forces are known to have various effects on the alveolar process, such as cell deformation, inflammation, and circulatory disturbances. Each of these conditions affecting cell differentiation, cell repair, and cell migration, is driven by numerous molecular and inflammatory mediators. As a result, bone remodeling is induced, facilitating orthodontic tooth movement. However, orthodontic forces not only have cellular effects but also induce vascular changes. Orthodontic forces are known to occlude periodontal ligament vessels on the pressure side of the dental root, decreasing the blood perfusion of the tissue. This condition is accompanied by hypoxia, which is known to either affect cell proliferation or induce apoptosis, depending on the oxygen gradient. Because upregulated tissue proliferation rates are often accompanied by angiogenesis, hypoxia may be assumed to fundamentally contribute to bone remodeling processes during orthodontic treatment. PMID:24228034

  6. Geometric Poisson brackets on Grassmannians and conformal spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Beffa, G. Mari; Eastwood, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we relate the geometric Poisson brackets on the Grassmannian of 2-planes in R^4 and on the (2,2) Moebius sphere. We show that, when written in terms of local moving frames, the geometric Poisson bracket on the Moebius sphere does not restrict to the space of differential invariants of Schwarzian type. But when the concept of conformal natural frame is transported from the conformal sphere into the Grassmannian, and the Poisson bracket is written in terms of the...

  7. Tax bracket creep and its effects on income distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Heer, Burkhard; Su?ssmuth, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    We quantitatively analyze the way inflation alters the inequality of the income distribution in the U.S. economy. The main mechanism emphasized in this paper is the bracket creep effect according to which inflation pushes income into higher tax brackets. Governments adjust the nominal income tax brackets slowly and incompletely due to the rise in prices. In the U.S. postwar history, this typically happens less often than once every other tax year. In the first part of the paper, we study time...

  8. Longitudinal changes in microbiology and clinical periodontal parameters after removal of fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastel, Jan; Quirynen, Marc; Teughels, Wim; Coucke, Wim; Carels, Carine

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to monitor patients' microbiological and clinical parameters from bracket placement up to 3 months post-treatment. Twenty-four patients (10 males and 14 females, aged 14.6 ± 1.0 years) were included in this investigation. Microbiology (sub- and supragingival), periodontal probing depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) flow were assessed at baseline (T1), at bracket removal (T2), and 3 months post-treatment (T3). A statistical comparison was made over time and between the banded, bonded, and control sites. Repeated measurements on patients were taken into account by modelling the patients as a random factor. Except for PPD and BOP, values were log-transformed before analysis. Corrections for simultaneous hypothesis testing were performed via simulation. The results demonstrated that sub- and supragingival colony-forming units ratio (CFU ratio aerobe/anaerobe) decreased significantly (relatively more anaerobes) at T2 compared with T1. Between T2 and T3 no significant increase in CFU ratio was seen, resulting in a significantly lower CFU ratio at T3 compared with T1 for subgingival plaque. The difference concerning supragingival plaque between T3 and T1 was not significant. Clinical parameters PPD, POB, and GCF flow showed a significant increase between T1 and T2. Between T2 and T3 these variables decreased significantly but remained significantly higher than at T1 [except for BOP values at the bonded sites (P = 0.0646)]. Placement of fixed orthodontic appliances has an influence both on microbial and clinical periodontal parameters, which were only partly normalized, 3 months following the removal of the appliances. PMID:20671070

  9. Preventive effect of fluoridated orthodontic resins subjected to high cariogenic challenges

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula, Passalini; Tatiana Kelly da Silva, Fidalgo; Erika Machado, Caldeira; Rogerio, Gleiser; Matilde da Cunha Gonçalves, Nojima; Lucianne Cople, Maia.

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar in vitro o efeito preventivo a cárie de resinas ortodônticas fluoretadas submetidas à ciclagem de pH utilizando dois tipos de saliva desmineralizadora. Bráquetes de incisivos centrais foram colados em 60 incisivos bovinos, utilizando a resina ortodôntica Tra [...] nsbond Plus Color Change (n=30) ou Fill Magic (n=30). Cada grupo foi dividido em 3 subgrupos (n=10): imersão em saliva artificial remineralizante por 14 dias e simulação de alto desafio cariogênico com ciclagem de pH em saliva ácida com pH 5,5 ou pH 4,5. Após 14 dias de ciclagem de pH, o efeito preventivo de cárie foi avaliado por meio da formação de halo de inibição da mancha branca, adotando-se os escores: 0-ausência e 1-presença. Os testes Kruskal Wallis e Man-Whitney (a=0,05) foram aplicados. A formação de lesões de mancha branca foi observada somente na ciclagem de pH com saliva ácida a pH 4,5; sendo o Transbond Plus Color Change significantemente mais efetivo na prevenção ao desenvolvimento de mancha branca quando comparados ao Fill Magic (p Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro caries preventive effect of fluoridated orthodontic resins under pH cycling with two types of acid demineralizing saliva. Brackets were bonded to 60 bovine incisors, using either Transbond Plus Color Change (n=30) or Orthodontic Fill Magic (n [...] =30) orthodontic resins. Each group of resin was divided into 3 subgroups (n=10): immersion in remineralizing artificial saliva for 14 days, pH cycling with high cariogenic challenge in acid saliva with pH 5.5, and acid saliva with pH 4.5. After 14 days of pH cycling, the caries preventive effect on the development of white spot lesion was evaluated considering the presence of inhibition zones to white spot lesions using two scores: 0= absence and 1= presence. Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (a=0.05) were used. Formation of white spot lesions was observed only under pH cycling using acid saliva with pH 4.5; with Transbond Plus Color Change being significantly more effective (p

  10. Temporomandibular disorders and orthodontic treatment need in orthodontically untreated children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špalj, Stjepan; Šlaj, Martina; Athanasiou, Athanasios E; Žak, Irena; Šimunovi?, Martina; Šlaj, Mladen

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and orthodontic treatment need in orthodontically untreated children and adolescents. One thousand five hundred and ninety-seven subjects aged 11-19 years, without previous orthodontic history, from sixteen randomly selected public schools in Zagreb, Croatia, were examined. Malocclusion characteristics were assessed by using the criteria proposed by Bjork et al., the Dental Aesthetic Index, and the Aesthetic Component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Data on TMD signs/symptoms and parafunctional behaviour were obtained by means of questionnaire and clinical examination, respectively. Multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. Twenty-two percent of children and young adolescents had one or more signs of TMD, ranging from 17% in age of 11 years up to 24% in age of 19. There was poor correlation between presence of TMD and orthodontic treatment need. Multiple logistic regression models showed that Class III, crowding and spacing were related to mandibular deflection on opening. Ectopic eruption was related to TMJ clicking, and severely tipped teeth with reduced mouth opening. Headaches presented a positive relationship with reverse overjet and severe rotations, and tooth wear with crowding, spacing and lateral openbite. Age, female gender and parafunctional habits were related to several TMD signs. Although logistic regression models were statistically significant (p < 0.05) malocclusions, parafunctional behaviours, age and gender accounted for less than 20% of the variability in TMD signs/symptoms. TMD signs and symptoms seemed to be poorly related to malocclusions or treatment needs. PMID:26040083

