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Sample records for opisthobranchia gastropoda mollusca

  1. Diversity of Indo-West Pacific Siphonaria (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Euthyneura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayrat, Benoît; Goulding, Tricia C; White, Tracy R

    2014-01-01

    Species of the limpet genus Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Euthyneura) are commonly found in the rocky intertidal, worldwide, except in the Arctic. In total, 205 species-group names are available and not permanently invalid. However, estimating the actual species diversity of Siphonaria has remained challenging, mainly because past authors have interpreted differently the variation of shell characters, resulting in different taxonomic accounts. Species diversity of Siphonaria is evaluated for the first time here based on DNA sequence data (three mitochondrial gene fragments: COI, 12S, and 16S) and a large sampling focusing on the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific (from eastern Africa to Hawaii): new sequences are provided for 153 individuals, 123 of which were collected from 93 locations throughout the Indo-West Pacific. In total, 41 species (molecular units) are recognized worldwide (31 from the Indo-West Pacific), all of which are strongly supported. Potential names are discussed for those 41 species, based on traditional taxonomy. The shells of 66 of the individuals from which DNA was extracted are illustrated: intra- and inter-specific variation is documented in detail and discussed in the light of new molecular results. It is shown that many species could hardly be identified based on the shell only, because the variation of shell characters is too high and overlaps between species. Geographically, no species is found across the entire Indo-West Pacific, where quite a few species seem to be endemic to restricted areas. The biogeography of Siphonaria in the Indo-West Pacific is compared to other groups. PMID:24871723

  2. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmission electron microscopy. Within the scope of the present study we investigated the myogenesis of premetamorphic, metamorphic, and juvenile developmental stages of the anaspidean opisthobranch Aplysia cali...

  3. Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Patagonia: potential role of climatic change in its dispersion and settlement / Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) na Patagônia: o papel potencial da mudança climática em sua dispersão e estabelecimento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Darrigran; C., Damborenea; A., Tambussi.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca Gastropoda) mostra um grande alcance de distribuição natural na América do Sul, chegando até os 37º S (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Esta espécie foi introduzida propositalmente no sudeste da Ásia, por volta de 1980 e, mais tarde, se submeteu a uma dispersã [...] o de forma rápida intencional ou acidental em muitos países da região. Também foi introduzido na América do Norte, América Central e Havaí. Nesta contribuição se confere a presença de P. canaliculata na Patagônia e se considera a influência das alterações climáticas no novo estabelecimento desta espécie no local referido. Três coletas (entre setembro de 2004 até abril de 2005) foram realizadas (38º 58' 20.2" S and 68º 11' 27.3" W). Nelas encontraram-se dois exemplares adultos de P. canaliculada e numerosas desovas. P. canaliculata distribui-se naturalmente nas regiões das Bacias do Prata e Amazonas. O limite sul desta espécie foi estabelecido nas isotermas de 14 ºC e 16 ºC na província de Buenos Aires, com precipitações de 900 a 600 mm. Também são analisadas as variações na temperatura anual e a precipitação na Patagônia. As médias de temperatura mostram um aumento no decorrer de dois anos. Modificações importantes no regime de precipitação no norte da Patagônia poderiam ser benéficas para o estabelecimento das populações de P. canaliculata nesta nova área, onde as precipitações aumentaram o suficiente até atingir os valores similares aos da região mais austral citada para a distribuição desta espécie. Abstract in english Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca Gastropoda) shows a large native distribution range in South America, reaching as far south as 37º S (Buenos Aires, Argentina). This species was deliberately introduced into Southeast Asia around 1980 and subsequently underwent a rapid intentional or ac [...] cidental dispersal into many countries in the region. It was also introduced into North and Central America and Hawaii. In this contribution we record the presence of P. canaliculata in Patagonia, assessing the possible influence of climatic change in the new establishment of this species there. Three samplings (between September 2004 and April 2005) were carried out at 38º 58' 20.2" S-68º 11' 27.3" W. In the sampling we found two adult specimens of P. canaliculata and numerous egg clutches. Pomacea canaliculata is naturally distributed in the Plata and Amazon Basins. The southern boundary of this species has been established as the isotherms of 14 ºC and 16 ºC in Buenos Aires province, and precipitations of 900 to 600 mm/year. This study also analysed variations in annual temperature and precipitation in Patagonia. Average temperatures show an increase over the years, although not constantly. Important modifications in precipitation regime in northern Patagonia, triggered by global climatic changes, could be beneficial for the settlement of populations of P. canaliculata in this new area, where precipitation increased enough to reach values similar to those in the southernmost area of distribution of this species.

  4. Thecosomata e Gymnosomata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) da cadeia Fernando de Noronha, Brasil / Thecosomata and Gymnosomata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from Fernando de Noronha chain, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eduarda de, Larrazábal; Valdeni Soares de, Oliveira.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The Mollusca Pteropoda from Fernando de Noronha Chain Northeastern Brazil were studied in order to know their taxonomy and distribution. Collections were carried out during the I Oceanographical Expedition of the REVIZEE Program (Live Resources of the Economical Exclusive Zone) from August to Septem [...] ber 1995. The studied area is located between 03°04'S-04°23'S and 32°19'W-36°26'W, comprising 35 stations. Sampling was performed through oblique hauls from 50m depth to surface and from 100 m depth to surface, with a Bongo net (300 and 500 µm mesh size, net diameter: 60 cm), that was equipped with a flow meter. Samples in a total of 99 were preserved, immediately, in buffered 4% formaldehyde. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the samples were performed based on total sample. The samples were analysed on a counting plate "Bogorov" type under a stereo microscope. A total of 8,258 organisms were identified belonging to: 8 families, 16 genera and 27 species. Limacina inflata (d´Orbigny, 1836) and Creseis virgula (Rang, 1828) were frequent and very frequent in the area outranking among the studied Pteropoda. The total density varied from 2.5 to 3,012.05 org.m-³. Highest richness was registered at the Continental Shelf and Slope with 1two species. The Pteropoda association showed higher differences between day and night collections. Limacina inflata caused this difference due to its higher density at night collections and it was independent of the depth, mesh size and temperature. Creseis virgula had its occurrence, mainly, during day time.

  5. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Breure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Z. quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = O. bensoni (Reeve, 1849; Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789; Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848; Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909; Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821; Bulimus (Eurytus corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007 and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  6. Thecosomata e Gymnosomata (Mollusca, Gastropoda da cadeia Fernando de Noronha, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrazábal Maria Eduarda de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mollusca Pteropoda from Fernando de Noronha Chain Northeastern Brazil were studied in order to know their taxonomy and distribution. Collections were carried out during the I Oceanographical Expedition of the REVIZEE Program (Live Resources of the Economical Exclusive Zone from August to September 1995. The studied area is located between 03°04'S-04°23'S and 32°19'W-36°26'W, comprising 35 stations. Sampling was performed through oblique hauls from 50m depth to surface and from 100 m depth to surface, with a Bongo net (300 and 500 µm mesh size, net diameter: 60 cm, that was equipped with a flow meter. Samples in a total of 99 were preserved, immediately, in buffered 4% formaldehyde. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the samples were performed based on total sample. The samples were analysed on a counting plate "Bogorov" type under a stereo microscope. A total of 8,258 organisms were identified belonging to: 8 families, 16 genera and 27 species. Limacina inflata (d´Orbigny, 1836 and Creseis virgula (Rang, 1828 were frequent and very frequent in the area outranking among the studied Pteropoda. The total density varied from 2.5 to 3,012.05 org.m-³. Highest richness was registered at the Continental Shelf and Slope with 1two species. The Pteropoda association showed higher differences between day and night collections. Limacina inflata caused this difference due to its higher density at night collections and it was independent of the depth, mesh size and temperature. Creseis virgula had its occurrence, mainly, during day time.

  7. Konchologické nálezy (Mollusca: Gastropoda et Bivalvia) z ran? st?edov?kých objekt? v Žalov? u Prahy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavá?, Jaroslav

    Vol. 1. Praha : Archeologický ústav AV ?R, 2012 - (Tomková, K.), s. 342-347 ISBN 978-80-87365-48-9 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAAX00020701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Middle Ages * Mollusca * cauri * molluscs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  8. Gastropoda (Mollusca) associated to Sargassum sp. beds in São Sebastião Channel - São Paulo, Brazil / Gastropoda (Mollusca) associados a bancos deSargassum sp. no Canal de São Sebastião - São Paulo, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro Augusto dos Santos, Longo; Marjorie Cattaneo, Fernandes; Fosca Pedini Pereira, Leite; Flávio Dias, Passos.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O fital é caracterizado pela formação de bancos de algas marinhas e uma grande diversidade de espécies associadas, estando a malacofauna entre seus principais componentes. Com o objetivo de registrar as assembleias de gastrópodes associadas è alga parda Sargassum C. Agardh, 1820, este estudo foi rea [...] lizado no Canal de São Sebastião, litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, e áreas próximas. Um total de 13945 indivíduos foram identificados, pertencentes a 35 famílias e 62 espécies. Em termos de abundância, Cerithiidae, Phasianellidae e Columbellidae foram as famílias mais representativas, com 34, 33 e 17% do total de indivíduos coletados, respectivamente. Bittiolum varium (Pfeiffer, 1840) (Cerithiidae) e Eulithidium affine (C. B. Adams, 1850) (Phasianellidae) foram as espécies dominantes, seguidas pelos columbelídeos Mitrella dichroa (G. B. Sowerby I, 1844), Anachis fenneli Radwin, 1968 e Costoanachis sertulariarium (d'Orbigny, 1839). Entre as espécies pouco abundantes, algumas podem ser consideradas como de ocorrência ocasional, enquanto outras parecem ser típicas deste ambiente, porém raras. A presença de formas juvenis mostrou-se muito recorrente para a maioria das espécies, o que parece indicar que a alga pode atuar como berçário. Os valores expressivos encontrados, tanto para a abundância de indivíduos como para o número de espécies, ilustram a grande importância ecológica apresentada por este ambiente para as espécies de gastrópodes. Abstract in english The phytal is characterized by the formation of seaweed beds and a great diversity of associated species, the malacofauna being one of its main components. Aiming to record the species of Gastropoda associated to the brown algae Sargassum sp. C. Agardh, 1820, this study was carried out in São Sebast [...] ião Channel, northern coast of São Paulo, and nearby areas. A total of 13945 individuals were identified, belonging to 35 families and 62 species. Cerithiidae, Phasianellidae and Columbellidae were the most abundant families, represented by 34, 33 and 17% of the total collected individuals, respectively. Bittiolum varium (Pfeiffer, 1840) (Cerithiidae) and Eulithidium affine (C. B. Adams, 1850) (Phasianellidae) are the dominant species, followed by the columbelids Mitrella dichroa (G. B. Sowerby I, 1844), Anachis fenneli Radwin, 1968 and Costoanachis sertulariarium (d'Orbigny, 1839). Among the least abundant species, some of them may be considered as of fortuitous occurrences, while others seem to be typical in those habitats, although rare. The presence of juvenile specimens was recurrent, this indicating that the algae can function as a nursery for most of these species. The expressive values found, for both abundance and number of species, illustrate the great ecological importance of the phytal habitats for the gastropod species.

  9. Morphometric study of a Brazilian strain of Carchesium polypinum (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) attached to Pomacea figulina (Mollusca: Gastropoda), with notes on a high infestation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto Júnio P., Dias; Adalgisa F., Cabral; Isabel C. V., Siqueira-Castro; Inácio D. da, Silva-Neto; Marta, D' Agosto.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During an ecological study of the epibiotic relationship between ciliate protists and Pomacea figulina (Spix, 1827) (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae), originating from an urban stream in southeast Brazil, a high infestation by the peritrich ciliate Carchesium polypinum (Linnaeus, 1758) Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ci [...] liophora, Peritrichia) associated to the shell of one mollusc among 23 was observed. We provided a morphological and morphometric study of C. polypinum using observations of specimens in vivo, after protargol staining, and examined using scanning electron microscopy. The Brazilian-population of C. polypinum is characterized by: size of zooid in vivo 89 µm x 57 µm on average; colony regularly dichotomously branched with usually up to 40 zooids; macronucleus usually J-shaped; single contractile vacuole located in the upper third of body; myoneme not continuous throughout the colony; stalks contract despite the discontinuity of their individual myonemes; polykinety comprises three peniculi, each consisting of three kineties. The high infestation showed here could be related to the preference for eutrophic environments showed by C. polypinum and suggested that ciliate epibionts may be ecologically important in aquatic habitats.

  10. Morphometric study of a Brazilian strain of Carchesium polypinum (Ciliophora: Peritrichia attached to Pomacea figulina (Mollusca: Gastropoda, with notes on a high infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Júnio P. Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During an ecological study of the epibiotic relationship between ciliate protists and Pomacea figulina (Spix, 1827 (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae, originating from an urban stream in southeast Brazil, a high infestation by the peritrich ciliate Carchesium polypinum (Linnaeus, 1758 Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia associated to the shell of one mollusc among 23 was observed. We provided a morphological and morphometric study of C. polypinum using observations of specimens in vivo, after protargol staining, and examined using scanning electron microscopy. The Brazilian-population of C. polypinum is characterized by: size of zooid in vivo 89 µm x 57 µm on average; colony regularly dichotomously branched with usually up to 40 zooids; macronucleus usually J-shaped; single contractile vacuole located in the upper third of body; myoneme not continuous throughout the colony; stalks contract despite the discontinuity of their individual myonemes; polykinety comprises three peniculi, each consisting of three kineties. The high infestation showed here could be related to the preference for eutrophic environments showed by C. polypinum and suggested that ciliate epibionts may be ecologically important in aquatic habitats.

  11. Molecular phylogenetics of Caenogastropoda (Gastropoda: Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, D J; Ponder, W F; Beacham, E; Macaranas, J

    2007-03-01

    Caenogastropoda is the dominant group of marine gastropods in terms of species numbers, diversity of habit and habitat and ecological importance. This paper reports the first comprehensive multi-gene phylogenetic study of the group. Data were collected from up to six genes comprising parts of 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA (five segments), 12S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, histone H3 and elongation factor 1alpha. The alignment has a combined length of 3995 base positions for 36 taxa, comprising 29 Caenogastropoda representing all of its major lineages and seven outgroups. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were conducted. The results generally support monophyly of Caenogastropoda and Hypsogastropoda (Caenogastropoda excepting Architaenioglossa, Cerithioidea and Campanilioidea). Within Hypsogastropoda, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses identified a near basal clade of nine or 10 families lacking an anterior inhalant siphon, and Cerithiopsidae s.l. (representing Triphoroidea), where the siphon is probably derived independently from other Hypsogastropoda. The asiphonate family Eatoniellidae was usually included in the clade but was removed in one Bayesian analysis. Of the two other studied families lacking a siphon, the limpet-shaped Calyptraeidae was associated with this group in some analyses, but the tent-shaped Xenophoridae was generally associated with the siphonate Strombidae. The other studied hypsogastropods with an anterior inhalant siphon include nine families, six of which are Neogastropoda, the only traditional caenogastropod group above the superfamily-level with strong morphological support. The hypotheses that Neogastropoda are monophyletic and that the group occupies a derived position within Hypsogastropoda are both contradicted, but weakly, by the molecular analyses. Despite the addition of large amounts of new molecular data, many caenogastropod lineages remain poorly resolved or unresolved in the present analyses, possibly due to a rapid radiation of the Hypsogastropoda following the Permian-Triassic extinction during the early Mesozoic. PMID:17127080

  12. Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) en Camagüey / Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in Camagüey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raisa, Vázquez Capote; Lorenzo, Diéguez Fernández; Ubaldo, del Risco Barrios; Rigoberto, Fimia Duarte; Antonio Alejandro, Vázquez Perera.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduccion: la fasciolosis es una enfermedad emergente en el mundo, tiene un comportamiento esporádico en Cuba y afecta seriamente al ganado vacuno. Objetivo: reportar la presencia y distribución de Pseudosuccinea columella en la provincia de Camagüey, Cuba. Metodos: se encuestaron 455 criaderos n [...] aturales o potenciales de moluscos dulceacuícolas de la provincia Camagüey, mediante un colador de bronce de 15 cm con 1 mm de paso de malla durante 30 min, removiendo el sustrato fangoso y la vegetación colindante, sin reposición de los ejemplares capturados. Resultados: se reporta la especie en 23 cuerpos de agua del total encuestado (5,05 %), que son 15 lagunas (65,21 %), 4 arroyos (17,39 %), 3 ríos (13,04 %) y 1 micropresa (4,36 %). El municipio con mayor positividad resultó Camagüey con 16 en total (69,56 %). Pseudosuccinea columella se encontró relacionada únicamente con Physa acuta en 5 de los acuatorios positivos a la especie (21,73 %), siempre en bajas densidades. Conclusiones: la limitada distribución de Pseudosuccinea columella, disminuye su relevancia en comparación con Galba cubensis, considerada el más importante hospedero intermediario de Fasciola hepatica en Cuba. La acción de las diferentes variables abióticas, como probables factores limitantes o dispersivos de Pseudosuccinea columella en los diferentes acuatorios camagüeyanos, está siendo objeto de investigación. Abstract in english Introduction: fascioliasis is an emerging disease worldwide. In Cuba its occurrence is sporadic, seriously affecting cattle. Objective: report the presence and distribution of Pseudosuccinea columella in the province of Camagüey, Cuba. Methods: a survey was conducted of 455 actual or potential fresh [...] water mollusk breeding sites in the province of Camagüey, using a 1-mm-mesh bronze sieve 15 cm in diameter for 30 min. Both the muddy substratum and the adjoining vegetation were removed without replacing the specimens captured. Results: the species was found in 23 of the water bodies surveyed (5.05 %), namely 15 inland lagoons (65.21 %), 4 streams (17.39 %), 3 rivers (13.04 %) and 1 micro-dam (4.36 %). The municipality with the highest positivity rate was Camagüey with 16 (69.56 %). Pseudosuccinea columella was found to be related only to Physa acuta in 5 of the positive water bodies (21.73 %), and in all cases its density was low. Conclusions: the limited distribution of Pseudosuccinea columella lowers its relevance in comparison with Galba cubensis, which is considered to be the main intermediary host of Fasciola hepatica in Cuba. Research is currently in progress into the role of the various abiotic variables as probable factors limiting or dispersing Pseudosuccinea columella in Camagüey water bodies.

  13. Description of the ootheca of Turbinella laevigata (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Helena, Matthews-Cascon; Cristina de Almeida, Rocha-Barreira; Carlos, Meirelles; Gregorio, Bigatti; Pablo, Penchaszadeh.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Turbinella laevigata é encontrada desde a zona entre marés até 40 m de profundidade, sendo endêmica do Brasil onde ocorre desde o Estado do Amapá até o Espírito Santo. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a ooteca de Turbinella laevigata. Quinze amostras foram coletadas na Praia de Olho d'Água, Mun [...] icípio de Icapuí e na Praia de Flexeiras, Município do Trairí, ambos no Estado do Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil, foram estudadas. As desovas de T. laevigata foram compostas por 15 +/- 1.4 SD cápsulas e mediram 63 +/- 6.4 SD mm de comprimento e 41 +/- 2.5 SD mm de largura. Todas as cápsulas estavam fixadas pela membrana basal, a qual tinha a extremidade modificada para se prender ao substrato. Elas possuem uma superfície concava e outra convexa, apresentando margens pregueadas, que se prolongavam até a membrana basal, à qual se uniam formando uma prega. Esta espécie aparentemente produz uma grande quantidade de ovos nutritivos. A concha dos juvenis mediu 6.4 +/- 0.7 SD mm de comprimento e apresentou uma protoconcha com 3 voltas. Abstract in english Turbinella laevigata is found since the intertidal zone up to 40 m depth, being endemic of Brazil where it occurs from the state of Amapá to the state of Espirito Santo. The objective of this study was to describe the ootheca of this species. Fifteen samples collected in the Olho d'Água Beach, City [...] of Icapuí and Fleixeiras Beach, City of Trairí, both in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil, were studied. The spawns were composed by 15 +/- 1.4 SD capsules and had 63 +/- 6.4 SD mm of length with 41 +/- 2.5 SD mm of width. They had a convex and a concave surface, and plaited edges that drew out until the basal membrane, to which they joined forming a medial ridge. This species apparently produced a high amount of nurse eggs. The early juveniles measured 6.4 +/- 0.7 SD mm of length and they presented a protoconch with three whorls.

  14. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic data on opisthobranch gastropods we investigated the neuromuscular development in the nudibranch Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 using immunocytochemistry as well as F-actin labelling in conjunction...

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liana K, Jannotti-Passos; Jeronimo C, Ruiz; Roberta L, Caldeira; Silvane MF, Murta; Paulo Marcos Z, Coelho; Omar S, Carvalho.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila, a mollusc intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, was sequenced and characterised. The genome size found for B. tenagophila was 13,722 bp and contained 13 messenger RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA) and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA). In addition to [...] sequencing, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome organization of B. tenagophila was analysed based on its content and localization of both coding and non-coding regions, regions of gene overlap and tRNA nucleotide sequences. Sequences of protein, rRNA 12S and rRNA 16S nucleotides as well as gene organization were compared between B. tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata, as the latter is the most important S. mansoni intermediate host in Brazil. Differences between such species were observed regarding rRNA composition. The complete sequence of the B. tenagophila mitochondrial genome was deposited in GenBank (accession EF433576). Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships were estimated among 28 mollusc species, which had their complete mitochondrial genome deposited in GenBank, using the neighbour-joining method, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood bootstrap. B. tenagophila was positioned at a branch close to B. glabrata and Pulmonata molluscs, collectively comprising a paraphyletic group, contrary to Opistobranchia, which was positioned at a single branch and constituted a monophyletic group.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835 (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana K Jannotti-Passos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila, a mollusc intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, was sequenced and characterised. The genome size found for B. tenagophila was 13,722 bp and contained 13 messenger RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA and two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA. In addition to sequencing, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genome organization of B. tenagophila was analysed based on its content and localization of both coding and non-coding regions, regions of gene overlap and tRNA nucleotide sequences. Sequences of protein, rRNA 12S and rRNA 16S nucleotides as well as gene organization were compared between B. tenagophila and Biomphalaria glabrata, as the latter is the most important S. mansoni intermediate host in Brazil. Differences between such species were observed regarding rRNA composition. The complete sequence of the B. tenagophila mitochondrial genome was deposited in GenBank (accession EF433576. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships were estimated among 28 mollusc species, which had their complete mitochondrial genome deposited in GenBank, using the neighbour-joining method, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood bootstrap. B. tenagophila was positioned at a branch close to B. glabrata and Pulmonata molluscs, collectively comprising a paraphyletic group, contrary to Opistobranchia, which was positioned at a single branch and constituted a monophyletic group.

  17. Keeping Nerves: Central Nervous System of the Interstitial Acochlidiid Parhedyle cryptophthalma (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joerger, Katharina; Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette; Schrodel, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Unusually well-preserved fossils of a Halicyne-like cycloid crustacean frequently occur in the early Late Triassic lacustrine clay bed at Krasiejów in Opole Silesia, southern Poland. Its gill-like structures form a horseshoe-shaped pair of units composed of numerous calcified blades with reverse U-shaped cross-section. Originally, these were parallel slits opening on the ventral surface of the carapace. Lobation of the posterior margin of the carapace, of unusually large mature size for the grou...

  18. Posición evolutiva de caracoles terrestres peruanos (Orthalicidae) entre los Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda) / Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae) among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Ramirez; Rina, Ramírez; Pedro, Romero; Ana, Chumbe; Pablo, Ramírez.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Los géneros Bostryx y Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae) son endémicos de América del Sur y están principalmente distribuidos en la vertiente occidental de los Andes del Perú. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar su posición evolutiva dentro de los gastrópodos Stylommatophora basada en el [...] marcador mitocondrial 16S rRNA. Fueron obtenidas cuatro secuencias las que, junto con 28 de otros Stylommatophora disponibles en el GenBank, fueron alineadas con ClustalX. La reconstrucción filogenética se realizó mediante los métodos de Neighbor-Joining, Máxima Parsimonia, Máxima Verosimilitud e Inferencia Bayesiana. El alineamiento resultó en 371 sitios, con presencia de indels. Los dos géneros de la Familia Orthalicidae por primera vez incluidos en una filogenia molecular (Bostryx y Scutalus), formaron un grupo monofilético con otro miembro de la superfamilia Orthalicoidea (Placostylus), tal como lo obtenido con marcadores nucleares. Se discute también su relación evolutiva con otros caracoles terrestres. Abstract in english The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae) are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mit [...] ochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus), formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus), result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.

  19. Prosobrânquios terrestres do Brasil: Cyclophoridae: Neocyclotus (N. ) agassizi (Bartsch & Morrison, 1942) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda) / Land prosobranchs of Brazil: Cyclophoridae: Neocyclotus (N. ) agassizi (Bartsch & Morrison, 1942) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arnaldo C. dos Santos, Coelho; Norma Campos, Salgado.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Studies on specimens from Brazil (States of Pernambuco and Alagoas) were carried out in order to relate data about morphology of hard and soft parts o Nocyclotus (N.) agassizi (Bartsh & Morrison, 1942). [...

  20. Histomorfologia do órgão acessório de perfuração de Thais haemastoma (Mollusca, Gastropoda) Histology of the accessory boring organ in Thais haemastoma (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Valêsca P. Lima; Inês X. Martins

    2009-01-01

    Os representantes da família Thaididae são organismos predadores de outros moluscos, perfurando suas conchas pela ação alternada de secreção oriunda do "Accessory Boring Organ" (ABO) e por raspagem através da rádula. Nesta família, o ABO está localizado na porção ventral mediano-anterior do pé. Os animais examinados neste estudo foram coletados na praia do Futuro, Fortaleza, em seguida levados ao laboratório para fixação e posterior tratamento histológico rotineiro. A porção glandular do ABO ...

  1. La Familia Trochidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda en el norte de Chile: consideraciones ecológicas y taxonómicas The trochidae family (Mollusca : Gastropoda in northern Chile: taxonomic and ecological considerations

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    DAVID VELIZ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la diversidad, y la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de los caracoles de la Familia Trochidae en el norte de Chile, mediante muestreos intermareales y submareales someros, realizados entre 1996 y 1999 entre Arica (18º S y Los Vilos (31º S, y de muestras de profundidad provenientes de la pesca de arrastre del camarón nylon, Heterocarpus reedi. En el norte de Chile, la Familia Trochidae está representada por cuatro géneros: Tegula y Diloma de distribución intermareal y submareal somero hasta los 20 m de profundidad, y Bathybembix y Calliostoma presentes en profundidades superiores a los 200 m. El género Tegula tiene seis especies (T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata y T. euryomphala distribuídas en sustratos rocosos intermareales y submarales someros. El género Diloma está representado por una especie, D. nigerrima, de distribución intermareal hasta pocos metros de profundidad. El género Calliostoma tiene dos especies C. chilena y C. delli, las que se distribuyen entre 200 y 750 m de profundidad. Finalmente, el género Bathybembix está representado por B. humboldti y B. macdonaldi distribuídas entre 200 y 1480 m de profundidad. Esta segregación batimétrica parece estar relacionada a las estrategias alimentarias de cada uno de los géneros de la familia Trochidae. Diloma y Tegula son herbívoros, las especies del género Bathybembix son alimentadoras de depósito y las de Calliostoma son carnívorasThis study reveals the diversity, and the bathimetric and latitudinal distribution of the snails of the Trochidae family members in northern Chile, throughout the analysis of all Trochidae gastropods entailed in intertidal and subtidal (from the `camarón naylon' fishery samples collected during 1996 and 1999 between Arica (ca 18º S and Los Vilos (ca 31º S. The Trochidae family in northern Chile have four genus: Tegula and Diloma that are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats, and Calliostoma and Bathybembix which occurr at dephts greather than 200 m. Tegula have 6 species: T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata, and T. euryomphala are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats. Diloma is a monospecific genus, whereas D. nigerrima is an intertidal species. The genus Calliostoma have two species C. chilena and C. delli occurring between 200 and 750 m depth and the Bathybembix with two species, B. Humboldti and B. macdonaldi, distributed between 200 and 1480 m depth. The bathimetric distribution of Trochidae shows a strong correlation with food strategy: Diloma and Tegula are herbivores, while Bathybembix species are deposit feeders and Calliostoma are carnivores

  2. La Familia Trochidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) en el norte de Chile: consideraciones ecológicas y taxonómicas / The trochidae family (Mollusca : Gastropoda) in northern Chile: taxonomic and ecological considerations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DAVID, VELIZ; JULIO A, VASQUEZ.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la diversidad, y la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de los caracoles de la Familia Trochidae en el norte de Chile, mediante muestreos intermareales y submareales someros, realizados entre 1996 y 1999 entre Arica (18º S) y Los Vilos (31º S), y de muestras de profundidad p [...] rovenientes de la pesca de arrastre del camarón nylon, Heterocarpus reedi. En el norte de Chile, la Familia Trochidae está representada por cuatro géneros: Tegula y Diloma de distribución intermareal y submareal somero hasta los 20 m de profundidad, y Bathybembix y Calliostoma presentes en profundidades superiores a los 200 m. El género Tegula tiene seis especies (T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata y T. euryomphala) distribuídas en sustratos rocosos intermareales y submarales someros. El género Diloma está representado por una especie, D. nigerrima, de distribución intermareal hasta pocos metros de profundidad. El género Calliostoma tiene dos especies C. chilena y C. delli, las que se distribuyen entre 200 y 750 m de profundidad. Finalmente, el género Bathybembix está representado por B. humboldti y B. macdonaldi distribuídas entre 200 y 1480 m de profundidad. Esta segregación batimétrica parece estar relacionada a las estrategias alimentarias de cada uno de los géneros de la familia Trochidae. Diloma y Tegula son herbívoros, las especies del género Bathybembix son alimentadoras de depósito y las de Calliostoma son carnívoras Abstract in english This study reveals the diversity, and the bathimetric and latitudinal distribution of the snails of the Trochidae family members in northern Chile, throughout the analysis of all Trochidae gastropods entailed in intertidal and subtidal (from the `camarón naylon' fishery) samples collected during 199 [...] 6 and 1999 between Arica (ca 18º S) and Los Vilos (ca 31º S). The Trochidae family in northern Chile have four genus: Tegula and Diloma that are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats, and Calliostoma and Bathybembix which occurr at dephts greather than 200 m. Tegula have 6 species: T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata, and T. euryomphala are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats. Diloma is a monospecific genus, whereas D. nigerrima is an intertidal species. The genus Calliostoma have two species C. chilena and C. delli occurring between 200 and 750 m depth and the Bathybembix with two species, B. Humboldti and B. macdonaldi, distributed between 200 and 1480 m depth. The bathimetric distribution of Trochidae shows a strong correlation with food strategy: Diloma and Tegula are herbivores, while Bathybembix species are deposit feeders and Calliostoma are carnivores

  3. La Familia Trochidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) en el norte de Chile: consideraciones ecológicas y taxonómicas The trochidae family (Mollusca : Gastropoda) in northern Chile: taxonomic and ecological considerations

    OpenAIRE

    DAVID VELIZ; JULIO A. VASQUEZ

    2000-01-01

    Este estudio describe la diversidad, y la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de los caracoles de la Familia Trochidae en el norte de Chile, mediante muestreos intermareales y submareales someros, realizados entre 1996 y 1999 entre Arica (18º S) y Los Vilos (31º S), y de muestras de profundidad provenientes de la pesca de arrastre del camarón nylon, Heterocarpus reedi. En el norte de Chile, la Familia Trochidae está representada por cuatro géneros: Tegula y Diloma de distribución intermare...

  4. Variación espacio-temporal de Scleractinia, Gorgonacea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Asteroidea, Echinoidea y Holothuroidea, de fondos someros de la isla San José, Golfo de California

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar Efraín, Holguin Quiñones; Felipe de Jesús, González Medina; Francisco, Solís Marín; Esteban F, Félix Pico.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron seis expediciones a la isla San José, Golfo de California entre los años 1999 y 2000 en donde se llevaron a cabo las observaciones y muestreos. Con base en los muestreos se determinó el componente específico de tres filos de macroinvertebrados bentónicos en nueve localidades: Cnidaria [...] (Scleractinia y Gorgonacea), Mollusca (Gastropoda, Bivalvia y Cephalopoda), y Echinodermata (Echinoidea, Asteroidea y Holothuroidea). La abundancia del macrobentos conspicuo se estimó visualmente mediante buceo libre a una profundidad entre 2 y 6 m a lo largo de dos transectos en banda paralelos a la línea de costa. Se determinó un total de 38 táxones de los tres grupos. Las especies más abundantes son Tripneustes depressus (44,9%), Echinometra vanbruntii (18,3), Phataria unifascialis (8,9%), Centrostephanus coronatus (8,0%), Diadema mexicanum (5%) y Eucidaris thouarsii (3,6%). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la diversidad (H’), equidad (J) y riqueza de especies (S) entre los meses y localidades. El análisis de similitud identificó a dos grupos de las localidades del litoral oriental y occidental. Abstract in english Space-time variation of Scleractinia, Gorgonacea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, from shallow bottom in San Jose Island, Gulf of California. Between the years 1999 and 2000, six expeditions were made to Isla San José, in the Gulf of California. Observati [...] ons and samples were taken of benthic macroinvertebrates in nine locations. Based on the samples, the specific components of three phyla were determined: Cnidaria (Scleractinia and Gorgonacea), Mollusca (Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Cephalopoda), and Echinodermata (Echinoidea and Holothuroidea). The abundance of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates was visually estimated through free dives at a depth of between two and six meters along two transects parallel to the coast. A total of 38 taxa in three groups were determined. The most abundant species are Tripneustes depressus (44,9%),Echinometra vanbruntii (18,3%),Phataria unifascialis (8,9%), Centrostephanus coronatus (8,0%), Diadema mexicanum (5%) y Eucidaris thouarsii (3,6%). No significant differences between diversity (H’), equity (J) and richness of the species (S) during the months and site of study. The similarity analysis identified two groups from locations of the eastern and western coasts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3): 1189-1199. Epub 2008 September 30.

  5. Variación espacio-temporal de Scleractinia, Gorgonacea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Asteroidea, Echinoidea y Holothuroidea, de fondos someros de la isla San José, Golfo de California

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    Oscar Efraín Holguin Quiñones

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron seis expediciones a la isla San José, Golfo de California entre los años 1999 y 2000 en donde se llevaron a cabo las observaciones y muestreos. Con base en los muestreos se determinó el componente específico de tres filos de macroinvertebrados bentónicos en nueve localidades: Cnidaria (Scleractinia y Gorgonacea, Mollusca (Gastropoda, Bivalvia y Cephalopoda, y Echinodermata (Echinoidea, Asteroidea y Holothuroidea. La abundancia del macrobentos conspicuo se estimó visualmente mediante buceo libre a una profundidad entre 2 y 6 m a lo largo de dos transectos en banda paralelos a la línea de costa. Se determinó un total de 38 táxones de los tres grupos. Las especies más abundantes son Tripneustes depressus (44,9%, Echinometra vanbruntii (18,3, Phataria unifascialis (8,9%, Centrostephanus coronatus (8,0%, Diadema mexicanum (5% y Eucidaris thouarsii (3,6%. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la diversidad (H’, equidad (J y riqueza de especies (S entre los meses y localidades. El análisis de similitud identificó a dos grupos de las localidades del litoral oriental y occidental.Space-time variation of Scleractinia, Gorgonacea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, from shallow bottom in San Jose Island, Gulf of California. Between the years 1999 and 2000, six expeditions were made to Isla San José, in the Gulf of California. Observations and samples were taken of benthic macroinvertebrates in nine locations. Based on the samples, the specific components of three phyla were determined: Cnidaria (Scleractinia and Gorgonacea, Mollusca (Gastropoda, Bivalvia and Cephalopoda, and Echinodermata (Echinoidea and Holothuroidea. The abundance of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates was visually estimated through free dives at a depth of between two and six meters along two transects parallel to the coast. A total of 38 taxa in three groups were determined. The most abundant species are Tripneustes depressus (44,9%,Echinometra vanbruntii (18,3%,Phataria unifascialis (8,9%, Centrostephanus coronatus (8,0%, Diadema mexicanum (5% y Eucidaris thouarsii (3,6%. No significant differences between diversity (H’, equity (J and richness of the species (S during the months and site of study. The similarity analysis identified two groups from locations of the eastern and western coasts. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1189-1199. Epub 2008 September 30.

  6. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C.M., Kerchove; R.P., Markus; J.C., Freitas; L.V., Costa-Lotufo.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic [...] and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g) was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax) to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P

  7. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

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    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  8. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

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    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.Shells of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied to determine morphometric variation. Samples were collected in the following municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Five measurements were taken from each shell: length and width of the shell, length and width of the aperture and lenght of the spire. Two ratios were also established: width/lenght of the shell and length of the aperture /length of the shell. The numbers of whorls and the length of the shell were also determined. Statistical tests (correlation coeficients, regression, and analysis of variance were used to compare the different samples. Also, com parisons of L. columella shells collected by us were made with those of L. columella, L. viator and L. cubensis from collections deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The results of these studies revealed that in most of the cases the snail populations of different areas were similar, showing constant proportions, but they diverged in their absolute dimensions. Data on aquatic environmental conditions (pH, alkalinity, hardness, and calcium concentration were also obtained. These Chemical factors were examined with respect to shell morphology. Our results revealed that only hardness of water was associated with the robustness of the shells.

  9. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

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    Abraham Breure

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus ( Drymaeus tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus ziczac da Costa, 1898.The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847.New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837; Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835; Drymaeus (Drymaeus lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855; Drymaeus (Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844; Drymaeus (Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (K. culmineus edwardsi (Morelet, 186

  10. New localities of four Bulgarian endemic Hydrobiidae species (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Risooidea

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    Dilian Georgiev

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Belgrandiella pussila Angelov, 1959, Belgrandiella angelovi Pintér, 1968, Bythiospeum copiosus (Angelov, 1972, and Grossuana thracica Glöer & Georgiev, 2009 were reported in Bulgaria. Some notes on the generic position of Belgrandiella angelovi and Bythiospeum copiosus were done.

  11. The Prosobranchia (Gastropoda: Mollusca) Species of Turkey and Their Zoogeographic Distribution 1. Fresh and Brackish Water

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, M. Zeki

    1998-01-01

    Of the Prosobranchia species found in Turkey, 60 species and 12 subspecies were determined to be present in the study area according to our results and the results of foreign malacologists. The species and their genera are: 8 species, 2 subspecies belonging to Theodoxus; 1 species, 1 subspecies belonging to Viviparus; 4 species belonging to Valvata; 3 species belonging to Hydrobia; 1 species belonging to Semisalsa; 6 species belonging to Graecoanatolica; 2 species belonging to Kirelia; 2 s...

  12. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-03-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  13. Gastrocopta (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pupillidae) in the Pilbara region of Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Corey Whisson; Frank Köhler

    2013-01-01

    Six species of Gastrocopta have been identified from the Pilbara region, Western Australia, by means of comparative analyses of shell and mtDNA variation. Three of these species, Gastrocopta hedleyi, Gastrocopta larapinta and Gastrocopta servilis, have been recorded in the Pilbara for the first time. Gastrocopta sp. CW1 is probably new to science and might be endemic to the region. By contrast, Gastrocopta hedleyi, Gastrocopta larapinta and Gastrocopta mussoni are shown to be widespread.