  11. Avaliação do coeficiente de atrito de braquetes metálicos e estéticos com fios de aço inoxidável e beta-titânio / Evaluation of the friction coefficient of metal and esthetic brackets with stainless steel and beta-titanium wires

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristine Pritsch, Braga; Guilherme Drumond, Vanzin; Ernani Menezes, Marchioro; João Carlos P., Beck.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um fator importante que define a eficácia dos aparelhos ortodônticos fixos é o atrito existente entre as superfícies de fios e braquetes. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o coeficiente de atrito estático entre fios de aço inoxidável e beta-titânio (TP Orthodontics) e braquetes de aço [...] inoxidável (Dynalock® - Unitek), braquetes estéticos com slot de aço inoxidável (Clarity® - Unitek) e estéticos convencionais (Allure® - GAC). Para tanto, construiu-se um equipamento no Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Mecatrônica da PUCRS. Antes de serem iniciados os testes, foi quantificado o erro de método e constatou-se que não houve interferência significante (p>0,05) do fator operador nas medições. Então, pôde-se calcular o valor do coeficiente de atrito, obtido pela divisão da força de atrito pela carga normal. O método estatístico utilizado neste estudo foi Análise de Variância (ANOVA) e teste de Comparações Múltiplas (Tukey). Constatou-se que: 1) a combinação com menor coeficiente de atrito foi composta pelo fio de aço inoxidável e braquete Dynalock® e a que apresentou maior coeficiente foi a do braquete Allure® com o fio de beta-titânio; 2) o fio de beta-titânio apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente maior do que o fio de aço inoxidável; 3) o braquete Dynalock® não apresentou diferenças significativas em relação ao coeficiente de atrito do braquete Clarity® quando o fio utilizado foi de beta-titânio. No entanto, quando o fio testado foi de aço inoxidável, apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente menor. O braquete Clarity® apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente menor do que o braquete Allure®. Abstract in english An important factor that defines the effectiveness of the appliances is the friction between the surfaces of wires and brackets. Thus, that study was developed in order to investigate the static friction coefficient between stainless steel and beta-titanium wires (TP Orthodontics) and the stainless [...] steel brackets (Dynalock® - Unitek), esthetic brackets with a stainless steel slot (Clarity® - Unitek) and conventional esthetic brackets (Allure® - GAC). For this purpose, an equipment was built in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics at PUCRS. It should be stressed that before the tests began, the Method Error was quantified and it was found that there was no significant interference (p>0,05) by the factor operating in the measurements. From then, the friction coefficient could be calculated, obtained by dividing friction force by the normal load. The statistic method used in these study was Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Multiple Comparison test (Tukey). It was found that: 1) the combination with the lowest friction coefficient was constituted by the stainless steel wire against the Dynalock® bracket, and the one with the highest friction coefficient was that of the Allure® bracket with the beta-titanium wire; 2) the beta-titanium wire presented a friction coefficient that was significantly higher than the stainless steel wire; 3) the Dynalock® bracket did not present any significant differences in relation to the friction coefficient of the Clarity® bracket when the wire used was of beta-titanium. However, when the wire tested was of stainless steel, the Dynalock® bracket presented a significantly lower friction coefficient. The Clarity® bracket presented a significantly lower friction coefficient than the Allure® bracket.

  12. Avaliação do coeficiente de atrito de braquetes metálicos e estéticos com fios de aço inoxidável e beta-titânio Evaluation of the friction coefficient of metal and esthetic brackets with stainless steel and beta-titanium wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Pritsch Braga

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Um fator importante que define a eficácia dos aparelhos ortodônticos fixos é o atrito existente entre as superfícies de fios e braquetes. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o coeficiente de atrito estático entre fios de aço inoxidável e beta-titânio (TP Orthodontics e braquetes de aço inoxidável (Dynalock® - Unitek, braquetes estéticos com slot de aço inoxidável (Clarity® - Unitek e estéticos convencionais (Allure® - GAC. Para tanto, construiu-se um equipamento no Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Mecatrônica da PUCRS. Antes de serem iniciados os testes, foi quantificado o erro de método e constatou-se que não houve interferência significante (p>0,05 do fator operador nas medições. Então, pôde-se calcular o valor do coeficiente de atrito, obtido pela divisão da força de atrito pela carga normal. O método estatístico utilizado neste estudo foi Análise de Variância (ANOVA e teste de Comparações Múltiplas (Tukey. Constatou-se que: 1 a combinação com menor coeficiente de atrito foi composta pelo fio de aço inoxidável e braquete Dynalock® e a que apresentou maior coeficiente foi a do braquete Allure® com o fio de beta-titânio; 2 o fio de beta-titânio apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente maior do que o fio de aço inoxidável; 3 o braquete Dynalock® não apresentou diferenças significativas em relação ao coeficiente de atrito do braquete Clarity® quando o fio utilizado foi de beta-titânio. No entanto, quando o fio testado foi de aço inoxidável, apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente menor. O braquete Clarity® apresentou coeficiente de atrito significativamente menor do que o braquete Allure®.An important factor that defines the effectiveness of the appliances is the friction between the surfaces of wires and brackets. Thus, that study was developed in order to investigate the static friction coefficient between stainless steel and beta-titanium wires (TP Orthodontics and the stainless steel brackets (Dynalock® - Unitek, esthetic brackets with a stainless steel slot (Clarity® - Unitek and conventional esthetic brackets (Allure® - GAC. For this purpose, an equipment was built in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics at PUCRS. It should be stressed that before the tests began, the Method Error was quantified and it was found that there was no significant interference (p>0,05 by the factor operating in the measurements. From then, the friction coefficient could be calculated, obtained by dividing friction force by the normal load. The statistic method used in these study was Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Multiple Comparison test (Tukey. It was found that: 1 the combination with the lowest friction coefficient was constituted by the stainless steel wire against the Dynalock® bracket, and the one with the highest friction coefficient was that of the Allure® bracket with the beta-titanium wire; 2 the beta-titanium wire presented a friction coefficient that was significantly higher than the stainless steel wire; 3 the Dynalock® bracket did not present any significant differences in relation to the friction coefficient of the Clarity® bracket when the wire used was of beta-titanium. However, when the wire tested was of stainless steel, the Dynalock® bracket presented a significantly lower friction coefficient. The Clarity® bracket presented a significantly lower friction coefficient than the Allure® bracket.

  13. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Wilhelm; Pfaller, Karin; Konta, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health.The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance.There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application and the scientific investigation of this effectiveness of fixed appliances or orthodontic treatment in general. There is much research in the area of diagnostics or further development of appliances or techniques done, however extremely few in the area of need for intervention, analysis of the sustainability; influence factors on the success, like caries or quantification of side effects e. g. root resorption. This research to evaluate the indications is completely lacking, also the required evaluation parameters (e. g. means long-term dental maintenance). This gap is in this respect dubious since a link of determining the demand (inducing demand) and supply in Central European health systems is economically given. This enables to create a possibility for a so-called supply induced demand. To get rid of discussions that the professional work of orthodontics can be near to induced demand or unnecessary indications, research of this topic is quite essential. This requires much stronger information for indications. This can improve confidence for patients and insurance companies. Existing indices like the Index of Treatment Need (IOTN) seem to be of academic interest without practice importance for daily work. The question which indications can be regarded as scientifically proven for the intervention must be given big attention immediately. The individual and subjective assessment of the orthodontist (whose experience is not doubted) has to be considered as not sufficient. The scientific background is absolutely necessary due to ethic reasons for the patient, economic reasons for the social insurance system or financiers and also for the orthodontists to evaluative and legitimates the treatment. Well coordinated research with the goal of collecting specific data is urgently required for individual therapeutic processes with appropriate design. The study quality is also an essential topic. It is unacceptable at the beginning of the 21st century with the background of the evidence based medicine, that studies are published with enormous methodological errors. Orthodontics deserves a well

  14. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health. The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance. There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application and the scientific investigation of this effectiveness of fixed appliances or orthodontic treatment in general. There is much research in the area of diagnostics or further development of appliances or techniques done, however extremely few in the area of need for intervention, analysis of the sustainability; influence factors on the success, like caries or quantification of side effects e. g. root resorption. This research to evaluate the indications is completely lacking, also the required evaluation parameters (e. g. means long-term dental maintenance. This gap is in this respect dubious since a link of determining the demand (inducing demand and supply in Central European health systems is economically given. This enables to create a possibility for a so-called supply induced demand. To get rid of discussions that the professional work of orthodontics can be near to induced demand or unnecessary indications, research of this topic is quite essential. This requires much stronger information for indications. This can improve confidence for patients and insurance companies. Existing indices like the Index of Treatment Need (IOTN seem to be of academic interest without practice importance for daily work. The question which indications can be regarded as scientifically proven for the intervention must be given big attention immediately. The individual and subjective assessment of the orthodontist (whose experience is not doubted has to be considered as not sufficient. The scientific background is absolutely necessary due to ethic reasons for the patient, economic reasons for the social insurance system or financiers and also for the orthodontists to evaluative and legitimates the treatment. Well coordinated research with the goal of collecting specific data is urgently required for individual therapeutic processes with appropriate design. The study quality is also an essential topic. It is unacceptable at the beginning of the 21st century with the background of the evidence based medicine, that studies are published with enormous methodological errors. Orthodontic

  15. Bracketing in qualitative research: conceptual and practical matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Constance T

    2009-07-01

    Bracketing is presented as two forms of researcher engagement: with data and with evolving findings. The first form is the well-known identification and temporary setting aside of the researcher's assumptions. The second engagement is the hermeneutic revisiting of data and of one's evolving comprehension of it in light of a revised understanding of any aspect of the topic. Both of these processes are ongoing, and they include the careful development of language with which to represent findings. Extensive everyday examples of bracketing and of interviewing are presented. As a form of disclosure in qualitative research, the background from which this article was written is shared. At that point, Husserl's and Heidegger's historical introductions of bracketing are presented briefly, followed by a discussion of reflexivity and hermeneutics. The article closes with warnings of how residual positivism can work against qualitative rigor and with a suggested qualitative research study on bracketing. PMID:20183407

  16. Geometric Poisson brackets on Grassmannians and conformal spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Beffa, G Mari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we relate the geometric Poisson brackets on the Grassmannian of 2-planes in R^4 and on the (2,2) Moebius sphere. We show that, when written in terms of local moving frames, the geometric Poisson bracket on the Moebius sphere does not restrict to the space of differential invariants of Schwarzian type. But when the concept of conformal natural frame is transported from the conformal sphere into the Grassmannian, and the Poisson bracket is written in terms of the Grassmannian natural frame, it restricts and results into either a decoupled system or a complexly coupled system of KdV equations, depending on the character of the invariants. We also show that the biHamiltonian Grassmannian geometric brackets are equivalent to the non-commutative KdV biHamiltonian structure. Both integrable systems and Hamiltonian structure can be brought back to the conformal sphere.

  17. Toda brackets and cup-one squares for ring spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Baues, H J; Baues, Hans-Joachim; Muro, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we prove the laws of Toda brackets on the homotopy groups of a connective ring spectrum and the laws of the cup-one square in the homotopy groups of a commutative connective ring spectrum.

  18. Orthodontic treatment of a midline diastema related to mesiodens and thumb-sucking habit / Tratamento ortodôntico de um diastema mediano relacionado a mesiodens e hábito de sucção digital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Wilson, Machado; Aldrieli Regina, Ambrosio; Sergei Godeiro F. Rabelo, Caldas; Luiz Gonzaga, Gandini Júnior.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A associação de mesiodens com hábito de sucção digital como fatores etiológicos de diastemas medianos é uma situação clínica incomum e, quando presente, provoca um comprometimento estético e funcional. O objetivo desse trabalho é descrever o caso clínico de um paciente, aos 9 anos de idade [...] , com mordida aberta anterior e um diastema mediano de 9 mm. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Após o diagnóstico ortodôntico, a conduta terapêutica foi a exodontia do mesiodens e instalação de uma grade palatina fixa para controle do hábito de sucção digital. Em seguida, bráquetes ortodônticos foram colados nos incisivos centrais superiores e o diastema foi fechado possibilitando a irrupção espontânea dos incisivos laterais. Quando adequados níveis de trespasse vertical e horizontal entre os incisivos foi alcançado e o hábito removido, o tratamento foi finalizado. CONCLUSÃO: É importante ressaltar que com o objetivo de alcançar resultados estéticos e funcionais satisfatórios, minimizando sequelas ao desenvolvimento da oclusão deve-se realizar o diagnóstico precoce e intervenção imediata dos diastemas medianos patológicos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: Midline diastema due to simultaneous interplay of mesiodens and thumb-sucking habit is a very uncommon situation and can represent negative impact on esthetics and function. The purpose of this article is to describe a case report of a 9 year-old boy with a 9-mm midline diastema and an ante [...] rior open bite treated with an interceptive orthodontic approach. CASE DESCRIPTION: After orthodontic diagnosis, treatment undertaken was the surgical removal of the mesiodens and the use of a palatal crib therapy in order to discontinue the thumb habit. Then, orthodontic brackets were bonded on maxillary central incisors and the diastema closed allowing the spontaneous irruption of the maxillary laterals incisors. When acceptable levels of overbite and overjet were achieved and the habit was controlled, the orthodontic treatment was discontinued. CONCLUSION: To assure good results in managing pathological midline diastemas the diagnosis and treatment should be performed as early as possible.