  14. Actividad molusquicida in vitro de Momordica charantia L. (¨Cundeamor¨ contra Fossaria cubensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diéguez Fernández, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENObjetivo: determinar las perspectivas del uso del jugo vegetal extraído de Momordica charantia L. (Cundeamor, en el control de Fossaria cubensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 principal hospedero de Fasciola hepatica en Cuba.ABSTRACTTo determine the perspectives the use of the juice extracted from the Momordica charantia L.

  15. Histologia da glândula de albúmen de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane de Fátima Marques de Mesquita; Arnaldo Campos dos Santos Coelho; Jefferson Andrade dos Santos

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors give a histological analysis of the albumen gland of mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). In the immaturity, tthe gland doesn't show any secretory activity, although in the maturity this activity is indicated by the presence of a homogeneous and eosinophilic material in its lumen. We could notice in the capsule gland of matures females a calcareous element is present as a granular and basophilic deposit. The albumen gland is envolved b...

  16. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita; Arnaldo Campos dos Santos Coelho; Jefferson Andrade dos Santos

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread i...

  17. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita; Arnaldo Campos dos Santos Coelho; Jefferson Andrade dos Santos

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822). Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with roun...

  18. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, JØrgen; Faasse, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the occurrence of the species in beds of European oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Limfjord, NW Jutland, Denmark. The morphology-based identification has been confirmed by genetic analysis. The species was probably introduced with oysters imported from France in the 1970s and 1980s. The invasion is still relatively localized but as the species has established a reproductive population, it may eventually spread to other parts of the fjord and in time pose a problem to the oyster fishery. The species’ invasion history is reviewed

  19. Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramirez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus, formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus, result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.

  20. Reproductive biology and ecology of Adelomelon brasiliana (Mollusca:Gastropoda) off Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Cledón , Maximiliano

    2004-01-01

    A. brasiliana is an abundant shallow water volutid distributed from Río de Janeiro, Brazil, to Río Negro, Argentina, SW Atlantic. This species has been commercially exploited in Uruguay by small-scale fishery since the early 90 s. In Argentina is still not systematically exploited. The reproductive biology, and some of the ecologically important aspects of this volutid have been studied at Mar del Plata, Argentina (38° 20 S; 57° 37 W). The reproductive season extends from September to April, ...

  1. The venomous cocktail of the vampire snail Colubraria reticulata (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Modica, Maria Vittoria; Lombardo, Fabrizio; Franchini, Paolo; Oliverio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundHematophagy arose independently multiple times during metazoan evolution, with several lineages of vampire animals particularly diversified in invertebrates. However, the biochemistry of hematophagy has been studied in a few species of direct medical interest and is still underdeveloped in most invertebrates, as in general is the study of venom toxins. In cone snails, leeches, arthropods and snakes, the strong target specificity of venom toxins uniquely aligns them to industrial and...

  2. Los moluscos terrestres (Mollusca: Gastropoda de Costa Rica: clasificación, distribución y conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidett Barrientos Llosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los moluscos terrestres son un grupo muy poco estudiado a nivel mundial. Hay 183 especies reportadas para Costa Rica, 30% son endémicas y 7% posiblemente están extintas. Se espera que en el país haya alrededor de 400 especies, de más del 95% se desconoce su biología, ecología, distribución, genética y otros campos de estudio. En Costa Rica las familias con mayor número de especies son Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae y Subulinidae. No obstante, es posible que Euconulidae sea aun más diversa, pues habitan las zonas altas del país que es en donde menos trabajo se ha hecho. El estudio de regiones altas aumentará el porcentaje de endemismo. Los futuros trabajos malacológicos taxonómicos, biológicos y ecológicos deben considerar la poca movilidad de este grupo, su tendencia a formar especies nuevas en simpatría, la especificidad de requerimientos de microhábitat, el hermafroditismo, la alta tasa de evolución (10% por millón de años y la divergencia entre especies (2-30%. Para proteger adecuadamente la biodiversidad de la malacofauna costarricense, se requiere de estudios que determinen la distribución y abundancia de las especies y el efecto del uso de la tierra y del climático.

  3. Ten new complete mitochondrial genomes of pulmonates (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and their impact on phylogenetic relationships

    OpenAIRE

    de Frias Martins António; Golding Rosemary; Balayan Shaina; Tseng Roger; Conrad Michele M; White Tracy R; Dayrat Benoît A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Reconstructing the higher relationships of pulmonate gastropods has been difficult. The use of morphology is problematic due to high homoplasy. Molecular studies have suffered from low taxon sampling. Forty-eight complete mitochondrial genomes are available for gastropods, ten of which are pulmonates. Here are presented the new complete mitochondrial genomes of the ten following species of pulmonates: Salinator rhamphidia (Amphiboloidea); Auriculinella bidentata, Myosotell...

  4. Shape and growth in European Atlantic Patella limpets (Gastropoda, Mollusca. Ecological implications for survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Paulo Cabral

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Patella intermedia, Patella rustica, Patella ulyssiponensis, and Patella vulgata were analyzed for shell and radula characteristics. Shell growth in P. rustica and P. ulyssiponensis was basically isometric, indicating that shell shape was constant during growth. On the contrary, shell growth in P. intermedia and P. vulgata was positively allometric, indicating that as shells increased in size, the base became more circular and the cone more centred and relatively higher. Radula relative size increased in the order P. ulyssiponensis, P. vulgata, P. intermedia and P. rustica, and had negative allometric growth in all species, indicating that radula grew less as shell increased in size. Data reported in the literature estimated that the lowest risk of dislodgment for a limpet is associated with a centred apex, and a (shell height/(shell length or (shell height/(shell width ratio of ca. 0.53. However, as reported for other limpets, in all four studied Patella species, shells were more eccentric and flat than this theoretical optimum. Data reported in the literature indicated that, in limpets, decreasing the (shell base perimeter/(shell volume or (shell surface area/(shell volume ratios by increasing size results in lower soft body temperature and desiccation. In the present study, P. rustica shells displayed the lowest ratios, and P. ulyssiponensis shells, the highest. Considering that the former species lives at high shore levels, and the latter species at low levels, it appeared that shell shape in European Atlantic limpets can be directly related to resistance to desiccation and high temperature stresses. Radula relative size (in relation to shell height also increased with increasing level in the shore, suggesting that this might be due to a decreasing abundance of algae with increasing shore level.

  5. Quantification of midkine gene expression in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillitano, Francesca; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Vanucci, Silvana

    2007-10-01

    The release of cadmium into many coastal areas represents a threat to ecosystems and human health; cadmium is carcinogenic in mammals and in both marine invertebrates and vertebrates. The use of molluscs to assess the ecologic risk associated with contaminants is strongly recommended on account of their ecological role and on their highly conserved control and regulatory pathways that are often homologous to vertebrate systems. We previously identified a midkine family protein in the limpet Patella caerulea; the midkine is a recently discovered cytokines family with unequivocal informative value on repairing injury and neoplastic processes in mammals. Here we report on midkine ( mdk) and ?-tubulin ( ?-tub) gene expression patterns in P. caerulea exposed to cadmium. Limpets, collected on two occasions from a breakwater at a marina (Tyrrhenian Sea) were exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. RNA was extracted from the viscera of unexposed and exposed specimens. Real time TaqMan RT-PCR was performed to measure the relative mdk and ?-tub gene expression levels. A remarkable mdk over-expression was observed in all exposed animals with respect to unexposed ones; mdk over-expression was significantly higher in both treatments when compared with un-treatment (mean expression levels: 23- and 38-fold, for 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd treatment, respectively; ANOVA, for both P < 0.01). The study also indicates that the mdk up-regulation was significantly Cd-concentration dependent ( P < 0.05). A significant up-regulation of the constitutive ?-tub gene was also observed in 1 mg l -1 Cd-treated animals (mean expression level: 4-fold; ANOVA, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence paving the way for the use of the midkine as a promising new biomarker of effect in the environment risk assessment policy.

  6. Description and classification of Late Triassic Neritimorpha (Gastropoda, Mollusca from the St Cassian Formation, Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandel K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Neritopsis represents the only surviving genus of an ancient group of the Neritimorpha that has no internal dissolution of its shell walls. While the two known living species have lecithotrophic early development without larval shell, Neritopsis aqabaensis n. sp. from the Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan, has a planktotrophic veliger. These living species of the genus differ in their protoconch shape as well as teleoconch morphology and ornament from the Triassic species that can be considered related to Neritopsis. Neritopsidae with the modern Neritopsinae is distinguished from the Triassic Cassianopsinae n. subfam. based on the genus Cassianopsis n. gen. with three species by features of their protoconch as well as the different characters of the operculum. Zardiniopsis n. gen. differs from these by higher shell shape and a smaller more complexly ornamented protoconch. Fossariopsis has a more angular shell shape. Colubrellopsinae n. subfam. with Colubrellopsis n. gen. resembles Cassianopsis n. gen. in respect to protoconch and features of the aperture of the teleoconch, but the former has rounded whorls and an ornament of axial ribs. Among the Fedaiellidae n. fam. with smooth shells two species of Fedaiella are redefined. The characters of the inner lip of their aperture connect them with the Neritopsidae, whereas the operculum in the Fedaiellidae with concentric structure on the outside distinguishes them from neritopsids.
    In distinction to the groups of the Neritopsoidea members of the Dephinulopsidae have a smooth inner lip of the aperture. Here Delphinulopsinae and Platychilininae n. subfam. differ from each other in the shape and ornament of their teleoconch. Schwardtopsis n. gen. resembles a juvenile Delphinulopsis grown to a larger size. The large concave callus of the inner lip and almost open coiling defines Delphinulopsis. Rows of nodes, low initial shell and rapid growth in shell diameter to an almost limpet shape characterises Platychilina, and lamellar growth increments on an almost limpet-like shell with flat initial part is present in Marmolatella. The Palaeonaricidae n. fam. contains two species of Palaeonarica, which have a Nerita-like shell with simple aperture.
    The Naticopsidae of the Carboniferous and Permian has its continuation in the Ampezzonaticopsinae n. subfam. of the Triassic, being connected to each other by the sinuous ornament of ribs on their larval shells. The genera are distinguished by teleoconch shape and differences in the ornament of their larval shell. Ampezzonaticopsis n. gen. has whorls well separated by deep sutures, Cortinaticopsis n. gen. has a simple aperture and a callus covering the umbilicus. The Hologyrinae n. subfam. with Hologyra have a ridge in the columellar furrow and an operculum that resembles that attributed to Carboniferous Naticopsis. Their protoconch has a characteristic chevron ornament on its larval whorls.

  7. Description and classification of Late Triassic Neritimorpha (Gastropoda, Mollusca) from the St Cassian Formation, Italian Alps

    OpenAIRE

    Bandel K

    2007-01-01

    Neritopsis represents the only surviving genus of an ancient group of the Neritimorpha that has no internal dissolution of its shell walls. While the two known living species have lecithotrophic early development without larval shell, Neritopsis aqabaensis n. sp. from the Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan, has a planktotrophic veliger. These living species of the genus differ in their protoconch shape as well as teleoconch morphology and ornament from the Triassic species that can be considered related t...

  8. Ten new complete mitochondrial genomes of pulmonates (Mollusca: Gastropoda and their impact on phylogenetic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Frias Martins António

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconstructing the higher relationships of pulmonate gastropods has been difficult. The use of morphology is problematic due to high homoplasy. Molecular studies have suffered from low taxon sampling. Forty-eight complete mitochondrial genomes are available for gastropods, ten of which are pulmonates. Here are presented the new complete mitochondrial genomes of the ten following species of pulmonates: Salinator rhamphidia (Amphiboloidea; Auriculinella bidentata, Myosotella myosotis, Ovatella vulcani, and Pedipes pedipes (Ellobiidae; Peronia peronii (Onchidiidae; Siphonaria gigas (Siphonariidae; Succinea putris (Stylommatophora; Trimusculus reticulatus (Trimusculidae; and Rhopalocaulis grandidieri (Veronicellidae. Also, 94 new pulmonate-specific primers across the entire mitochondrial genome are provided, which were designed for amplifying entire mitochondrial genomes through short reactions and closing gaps after shotgun sequencing. Results The structural features of the 10 new mitochondrial genomes are provided. All genomes share similar gene orders. Phylogenetic analyses were performed including the 10 new genomes and 17 genomes from Genbank (outgroups, opisthobranchs, and other pulmonates. Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses, based on the concatenated amino-acid sequences of the 13 protein-coding genes, produced the same topology. The pulmonates are paraphyletic and basal to the opisthobranchs that are monophyletic at the tip of the tree. Siphonaria, traditionally regarded as a basal pulmonate, is nested within opisthobranchs. Pyramidella, traditionally regarded as a basal (non-euthyneuran heterobranch, is nested within pulmonates. Several hypotheses are rejected, such as the Systellommatophora, Geophila, and Eupulmonata. The Ellobiidae is polyphyletic, but the false limpet Trimusculus reticulatus is closely related to some ellobiids. Conclusions Despite recent efforts for increasing the taxon sampling in euthyneuran (opisthobranchs and pulmonates molecular phylogenies, several of the deeper nodes are still uncertain, because of low support values as well as some incongruence between analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and those based on individual genes (18S, 28S, 16S, CO1. Additional complete genomes are needed for pulmonates (especially for Williamia, Otina, and Smeagol, as well as basal heterobranchs closely related to euthyneurans. Increasing the number of markers for gastropod (and more broadly mollusk phylogenetics also is necessary in order to resolve some of the deeper nodes -although clearly not an easy task. Step by step, however, new relationships are being unveiled, such as the close relationships between the false limpet Trimusculus and ellobiids, the nesting of pyramidelloids within pulmonates, and the close relationships of Siphonaria to sacoglossan opisthobranchs. The additional genomes presented here show that some species share an identical mitochondrial gene order due to convergence.

  9. Regulated bradycardia in the pulmonate limpet Siphonaria (Gastropoda: Mollusca) during pollutant exposure: implication for biomarker studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David J; Peter, Ryan; Chown, Steven L

    2004-11-01

    Although the cardiac activity of invertebrates is now widely used as a biomarker of marine pollution, few studies consider the intrinsic factors causing the variability of heart rate (HR), including the physiological states associated with metabolic depression and behavioural isolation. We examined the cardiac responses to copper exposure of a pulmonate limpet (Siphonaria capensis Quoy and Gaimard), known to adaptively depress heart rate (and metabolic rate) under naturally stressful conditions (hyposalinity). Analysis of variance was used to assess the effects of copper concentration (0-1000 microg/L), exposure time (0-2 h), and individual difference (eight limpets per concentration) on heart rate parameters. Minute by minute heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), and bradycardia (< or =10 beats/min) were determined from continuous recording traces. Most of the HR variance was attributable to the interaction of concentration and individuals (35.8%). Considerably lower mean HRs for the higher range of copper concentrations (250 to 1000 microg/L), compared to the lower range (0 to 50 microg/L), were attributable to the virtually exclusive induction of bradycardia in the higher concentration treatments. With increasing concentration, bradycardia was induced sooner and became less interspersed with near normal heart rates (i.e., less episodic). This regulated bradycardial response is apparently associated with isolation (avoidance) behaviour rather than with copper uptake. These findings have implications for biomarker exercises which use heart rate, in cases where invertebrates depress metabolism. PMID:15556386

  10. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  11. A new species of hydrobiid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae from central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canella Radea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new minute valvatiform species belonging to the genus Daphniola Radoman 1973, Daphniola eptalophos sp. n., from mountain Parnassos, Greece is described. The new species has a transparent valvatiform-planispiral shell, wide and open umbilicus, grey-black pigmented soft body and head and a black penis with a small colorless outgrowth on the left side near its base. A comparative table of shell dimensions and a key to the species known for this endemic genus for Greece are provided.

  12. Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Achatinidae) carrier of Helminthes, Protozoa and Bacteria in northeast Venezuela / Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Achatinidae) hospedador de helmintos, protozoarios y bacterias en el noreste de Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Morocoima; Valmore, Rodríguez; René, Rivas; Héctor, Coriano; Sigdelis, Rivero; Rosina, Errante; Makeris, Mitchell; Leidi, Herrera; Servio, Urdaneta-Morales.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Por cuanto el molusco Achatina fulica nativo del África es vector de helmintos, pero su relación con protozoarios y bacterias es poco conocida, decidimos estudiar las excretas de 1.200 ejemplares capturados en los estados Anzoátegui, Monagas, Sucre y Nueva Esparta, del noreste de Venezuela. Su moco [...] pedal y heces mostraron infección por los protozoarios Chilomastix spp., Trichomonas spp., Giardia spp., Balantidium spp., Entamoeba spp., Iodamoeba spp., Blastocystis spp. Y por los helmintos de los grupos Ascarioidea, Trichuroidea, Ancylostomatidae y Cestoda. El moco céfalopodal mostró únicamente larvas de Rhabditida. Las bacterias Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. azaenae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Campylobacter spp. infectaron a las tres excretas. Los mecanismos de transmisión y la composición de las excretas, como nichos fisiológicamente apropiados para los organismos encontrados, son discutidos en relación con el riesgo epidemiológico que el molusco representa en salud pública y veterinaria. Abstract in english The mollusk Achatina fulica, native to Eastern Equatorial Africa, has been incriminated as a carrier or vector of helminthes. Nevertheless, information in the literature as regards its status as a carrier for bacteria is scarce, and we could find no reference at all for its relation to protozoa. We [...] studied microscopically the excreta from 1200 snails captured in Anzoátegui, Monagas, Sucre and Nueva Esparta states, in northeast Venezuela. The pedal mucus and feces were infected by the protozoa Chilomastix spp., Trichomonas spp., Giardia spp., Balantidium spp., Entamoeba spp., Iodamoeba spp., Blastocystis spp., as well as helminthes of Ascarioidea, Trichuroidea, Ancylostomatidae and Cestoda groups. The only helminthes found in the cephalopodal mucus were Rhabditida larvae. The three excreta were also infected by the bacteria: Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. azaenae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Campylobacter spp. Risk of infection and transmission mechanisms as well as the composition of the excreta as appropriate physiological niches for the organisms mentioned, are discussed with regard to the epidemiological importance of this snail for in human and veterinary health.

  13. New species of Thaumastus from Lagoa Santa region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimuloidea) / Nova espécie de Thaumastus da região de Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brasil (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimuloidea)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Meire Silva, Pena; Norma Campos, Salgado; Arnaldo C. dos Santos, Coelho.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Thaumastus (Thaumastus) Martens, 1860, do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, é descrita e ilustrada, com base na morfologia da concha, mandíbula, rádula e partes moles. [...] Abstract in english A new species of Thaumastus (Thaumastus) Martens, 1860, from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is described and illustrated, based on the morphology of the shell, jaw, radula and soft parts. [...

  14. Comparative morphology of Astraea latispina (Philippi, 1844) and Astraea olfersii (Philippi, 1846) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Turbinidae) / Morfologia comparada de Astraea latispina (Philippi, 1844) e Astraea olfersii (Philippi, 1846) (MOLLUSCA, GASTROPODA, TURBINIDAE)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. C., MONTEIRO; A. C. S., COELHO.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo trata do exame comparativo das partes moles dos turbinídeos Astraea latispina e Astraea olfersii. Os caracteres das partes moles dessas espécies, concordantes com a organização dos Trochoidea, proporcionaram diagnose diferencial quanto aos lóbulos cefálicos, apêndice do pedúnculo o [...] cular, glândulas hipobranquiais, mandíbulas, rádulas e ceco espiral do estômago, fornecendo um número maior de dados que poderão auxiliar em estudos taxonômicos. Abstract in english The present study examines comparatively the soft parts of turbinids Astraea latispina and Astraea olfersii. The characters of soft parts of these species, in agreement with Trochoidea organization, allow a differencial diagnosis on the cefalic lappets, appendix of eye-stalk, hypobranchial glands, j [...] aws, radulae, and stomach spiral caecum, which information will be helpful in taxonomic studies.