  19. Orthodontic treatment in adults: restoring smile esthetics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leopoldino, Capelozza Filho; Maria Fernanda Barros, Aranha; Terumi Okada, Ozawa; Arlete de Oliveira, Cavassan.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a procura de tratamento ortodôntico por pacientes adultos é cada vez maior. Essa demanda pode ser justificada por vários fatores, mas o mais relevante foi a mudança do conceito de normal, permitindo a opção por metas terapêuticas mais conservadoras, simples e consistentes. Essa evolução [...] conceitual, mais os avanços tecnológicos, permitiram melhora no manejo ortodôntico, tornando-o mais efetivo, rápido e confortável. A conscientização, por parte da sociedade, das vantagens desse tratamento e o aumento da exigência estética entre os adultos, com uma vida social, afetiva e profissional cada vez mais longa e ativa, cria um contexto onde fica absolutamente estabelecida a necessidade de uma Ortodontia para os indivíduos adultos. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse artigo foi relatar as nuances de diagnóstico e tratamento ortodôntico em um paciente adulto, dentro de uma perspectiva reformadora. Nessa abordagem, o objetivo é o resgate da forma, ou seja, estabelecer condições oclusais que, provavelmente, estariam presentes se o paciente tivesse sido assistido em épocas adequadas, na fase de crescimento e erupção dentária. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The search for orthodontic treatment by adult patients is increasing. This demand may be explained by many reasons, but the most important was the change in the concept of normality, allowing the selection of simpler and more conservative and consistent therapeutic objectives. This con [...] ceptual evolution, combined with the technological advances allowed an improvement in orthodontic management, making it more effective, fast and comfortable. The promotion of awareness of the society on the advantages of this treatment and the increase in esthetic demands, with an increasingly longer and active social, affective and professional life, creates a context in which the need for Orthodontics is absolutely established for the adult individuals. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to report the nuances in diagnosis and orthodontic treatment of an adult patient, in a different perspective. Within this approach, the objective is to recover the shape, i.e. to establish occlusal conditions that would probably be present if the patient had been assisted at the proper time, namely during growth and tooth irruption.

  20. Orthodontic treatment in adults: restoring smile esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldino Capelozza Filho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The search for orthodontic treatment by adult patients is increasing. This demand may be explained by many reasons, but the most important was the change in the concept of normality, allowing the selection of simpler and more conservative and consistent therapeutic objectives. This conceptual evolution, combined with the technological advances allowed an improvement in orthodontic management, making it more effective, fast and comfortable. The promotion of awareness of the society on the advantages of this treatment and the increase in esthetic demands, with an increasingly longer and active social, affective and professional life, creates a context in which the need for Orthodontics is absolutely established for the adult individuals. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to report the nuances in diagnosis and orthodontic treatment of an adult patient, in a different perspective. Within this approach, the objective is to recover the shape, i.e. to establish occlusal conditions that would probably be present if the patient had been assisted at the proper time, namely during growth and tooth irruption.INTRODUÇÃO: a procura de tratamento ortodôntico por pacientes adultos é cada vez maior. Essa demanda pode ser justificada por vários fatores, mas o mais relevante foi a mudança do conceito de normal, permitindo a opção por metas terapêuticas mais conservadoras, simples e consistentes. Essa evolução conceitual, mais os avanços tecnológicos, permitiram melhora no manejo ortodôntico, tornando-o mais efetivo, rápido e confortável. A conscientização, por parte da sociedade, das vantagens desse tratamento e o aumento da exigência estética entre os adultos, com uma vida social, afetiva e profissional cada vez mais longa e ativa, cria um contexto onde fica absolutamente estabelecida a necessidade de uma Ortodontia para os indivíduos adultos. OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse artigo foi relatar as nuances de diagnóstico e tratamento ortodôntico em um paciente adulto, dentro de uma perspectiva reformadora. Nessa abordagem, o objetivo é o resgate da forma, ou seja, estabelecer condições oclusais que, provavelmente, estariam presentes se o paciente tivesse sido assistido em épocas adequadas, na fase de crescimento e erupção dentária.

  1. Comparison of clinical bracket point registration with 3D laser scanner and coordinate measuring machine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mahtab, Nouri; Arash, Farzan; Ali Reza Akbarzadeh, Baghban; Reza, Massudi.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o valor diagnóstico de um scanner a laser desenvolvido para determinar as coordenadas dos pontos de colagem de braquetes, comparando seus resultados aos resultados obtidos com uma máquina de medição coordenada (MMC). MÉTODOS: esse estudo experimen [...] tal diagnóstico foi conduzido com modelos ortodônticos obtidos a partir da arcada superior de 18 pacientes adultos, com oclusão normal de Classe I. Inicialmente, as coordenadas dos pontos de colagem de braquetes de todos os modelos foram mensuradas por uma MMC. Em seguida, as coordenadas tridimensionais (X, Y, Z) dos pontos foram mensuradas nos mesmos modelos por um scanner a laser 3D, desenvolvido na Universidade de Shahid Beheshti. A eficácia e confiabilidade dos dois sistemas foram avaliadas pelo Coeficiente de Correlação Intraclasse (CCI) e pela fórmula de Dahlberg. RESULTADOS: a diferença entre a média da dimensão mensurada pela MMC e o valor real obtido foi de 0,0066mm (IC 95%: 69,98340 - 69,99140). A diferença média para o scanner a laser foi de 0,107 ± 0,133 (95% IC: -0,002 - 0,24). Em cada método, as diferenças não foram significativas. Ao comparar os dois métodos, o CCI gerou um valor de 0,998 para a coordenada X e de 0,996 para a coordenada Y. A diferença média para as coordenadas registradas em cada dente da arcada foi de 0,616mm. CONCLUSÃO: a precisão das coordenadas do ponto de colagem dos braquetes foi a mesma no scanner a laser e na MMC. A diferença média entre as medições manteve-se dentro dos limites de erros operacionais. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of a laser scanner developed to determine the coordinates of clinical bracket points and to compare with the results of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). METHODS: This diagnostic experimental study was conducted on maxil [...] lary and mandibular orthodontic study casts of 18 adults with normal Class I occlusion. First, the coordinates of the bracket points were measured on all casts by a CMM. Then, the three-dimensional coordinates (X, Y, Z) of the bracket points were measured on the same casts by a 3D laser scanner designed at Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. The validity and reliability of each system were assessed by means of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Dahlberg's formula. RESULTS: The difference between the mean dimension and the actual value for the CMM was 0.0066 mm. (95% CI: 69.98340, 69.99140). The mean difference for the laser scanner was 0.107 ± 0.133 mm (95% CI: -0.002, 0.24). In each method, differences were not significant. The ICC comparing the two methods was 0.998 for the X coordinate, and 0.996 for the Y coordinate; the mean difference for coordinates recorded in the entire arch and for each tooth was 0.616 mm. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of clinical bracket point coordinates measured by the laser scanner was equal to that of CMM. The mean difference in measurements was within the range of operator errors.