  15. Distribution of pteropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thecosomata) in surface waters (0-100 m) of the Western Caribbean Sea (winter, 2007) / Distribución de pterópodos (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thecosomata) en aguas superficiales (0-100 m) del Mar Caribe Occidental (invierno, 2007)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Parra-Flores; Rebeca, Gasca.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la distribución vertical y horizontal de los pterópodos tecosomados en la capa superior de los 100 m del Mar Caribe occidental. El zooplancton fue recolectado en 60 estaciones durante enero 2007 en intervalos de profundidad de 25 m desde la superfici [...] e a 100 m. La comunidad fue analizada en términos de diversidad, equidad, riqueza y similitud. Encontramos 36 taxa de los que 12 son nuevos registros para el Caribe occidental. Los taxa más abundantes fueron Limacina inflata, L. trochiformis, Creseis acicula f. clava, Cuvierina columnella atlantica y Hyalocylis striata. En general, mostraron un mismo patrón, sus mayores abundancias ocurrieron consistentemente en el estrato 0-25 m de día y noche; la abundancia decrece con la profundidad. Se encontraron diferencias significativas día/noche en composición y abundancia, no así entre estratos. El estrato de 0-25 m contiene los mayores valores de riqueza, diversidad y abundancia de pterópodos, lo que representa un hallazgo sin precedente respecto a estudios previos. La estructura de la comunidad local está determinada en gran medida por las migraciones verticales día/noche. Los pterópodos tendieron a ser más abundantes en los sectores norte y sur del área, pero su mayor diversidad y riqueza se registró en el sector central. La baja variabilidad de las condiciones hidrográficas y la mezcla horizontal de los grupos generados por el análisis de similitud sugieren que los patrones migratorios día/noche explican la variabilidad observada en la comunidad de pterópodos. Abstract in english The main goal of this survey was to study the vertical and horizontal distribution of the thecosome pteropods in the upper 100 m of the western Caribbean Sea. Zooplankton was collected at 60 stations in January 2007 at stratified depth intervals of 25 m from the surface to 100 m. The community was a [...] nalyzed for diversity, evenness, species richness, and similarity. We recorded 36 taxa 12 of which are new records for the western Caribbean. The most abundant taxa were Limacina inflata, L. trochiformis, Creseis acicula f. clava, Cuvierina columnella atlantica, and Hyalocylis striata. In general, these taxa showed a similar pattern, their highest abundances occurred consistently in 0-25 m layer in both night and day samples; abundance decreased with depth. Significant day/night differences were found in the composition and abundance of pteropods, differences among depth intervals were non-significant. Our results showed that the upper 25 m harbored the highest species richness, diversity, and vertical abundance of pteropods, thus providing unprecedented detail with respect to previous surveys. The local community structure of the pteropods is determined largely by vertical day/night migrations. Pteropods tended to be most abundant in the southern and northern sectors of the area, but highest diversity and species richness were recorded in the central sector. Overall, the low variability of the hydrographic conditions and the mixed horizontal distribution of the clusters from the similarity analysis suggest that day/night migratory patterns of the most abundant taxa are determinant of the observed variability of the pteropod community.

  16. Population dynamics and reproductive biology of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Salvador - Bahia / Dinâmica populacional e biologia reprodutiva de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) na cidade de Salvador - Bahia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eder Carvalho da, Silva; Elianne Pessoa, Omena.

    2014-09-02

    Full Text Available Os riscos com a introdução de espécies invasoras são enormes e incalculáveis. Constando como uma das 100 espécies de maior potencial invasor, Achatina fulica se destaca dos demais gastrópodes pulmonados terrestres, principalmente, pelo seu elevado potencial reprodutivo que acelera o processo de disp [...] ersão, aumentando os danos relacionados è saúde (transmissão de doenças), è economia (destruição de cultivos) e ao meio ambiente (perda da biodiversidade). Com o intuito de investigar as relações do caramujo africano com o ambiente, tentando relacionar atividade sexual com variáveis climáticas (temperatura, precipitação e umidade), foi realizado um estudo sobre aspectos da sua dinâmica populacional e biologia reprodutiva na cidade de Salvador. Os caramujos foram coletados manualmente, mensalmente. Dados morfométricos foram obtidos em campo e dissecações para estudo do sistema reprodutivo em laboratório. Para testar se havia uma maior atividade sexual em períodos úmidos foi realizada, inicialmente, uma Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA) com as variáveis climáticas, seguida de uma regressão entre a precipitação (variável ambiental com maior influencia) e a variável de interesse (atividade sexual). Os resultados mostraram que há um aparente ciclo anual para A. fulica, com um período de recrutamento abrangendo o final da estação chuvosa e a estação seca (agosto a dezembro de 2006 e fevereiro de 2007). O aumento do tamanho da concha (altura) e da atividade sexual foi observado durante a estação chuvosa, embora tenham sido encontrados caramujos em plena atividade sexual em todo o período de estudo. A curva de von Bertalanffy mostrou que o exemplar mais velho teria três anos e onze meses. A regressão entre a precipitação e a atividade sexual foi significativa (P = 0,002) mostrando que precipitações mais elevadas aumentam a atividade sexual. Além disso, observou-se que a espessura do perístoma aumenta è medida que o individuo atinge a maturidade sexual, porém esta relação não é precisa (havia indivíduos com estruturas sexuais não consistentes com o estagio reprodutivo dado pela espessura do perístoma) e deve ser ajustada para cada região estudada. Como a erradicação se torna impossível pelos níveis de invasão encontrados em Salvador, é recomendada, para controlar a população de caramujos africanos, a remoção continua de espécimes, especialmente nos períodos de chuva. Abstract in english The risks following introduction of invasive species are enormous and incalculable. Achatina fulica is considered one of the 100 species of greatest invasive potential, stands out among the land pulmonate snails, mostly for its high reproductive potential that accelerates the process of dispersion, [...] increasing the damages related to health (disease transmission), to economy (crops destruction) and to environment (biodiversity loss). In order to investigate the relationship of the African snail with the environment, trying to relate sexual activity with climatic variables (temperature, rainfall and humidity), a study was conducted on aspects of population dynamics and reproductive biology in Salvador city. The snails were collected by hand, monthly. Morphometric data were obtained in the field and dissections to analyze the reproductive system at laboratory. To test if there was a greater sexual activity in wet periods was performed first a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with climatic variables, followed by a regression between precipitation (the most influential environmental variable) and the variable of interest (sexual activity). The results showed that there is an apparent annual cycle for A. fulica, with a recruitment period covering the end of rainy season and the dry season (August to December 2006 and February 2007). Increase of shell size (height) and of sexual activity were observed during the rainy season, although snails were found in full sexual activity during the whole period of study. The von Bertalanffy curve showed that

  17. Microanatomia e histologia do sistema digestivo de Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae): V. Glândula digestiva Microanatomy and histology of the digestive system of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae): V. Digestive gland

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet; José Willibaldo Thomé; Josef Hauser

    1993-01-01

    The digestive gland of Phyllocaulis soleiformis is a compound tubular gland. The secretory tubules are made up of two main cell types: the digestive cells and calcic cells. The digestive cells are the most numerous, usually columnar, and exhibit three different functional stages: absorptive, secretory and excretory. These cells contain two cytoplasmic granules types and, in the excretory stage, most of the cell is occupied by a large vacuole. The calcic cells occursingly or frequently in grou...

  18. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  19. Characterization of the geographical distribution pattern of the family Limacinidae Gray, 1840 (Mollusca - Gastropoda) in the waters of Northeastern of Brazil / Caracterização do padrão de distribuição geográfica da família Limacinidae Gray, 1840 (Mollusca - Gastropoda) nas águas do Nordeste brasileiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdeni Soares de Oliveira, Koblitz; Maria Eduarda de L., Larrazábal.

    2014-04-23

    Full Text Available A distribuição geográfica da família Limacinidae na costa do Nordeste brasileiro, foi analisada levando em consideração os aspectos ecológicos mais relevantes, objetivando a ampliação do conhecimento sobre a família. O material foi coletado durante a IV Expedição Oceanográfica do Programa REVIZEE (A [...] valiação do Potencial Sustentável de Recursos Vivos da Zona Econômica Exclusiva), nos meses de setembro a dezembro de 2000. A área estudada está localizada entre 00°46’45”N a 13°53’45”S - 29°15’40”W a 39°49’42”W, onde foram realizados seis cruzeiros, totalizando 123 estações. As amostras foram coletadas em rede tipo bongo (malhas coletoras de 300 e 500 µm, com aros de 60 cm de diâmetro) acopladas com fluxômetro digital, em arrastos oblíquos na profundidade de 0 a 200 m. Foram considerados os organismos retidos na malha de 300 µm. A bordo, as amostras foram acondicionadas em recipientes plásticos, etiquetadas e fixadas em formaldeído a 4%, tamponado com tetraborato de sódio. Em laboratório, as amostras foram analisadas em placa do tipo “Bogorov”, sob estereomicroscópio binocular. Foram examinados 5655 indivíduos da família Limacinidae, assim distribuídos: 03 gêneros e 05 espécies. Os representantes da família Limacinidae ocorreram em altas temperaturas e salinidades, caracterizando-se, assim, como tropicais e euhalinos. Heliconoides inflatus sobressaiu em abundância e frequência. Limacina lesueurii mostrou-se uma espécie rara e pouco frequente. Limacina trochiformis e L. bulimoides foram pouco abundantes e pouco frequentes. Limacina lesueurii e L. bulimoides foram registradas como primeira ocorrência em águas neríticas, sendo este o primeiro registro de L. lesueurii para as águas do Nordeste brasileiro. Limacina trochiformis e L. bulimoides tiveram ampla distribuição, apesar de pouco frequentes e pouco abundantes. A distribuição de Thielea helicoides restringiu-se às águas oceânicas. Foi observada uma correlação entre Limacina bulimoides, Heliconoides inflatus, Thielea helicoides e L. lesueurii por coexistirem no mesmo nicho. Abstract in english The geographical distribution of the family Limacinidae in the Northeastern coast of Brazil was analyzed by taking into account the most relevant ecological aspects, aiming to increase the knowledge about the Family. The material was collected during the 4th Oceanographic Expedition of the REVIZEE p [...] rogram (Assessment of the Sustainable Potential of Living Resources in the Exclusive Economic Zone - Avaliação do Potencial Sustentável de Recursos Vivos da Zona Econômica Exclusiva), in the months from September to December 2000. The studied area is located between 00°46’45”N and 13°53’45”S and between 29°15’40”W and 39°49’42”W, where six trips were performed, totaling 123 stations. The samples were collected using a bongo net (300- and 500-µm mesh size and net mouths of 60 cm in diameter) coupled with a digital flowmeter in oblique hauls from a depth of 0 to 200 m. For this study, the organisms retained in the 300-µm mesh were considered. On board the ship, the samples were placed in plastic containers, labeled, and fixed in 4% formaldehyde buffered with sodium tetraborate. In the laboratory, the samples were analyzed on a “Bogorov” tray under a binocular stereomicroscope. A total of 5655 individuals of the family Limacinidae were examined and were distributed as follows: 3 genera and 5 species. Representatives of the family Limacinidae were observed at high temperatures and salinities and were thus characterized as tropical and euhaline. Heliconoides inflatus was the species with the greatest abundance and frequency. Limacina lesueurii proved to be a rare, infrequently observed species. Limacina trochiformis and L. bulimoides were not abundant or frequent. Limacina lesueurii and L. bulimoides were recorded in neritic waters for the first time; this was also the first record of L. lesueurii in the waters of Northeastern Brazil. Limacina trochiformis an

  20. Composición, abundancia y distribución de Pteropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) en la zona nerítica, del sur del Golfo de México (Agosto, 1995) / Composition, abundance and distribution of Pteropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) on the neritic zone, at the southern Gulf of Mexico (August, 1995)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    César, Flores-Coto; Hisol L., Arellanes; Jesús, Sánchez Robles; Antonio, López Serrano.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la composición distribución y abundancia de los pterópodos en relación a las condiciones hidrográficas de la columna de agua (0 a 105 m) en el Golfo de México. Durante agosto de 1995, se recolectaron 95 muestras de zooplancton en 28 estaciones sobre la plataforma continental, distribuidas [...] en cinco transectos frente a los principales sistemas lagunares del sur del Golfo de México, desde la desembocadura del rio Coatzacoalcos, hasta Boca de Paso Real de la Laguna de Términos. Las muestras se recolectaron en cinco niveles de profundidad. De los taxa identificados, tres de ellos constituyeron el 90% de la abundancia total de pterópodos: Creseis acicula f. acicula (72.7%), C. acicula f. clava (8.2%) y Limacina trochiformis (9.3%). La mayor densidad del grupo ocurrió en los primeros 18 m, sin embargo, 19 de los 39 grupos registrados, no ocurrieron en la capa más superficial (0 a 6 m) y otros lo hicieron con bajas densidades. Los resultados de Análisis Canónico de Correspondencia (ACC) permiten considerar que ningún parámetro por si solo determina la distribución de estos organismos en la columna de agua, pero en cambio sí el hábitat. Las especies de afinidad tropical/subtropical y hábitat nerítico fueron las más abundantes y ocurrieron principalmente en la capa superficial, en tanto que las formas oceánicas fueron las de menor abundancia y ocurrieron principalmente en las capas profundas, probablemente como resultado de la entrada de agua oceánica a la plataforma en su parte más profunda. Abstract in english The composition, distribution, and abundance of pteropods were analyzed in relation to hydrographic conditions of the water column (0 to 105 m) in the Gulf of Mexico. Up to 95 samples of zooplankton were collected during August 1995 at 28 stations arranged in five transects on the continental shelf [...] off the main lagoonal systems in the southern Gulf of Mexico, from the Coatzacoalcos River inlet to Paso Real inlet of Términos lagoon . Samples were collected at five depth ranges. Three of the identified taxa constituted 90% of the total pteropod abundance: Creseis aciculaf. acicula (72.7%), C. acicula f clava (8.2%), and Limacina trochiformis (9.3%). The highest density of the group occurred within the first 18 m, but 19 of the 39 groups registered were absent from the surface layer (0-6 m), and others had low densities. The results of a CCA suggest that not one parameter by itself determines the distribution of these organisms in the water column, but the habitat of the species does. Species with tropical/subtropical and coastal affinities were the most abundant and occurred mainly in the surface layer, while the oceanic forms were less abundant and occurred mainly in the deep layers probably resulting from the inflow of oceanic water toward the shelf at its deepest layers.

  1. Microanatomia e histologia do sistema digestivo de Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae): V. Glândula digestiva / Microanatomy and histology of the digestive system of Phyllocaulis soleiformis (Orbigny, 1835) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae): V. Digestive gland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria, Leal-Zanchet; José Willibaldo, Thomé; Josef, Hauser.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The digestive gland of Phyllocaulis soleiformis is a compound tubular gland. The secretory tubules are made up of two main cell types: the digestive cells and calcic cells. The digestive cells are the most numerous, usually columnar, and exhibit three different functional stages: absorptive, secreto [...] ry and excretory. These cells contain two cytoplasmic granules types and, in the excretory stage, most of the cell is occupied by a large vacuole. The calcic cells occursingly or frequently in groups of two or three, are triangular shaped and have distinct apical granules, and yet calcic histochemical detected granules. In addition, there is a third cell type, without characteristic cytoplasmic granules and which correspond to the undifferentiated cells. The excretory duets system are represented by anterior and posterior vestibules, which branche to form the duets, that communicate with the secretory tubules. These excretory duets are lined with a simple epithelium of ciliated columnar cells, followed by a layer of connective tissue with circular and longitudinal muscular fibers. Subepithelial mucous cells are present only in the vestibules.

  2. Primer reporte de infección natural de Galba cubensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) con larvas de Paramphistomidae (Trematoda: Digenea) en Cuba / First report on Galba cubensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) naturally infected with larvae of Paramphistomidae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio A, Vázquez Perera; Jorge, Sánchez Noda; Annia, Alba Menéndez; Eolian, Rodríguez Vara; Adonis, Pino Santos.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los estudios acerca de las especies de trematodos digeneos que existen en Cuba son escasos y vinculados fundamentalmente a aquellas especies que provocan enfermedades parasitarias importantes en el humano. A esto se añade el hecho de que el hospedero intermediario es desconocido para m [...] uchos de los trematodos existentes. En particular, 8 especies de Paramphistomatidae se han reportado en Cuba; aunque no se conocen, hasta el momento, las especies de moluscos involucradas en la transmisión de esta familia de parásitos. Objetivo: reportar la infección natural en el molusco Galba cubensis con larvas de trematodos. Métodos: se colectaron moluscos fluviales de forma manual en condiciones naturales en la localidad La Coca. Los individuos se colocaron en los laboratorios de malacología hasta la emisión de cercarias. La identificación de las formas larvarias se realizó por medio de claves morfológicas para trematodos. Resultados: en este reporte se informa, por primera vez en Cuba, al caracol Galba cubensis infectado de forma natural con paramfistómidos. Conclusiones: las características ecológicas de Galba cubensis, así como su preferencia de hábitat, en Cuba podrían contribuir a la transmisión de paramfistómidos. Abstract in english Introduction: studies on digenean trematode species living in Cuba are scarce and mainly focused on species causing major parasitic diseases in humans. Moreover, the intermediary host for many of the trematodes has not been found. Eight species of Paramphistomatidae have been reported in Cuba, but t [...] he mollusk species involved in transmission of this parasite family are still unknown. Objective: report natural infection of the mollusk Galba cubensis with trematode larvae. Methods: fluvial mollusks were collected manually under natural conditions in the area of La Coca. Individuals were kept in malacology laboratories until cercariae were issued. Identification of larval forms was based on morphological keys for trematodes. Results: in this report the snail Galba cubensis is reported for the first time in Cuba as naturally infected with paramphistomids. Conclusions: the ecological characteristics of Galba cubensis, as well as its habitat preferences in Cuba could contribute to the transmission of paramphistomids on the island.

  3. Bioindicator Thais carinifera (mollusca, gastropoda): imposex response and consequences along the Pakistan coast during the period from 1993 to 2012

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nuzhat, Afsar; Ghazala, Siddiqui; Zarrien, Ayub.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O fenômeno hormonal "imposex" foi investigado e relatado para o gastrópode muricídeo Thais carinifera durante duas décadas, de 1993 a 2012, em três das seis localidades investigadas ao longo da costa de Sindh and Balochistão, Paquistão. Os estágios VDS 1 a 4 foram aparentes na espécie. A inte [...] nsidade do imposex permaneceu comparativamente baixa nas populações dos portos próximos do porto de Mohammad Bin-Qasim, especificamente em Old Korangi Fish Harbour (OKFH) e New Korangi Fish Harbour (NKFH), onde as atividades portuárias são esporádicas quando comparadas às de Manora Channel e à área adjacente do Porto de Karachi, onde a atividade portuária é mais intensa. A espécie alvo mostrou-se um bom bioindicador por ter apresentado decréscimo acentuado ao longo do extenso período de estudo. As investigações mostraram que esse decréscimo é apenas devido ao efetivo banimento globalmente imposto da tributiltina (TBT) como base de tintas anti-incrustantes ocorrido na década passada. Abstract in english Abstract Endocrine mediated "imposex" phenomenon was investigated and recorded in the muricoid gastropod species Thais carinifera during the two decades from 1993 to 2012 at three (3) sites out of six (6) localities investigated along the Sindh and Balochistan coast, Pakistan. The VDS stages 1 to 4 [...] were apparent in Thais carinifera. The intensity of imposex has remained comparatively low in the populations of harbours in close proximity to port Mohammad Bin-Qasim, namely; Old Korangi Fish Harbour (OKFH) and New Korangi Fish Harbour (NKFH) where shipping activities are sporadic as compared to those in Manora Channel and the adjoining Karachi Port area where intensive shipping activity is rather frequent. Target species found to be good bioindicators have shown a marked decrease over the prolonged study period. Investigations show that this decrease is solely due to globally imposed effective bans on tributyltin (TBT) based antifouling paints over the past decade.