  2. Eficacia del JAL 90458 sobre el recrecimiento de placa en pacientes con aparatología fija multibrackets / Efficacy of JAL 90458 in the regrowth of plaque in patients with orthodontic braces

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.C., Claudet Angulo; J.J., Alió Sanz; E.M., Ramírez Mingorance; C., Iglesias Conde; F.J., Manso Platero.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El objetivo fue evaluar la eficacia del JAL 90458 sobre el recrecimiento de placa en pacientes con aparatología fija "multibrackets". Material y métodos. Participaron 16 sujetos (11 mujeres y 5 hombres) entre 12 a 39 años de edad. El estudio fue realizado bajo condiciones de un ensayo [...] clínico, aleatorizado, doble ciego y paralelo de grupos balanceados usando un diseño de recrecimiento de placa. Los sujetos recibieron una profilaxis oral y suspendieron toda medida de higiene oral por los siguientes 4 días, usando sólo el gel asignado. Se evaluó el Índice de placa de Quigley-Hein modificado por Turesky (IPQH-T), el Índice de placa bracket (IPb) y el Índice de Sangrado al Sondaje (ISS). Para el análisis de datos se utilizó el test de la t de Student para muestras independientes, el test exacto de Fisher y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Resultados. Se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativa entre el JAL 90458 y el gel control en el IPQH-T (2,52±0,57 vs 1,78±0,79, p Abstract in english Introduction. The objective was test the efficacy of JAL 90458 on the regrowth of plaque in patients with orthodontic braces. Material and methods. A total of 16 subjects (11 women and 5 men) between the ages of 12 and 39 took part in this study. The study was conducted under clinical trial conditio [...] ns, double blind, parallel and randomized in balanced groups using a plaque regrowth design. The subjects had a professional teeth-cleaning and were instructed to not use any kind of oral hygiene measures for the next four days, using only the gel that had been assigned to them. We took into account the following parameters: the Quigley - Hein plaque index, modified by Turesky (QHPI-T), Plaque-Bracket Index (PIb) and the Bleeding on Probing Index (BOP). Analysis of the data was done using a Student´s t-test, Fisher´s exact test and Pearson´s correlation coefficient. Results. Statistically significant differences between the JAL 90458 group and the control gel group were obtained in the QHPI-T (2.52±0.57 vs 1.78±0.79, p

  3. Avaliação do atrito em braquetes autoligáveis submetidos à mecânica de deslizamento: um estudo in vitro Evaluation of friction in self-ligating brackets subjected to sliding mechanics: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ribeiro Pacheco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: o atrito gerado na interface braquete/fio durante a mecânica de deslizamento pode reduzir a eficiência da movimentação ortodôntica. O método de ligação do fio ao braquete exerce importante papel na determinação desse atrito. MÉTODOS: o presente estudo comparou a força de atrito gerada por quatro tipos de braquetes autoligáveis (Time®; Damon 2®; In-Ovation R® e Smart Clip® com um grupo de braquetes ortodônticos convencionais (Dynalock® associados a ligaduras elásticas tradicionais (Dispens-A-Stix®, que serviu como grupo controle. A força de atrito estático foi mensurada através da máquina universal de ensaios EMIC® DL 500 com dois fios de aço inoxidável com secção transversal 0,018" e 0,017" x 0,025". RESULTADOS: a análise de variância ANOVA e o teste de Tukey mostraram baixos níveis de atrito nos quatro braquetes autoligáveis associados ao fio 0,018" (PINTRODUCTION: Friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface during sliding mechanics can reduce the efficiency of orthodontic movement. The ligation method employed to tie the archwire to the bracket plays an important role in determining this friction. METHODS: This study compared the frictional force generated by four different types of self-ligating brackets (Time™, Damon 2™, In-Ovation R™ and Smart Clip™ with a group of conventional orthodontic brackets (Dynalock™ that require the use of traditional elastomeric ligatures (ExDispens-A-Stix™, which served as the control group. Static friction force was measured using an EMIC DL™ 500 universal testing machine using stainless steel round 0.018-in and rectangular 0.017x0.025-in archwires. RESULTS: ANOVA and Tukey's test showed low levels of friction in the four self-ligating brackets in tests with the 0.018-in wire (P <0.05. However, the results noted when the self-ligating brackets were tested using 0.017x 0.025-in archwires showed high resistance to sliding in the self-ligating groups.

  4. The effect of photobiomodulation on root resorption during orthodontic treatment

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    Nimeri G

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghada Nimeri, Chung H Kau, Rachel Corona, Jeffery Shelly Department of Orthodontics, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Photobiomodulation is used to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatments. The changes in root morphology in a group of orthodontic patients who received photobiomodulation were evaluated using the cone beam computed tomography technique. The device used is called OrthoPulse, which produces low levels of light with a near infrared wavelength of 850 nm and an intensity of 60 mW/cm2 continuous wave. Twenty orthodontic patients were recruited for these experiments, all with class 1 malocclusion and with Little's Irregularity Index (>2 mm in either of the arches. Root resorption was detected by measuring changes in tooth length using cone beam computed tomography. These changes were measured before the orthodontic treatment and use of low-level laser therapy and after finishing the alignment level. Little's Irregularity Index for all the patients was calculated in both the maxilla and mandible and patients were divided into three groups for further analysis, which were then compared to the root resorption measurements. Our results showed that photobiomodulation did not cause root resorption greater than the normal range that is commonly detected in orthodontic treatments. Furthermore, no correlation between Little's Irregularity Index and root resorption was detected. Keywords: photobiomodulation, root resorption, accelerate tooth movement, orthodontics, cone beam computed tomography

  5. The effects of ion implantation on the beaks of orthodontic pliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface of stainless steel may be hardened by bombarding the material with a stream of nitrogen ions generated by a nuclear accelerator. In the present study this technique was used to determine the hardening effect of ion implantation on the beaks of stainless steel orthodontic pliers. Ten orthodontic pliers (Dentarum 003 094) were divided into two equal groups, designated control and experimental. The beaks of the experimental pliers were subjected to ion implantation, after which the tips of the beaks of all the pliers were stressed in an apparatus attached to an Instron testing machine. A cyclical load of 500 N was applied to the handles of the pliers, while a 0.9 mm (0.036 inch) round, stainless steel wire was held between the tips of the beaks. The effect of the stress was assessed by measurement with a traveling microscope of the gap produced between the tips of the beaks. Measurements were taken before loading and after 20, 40, 60, and 80 cycles. Statistical analysis of variance and the two-sample t tests indicated that there was a significant increase in the size of the gap as the pliers were stressed from 0 to 80 cycles (p less than 0.001). Furthermore, the mean gap was significantly greater in the control group than in the experimental group (p less than 0.001). This study suggests that ion implantation increases the hardness of the tips of the beaks of orthodontic pliers

  6. Analysis of the dentin-pulp complex in teeth submitted to orthodontic movement in rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila da Siveira, Massaro; Renata Bianco, Consolaro; Milton, Santamaria Junior; Maria Fernanda Martins-Ortiz, Consolaro; Alberto, Consolaro.