  4. Opisthobranchs from the western Indian Ocean, with descriptions of two new species and ten new records (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Yonow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seventy species of opisthobranchs are described in this work based on collections from the Persian Gulf, Socotra, Kenya, Zanzibar, Madagascar, La Réunion, Mauritius, the Seychelles, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. Ten species are newly recorded from the western Indian Ocean and four species are recorded in the scientific literature for the first time since their original descriptions. Two species are described as new: Cyerce bourbonica sp. n. from La Réand Doriopsilla nigrocera sp. n. from the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. Chromodoris cavae is removed from its synonymy with C. tennentana and redescribed from specimens from La Réunion, while several new synonyms are proposed for some commonly occurring species. Risbecia bullockii is recorded for the second time from the Indian Ocean and assigned to its correct genus.

  5. Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana, Gundlachia radiata Helisoma (= Planorbella) trivolvis, Melanoides tuberculata, Neritina punctulata, and Physa marmorata. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as Gundlachia radiata and Hel...

  6. Do the changes in temperature and light affect the functional response of the benthic mud snail Heleobia australis (Mollusca: Gastropoda)?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    THAISA R.F., MAGALHÃES; RAQUEL A.F., NEVES; JEAN L., VALENTIN; GISELA M., FIGUEIREDO.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a influência do aumento de temperatura associado à incidência luminosa na resposta funcional de Heleobia australis. Experimentos foram conduzidos utilizando nove a dez concentrações de alimento para cada tratamento: 20°C sem luz, 30°C sem luz e 30°C sob baixa i [...] ncidência luminosa. Para cada experimento, a resposta funcional tipo III (sigmoidal) apresentou o melhor ajuste e os parâmetros das equações foram determinados. Os resultados sugerem que com o aumento da temperatura no sedimento, H. australis não terá sua taxa de ingestão afetada negativamente. Por outro lado, seu comportamento alimentar parece ser negativamente afetado pela incidência luminosa. As taxas de ingestão estimadas para o conteúdo orgânico na Baía de Guanabara foram: 0,34 µgC ind–1h–1 a 20°C em ausência de luz, 1.44 µgC ind–1h–1 a 30°C em ausência de luz e 0,64 µgC ind–1h–1 a 30°C sob incidência luminosa. Nesta situação, as maiores taxas de ingestão foram estimadas em condições de alta temperatura, mesmo com incidência luminosa, sugerindo que a temperatura parece ter um efeito que predomina sobre o efeito da luz. Porém, considerando maiores concentrações de carbono, mesmo em temperatura alta, o experimento realizado com incidência luminosa apresentou taxas de ingestão mais baixas que aquelas do experimento conduzido a 20°C em ausência de luz. Este estudo fornece a primeira quantificação das taxas de ingestão de H. australis e os efeitos das modificações na temperatura e incidência luminosa no seu comportamento alimentar. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine the influence of temperature increase combined to conditions of light incidence on functional response of Heleobia australis. Experiments were conducted using nine to ten food concentrations for each treatment: 20°C without light; 30°C without light and, 30°C u [...] nder low light intensity. For each experiment, the functional response type III (sigmoidal) was fitted and equation parameters were determined. Results suggest that, if the sediment temperature increases, H. australis will not have its ingestion rates affected negatively, whilst its feeding behavior seems to be negatively affected by light. Ingestion rates estimated for organic content in the Guanabara Bay were: 0.34 µgC ind–1h–1 at 20°C without light, 1.44 µgC ind–1h–1 at 30°C without light and 0.64 µgC ind–1h–1 at 30°C under light incidence. Higher ingestion rates were estimated at the high temperature, even under light incidence, and temperature seems to have outweighed the light effect. In contrast, if higher carbon content is considered, despite high temperature, the experiment conducted with light incidence showed lower ingestion rates than those from the experiment at 20°C without light. This study provides the first quantification of H. australis ingestion rates and the effects that changes in temperature and light have on its feeding behavior.

  7. The effect of stocking density on the growth of apple snails native Pomacea bridgesii and exotic Pomacea lineata (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ESMAR SOUZA, JUNIOR; JOSE CARLOS N. DE, BARROS; KARLA, PARESQUE; RODRIGO R. DE, FREITAS.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for alternative food sources is currently in evidence in the world and, therefore, the culture of animal species considered not conventional makes this theme relevant and appropriate. In the present study, the species Pomacea lineata and Pomacea bridgesii, each with three stowage densitie [...] s (0.5 [T1], 1 [T2], and 1.5 [T3] animal/L), were tested. They were analyzed regarding growth rate, weight gain, final biomass, feed conversion and percentage of survival. There was not any statistically significant difference between the different densities for both species. The final average weight in the three waterworks did not differ significantly in P. bridgesii. In P. lineata, T1 (22.3 ± 1.80g) was significantly higher than T2 and T3. On the other hand, the absolute gain of weight in P. lineata and P. bridgesii was significantly higher in T1 (21.9 ± 1.80g and 37.2 ± 6.34g) than in T2 and T3 respectively. In contrast, the gain of biomass of P. lineata and P. bridgesii was significantly higher in T3 (276.3 ± 33.16g and 431.4 ± 37.20g) than in T1 and T2, respectively. Based on the results obtained, all species studied presented potential for aquaculture, mainly P. bridgesii, distinguished for showing a better development even in waterworks with higher densities.

  8. Annotated type catalogue of the Megaspiridae, Orthalicidae, and Simpulopsidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham S.H. Breure

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described for 65 taxa of the Orthalicoidea, classified within the families Megaspiridae (14, Orthalicidae (30, and Simpulopsidae (20; one taxon is considered a nomen inquirendum. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Helix brephoides d’Orbigny, 1835; Simpulopsis cumingi Pfeiffer, 1861; Bulimulus (Protoglyptus dejectus Fulton, 1907; Bulimus iris Pfeiffer, 1853. The type status of Bulimus salteri Sowerby III, 1890, and Strophocheilus (Eurytus subirroratus da Costa, 1898 is now changed to lectotype according Art. 74.6 ICZN. The taxa Bulimus loxostomus Pfeiffer, 1853, Bulimus marmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855, Bulimus meobambensis Pfeiffer, 1855, and Orthalicus powissianus var. niveus Preston 1909 are now figured for the first time. The following taxa are now considered junior subjective synonyms: Bulimus marmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Helix (Cochlogena citrinovitrea Moricand, 1836; Vermiculatus Breure, 1978 = Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882. New combinations are: Kuschelenia (Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia aequatoria (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia aquila (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia badia (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia caliginosa (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia coagulata (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kara indentata (da Costa, 1901; Clathrorthalicus magnificus (Pfeiffer, 1848; Simpulopsis (Eudioptus marmartensis (Pfeiffer, 1855; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia nucina (Reeve, 1850; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia peaki (Breure, 1978; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Clathrorthalicus phoebus (Pfeiffer, 1863; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia polymorpha (d’Orbigny, 1835; Scholvienia porphyria (Pfeiffer, 1847; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia purpurata (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia quechuarum Crawford, 1939; Quechua salteri (Sowerby III, 1890; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia subfasciata Pfeiffer, 1853; Clathrorthalicus victor (Pfeiffer, 1854. In an addedum a lectotype is being designated for Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus var. pallidus Preston, 1909. An index is included to all taxa mentioned in this paper and the preceding ones in this series (Breure and Ablett 2011, 2012, 2014.

  9. Dynamics and ecology of an Indo-Pacific conch,Conomurex persicus (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in southeastern Turkey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erhan, Mutlu; Mehmet, Betil Ergev.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El gastrópodo tropical Conomurex persicurs, ha sido introducido a una región subtropical, el noreste del Mar Mediterráneo, y ha invadido los fondos arenosos en un rango de profundidad de 1 a 10 m. Se estudiarion las dinámicas poblacionales a partir de especímenes recolectados mediante un dragado est [...] ándard (60 x 15 cm de apertura de entrada y 0.5 x 0.5 cm de tramado). Muestras de C. persicus fueron recolectadas mensualmente a produndidades de 5 y 10 m en las cercanías de Erdemil, Mersin, Turkey, en los meses de febrero y mayo del año 2000. La densidad dentro de un mismo año depende de los niveles de salinidad, mientras que al comparar años distintos está correlacionada con la temperatura del agua. Abstract in english Conomurex persicus, one of the tropical conchs, has been introduced to one of the subtropical regions, the northeastern Mediterranean Sea, and invaded sandy bottoms between 1 and 10 m deep. Population dynamics were studied from specimens collected with a standard dredge (60 x 15 cm mouth opening, 0. [...] 5 x 0.5 cm eye opening of net). Samples of C. persicus were collected monthly along the 5 and 10 m depth contours off Erdemli, Mersin, Turkey, in February and May 2000. Intra-annual density depended on salinity levels, while inter-annual density was correlated with bottom water temperature. Specimens underwent spring emergences and winter burial and sheltering (disappearance). Emergence took place in March when temperatures rose and the disappearance occurred in October-November when temperatures dropped. Adults live at 10 m, juveniles are recruited at a 5 m depth. Recruitment began in April and continued for the next 6 months. In contrast to shell width or shell lip thickness, shell length was not a convenient index for estimation of growth parameters. Annual production and mortality were calculated to be 7.86 g m-2 and 3.80 g m-2, respectively, in April-November. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1): 117-129. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

  10. Focal benthic mollusks (Mollusca: Bivalvia and Gastropoda of selected sites in Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park, Palawan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger G. Dolorosa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park from May 6-11, 2005. Seven preestablished stations with survey sites at 5 and 10 m depth and one intertidal area were assessed using 150m permanent belt transects. Focal benthic mollusks found one meter to the left and right of transects wereidentified and counted. A total of 19 species belonging to eight families were recorded, of which 15species are univalves. In the intertidal area a total of 12 species were noted, 13 species at the shallow (5m and five species at deeper (10 m areas. Species belonging to the family Tridacnidae and Trochidaewere the most abundant. Among the subtidal stations, the highest number of individuals was noted at ashallow reef flat (station VI. In terms of density, the intertidal area had the highest (213,310 ind. km-2followed by the shallow (72,870 ind. km-2 and the deep with 5,720 ind. km-2.The densities of Tridacna crocea (133,330 ind. km-2 and Hippopus hippopus (3,330 ind. km-2 at theintertidal area were found to be higher than in most other survey sites in Palawan but previous densityrecords at the park indicate a stiff decline. On the contrary, the first record on the density of T. squamosa(950 ind. km-2 at the park is much lower compared to that from other parts of Palawan. Large andcommercially valuable gastropods like, Trochus niloticus, Tectus maculatus and T. pyramis that are rarelyencountered at the intertidal areas were abundant at the TRNMP. Other important species like Tridacnagigas, Charonia tritonis and Cassis cornuta were not encountered at the study sites. To fully assess theabundance of focal mollusks, permanent transects should be established in the same seven sites but inshallow reef flat of about 2 m deep, in the lagoon and in the intertidal of North and South Islets wherespecies composition, density and growth could be monitored on an annual basis which could be used toevaluate the management effectiveness at the TRNMP.

  11. Focal benthic mollusks (Mollusca: Bivalvia and Gastropoda) of selected sites in Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park, Palawan, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Roger G. Dolorosa; Sabine Schoppe

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted at Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park from May 6-11, 2005. Seven preestablished stations with survey sites at 5 and 10 m depth and one intertidal area were assessed using 150m permanent belt transects. Focal benthic mollusks found one meter to the left and right of transects wereidentified and counted. A total of 19 species belonging to eight families were recorded, of which 15species are univalves. In the intertidal area a total of 12 species were noted, 13 species a...

  12. Effect of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation on Biomphalaria Glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) embryos: mortality, malformation and hatching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radiobiologia; Andrade Junior, H.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Inst. de Medicina Tropical; Kawano, T. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Biologia Celular

    1996-12-31

    A study was carried out on the radiosensitivity of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos submitted to doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy of {sup 60} Co during the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages. Mortality, malformation and hatching were the parameters used to evaluate the damage induced by ionizing radiation. Estimated L D{sub 50} values (15 days) showed that the cleavage stage (4.3 Gy) was approximately four times more radiosensitive than the trochophore stage (17.0 Gy). Susceptibility to malformation induction was higher in the blastula, gastrula and young trochophore stages. Several types of morphogenetic malformations were observed, such as head malformations, exogastrulas, shell malformations, and embryos with everted stomodeum, with nonspecific malformations being the most frequent. The types of malformation induced by radiation probably are not radiation-specific and do not depend on the dose applied. The dose of 15 Gy was sufficient to greatly reduce the number of hatching snails regardless of the embryonic stage irradiated. We conclude that the effect of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation on B. glabrata embryos presented a specific pattern. (author) 41 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Description of a new species of the genus Arganiella Giusti & Pezzoli, 1980 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae) from the Iberian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Arconada, B.; Ramos, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    [EN] A new species of Arganiella Giusti & Pezzoli, 1980, up to now a monotypic genus, thought to be endemic to the Italian Central Apennines, is described from the Iberian Peninsula. This new species, named Arganiella tartessica, is located in southwestern Spain, provinces of Huelva and Badajoz. In this paper, a detailed description of its morphological characters is given and new data of nervous system and ciliated areas in the cephalic region are provided.

  14. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arnaldo, Maldonado Júnior; Raquel O, Simões; Ana Paula M, Oliveira; Esther M, Motta; Mônica A, Fernandez; Zilene M, Pereira; Simone S, Monteiro; Eduardo J Lopes, Torres; Silvana Carvalho, Thiengo.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the munici [...] palities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  15. Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l-1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability

  16. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, D.; Alesina, J. J.; Giménez, A; Nevado, J. C.; M. Paracuellos

    2003-01-01

    Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002), systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area...

  17. Conservational status and demographic characteristics of Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Mollusca, Gastropoda on the Alboran Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paracuellos, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high risk of the global extinction in which Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 is found, it is considered of great interest to describe and quantify its demographic characteristics in those sites where it still persists, as well as to evaluate the reasons which have led this limpet to be one of the most threatened marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Over the study period (2000-2002, systematic census were made on the perimeter of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, westernmost area of the Mediterranean Sea with the object to quantify the abundance of the species in the locality, as well as their external biometry and spatial distribution. As a result, the presence of a probable reproductive population of P. ferruginea was found on the island. The negative effect provoked by the continuous presence of man was proved, prejudicing the population in those zones which were more accessible for their harvesting. For this reason, it is necessary to regulate the use of the natural resources of the island to favour the conservation and spontaneous recolonisation of the zone by P. ferruginea.

  18. Development and validation of an OECD reproductive toxicity test guideline with the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Askem, Clare; Azam, Didier; Brettschneider, Denise; Brown, Rebecca; Charles, Sandrine; Coke, Maïra; Collinet, Marc; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Forfait-Dubuc, Carole; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas; Jach, Arne; Kinnberg, Karin L; Lacoste, Cédric; Le Page, Gareth; Matthiessen, Peter; Oehlmann, Jörg; Rice, Lynsey; Roberts, Edward; Ruppert, Katharina; Davis, Jessica Elphinstone; Veauvy, Clemence; Weltje, Lennart; Wortham, Ruth; Lagadic, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    The OECD test guideline development program has been extended in 2011 to establish a partial life-cycle protocol for assessing the reproductive toxicity of chemicals to several mollusk species, including the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. In this paper, we summarize the standard draft protocol for a reproduction test with this species, and present inter-comparison results obtained in a 56-day prevalidation ring-test using this protocol. Seven European laboratories performed semi-static tests with cultured snails of the strain Renilys® exposed to nominal concentrations of cadmium chloride (from 53 to 608?gCdL(-1)). Cd concentrations in test solutions were analytically determined to confirm accuracy in the metal exposure concentrations in all laboratories. Physico-chemical and biological validity criteria (namely dissolved oxygen content >60% ASV, water temperature 20±1°C, control snail survival >80% and control snail fecundity >8 egg-masses per snail over the test period) were met in all laboratories which consistently demonstrated the reproductive toxicity of Cd in snails using the proposed draft protocol. Effect concentrations for fecundity after 56days were reproducible between laboratories (68

  19. Thais (Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thaididae, a potential bioindicator of contamination by organotin northeast Brazil

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    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antifouling paints containing the biocide compound tributyltin (TBT has been shown as an inductor of imposex in neogastropods mollusks. Imposex is characterized by the development of male features in females, mainly the appearance of a no functional vas deferens and penis. Samples of Thais rustica were collected in eight sites in the metropolitan area of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, and examined for occurrence of imposex, which was found in many females. The higher imposex levels were presented by samples from sites near city harbor.A utilização de tintas antiincrustrantes contendo o composto biocida tributilestanho (TBT tem induzido moluscos neogastrópodes ao imposex. O imposex é caracterizado pelo surgimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos, sobretudo, pênis e vaso deferente não funcionais em fêmeas desses moluscos. Foram coletadas amostras de Thais rústica em oito estações ao longo da costa da cidade de Natal no Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais foram analisados quanto a presença e o grau de imposex que apresentavam. Os níveis mais elevados de imposex foram observados na estação mais próxima ao porto.

  20. NEW BREEDING MANAGEMENT FOR SNAILS (MOLLUSCA: GASTROPODA: PULMONATA IN PLASTIC BOXES (RECIPIENTS/CONTEINERS - NUEVO MANEJO PARA LA CRÍA INTENSIVA DE CARACOLES (MOLLUSCA: GASTROPODA: PULMONATA EN CAJAS PLÁSTICAS - NOVO MANEJO PARA A CRIAÇÃO INTENSIVA DE CARACÓIS (MOLLUSCA: GASTROPODA: PULMONATA EM CAIXAS PLÁSTICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carneiro Aquino

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl uso de cajas plásticas para la cría de caracoles no es una novedad. Son prácticas, económicas, fáciles de limpiar, durables, ecologicamente indicada y hasta bonitas.ResumoO uso de caixas plásticas para a criação de caracóis não é novidade. São práticas, baratas, fáceis de higienizar, duráveis, ecologicamente corretas e até bonitas.

  1. Notes on Opisthobranchia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernesto, Marcus.

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available Acteon punctostriatus (C. B. Ad.), ainda não indicado do Brasil, parece ser vastamente distribuído, do Cabo Cod até à região de Bahia Blanca, Argentina. As plaquinhas mandibulares e os dentes da rádula assemelham-se às estruturas correspondentes de A. tornatilis (L.). Haminoea elegans (Gray) tem olh [...] os do tipo de Helix e Gastropteron. O órgão copulador masculino é armado, em oposição às espécies européias. Tornatina candei (d'Orb.) possui rádula e, por isso, não pode continuar no mesmo gênero como Retusa canaliculata (Say). O tipo de Acteocina Gray é uma espécie fóssil. Destarte, não é possível decidir se Acteocina deve substituir Tornatina, como Dall quiz, ou se é um sinônimo de Retusa. A locomoção de T. candei combina o movimento por ondulações da sola com "passos". "Tinteiros" quase pretos da Ilha de Marambaia, ca. de 70 km ao oeste do Rio, pertencem a Aplysia (Tullia) juliana Q. G., apesar da secreção preta da glândula de púrpura. Durante a vasante, numerosos exemplares de Aplysia brasiliana Rang foram encontrados pendurados nas pedras, na posição de morcegos em repouso. Os parapódios envolvem o corpo; a ponta posterior da sola prende-se à pedra. Aplysia párvula Morch, ainda não encontrada no Brasil, foi verificada provinda do Recife da Lixa, diante da costa da Baía. Elysia lobata A. Gd., do atol de Eniwetok, possui somente um receptáculo seminal, a espermateca. A espécie é diáulica. O átrio masculino tem um divertículo como Lobiger souverbiei P. Fisch. Os dentes da rádula são irregularmente amontoados no ascus. Nembrotha divae, sp. n., que pertence a um gênero conhecido, principalmente, do Índico e Pacífico Ocidental, caracteriza-se pela cor escarlate e pelo dente mediano da rádula. Polycera marplatensis Franc. é uma das poucas espécies do nosso litoral até agora somente conhecida da costa argentina. Mandíbula e rádula justificam a separação específica (Odhner 1941) de quadrilineata (O. F. Müll.). Polycera odhneri Mare. tem uma parte glandular no duto masculino e, além disso, uma glândula accessória (próstata). Corambe evelinae, sp. n., difere de G. testu-dinaria H. Fisch., a espécie mais próxima, pelo número (até 7) das lamelas branquiais (testudinaria até 4). O espermatocisto comunica-se com o oviduto internamente à entrada do duto uterino neste. Hancockia ryrea Mare. possui o mesmo divertículo esofágico como H. uncinata (Hesse) e H. californica MacF. As descrições de Polycera aurisula Mare. e Antiopella mucloc Marc. foram completadas pelo exame de novo material. Foi dada uma lista de 12 espécies provindas do Cabo Frio (Dra. Diva Diniz Corrêa leg.). Abstract in english [...