    Full Text Available In order to microscopically analyze the pulpal effects of orthodontic movement, 49 maxillary first molars of rats were submitted to orthodontic appliance composed of a closed coil spring anchored to the maxillary incisors, placed for the achievement of mesial movement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten anim [...] als were used as the control group and were not submitted to orthodontic force; the other animals were divided into groups according to the study period of tooth movement, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. The investigation of pulp and periodontal changes included hyalinization, fibrosis, reactive dentin and vascular congestion. Statistical evaluation was performed between control and experimental groups and between periods of observation using non-parametric chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference concerning pulpal changes between control and experimental groups nor between periods of observation. The control group, at 3 and 5 days, revealed greater hyalinization of the periodontal ligament (p

  7. Cariogram caries risk profiles in adolescent orthodontic patients with and without some salivary variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsi, Georgia; Gizani, Sotiria

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the Cariogram caries risk profiles with and without salivary buffer capacity and mutans streptococci (MS) counts in adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 90 healthy Greek adolescents who were undergoing orthodontic treatment. The Cariogram risk model was applied through a questionnaire and clinical and salivary examinations. The actual chance of avoiding new caries was calculated, and participants were categorized into three groups (0-40% ?=? high caries risk, 41-60% ?=? medium caries risk, and 61-100% ?=? low caries risk) using a nine-item Cariogram or by excluding either salivary buffer capacity or MS or both. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for comparing the Cariogram outcome with and without salivary variables. The distribution of variables was compared by nonparametric marginal homogeneity tests. RESULTS: Using the Cariogram with nine variables, 62% of the patients were assigned to the high caries risk category, 13% to the medium risk category, and 24% to the low risk category. Omission of salivary buffer capacity did not alter the risk categories significantly, while more subjects were assigned to the medium risk category when MS counts were excluded. The difference between the nine-item Cariogram and the MS-reduced version, however, was not statistically significant (P ?=? .07). CONCLUSIONS: The Cariogram model may be used both with and without salivary tests for risk grouping in orthodontic practice.

  8. Effect of Tramadol (?-opioid receptor agonist on orthodontic tooth movements in a rat model

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    E. Javadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tramadol is a synthetic analgesic of opioids which has more flexible mechanisms of action than typical opioids. Since it has been reported in previous study that typical opioids like morphine can affect the bone homeostasis, it is worthwhile to examine the effects of tramadol on tooth movement. In this study we investigated effects of tramadol on orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Materials and Methods: 30 male wistar rats were selected and received orthodontic appliance. 3 groups were designed based on the substance that they received daily injections of during a 2-week orthodontic treatment. 1. Control group with no injection.2.Control group with normal saline injection.3. the tramadol group. After the two-week treatment period the amount of tooth movement were measured in all the groups. Also the histological analysis was performed assessing the root resorption, osteoclasts numbers and bone resorption.Results: The amount of tooth movement was not significantl in the tramadol group comparing to the other groups (P>0.05.The results of 3 histological parameters (amount of root resorption, osteoclastic numbers and bone resorption were statistically insignificant (P>0.05.Conclusion: Tramadol as an atypical opioid does not interfere with the process of bone remodeling and tooth movement in rat. Tramadol does not affect osteoclastic activity and bone resorption and it does not cause to change the resulted root resorption either.

  9. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of polyurethane and non-latex orthodontic chain elastics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.L., Santos; M.M., Pithon; A.R.B., Pereira; M.T.V., Romanos.

    Full Text Available Allergy caused by latex proteins has been well documented. Thus, the study of non-latex materials, is necessary. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity of silver-coloured orthodontic chain elastics, of polyurethane and latex-free. Nine chain elastics from different manufactures (3 lat [...] ex-free and 6 polyurethane) were divided into 9 groups of 10 elastics each: Group UK (Latex-free, 3M Unitek), Group TP (Látex-free, TP Orthodontics), Group AO (Látex-free, American Orthodontics), Group O (Polyurethane, OrthoSource), Group M (Polyurethane, Morelli), Group TD (Polyurethane, Tecnident), Group UD (Polyurethane, Uniden), Group AZ (Polyurethane, Abzil) and Group AK (Polyurethane, Aditek). The cytotoxicity essay was performed using cell cultures (L-929 line cells, mouse fibroblast) that were submitted to the cell viability test with neutral red ("dye-uptake") at 1, 2, 3, 7 and 28 days. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were employed (p.05), except between the Groups UK and TP at 28 days (p

  10. Composição química e aspecto superficial do slot de braquetes metálicos / Elemental composition and superficial aspect of metallic brackets slot

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana Féres, Assad-Loss; Regina Maria Lopes, Neves; José Nelson, Mucha.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a composição química e rugosidade do fundo do slot de 90 braquetes metálicos divididos em 9 grupos: grupo 1- aço inoxidável (Equilibrium 2 - Dentaurum); grupo 2 - titânio (Equilibrium ti - Dentaurum); grupo 3- cromo-cobalto (Topic- Dentaurum); grupo 4 - aço inoxidável (Standard -TP [...] Orthodontics); grupo 5 - aço inoxidável (Serie light - American Orthodontics); grupo 6 - aço inoxidável (Kirium Line - Abzil Lancer); grupo 7 - aço inoxidável livre de níquel (Monobloc - Morelli); grupo 8 - aço inoxidável (Convencional- Morelli) e grupo 9 - aço inoxidável livre de níquel (Monobloc Golden - Morelli). METODOLOGIA: a composição química foi analisada pela Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva. A avaliação qualitativa do fundo do slot foi realizada através do MEV classificada de 0 a 8, correspondente às características da superfície. RESULTADOS: composição química - grupo 1 = titânio puro; grupo 9 = recoberto por nitreto de titânio em 99,48%; grupo 3 = cromo-cobalto; grupo 8 = aço inoxidável livre de níquel. Os demais grupos são compostos de aço inoxidável. Avaliação da superfície - grupo 1 = valor 2 (superfície mais polida); grupos 2, 5 e 7 = valor 3 (aspecto de polimento); grupos 3, 8 e 9 = valor 6 (menor polimento); grupo 4 = valor 6,5 (maior rugosidade) e o grupo 6 = valor 5 (características intermediárias de polimento). CONCLUSÕES: os braquetes metálicos são compostos de diferentes ligas e estão disponíveis com baixo conteúdo ou ausência de níquel. Os braquetes de titânio apresentaram polimento semelhante aos de aço inoxidável, porém os recobertos por nitreto de titânio e os de cromo-cobalto mostraram superfície mais irregular ou menos polida. Abstract in english AIM: To evaluate the elemental composition and the slot roughness of 90 metallic brackets divided into 9 groups: group 1 - stainless steel (Equilibrium 2 - Dentaurum); group 2 - titanium (Equilibrium ti - Dentaurum); group 3 - chromium-cobalt (Topic - Dentaurum); group 4 - stainless steel (Standard [...] - TP Orthodontics); group 5 - stainless steel (Serie light - American Orthodontics); group 6 - stainless steel (Kirium Line - Abzil Lancer); group 7 - stainless steel (Monobloc - Morelli); group 8 - stainless steel (Standard - Morelli) and group 9 - stainless steel (Monobloc Golden - Morelli). METHODS: Elemental composition was evaluated using the Spectroscopy of Dispersive Energy. The qualitative slot surface evaluation was assessed using a 500X scanning electron microscope. The microphotography was classified according to surface characteristics in 0-8 values. RESULTS: Elemental composition - group 1 = 100% titanium alloy; group 9 = 99,48% of titanium nitride coated. Group 3 = cobalt-chromium alloy; Group 8 = nickel free stainless steel alloy; other groups stainless steel alloy. Surface evaluation - Group 1 = value 2 (smoothest surface); Groups 2, 5 and 7 =value 3 (smooth surface); Groups 3, 8 and 9 showed value 6 (roughness surface); Group 4 = value 6,5 (the most roughness and irregular surface); and Group 6 has intermediate characteristics among the groups, with value 5. CONCLUSIONS: Metallic brackets were composed of different alloys and they were available with a small percentage or no nickel. The surface roughness was similar for both titanium and stainless steel, however the titanium nitride coated and cobalt-chromium showed an irregular and rough surface.