  2. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites(Al Basset, Lattakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus persicus and Spondylus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus persicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  3. Comunidad de moluscos asociados al mejillón verde Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia y sus relaciones tróficas en la costa norte de la Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sioliz Villafranca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Perna viridis es un bivalvo procedente del Indo-Pacífico que habita en la zona intermareal y ha invadido varios ecosistemas de la costa norte del estado Sucre, Venezuela. Con la finalidad de realizar un estudio sobre las comunidades de moluscos asociadas a esta especie y sus relaciones tróficas, se llevaron a cabo muestreos bimensuales entre octubre/97 y agosto/98, en un banco natural de mejillones a dos metros de profundidad en la costa norte de la península de Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W. Los organismos fueron recolectados delimitando el área con una cuadrícula de 0.25 m². Se identificaron los organismos hasta la categoría de especies utilizando claves específicas para moluscos y bibliográficamente se les determinó categoría trófica.Se capturó un total de 1 235 individuos de P. viridis y asociados a la especie 3 163 especímenes pertenecientes al phylum Mollusca, contenidos en tres clases: Bivalvia,Gastropoda y Polyplacophora. Éstas estuvieron representadas por 50 especies correspondientes a 10 órdenes, 24 familias; para los gasterópodos se contabilizaron 25 especies, para los bivalvos 22 y tres para los poliplacóforos. Del total de las especies, 40% fueron filtradoras, 26% carnívoras, 24% herbívoras y el 10% restante presentó dos categorías.De las filtradoras las más representativas fueron: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Ostrea equestris; en el grupo de los carnívoros dominaron tres especies de la familia Columbellidae:Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa y Nitidella ocellata y para el grupo de los herbívoros destacaron dos especies de la familia Fisurellidae: Diodora cayenensis y D. minuta. Se registraron dos especies filtradoras-detritívoras, y tres especies herbívoras-filtradoras representantes del género C repidula. El alto porcentaje de filtradores sería un indicativo de que dentro de este sistema probablemente hay una mayor disponibilidad de fracciones alimenticias para este grupo.Mollusc communities associated with the green mussel Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia and their trophic relations on the north coast of Araya Peninsula, Sucre State, Venezuela. Perna viridis (Linné, 1758 is an Indo-Pacific bivalve of the intertidal zone that has invaded several ecosystems of the north coast of the Sucre State,Venezuela. Bimonthly samplings were carried out between October 1997 and August 1998 to study the mollusc communities associated with this species and their trophic relationships.Studies were conducted on a naturally-occuring bank of mussels two meters deep on the north coast of the peninsula of Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W. Sample organisms were collected withing areas defined by a quadrat of 0.25 m², and were identified to the species level using taxonomic keys that also included bibliographic identification of trophic level. A total of 1 235 individuals of P. viridis were collected, along with 3 163 specimens of associated species belonging to the phylum Mollusca, including bivalves, gastropods and polyplacophora.The associated mollusc organisms represented 50 species corresponding to 10 orders and 24 families, including 25 gastropod species, 22 bivalves and three polyplacophorans. With regard to trophic level 40% of the 50 species were suspensivores, 26% carnivores, 24% herbivores and the residual 10% represented two categories (suspensivore-detritivore, herbivore-suspensivore. Of the suspensivores the most common were: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Ostrea equestris. The carnivore group was dominated by the three species of the Family Columbellidae, Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa and Nitidella ocellata.The group of herbivores was dominated by two members of the family Fisurellidae, Diodora cayenensis and D. minuta.Two species of suspensivore-detritívore and three species of herbivore-suspensivore were also found in the genus Crepidula. The high percentage of suspensivores was thought indicative, inside this ecosystem, that there is probably a higher degree of nutritious fractions available to this group.

  4. Comunidad de moluscos asociados al mejillón verde Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) y sus relaciones tróficas en la costa norte de la Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sioliz, Villafranca; Mayré, Jiménez.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Perna viridis es un bivalvo procedente del Indo-Pacífico que habita en la zona intermareal y ha invadido varios ecosistemas de la costa norte del estado Sucre, Venezuela. Con la finalidad de realizar un estudio sobre las comunidades de moluscos asociadas a esta especie y sus relaciones tróficas, se [...] llevaron a cabo muestreos bimensuales entre octubre/97 y agosto/98, en un banco natural de mejillones a dos metros de profundidad en la costa norte de la península de Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W). Los organismos fueron recolectados delimitando el área con una cuadrícula de 0.25 m². Se identificaron los organismos hasta la categoría de especies utilizando claves específicas para moluscos y bibliográficamente se les determinó categoría trófica.Se capturó un total de 1 235 individuos de P. viridis y asociados a la especie 3 163 especímenes pertenecientes al phylum Mollusca, contenidos en tres clases: Bivalvia,Gastropoda y Polyplacophora. Éstas estuvieron representadas por 50 especies correspondientes a 10 órdenes, 24 familias; para los gasterópodos se contabilizaron 25 especies, para los bivalvos 22 y tres para los poliplacóforos. Del total de las especies, 40% fueron filtradoras, 26% carnívoras, 24% herbívoras y el 10% restante presentó dos categorías.De las filtradoras las más representativas fueron: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Ostrea equestris; en el grupo de los carnívoros dominaron tres especies de la familia Columbellidae:Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa y Nitidella ocellata y para el grupo de los herbívoros destacaron dos especies de la familia Fisurellidae: Diodora cayenensis y D. minuta. Se registraron dos especies filtradoras-detritívoras, y tres especies herbívoras-filtradoras representantes del género C repidula. El alto porcentaje de filtradores sería un indicativo de que dentro de este sistema probablemente hay una mayor disponibilidad de fracciones alimenticias para este grupo. Abstract in english Mollusc communities associated with the green mussel Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) and their trophic relations on the north coast of Araya Peninsula, Sucre State, Venezuela. Perna viridis (Linné, 1758) is an Indo-Pacific bivalve of the intertidal zone that has invaded several ecosystems of the [...] north coast of the Sucre State,Venezuela. Bimonthly samplings were carried out between October 1997 and August 1998 to study the mollusc communities associated with this species and their trophic relationships.Studies were conducted on a naturally-occuring bank of mussels two meters deep on the north coast of the peninsula of Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W). Sample organisms were collected withing areas defined by a quadrat of 0.25 m², and were identified to the species level using taxonomic keys that also included bibliographic identification of trophic level. A total of 1 235 individuals of P. viridis were collected, along with 3 163 specimens of associated species belonging to the phylum Mollusca, including bivalves, gastropods and polyplacophora.The associated mollusc organisms represented 50 species corresponding to 10 orders and 24 families, including 25 gastropod species, 22 bivalves and three polyplacophorans. With regard to trophic level 40% of the 50 species were suspensivores, 26% carnivores, 24% herbivores and the residual 10% represented two categories (suspensivore-detritivore, herbivore-suspensivore). Of the suspensivores the most common were: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Ostrea equestris. The carnivore group was dominated by the three species of the Family Columbellidae, Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa and Nitidella ocellata.The group of herbivores was dominated by two members of the family Fisurellidae, Diodora cayenensis and D. minuta.Two species of suspensivore-detritívore and three species of herbivore-suspensivore were also found in the genus Crepidula. The high percentage of suspensivores was thought indicative, inside this ecosystem, that there is probably a higher degree of nutriti

  5. Spatial and temporal structure of the trematode component community in Valvata macrostoma (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Valtonen, E. T.; Karvonen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 135, ?. 14 (2008), s. 1691-1699. ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ?R GP524/07/P086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : community ecology * spatiotemporal dynamics * Trematoda * Gastropoda * Valvata macrostoma Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.071, year: 2008

  6. LA CLASE CAUDOFOVEATA (MOLLUSCA) EN EL MAR CARIBE COLOMBIANO* / THE CLASS CAUDOFOVEATA (MOLLUSCA) IN THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN SEA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Gracia C.; Erlenis, Fontalvo; Luis Carlos, Gámez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Five classes of marine mollusks, including Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, Scaphopoda, and Polyplacophora, have been recorded inhabiting the Colombian Caribbean Sea. Other classes with a basal position within the phylum such as Caudofoveata and Solenogastres have remained overlooked, as a result [...] of their body shape (worm-like with no shell), small sizes (Caudofoveata 1.5 to 140 mm length), and limited taxonomic information for identifications. The presence of Caudofoveata species on the continental margin of the Colombian Caribbean Sea was evidenced through several studies conducted by Invemar between 2007 and 2012. Samples were collected from localities between Gulf of Morrosquillo and La Guajira, in a bathymetrical range from 3 to 1010 m depth. These novel outcomes suggest that Caudofoveata specimens are more common in the marine fauna inhabiting soft bottoms than previously thought.

  7. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme R. Gorni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%. In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively. Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da família Naididae. As espécies Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 e Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 apresentaram a maior abundância relativa (43,68%, 12,32% e 10,08%, respectivamente. Espécimes de Haemonais waldvogeli foram encontrados em todos os períodos sazonais, o que demonstra sua afinidade com este tipo de substrato. Os resultados indicam que várias espécies de Naididae encontram no umbílico da concha (que contém detrito fino um habitat favorável para seu estabelecimento.

  8. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fuentealba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W, región de Aysén.The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp. is Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S; 72°27'40.65"W, Aysén region.

  9. New species of Rissoidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Archipelago of the Azores (northeast Atlantic) with an updated regional checklist for the family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Ávila, Sérgio P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of shallow-water marine gastropods belonging to the family Rissoidae are described from the Archipelago of the Azores: Setia alexandrae sp. n., Setia ermelindoi sp. n., Setia netoae sp. n., and Manzonia martinsi sp. n. These novelties increase the regional rissoid fauna to 39 species, of which 29 live in shallow-water habitats. A list of the species of Rissoidae from the Azores is presented based on data from the literature and new material examined. PMID:25685020

  10. Effect of pollution on some freshwater species. II. Bioaccumulation and toxic effects of experimental lead pollution on the ganglia in Viviparus ater (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognani Fantin, A.M.; Franchini, A.; Ottaviani, E.; Benedetti, L.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of lead on ganglia of Viviparus ater were studied by histochemical and histomorphological procedures. The pollution experiment should be considered a short-time static bioassay because of its experimental characteristics. There was considerable accumulation of lead in the ganglia as determined by atomic absorbance (A.A.S.). The cytological damage principally affected the neuronal cell bodies which undergo degenerative processes. The most serious cytopathological changes occurred in the following sequence: nuclear damage leading to pyknosis; nucleolar damage until disappearance; changes in Nissl bodies, at times forming a uniform mass. These cytological disorders led to markedly altered protein synthesis. Nerve fibers and neuroglia did not appear affected by lead exposure, even at higher doses. Membrane enzymes, phosphorylase, NADHDH, NADPHDH and SDH activities were decreased, whereas D-LDH, G-6-PDH, G-6-Pase and MAO activities increased. GDH was unchanged. Changes in polar lipid composition were also observed with an increase of phospholipids and a decrease of sulpholipids and cerebrosides.

  11. The distribution of cells containing FMRFamide- and 5-HT-related molecules in the embryonic development of Viviparus ater (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    A Franchini

    2005-01-01

    The timing and spatial distribution of cells containing FMRFamide- and 5-HT-related molecules in the embryonic development of the mollusc Viviparus ater are examined using immunohistochemistry. FMRFamide-like molecules emerge in the early stage E8 (8% of embryonic development) before the 5-HT immunoreactivity, and they are not only found during nervous system ontogeny. As the parts of the digestive tract differentiated, the pattern of the diffuse gut endocrine cells, present in adults, start ...

  12. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol and Carum carvi (limonene on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene. These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  13. Further SEM assessment of radular characters of the limpets Patella caerulea Linneaus 1758 and P. rustica Linneaus 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Antalya Bay, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    MUTAF, Beria FALAKALI; AK??T, Deniz

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to elucidate the structure and design of radulae of 2 species of limpet, namely Patella caerulea and P. rustica. Samples were examined by light microscope and SEM. Although the general formula is the same, the pattern of each dentition differed between the 2 species. General morphology and histology of odontophore showed structural significance of the organ, suggesting a further study to confirm ecological choice of the genus at different intertidal levels.

  14. Fertilization causes a single Ca2+ increase that fully depends on Ca2+ influx in oocytes of limpets (Phylum Mollusca, Class Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Ryusaku

    2007-04-15

    Mature limpet oocytes arrested at the first metaphase (MI) of meiosis are activated by the stimulation of fertilizing sperm. The aim of the present study was to clarify the spatiotemporal property and mechanism of intracellular Ca2+ increase in limpet oocytes, which is a prerequisite signal for initiation of development at fertilization. In all of the five limpet species tested, the initial Ca2+ rising phase just after fertilization took the form of a centripetal Ca2+ wave spreading from the whole cortex to the center (cortical flash), yielding a homogeneous Ca2+ elevation throughout the oocyte. The Ca2+ level remained high during the subsequent plateau phase lasting for several minutes and then returned nearly to the original value. No additional Ca2+ increase followed the plateau phase at least by the time of first cleavage. Both rising and plateau phases of Ca2+ increase at fertilization were inhibited by removal of external Ca2+, suggesting that continuous Ca2+ entry occurs throughout the Ca2+ increase. Injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) was effective in generating a Ca2+ increase in mature limpet oocytes arrested at MI; however, their ability to show an IP3-induced Ca2+ increase was extremely low, as compared with other animals. Responsiveness to IP3 injection in immature oocytes arrested at the first prophase (PI) was similar to that in the mature oocytes, suggesting that the IP3-induced Ca2+ release system does not develop during the process of meiotic maturation in limpet oocytes. Caffeine, cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPR), and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), the agents known to stimulate internal Ca2+ release mechanisms distinct from an IP3-dependent pathway, had no effect on intracellular Ca2+ changes in mature limpet oocytes. Labeling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with DiI revealed that cortical ER clusters are only present in the localized region around meiotic chromosomes in mature oocytes. These data strongly suggest that Ca2+ release and its propagating mechanisms are undeveloped in limpet oocytes and that Ca2+ influx is the only Ca2+-mobilizing system available and functioning at fertilization. PMID:17292344

  15. Scanning electron microscopy and molecular characterization of a new Haplosporidium species (Haplosporidia), a parasite of the marine gastropod Siphonaria pectinata (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Siphonariidae) in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vea, Isabelle M; Siddall, Mark E

    2011-12-01

    Based on scanning electron microscopy and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), Haplosporidium tuxtlensis n. sp. (Haplosporidia), a parasite found in the visceral tissues of the false limpet Siphonaria pectinata (Linnaeus, 1758), is described. The spores are ellipsoidal (3.61 ± 0.15 µm × 2.69 ± 0.19 µm), with a circular lid (2.94 ± 0.5 µm) representing the operculum. The spore wall bears filaments occurring singly, or in clusters, of 2 to 8, fusing distally. Phylogenetic relationships of H. tuxtlensis n. sp. were assessed with other described species using the SSU rRNA sequence. Haplosporidium tuxtlensis n. sp. is sister taxon to Haplosporidium pickfordi Barrow, 1961. The morphological characteristics (spore wall structure, shape, size, and filament structure) and the unique host identity corroborate it as a new species. Additionally, this is the first record of Haplosporidia infecting striped false limpets in the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:21787213

  16. Veronicellidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) neotropicais: IV. Redescrição dos tipos de Vaginula andreana, Vaginula reinhardti e Vaginula trilineata, no Zoologisk Museum de Copenhague, Dinamarca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Willibaldo, Thomé.

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Com base no exame dos tipos, são redescritas as espécies Vaginula andreana Semper, 1885, Vaginula reinhardti Semper, 1885 e Vaginula trilineata Semper, 1885. As espécies provêm, respectivamente, de Maurício (Ilhas Mascarenhas; leg. Andrea), Macau, China (leg. Reinhardt), e provavelmente Maurício (Il [...] has Mascarenhas; leg. Andrea, encontrado num pote de plantas no Jardim Botânico de Copenhague). Discute-se a sinonímia das espécies. Abstract in english Upon the examination of the types, the species Vaginula andreana Semper, 1885, Vaginula reinhardti Semper, 1885, and Vaginula trilineata Semper, 1885, are redescribed. They proceed from, respectively: Mauritius (Mascarene ls.; leg. Andrea); Macao, China (leg. Reinhardt): probably Mauritius (Mascaren [...] e ls.; leg. Andrea; found in a pot of plants in the Botanical Garden of Copenhagen). The synonymy of the species is discussed.

  17. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora) en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. / First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora) in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen, Fuentealba; Ricardo, Figueroa.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas [...] sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W), región de Aysén. Abstract in english The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on [...] the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp. is Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S; 72°27'40.65"W), Aysén region.

  18. Analisi della variabilità genetica di Patella ferruginea, Patella ulyssiponensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda) e Pinna Nobilis (Mollusca: Bivalvia): il contributo dei dati olecolari alla conservazione di specie minacciate = Analysis of the genetic variability of Patella ferruginea, Patella ulyssiponensis (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and Pinna nobilis (Mollusca: Bivalvia): contribution of molecular data in threatened species conservation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dedola, Gian Luca

    2012-01-01

    All around the planet the endangered species are precipitately disappearing as direct or indirect results of anthropization. In spite of it these species now require human assistance to improve their chances of survival and population recovery. Genetic resources play an important role as the amount of genetic diversity may influence the extinction risk, and hence they require an appropriate management. Conservation genetics encompasses genetic management of these threatened populations, resol...

  19. Estudio Histológico del Tubo Digestivo y Aparato Venenoso de Gemmula periscelida (Gastropoda: Turridae) / Histologic Study of Digestive Tract and Venom Apparatus of Gemmula periscelida (Gastropoda: Turridae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Norma Angélica, Santibañez Aguascalientes; Esperanza, Ortíz Ordóñez; Andrés, Falcón Alcántara; Edgar P, Heimer de la Cotera.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe anatómica e histológicamente el tubo digestivo y aparato venenoso de Gemmula periscelida (Gastropoda: Turridae) en ejemplares colectados al Noroeste de la Plataforma Continental Yucateca. Se determinó que el tipo de epitelio que reviste a cada una de las zonas del [...] tubo digestivo (probóscide, esófago anterior, medio y posterior, estómago, glándula digestiva e intestino) y al aparato venenoso, es diferente a lo reportado para otros túrridos; por lo que se infiere el posible mecanismo de alimentación para esta especie. Abstract in english In this paper we realized anatomical and histologically description of the digestive tract and venom apparatus of Gemmula periscelida (Gastropoda: Turridae) specimens collected northwest of the Yucatan Shelf. Results of analysis show that there are differences in the type of epithelium coating each [...] of the areas of the digestive tract (proboscis, anterior, middle and posterior esophagus, stomach, digestive gland and intestine) and of a venom apparatus with respect to that reported for other turrid snails. This suggests the possible feeding mechanism for this species.

  20. LARVAS DE DIGENEA EN Melanoides tuberculata (GASTROPODA: THIARIDAE) EN MEDELLÍN, COLOMBIA / Larval stages of digenea from Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) in Medellín, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DANIELA, VERGARA; LUZ ELENA, VELÁSQUEZ.

    2009-04-30

    Full Text Available Se describen las larvas de digeneos que se obtuvieron en Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae), molusco dulceacuícola del que se colectaron 125 especímenes en el lago del Jardín Botánico Joaquín Antonio Uribe de Medellín. En el laboratorio se individualizaron y se estimuló la emisión cercar [...] iana con una fuente luminosa. El 9,6 % de los caracoles emitió cercarias. Los moluscos emisores se sacrificaron para obtener los demás estadios larvarios. Las larvas se montaron al microscopio, se midieron y luego se dibujaron. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron establecer la presencia de Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae) y de dos Philophthalmidae. Uno de estos es primer registro para Colombia. Se confirma la sensibilidad de M. tuberculata a infecciones por digeneos, así como la especificidad de los filoftálmidos por moluscos hospedadores de la superfamilia Cerithioidea. Abstract in english The larvae of two trematodes found in the freshwater mollusk Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae) are described. 125 snails from the Medellin’s Botanical Garden Joaquín Antonio Uribe were collected. In the laboratory, each individual was placed alone and stimulated with light in order to h [...] ave cercaria emission. 9.6% of the snails released cercariae. These were separated in three morphologies. From each one, 15 individuals were measured and drawn. Photographs were taken. Based on their morphological characteritics the presence of Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae) was determined. The other two morphologies were classified in the family Philophthalmidae. One of them constitutes the first register for Colombia. The sensibility of M. tuberculata to infections by digeneans, and the specificity of the family Philophthalmidae to mollusk hosts of the superfamily Cerithioidea are confirmed

  1. CHILEAN MARINE MOLLUSCA OF NORTHERN PATAGONIA COLLECTED DURING THE CIMAR-10 FJORDS CRUISE / MOLUSCOS MARINOS CHILENOS DEL NORTE DE LA PATAGONIA RECOLECTADOS DURANTE EL CRUCERO DE FIORDOS CIMAR-10

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javiera, Cárdenas; Cristian, Aldea; Claudio, Valdovinos.

    Full Text Available El extremo sur de Sudamérica representa una de las áreas subantárticas más interesantes desde un punto de vista ecológico y biogeográñco. A pesar de ello, el conocimiento que se tiene sobre la biodiversidad del área, y en particular de los habitats marinos submareales, es relativamente pobre. En el [...] año 2004 se realizó un proyecto de investigación sobre biodiversidad como parte del crucero Fiordos Cimar-10, organizado y financiado por el Comité Oceanógrafico Nacional de Chile (CONA). En este artículo se describen los resultados obtenidos sobre de los moluscos submareales. Las muestras fueron obtenidas en el invierno del 2004, a bordo del buque Agor 60 "Vidal Gormaz". El área de estudio se localizó en el extremo norte de la Patagonia chilena, desde el Seno de Relocanví (41 °31' S) hasta la Boca del Guafo (43°49'S), en la plataforma continental comprendida entre 22 y 353 m de profundidad. Los moluscos fueron recolectados en 23 estaciones de muestreo empleando una rastra Agassiz. Se registró un total de 67 especies, consistentes en 4% Polyplacophora (Leptochitonidae, Ischnochitonidae), 58% Gastropoda (Lepetidae, Fissurellidae, Trochidae, Turbinidae, Calyptraeidae, Capulidae, Naticidae, Ranellidae, Cerithiopsidae, Epitoniidae, Muricidae, Buccinidae, Columbellidae, Nassariidae, Volutidae, Cancellariidae, Turridae, Pyramidellidae, Acteonidae, Chilinidae), 36% Bivalvia (Nuculidae, Yoldiidae, Malletiidae, Tindariidae, Limopsidae, Phylobryidae, Mytilidae, Pectinidae, Propeamussidae, Lucinidae, Thyasiridae, Neoleptonidae, Carditidae, Condylocardiidae, Veneridae, Tellinidae, Lyonsiidae, Pandoridae, Cuspidariidae) y 1% Scaphopoda (Rhabdidae). Nuestros resultados muestran que las especies submareales presentan una elevada proporción con carácter austral (magallámco). Del total de 67 taxa registrados, 45 especies son estrictamente magallámcas o antarticas (67%) y 16 presentan una amplia área de distribución que se extiende al sur del área de estudio (24%). Sólo seis de las especies (9%) son estrictamente de la provincia biogeográfica peruana. Abstract in english The tip of the South American cone is one of the most interesting Subantarctic areas, both biogeographically and ecologically. Nonetheless, knowledge of the area's biodiversity, in particular that of the subtidal marine habitats, remains poor. Therefore, in 2004, a biodiversity research project was [...] carried out as a part of the cruise Cimar-10 Fjords, organized and supported by the Chilean National Oceanographic Committee (CONA). The results of the subtidal marine mollusk surveys are presented herein. The samples were collected aboard the Agor 60 "Vidal Gormaz" in winter 2004. The study area covered the northern Chilean Patagonia from Seno de Relocanví (41°31'S) to Boca del Guafo (43°49'S), on the continental shelf from 22 to 353 m depth. The Mollusca were collected at 23 sampling sites using an Agassiz trawl. In total, 67 species were recorded: 4% Polyplacophora (Leptochitonidae, Ischnochitonidae), 58% Gastropoda (Lepetidae, Fissurellidae, Trochidae, Turbinidae, Calyptraeidae, Capulidae, Naticidae, Ranellidae, Cerithiopsidae, Epitoniidae, Muricidae, Buccinidae, Columbellidae, Nassariidae, Volutidae, Cancellariidae, Turridae, Pyramidellidae, Acteonidae, Chilinidae), 36% Bivalvia (Nuculidae, Yoldiidae, Malletiidae, Tindariidae, Limopsidae, Phylobryidae, Mytilidae, Pectinidae, Propeamussidae, Lucinidae, Thyasiridae, Neoleptonidae, Carditidae, Condylocardiidae, Veneridae, Tellinidae, Lyonsiidae, Pandoridae, Cuspidariidae), and 1% Scaphopoda (Rhabdidae). Our results show a high proportion of southern (Magellanic) subtidal species; 45 species (67%) are strictly Magellanic or Antarctic and another 16 (24%) were widespread species, with distributions extending to the south of our study area. Only six species (9%) were strictly Peruvian.

  2. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  3. EXPLOTACIÓN, USOS Y ESTADO ACTUAL DE LA CIGUA O BURGAO CITTARIUM PICA (MOLLUSCA: GASTROPODA: TROCHIDAE)EN LA COSTA CONTINENTAL DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO / EXPLOITATION, USES AND CURRENT STATUS OF THE WEST INDIAN TOPSHELL CITTARIUM PICA (MOLLUSCA: GASTROPODA, TROCHIDAE) ALONG THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN COAST

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Osorno Arango; Juan M., Díaz Merlano.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La cigua o burgao, Cittarium pica es un gasterópodo común y conspicuo de la zona intermareal del litoral rocoso del Caribe y ha sido utilizado como alimento por el hombre desde tiempos precolombinos. Aunque la extracción del recurso es realizada únicamente por pescadores artesanales y principalmente [...] para autoconsumo de pobladores locales, su abundancia se ha visto reducida notablemente durante los últimos diez años, por lo que la especie hace parte de la lista roja de fauna amenazada en varios países caribeños, incluido Colombia. El presente estudio tuvo por objeto hacer un diagnóstico del estado actual de la población de C. pica a lo largo de la costa continental del Caribe colombiano, así como una caracterización general de los niveles de explotación y usos en tiempos recientes. Para ello, la costa Caribe colombiana se dividió en cinco sectores de acuerdo al rango de distribución establecida para la especie: 1-Urabá chocoano, 2-Isla Fuerte, 3-Cartagena e Islas del Rosario, 4-Santa Marta y Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona, 5-La Guajira. En cada uno de los sectores se efectuaron encuestas a los pobladores locales. Se realizaron muestreos en una serie de estaciones representativas con el fin de determinar la abundancia, densidad y estructura de tallas de la población de C. pica. La presión por extracción que se ejerce sobre el recurso es variable entre los sectores, siendo mayor en Santa Marta y Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona, Urabá chocoano, y Cartagena e Islas del Rosario. El uso principal que se da al recurso es como complemento de la dieta de los pobladores locales, aunque en algunas ocasiones éstos también comercializan la carne y la concha. Las conchas se venden a artesanos que elaboran con ella objetos de bisutería y "souvenirs". La densidad ecológica promedio en toda el área de estudio fue 5.38 Ind/m² (± 0.82), con diferencias significativas tanto entre los sectores como entre las estaciones de un mismo sector. La estructura de tallas de la población (talla promedio = 25.08 mm ± 4.71, moda = 11.10 mm) indica que en general el recurso está sometido a sobreexplotación en el Caribe colombiano. Con ello, se confirma que C. pica enfrenta un riesgo de extinción en el mediano plazo en Colombia y debe mantenerse en la categoría de "vulnerable" en la lista roja de especies amenazadas del mismo país. Abstract in english The West Indian topshell, Cittarium pica is a common and conspicuous gastropod that thrives in Caribbean intertidal rocky shores and has been used for food by men since pre-Columbian times. Although, the exploitation of this resource is practiced only by artisanal fishermen and mainly for self-consu [...] mption, its abundance has noticeably reduced in the last ten years, so the species has been included in the endangered animal lists of several Caribbean countries, including Colombia. The present study was carried out to assess the current status of the population of C. pica along the Colombian Caribbean mainland and to describe the overall exploitation level and uses of this resource in recent times. In order to achieve so, Colombian Caribbean coast was divided into five zones according to the established distribution range of the species: 1-Urabá chocoano, 2-Isla Fuerte, 3-Cartagena and Rosario Islands, 4-Santa Marta and Tayrona Natural National Park, 5-La Guajira. In each one of the zones opinion polls among local inhabitants were conducted. A series of samples from representative stations were obtained in order to determine the abundance, density and size structure of the C. pica population. The fishing pressure on the resource is different between the sectors, being greater in Santa Marta and Tayrona Natural National Park, Urabá chocoano, and Cartagena and Rosario Islands. The main use given to C. pica is as dietary complement of the local population, but the flesh and shells are commercialized at times. Shells are sold to artisans and used for "souvenirs" and handcraft manufactures. The mean ecological density of C. pica in the entire study

  4. Lista preliminar de los Punctoideos de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, con descripción de dos especies nuevas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) Preliminar list of the Punctoidea from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with description of two new species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Eduardo Miquel; Rina Ramírez; José Willibaldo Thomé

    2004-01-01

    Se presenta una lista parcial de gasterópodos terrestres Punctoideos del "Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata" (São Francisco de Paula, Estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) (CPCN-PM). Esta lista incluye siete especies, dos de ellas son nuevas. El CPCN-PM se localiza entre los 600 y 950 m de altitud; presenta clima templado superhúmedo a húmedo, lluvias de 2.250 mm anuales y temperatura promedio anual de 14,5ºC; están presentes tres regiones fitoecológicas principales, flore...

  5. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae) / Formulações de iscas de moluscicidas e seus efeitos sobre as alterações bioquímicas no ovoteste do caramujo Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca;Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pradeep, Kumar; Vinay Kumar, Singh; D.K., Singh.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito subletal das iscas usadas para alimentação contendo componentes moluscicidas de Ferula asafoetida (ácido ferúlico, umbeliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol) e Carum carvi (limonene) nas alterações bioquímicas do ovoteste do caramujo Lymnaea acuminata. A formulação das iscas [...] usadas para alimentar L. acuminata foi estudada em aquários de vidros transparentes de diâmetro de 30 cm. As iscas foram preparadas por combinações diferentes binárias de aminoácidos (valina, ácido aspártico, lisina e alanina 10 mM) em 100 mL de solução de agar a 2% + doses subletais (20% e 60% durante 24 horas LC50) de diferentes moluscicidas (ácido ferúlico, umbeliferone, eugenol e limonene). Estas iscas causaram redução significante máxima em aminoácidos livres, proteínas, níveis de DNA e RNA isto é 41,37%, 23,56%, 48,36% e 14,29% de controle no ovoteste do caramujo, respectivamente. Discontinuação da alimentação depois do tratamento de 60% de 96 horas de LC50 do moluscicida contendo a isca para as subsequentes 72 horas causou significante recuperação dos níveis de aminoácidos livres, proteína, DNA e RNA no ovoteste da L. acuminata. Abstract in english The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol) and Carum carvi (limonene) on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations fee [...] ding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM) in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50) doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene). These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  6. Lista preliminar de los Punctoideos de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, con descripción de dos especies nuevas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora Preliminar list of the Punctoidea from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with description of two new species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Eduardo Miquel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista parcial de gasterópodos terrestres Punctoideos del "Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata" (São Francisco de Paula, Estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (CPCN-PM. Esta lista incluye siete especies, dos de ellas son nuevas. El CPCN-PM se localiza entre los 600 y 950 m de altitud; presenta clima templado superhúmedo a húmedo, lluvias de 2.250 mm anuales y temperatura promedio anual de 14,5ºC; están presentes tres regiones fitoecológicas principales, floresta ombrófila mixta, floresta ombrófila densa y sabana. Los taxones hallados son: Rotadiscus amancaezensis (Hidalgo, 1869, Lilloiconcha tucumana (Hylton Scott, 1963, Radiodiscus cuprinus Fonseca & Thomé, 2000, Radiodiscus tenellus Hylton Scott, 1957, Radiodiscus promatensis sp. nov., Zilchogyra gordurasensis (Thiele, 1927 y Zilchogyra zulmae sp. nov. La conchilla de R. promatensis sp. nov. es muy pequeña, casi plana, con ombligo muy desarrollado, abertura reniforme, con estrías espirales en la teleoconcha y 58-62 costillas axiales en el último anfracto. La conchilla de Z. zulmae sp. nov. es troquiforme alta, con cinco anfractos con fuertes y espaciadas costillas axiales (25-38, ombligo amplio y perspectivo y abertura subcircular angulosa. La fauna de gasterópodos carópidos del CPCN-PM tiene tres especies conocidas sólo del área (R. cuprinus, R. promatensis sp. nov. y Z. zulmae sp. nov., una, que se distribuye también en Paraguay (R. tenellus y tres (L. tucumana, R. amancaezensis y Z. gordurasensis, comunes a otras áreas de América del Sur, principalmente la región de las Yungas.The partial list of the land snails Punctoidea from the "Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata" (São Francisco de Paula, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (CPCN-PM is presented herein. This list includes seven species, two of them new. The CPCN-PM is located between 600 and 950 m of altitude; it has a temperate super humid to humid climate, with 2,250 mm of annual rainfall and means annual temperature of 14.5ºC; three main phytoecological regions are present -mixed ombrophile forest, dense ombrophile forest and savanna. The taxa found are: Rotadiscus amancaezensis (Hidalgo, 1869, Lilloiconcha tucumana (Hylton Scott, 1963, Radiodiscus cuprinus Fonseca & Thomé, 2000, Radiodiscus tenellus Hylton Scott, 1957, Radiodiscus promatensis sp. nov., Zilchogyra gordurasensis (Thiele, 1927 and Zilchogyra zulmae sp. nov. The shell of R. promatensis sp. nov. is very small, almost flat, with very wide umbilicus, reniform aperture, teleoconch with spiral striae and 58-62 axial ribs on the body whorl. The shell of Z. zulmae sp. nov. is trochiform elevated, with five whorls with strong and widely spaced axial ribs (25-38, wide and perspective umbilicus and sub circular angled aperture. The charopid gastropod fauna from the CPCN-PM has three species known only from there (R. cuprinus, R. promatensis sp. nov. and Z. zulmae sp. nov., another one with previous known distribution only in Paraguay (R. tenellus and three common species (L. tucumana, R. amancaezensis and Z. gordurasensis with distribution in other South American areas -mainly Yungas forests.

  7. Lista preliminar de los Punctoideos de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, con descripción de dos especies nuevas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) / Preliminar list of the Punctoidea from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with description of two new species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio Eduardo, Miquel; Rina, Ramírez; José Willibaldo, Thomé.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista parcial de gasterópodos terrestres Punctoideos del "Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata" (São Francisco de Paula, Estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) (CPCN-PM). Esta lista incluye siete especies, dos de ellas son nuevas. El CPCN-PM se localiza entre los 600 [...] y 950 m de altitud; presenta clima templado superhúmedo a húmedo, lluvias de 2.250 mm anuales y temperatura promedio anual de 14,5ºC; están presentes tres regiones fitoecológicas principales, floresta ombrófila mixta, floresta ombrófila densa y sabana. Los taxones hallados son: Rotadiscus amancaezensis (Hidalgo, 1869), Lilloiconcha tucumana (Hylton Scott, 1963), Radiodiscus cuprinus Fonseca & Thomé, 2000, Radiodiscus tenellus Hylton Scott, 1957, Radiodiscus promatensis sp. nov., Zilchogyra gordurasensis (Thiele, 1927) y Zilchogyra zulmae sp. nov. La conchilla de R. promatensis sp. nov. es muy pequeña, casi plana, con ombligo muy desarrollado, abertura reniforme, con estrías espirales en la teleoconcha y 58-62 costillas axiales en el último anfracto. La conchilla de Z. zulmae sp. nov. es troquiforme alta, con cinco anfractos con fuertes y espaciadas costillas axiales (25-38), ombligo amplio y perspectivo y abertura subcircular angulosa. La fauna de gasterópodos carópidos del CPCN-PM tiene tres especies conocidas sólo del área (R. cuprinus, R. promatensis sp. nov. y Z. zulmae sp. nov.), una, que se distribuye también en Paraguay (R. tenellus) y tres (L. tucumana, R. amancaezensis y Z. gordurasensis), comunes a otras áreas de América del Sur, principalmente la región de las Yungas. Abstract in english The partial list of the land snails Punctoidea from the "Centro de Pesquisas e Conservação da Natureza Pró-Mata" (São Francisco de Paula, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) (CPCN-PM) is presented herein. This list includes seven species, two of them new. The CPCN-PM is located between 600 and 950 m [...] of altitude; it has a temperate super humid to humid climate, with 2,250 mm of annual rainfall and means annual temperature of 14.5ºC; three main phytoecological regions are present -mixed ombrophile forest, dense ombrophile forest and savanna. The taxa found are: Rotadiscus amancaezensis (Hidalgo, 1869), Lilloiconcha tucumana (Hylton Scott, 1963), Radiodiscus cuprinus Fonseca & Thomé, 2000, Radiodiscus tenellus Hylton Scott, 1957, Radiodiscus promatensis sp. nov., Zilchogyra gordurasensis (Thiele, 1927) and Zilchogyra zulmae sp. nov. The shell of R. promatensis sp. nov. is very small, almost flat, with very wide umbilicus, reniform aperture, teleoconch with spiral striae and 58-62 axial ribs on the body whorl. The shell of Z. zulmae sp. nov. is trochiform elevated, with five whorls with strong and widely spaced axial ribs (25-38), wide and perspective umbilicus and sub circular angled aperture. The charopid gastropod fauna from the CPCN-PM has three species known only from there (R. cuprinus, R. promatensis sp. nov. and Z. zulmae sp. nov.), another one with previous known distribution only in Paraguay (R. tenellus) and three common species (L. tucumana, R. amancaezensis and Z. gordurasensis) with distribution in other South American areas -mainly Yungas forests.

  8. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) infecting Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) in the Amazon region / Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda) na região amazônica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sanny Maria de, Andrade-Porto; Kelly Cristina Pereira de, Souza; Melissa Querido, Cárdenas; Rosemary A., Roque; Daniel Mansur, Pimpão; Cleusa Suzana, Araújo; José Celso de Oliveira, Malta.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse [...] nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença. Abstract in english Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon r [...] egion. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.

  9. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment provides a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. This has resulted in an increased rate of pharmaceutical agents being discovered in marine animals, particularly invertebrates. Our objective is to summarize the most promising compounds which have the best potential and may lead to use in clinical practice, show their biological activities and highlight the compounds currently being tested in clinical trials. In this paper, we focused on Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata.