  11. Composição química e aspecto superficial do slot de braquetes metálicos Elemental composition and superficial aspect of metallic brackets slot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Féres Assad-Loss

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a composição química e rugosidade do fundo do slot de 90 braquetes metálicos divididos em 9 grupos: grupo 1- aço inoxidável (Equilibrium 2 - Dentaurum; grupo 2 - titânio (Equilibrium ti - Dentaurum; grupo 3- cromo-cobalto (Topic- Dentaurum; grupo 4 - aço inoxidável (Standard -TP Orthodontics; grupo 5 - aço inoxidável (Serie light - American Orthodontics; grupo 6 - aço inoxidável (Kirium Line - Abzil Lancer; grupo 7 - aço inoxidável livre de níquel (Monobloc - Morelli; grupo 8 - aço inoxidável (Convencional- Morelli e grupo 9 - aço inoxidável livre de níquel (Monobloc Golden - Morelli. METODOLOGIA: a composição química foi analisada pela Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva. A avaliação qualitativa do fundo do slot foi realizada através do MEV classificada de 0 a 8, correspondente às características da superfície. RESULTADOS: composição química - grupo 1 = titânio puro; grupo 9 = recoberto por nitreto de titânio em 99,48%; grupo 3 = cromo-cobalto; grupo 8 = aço inoxidável livre de níquel. Os demais grupos são compostos de aço inoxidável. Avaliação da superfície - grupo 1 = valor 2 (superfície mais polida; grupos 2, 5 e 7 = valor 3 (aspecto de polimento; grupos 3, 8 e 9 = valor 6 (menor polimento; grupo 4 = valor 6,5 (maior rugosidade e o grupo 6 = valor 5 (características intermediárias de polimento. CONCLUSÕES: os braquetes metálicos são compostos de diferentes ligas e estão disponíveis com baixo conteúdo ou ausência de níquel. Os braquetes de titânio apresentaram polimento semelhante aos de aço inoxidável, porém os recobertos por nitreto de titânio e os de cromo-cobalto mostraram superfície mais irregular ou menos polida.AIM: To evaluate the elemental composition and the slot roughness of 90 metallic brackets divided into 9 groups: group 1 - stainless steel (Equilibrium 2 - Dentaurum; group 2 - titanium (Equilibrium ti - Dentaurum; group 3 - chromium-cobalt (Topic - Dentaurum; group 4 - stainless steel (Standard - TP Orthodontics; group 5 - stainless steel (Serie light - American Orthodontics; group 6 - stainless steel (Kirium Line - Abzil Lancer; group 7 - stainless steel (Monobloc - Morelli; group 8 - stainless steel (Standard - Morelli and group 9 - stainless steel (Monobloc Golden - Morelli. METHODS: Elemental composition was evaluated using the Spectroscopy of Dispersive Energy. The qualitative slot surface evaluation was assessed using a 500X scanning electron microscope. The microphotography was classified according to surface characteristics in 0-8 values. RESULTS: Elemental composition - group 1 = 100% titanium alloy; group 9 = 99,48% of titanium nitride coated. Group 3 = cobalt-chromium alloy; Group 8 = nickel free stainless steel alloy; other groups stainless steel alloy. Surface evaluation - Group 1 = value 2 (smoothest surface; Groups 2, 5 and 7 =value 3 (smooth surface; Groups 3, 8 and 9 showed value 6 (roughness surface; Group 4 = value 6,5 (the most roughness and irregular surface; and Group 6 has intermediate characteristics among the groups, with value 5. CONCLUSIONS: Metallic brackets were composed of different alloys and they were available with a small percentage or no nickel. The surface roughness was similar for both titanium and stainless steel, however the titanium nitride coated and cobalt-chromium showed an irregular and rough surface.

  12. Effect of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Socket Preservation on Orthodontically Induced Inflammatory Root Resorption

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    Massoud Seifi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR is considered to be an important sequel associated with orthodontic tooth movement (OTM. OTM after Socket preservation enhances the periodontal condition before orthodontic space closure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the histologic effects of NanoBone®, a new highly nonsintered porous nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite bone on root resorption following OTM. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on four male dogs. In each dog, four defects were created at the mesial aspects of the maxillary and mandibular first premolars. The defects were filled with NanoBone®. We used the NiTi closed coil for mesial movement of the first premolar tooth. When the experimental teeth moved approximately halfway into the defects, after two months, the animals were sacrificed and we harvested the area of interest. The first premolar root and adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The three-way ANOVA statistical test was used for comparison. Results: The mean root resorption in the synthetic bone substitute group was 22.87 ± 11.25×10-4 mm2 in the maxilla and 21.41 ± 11.25×10-4 mm2 in the mandible. Statistically, there was no significant difference compared to the control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: The use of a substitution graft in the nano particle has some positive effects in accessing healthy periodontal tissue following orthodontic procedures without significant influence on root resorption (RR. Histological evaluation in the present study showed osteoblastic activity and remodeling environment of nanoparticles in NanoBone®.

  13. Acceptance of orthodontic miniscrews as temporary anchorage devices

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    Zawawi KH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Khalid H Zawawi Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Objective: To study the patient’s acceptance, expectation, and experience of pain with ­orthodontic temporary miniscrews. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 165 potential temporary orthodontic miniscrew recipients or their parents. Using the numeric rating scale, patients who received miniscrews as part of their orthodontic treatment were also asked to rate the pain or discomfort experience after miniscrew placement.Results: A total of 165 subjects completed the first set of questions. There was a significant relationship between level of education and prior knowledge about orthodontic miniscrews (P=0.029. Even though only 12.7% had heard about miniscrews, 82.4% agreed to have miniscrews placed to facilitate orthodontic tooth movement. Eighty-three subjects who needed miniscrews as part of their orthodontic treatment completed two more sets of questions after 6 and 24 hours of miniscrew insertion. After 6 hours of miniscrew insertion, there was a significant difference in pain perception between men (mean =2.6±2.2 and women (mean =2.1±1.5; P=0.03. After 24 hours, there was no difference between men (0.2±0.4 and women (0.2±0.5; P>0.05. Postplacement, 32.5% did not require any pain medication, while 59.1% required a single dose and only 8.4% required two doses. A total of 76 patients (91.6% said that they would recommend this procedure.Conclusion: Patients do accept miniscrew as a treatment option in orthodontics. Postoperative pain is significantly low. The acceptance of miniscrews was not related to patient’s previous knowledge of the device, and patients preferred miniscrews to extractions. Keywords: orthodontic treatment, miniscrew, temporary anchorage device, patient acceptance

  14. Evaluation of ionic degradation and slot corrosion of metallic brackets by the action of different dentifrices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Antônio Martins, Brandão; Rafael Menezes, Simas; Leandro Moreira de, Almeida; Juliana Melo da, Silva; Marcelo de Castro, Meneghim; Antonio Carlos, Pereira; Haroldo Amorim de, Almeida; Ana Maria Martins, Brandão.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar in vitro a degradação iônica e corrosão do fundo do slot de braquetes metálicos submetidos à escovação com dentifrícios, realizando análises da composição química por Espectroscopia de Energia Dispersiva (EDS) e qualitativa por Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura (MEV). MÉTODOS: fo [...] ram selecionados 38 braquetes divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais (n = 7). Dois grupos (n = 5) funcionaram como controles positivo e negativo. Aparelhos ortodônticos simulados foram confeccionados com fios de aço inoxidável 0,019" x 0,025" e anéis elastoméricos. Os grupos foram divididos de acordo com o tratamento de superfície: G1 (Máxima Proteção Anticáries®); G2 (Total 12®); G3 (Sensitive®); G4 (Branqueador®); Controle Positivo (saliva artificial) e Controle Negativo (sem tratamento). Foram realizados 28 ciclos de escovação e avaliações antes (T0) e após (T1) o experimento. RESULTADOS: o teste de Wilcoxon indicou não existir diferença nas concentrações iônicas de titânio (Ti), cromo (Cr), ferro (Fe) e níquel (Ni) entre os grupos. O grupo G2 apresentou redução significativa (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro ionic degradation and slot base corrosion of metallic brackets subjected to brushing with dentifrices, through analysis of chemical composition by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and qualitative analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). METHODS: Thirty [...] eight brackets were selected and randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 7). Two groups (n = 5) worked as positive and negative controls. Simulated orthodontic braces were assembled using 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel wires and elastomeric rings. The groups were divided according to surface treatment: G1 (Máxima Proteção Anticáries®); G2 (Total 12®); G3 (Sensitive®); G4 (Branqueador®); Positive control (artificial saliva) and Negative control (no treatment). Twenty eight brushing cycles were performed and evaluations were made before (T0) and after (T1) experiment. RESULTS: The Wilcoxon test showed no difference in ionic concentrations of titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) between groups. G2 presented significant reduction (p

  15. Effect of adhesive remnant removal on enamel topography after bracket debonding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Larissa Adrian Meira, Cardoso; Heloísa Cristina, Valdrighi; Mario, Vedovello Filho; Américo Bortolazzo, Correr.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: na finalização do tratamento ortodôntico, torna-se relevante o conhecimento da ação dos métodos de remoção do remanescente resinoso sobre o esmalte. OBJETIVO: o objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efei [...] to de métodos de remoção do remanescente de resina após a descolagem do braquete e do polimento na rugosidade (Ra) e topografia (ESI) do esmalte. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados 50 pré-molares humanos, divididos em cinco grupos, de acordo com o método empregado para a remoção da resina residual: broca carbide tungstênio em alta rotação (BCT), discos Sof-Lex (SL), alicate removedor de resina (AL), ultrassom (US) e pontas Fiberglass (PF). Braquetes metálicos foram colados com Transbond XT, armazenados a 37° por 24 horas antes da descolagem com alicate removedor de braquete, sendo aplicados posteriormente os meios de remoção e executado o polimento com pasta de pedra-pomes. Realizou-se análises qualiquantitativas, com avaliações antes da colagem dos braquetes, após a descolagem e após o polimento, sendo os valores obtidos submetidos à análise estatística com teste F (ANOVA), de Tukey (Ra) e testes de Kruskal-Wallis e Bonferroni (ESI) (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: At orthodontic treatment completion, knowledge about the effects of adhesive remnant removal on enamel is paramount. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at assessing the effect of different adhesive remna [...] nt removal methods on enamel topography (ESI) and surface roughness (Ra) after bracket debonding and polishing. METHODS: A total of 50 human premolars were selected and divided into five groups according to the method used for adhesive remnant removal: high speed tungsten carbide bur (TCB), Sof-Lex discs (SL), adhesive removing plier (PL), ultrasound (US) and Fiberglass burs (FB). Metal brackets were bonded with Transbond XT, stored at 37oC for 24 hours before debonding with adhesive removing plier. Subsequently, removal methods were carried out followed by polishing with pumice paste. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted with pre-bonding, post-debonding and post-polishing analyses. Results were submitted to statistical analysis with F test (ANOVA) and Tukey's (Ra) as well as with Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni tests (ESI) (P

  16. Shear bond strength of nanofilled flowable resins used for indirect bracket bonding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Ferreira Leite Moreira da, Silva; Marcelo Alves, Correa; Lourenço, Correr Sobrinho; Alexandre, Moro; Ricardo Cesar, Moresca; Gisele Maria, Correr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the bond strength of brackets fixed with different materials (two light-cured nanofilled resins - Transbond Supreme LV and Flow Tain LV, a light-cured resin - Transbond XT (control) and two chemically cured resins for indirect bonding - Sondhi Rapid- Set and Custom I.Q.) using the i [...] ndirect bonding technique after 10 min and 24 h, and evaluate the type of failure. METHODS: One hundred premolars were selected and randomly divided into groups (n=10) according to the material and fixation period. The brackets were bonded through the indirect technique following the manufacturer's instructions and stored in deionized water at 37°C for 10 min or 24 h. After, the specimens were submitted to a shear bond strength (SBS) test (Instron) at 0.5 mm/min and evaluated for adhesive remnant index (ARI). The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p Sondhi Rapid-Set > Custom I.Q.). There was no significant difference in resistance values between 10 min and 24 h, regardless of the materials. Most groups showed adhesive remaining adhered to the enamel (scores 2 and 3) without statistically significant difference (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the light-cured nanofilled materials used in indirect bonding showed greater resistance than the chemically cured materials. The period of fixation had no influence on the resistance for different materials.

  17. Evolution of treatment mechanics and contemporary appliance design in orthodontics: A 40-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Richard P; Bennett, John C

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1970s, successful treatment with the Begg technique and the Tweed edgewise techni