  10. Algivore or Phototroph? Plakobranchus ocellatus (Gastropoda) Continuously Acquires Kleptoplasts and Nutrition from Multiple Algal Species in Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Taro; Hirose, Euichi; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Kawato, Masaru; Takishita, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Takao; Verbruggen, Heroen; Tanaka, Jiro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Iwai, Kenji; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    The sea slug Plakobranchus ocellatus (Sacoglossa, Gastropoda) retains photosynthetically active chloroplasts from ingested algae (functional kleptoplasts) in the epithelial cells of its digestive gland for up to 10 months. While its feeding behavior has not been observed in natural habitats, two hypotheses have been proposed: 1) adult P. ocellatus uses kleptoplasts to obtain photosynthates and nutritionally behaves as a photoautotroph without replenishing the kleptoplasts; or 2) it behaves as...

  11. Divergencia intraespecífica y código de barras de ADN en Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae) / Intraspecific divergence and DNA barcodes in Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Romero; Rina, Ramírez.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El DNA barcoding es un análisis que se basa en la comparación de distancias genéticas para identificar especies utilizando principalmente un segmento del gen Citocromo C Oxidasa I (COI). Los retos para la identificación surgen al estudiar grupos que presentan gran diversidad genética como los molusc [...] os. Por ello, los objetivos de nuestra investigación fueron estimar la divergencia intraespecífica en el molusco terrestre amazónico Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae) y evaluar la utilización de los códigos de barras de ADN en la identificación molecular de esta especie. Las secuencias de nucleótidos fueron comparadas con las bases de datos Genbank y BOLD (Barcode of Life Data Systems). Se realizó un análisis de distancia genética mediante Neighbour Joining. Systrophia helicycloides presentó dos grupos de haplotipos con distancias genéticas intraespecíficas mayores a 4%. También se observó una superposición entre las distancias intraespecíficas y las interespecíficas. La gran divergencia intraespecífica puede estar relacionada a la rápida variación del genoma mitocondrial, la distribución poblacional de los moluscos la cual permite el aislamiento y diferenciación genética, y la presencia de polimorfismos ancestrales. Los perfiles COI enviados a la base de datos BOLD son los primeros registros para esta especie y permitieron diferenciar a Systrophia helicycloides de otras especies. Estos perfiles corroboran la gran variación que ocurre en el genoma mitocondrial de moluscos terrestres por lo que la asignación de especies en este grupo precisa de la combinación entre los valores de divergencia genética, la evaluación de sitios informativos y los estudios de taxonomía convencional. Abstract in english DNA barcoding analysis is based on the comparison of genetic distances to identify species using a segment of Cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) gene. Species identification through DNA barcoding challenges problems in groups with high genetic diversity as molluscs. Thus, our aim was to estimate intraspec [...] ific divergence in the Amazonian land snail Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae) and evaluate the use of DNA barcoding in molecular identification of this land snail. Nucleotide sequences were compared with Genbank and BOLD (Barcode of Life Data Systems) databases. We conducted distance analyses using the Neighbour Joining method. Systrophia helicycloides showed two groups of haplotypes and intraspecific genetic distances higher than 4%. We observed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific distances. The high divergence may be related to rapid mutation rate in the snail mitochondrial genome, to population distribution that influences genetic isolation and differentiation, and to ancestral DNA polymorphisms. COI profiles uploaded in BOLD are the first records of this species and can identify Systrophia helcycloides from other species. These profiles corroborated the high variation in the land snail genome. Therefore, species identification in this group needs a combined analysis of genetic distances, informative sites, and conventional taxonomy.

  12. Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borredà, V.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata We describe a new endemic limacid slug, Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus n. sp. and we compare it with the nearest species, particularly with Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis, another Balearic endemism. Characteristic features of this new species include its small size, translucid and smooth body, and totally grey dorsum with no bands or spots. The reproductive system shows a well developed vas deferens surrounded by the distal part of prostatic gland, a thin penial retractor muscle, swollen prostate and small distal genitalia. The recent redescription of Limax majoricensis by Wiktor et al. (2007 is discussed and we consider that these authors refer to G. benjaminus n. sp., and so we dessign the neotype of Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis.

  13. Biogeographic and species richness patterns of Gastropoda on the southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOETER S. R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of richness and biogeography of Gastropoda molluscs were determined based on lists of species from five sites along the southwestern Atlantic. The analysis of the distribution patterns of these sites confirmed the existence of a broader transition zone between southern Espírito Santo State (21°S and Rio Grande do Sul State (32°S. This zone is very heterogeneous, presenting a low endemism rate and a significant number of species common to the near provinces, and does not show enough consistency to be considered as an independent biogeographic province as proposed by Palacio (1980. Observing the distribution of species along the southwestern Atlantic we find an increase in the proportion of species with greatest latitudinal ranges (occurring from the tropics to Patagonia from lowest to highest latitudes, following Rappoport's rule.

  14. The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph

    2001-09-01

    We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

  15. Records of Auger shells (Negastropoda: Terebridae) from Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Abidi, S.A.H.; Haridevi, C.K.

    although some have radular teeth and a poison sac like those of Hastula. As found here, Terebra most likely encompasses several different groups worthy of generic or subgeneric differentiation. Systematic account Phyllum : Mollusca Class : Gastropoda Order...

  16. Migration, isolation, and speciation of hydrothermal vent limpets (Gastropoda; Lepetodrilidae) across the Blanco Transform Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shannon B; Young, Curtis R; Jones, William J; Warén, Anders; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2006-04-01

    The Sovanco Fracture Zone and Blanco Transform Fault separate the Explorer, Juan de Fuca, and Gorda ridge systems of the northeastern Pacific Ocean. To test whether such offsets in the ridge axis create barriers to along-axis dispersal of the endemic hydrothermal vent animals, we examined the genetic structure of limpet populations previously identified as Lepetodrilus fucensis McLean, 1988 (Gastropoda, Lepetodrilidae). Mitochondrial DNA sequences and patterns of allozyme variation revealed no evidence that the 150-km-long Sovanco Fracture Zone impeded gene flow between the Explorer and Juan de Fuca populations. In contrast, the 450-km-long Blanco Transform Fault separates the limpets into highly divergent northern and southern lineages that we recognize as distinct species. We describe southern populations from the Gorda Ridge (Seacliff) and Escanaba Trough as Lepetodrilus gordensis new species and refer northern populations from the Explorer and Juan de Fuca ridge systems to L. fucensis sensu stricto. The species are similar morphologically, but L. gordensis lacks a sensory neck papilla and has a more tightly coiled teleconch. To assess the degree of isolation between these closely related species, we used the Isolation with Migration method to estimate the time of population splitting, effective sizes of the ancestral and derived populations, and rates of migration across the Blanco Transform Fault. PMID:16641519

  17. No Evidence for a Culturable Bacterial Tetrodotoxin Producer in Pleurobranchaea maculata (Gastropoda: Pleurobranchidae and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes: Polycladida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren R. Salvitti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a potent neurotoxin found in the tissues of many taxonomically diverse organisms. Its origin has been the topic of much debate, with suggestions including endogenous production, acquisition through diet, and symbiotic bacterial synthesis. Bacterial production of TTX has been reported in isolates from marine biota, but at lower than expected concentrations. In this study, 102 strains were isolated from Pleurobranchaea maculata (Opisthobranchia and Stylochoplana sp. (Platyhelminthes. Tetrodotoxin production was tested utilizing a recently developed sensitive method to detect the C9 base of TTX via liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry. Bacterial strains were characterized by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. To account for the possibility that TTX is produced by a consortium of bacteria, a series of experiments using marine broth spiked with various P. maculata tissues were undertaken. Sixteen unique strains from P. maculata and one from Stylochoplana sp. were isolated, representing eight different genera; Pseudomonadales, Actinomycetales, Oceanospirillales, Thiotrichales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, and Vibrionales. Molecular fingerprinting of bacterial communities from broth experiments showed little change over the first four days. No C9 base or TTX was detected in isolates or broth experiments (past day 0, suggesting a culturable microbial source of TTX in P. maculata and Stylochoplana sp. is unlikely.

  18. The Histopathology of the Infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes) by Lasidium Larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Teresa Silva-Souza; Jorge C. Eiras

    2002-01-01

    It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae) and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae). The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 µm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the...

  19. A new land snail from the Quaternary of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean): Darderia bellverica n. gen., n. sp. (Gastropoda Pulmonata, Helicodontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Altaba, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    A new land snail from the Quaternary of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean): Darderia bellverica n. gen., n. sp. (Gastropoda Pulmonata, Helicodontidae A new genus and species of land snail is described from pre-human paleosoils at Bellver hill in the island of Mallorca. It is a medium-sized helicodontid with 6 tight coils, dome-shaped spire, obtuse peripheral keel, eccentric umbilicus, narrow aperture inclined forward, sinuous reflected peristome, a low angular tooth, 5 infrapa...

  20. Present status of the endangered limpet Cymbula nigra (Gastropoda, Patellidae) in Ceuta: how do substrate heterogeneity and area accessibility affect population structure?

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera–Ingraham, G. A.; Espinosa, F.; García–Gómez, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Cymbula nigra (Gastropoda, Patellidae) is a threatened giant patellid limpet found on the North African coast from Namibia to Algeria. The objective of this study was to estimate the total number of individuals present in Ceuta (Strait of Gibraltar) and to determine the effect of certain physical parameters on population structure and abundance. Between 2006 and 2010 we conducted an exhaustive census in the area. Results indicate that Ceuta could be home to 48,473 individuals. The most import...

  1. Cariotipos de los caracoles de tinte Plicopurpura pansa y Plicopurpura columellaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lenin, Arias-Rodriguez; Juan P, González-Hermoso; Horacio, Fletes-Regalado; Luz Estela, Rodríguez-Ibarra; Gabriela Del Valle, Pignataro.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El cariotipo de Plicopurpura pansa y P. columellaris fue determinado a partir de 17 y 13 especímenes adultos respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se utilizaron ocho cápsulas de P. pansa. Contamos 186 campos mitóticos en P. pansa: 59 en los adultos y 127 en los embriones; y 118 campos en P. columellaris. [...] En ambas especies se observaron números cromosómicos desde 30 hasta 42. Las variaciones en número cromosómico fueron identificadas en cada individuo, no habiendo ninguna relación con los tejidos (branquias, músculo y estómago) empleados. El número modal diploide típico fue de 2n=36 cromosomas en ambas especies. En los especímenes adultos seleccionamos cinco de las mejores dispersiones cromosómicas para armar el cariotipo. Calculamos los estadísticos citogenéticos clásicos, longitudes relativas, proporción de brazos, índice centromérico y la diferencia entre brazos. Identificamos en ambas especies tres pares de cromosomas metacéntricos y quince pares de cromosomas telocéntricos. Esta clasificación no fue suficientemente robusta, por lo que dividimos el complemento cromosómico de cada especie en cuatro grupos ("a", "b", "c" y "d") utilizando como criterio las longitudes relativas (p+q). Hubo diferencias significativas entre grupos cromosómicos por especie y entre especies, los tres primeros pares de cromosomas (grupo "a" birrámeos) y los dos últimos pares (grupo "d" monorrámeos menores) (análisis de varianza de dos vías, p Abstract in english Karyotypes of the purple snails Plicopurpura pansa and Plicopurpura columellaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae). The karyotypes of the purple snails Plicopurpura pansa (Gould, 1853) and P. columellaris (Lamarck, 1816) were established from 17 and 13 adults, respectively; and from eight capsules with embryo [...] s of P. pansa. In P. pansa were counted 59 mitotic fields in the adults and 127 in embryos; and 118 fields in P. columellaris. Chromosome numbers from 30 to 42 were observed in both species. Such a variation was notorious in each sample and there was no evidence of any relationship with tissue (gill, muscle and stomach). Both species has a typical modal number of 2n=36 chromosomes. Five good quality chromosome spreads were selected from adults of each species to assemble the karyotype. Classic cytogenetics statistics like relative lengths, arm ratio, centromeric index and the difference between long and short arms are presented. There were three pairs of metacentric and fifteen pairs of telocentric chromosomes in both species. This classification was not strong enough, so the chromosome complement by species was divided in four groups ("a", "b", "c" and "d") on the basis of relative lengths (p+q). A comparison of p+q in each chromosome pair was estimated within and between species by two ways analysis of variance and Tukey tests (P

  2. Diversidad genética de dos poblaciones del caracol Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae en Yucatán, México, con microsatélite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Zamora-Bustillos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El caracol rosado S. gigas, es una especie de gran importancia pesquera en la región del Caribe que incluye la Península de Yucatán, en la cual, se analizó la diversidad y estructura genética de dos poblaciones (Arrecife Alacranes y Banco Chinchorro mediante el uso de cinco marcadores moleculares del tipo microsatélites. Los resultados indican que las dos poblaciones analizadas se encuentran en el mismo rango de diversidad genética (He de 0.613 a 0.692. En ambas poblaciones también se observó una desviación significativa al equilibrio H-WE, la cual fue atribuida a factores como la endogamia a consecuencia de una sobre-explotación pesquera. Sin embargo otra explicación posible es que se deba a una mezcla de individuos de dos o más poblaciones, y la existencia de alelos nulos. Los niveles de estructura genética indican la existencia de una sola población homogénea en la península de Yucatán (F ST de 0.003, p=0.49 y el flujo genético fue significativo (2.3 individuos entre las dos poblaciones. Los resultados de este estudio aceptan la hipótesis de que las poblaciones S. gigas forman parte de una sola población panmíctica en la Península de Yucatán, por lo tanto, el recurso pesquero debe regularse de igual manera en ambas regiones.Genetic diversity in two populations of the snail Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae from Yucatan, Mexico, using microsatellite. The pink conch Strombus gigas is an important fisheries resource in the Caribbean region, including the Yucatán Peninsula. We analyzed the genetic diversity and genetic structure of two populations (Alacranes Reef and Chinchorro Bank with the use of five microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that the two populations are in the same rank of genetic diversity (He, from 0.613 to 0.692. Significant deviation from H-WE was observed in the both populations due to deficit to heterozygotes, this was attributed to inbreeding as a consequence of over- fishing; nevertheless, other possible causes considered are mixing of individuals from two or more populations, and the existence of null alleles. Levels of genetic differentiation indicated the existence of a single homogenous population in the Yucatan Peninsula (F ST de 0.003, p=0.49, which fits with highest levels of gene flow is significant (2.3 individuals between both populations. Results from this study support the hypothesis that S. gigas is part of a single panmictic population in the Yucatan Peninsula; therefore, this fishery resource should be regulated the same way for both areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1127-1134. Epub 2011 September 01.

  3. Diversidad genética de dos poblaciones del caracol Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) en Yucatán, México, con microsatélite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Zamora-Bustillos; Rossanna, Rodríguez-Canul; Francisco J, García de León; Jorge, Tello Cetina.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El caracol rosado S. gigas, es una especie de gran importancia pesquera en la región del Caribe que incluye la Península de Yucatán, en la cual, se analizó la diversidad y estructura genética de dos poblaciones (Arrecife Alacranes y Banco Chinchorro) mediante el uso de cinco marcadores moleculares d [...] el tipo microsatélites. Los resultados indican que las dos poblaciones analizadas se encuentran en el mismo rango de diversidad genética (He) de 0.613 a 0.692. En ambas poblaciones también se observó una desviación significativa al equilibrio H-WE, la cual fue atribuida a factores como la endogamia a consecuencia de una sobre-explotación pesquera. Sin embargo otra explicación posible es que se deba a una mezcla de individuos de dos o más poblaciones, y la existencia de alelos nulos. Los niveles de estructura genética indican la existencia de una sola población homogénea en la península de Yucatán (F ST de 0.003, p=0.49) y el flujo genético fue significativo (2.3 individuos) entre las dos poblaciones. Los resultados de este estudio aceptan la hipótesis de que las poblaciones S. gigas forman parte de una sola población panmíctica en la Península de Yucatán, por lo tanto, el recurso pesquero debe regularse de igual manera en ambas regiones. Abstract in english Genetic diversity in two populations of the snail Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) from Yucatan, Mexico, using microsatellite. The pink conch Strombus gigas is an important fisheries resource in the Caribbean region, including the Yucatán Peninsula. We analyzed the genetic diversity and genet [...] ic structure of two populations (Alacranes Reef and Chinchorro Bank) with the use of five microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that the two populations are in the same rank of genetic diversity (He), from 0.613 to 0.692. Significant deviation from H-WE was observed in the both populations due to deficit to heterozygotes, this was attributed to inbreeding as a consequence of over- fishing; nevertheless, other possible causes considered are mixing of individuals from two or more populations, and the existence of null alleles. Levels of genetic differentiation indicated the existence of a single homogenous population in the Yucatan Peninsula (F ST de 0.003, p=0.49), which fits with highest levels of gene flow is significant (2.3 individuals) between both populations. Results from this study support the hypothesis that S. gigas is part of a single panmictic population in the Yucatan Peninsula; therefore, this fishery resource should be regulated the same way for both areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3): 1127-1134. Epub 2011 September 01.

  4. The Histopathology of the Infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes by Lasidium Larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Souza Ângela Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae. The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 µm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host.

  5. The histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Souza, Angela Teresa; Eiras, Jorge C

    2002-04-01

    It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae) and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae). The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 microm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host. PMID:12048579

  6. Los moluscos (Pelecypoda, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, Polyplacophora y Scaphopoda) recolectados en el SE del golfo de California durante las campañas SIPCO a bordo del B/O "El Puma": Elenco faunístico / Mollusks (Pelecypoda, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, Polyplacophora and Scaphopoda) collected in the SE Gulf of California during the SIPCO cruises aboard the R/V "El Puma": Faunistic catalog

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michel E., Hendrickx; José, Salgado-Barragán; Arturo, Toledano-Granados; Mercedes, Cordero-Ruiz.

    Full Text Available Un total de 202 especies (122 géneros entre 62 familias) y 4 979 ejemplares de moluscos se recolectó en 24 arrastres de fondo que se realizaron en la plataforma continental frente a las costas de Sinaloa, en el SE del golfo de California, México. Los arrastres se efectuaron entre 27 y 117 m de profu [...] ndidad, durante las Campañas SIPCO I, II y III, a bordo del buque oceanográfico "El Puma", de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, en abril y agosto de 1981 y en enero de 1982. El material obtenido se reparte entre las diversas clases de moluscos como sigue: Pelecypoda, 55 especies; Gastropoda, 140; Cephalopoda, 3; Polyplacophora, 3; Scaphopoda, 1 especie. Algunas especies no pudieron ser identificadas (2 Bivalvia; 4 Gastropoda; 1 Cephalopoda), pero se reconocieron como distintas a las demás. El listado presentado incluye la lista del material examinado, así como la distribución geográfica de cada especie. Además, se incluye una ilustración de cada una de las especies recolectadas. Abstract in english A total of 202 species (122 genera in 62 families) and 4 979 specimens of mollusks was collected in 24 bottom trawls on the continental shelf off the coast of Sinaloa, in the SE Gulf of California, Mexico. The trawls were made between 27 and 117 m depth during the SIPCO I, II and III cruises aboard [...] the research vessel "El Puma" of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México in April and August 1981, and in January 1982. The material obtained belongs to five classes of mollusks: Pelecypoda, 55 species, Gastropoda, 140; Cephalopoda, 3; Polyplacophora, 3; Scaphopoda, 1 species. Some species (2 Bivalvia; 4 Gastropoda; 1 Cephalopoda) could not be identified but were recognized as distinct. The check list presented includes the material examined and the geographic distribution of all species. In addition, an illustration of each collected species is provided.

  7. Abundancia y estructura de tallas de Nerita funiculata (Mollusca: Gastrópoda: Neritidae) en la zona intermareal de las Islas de la Bahía de Navachiste, Sinaloa, México / Abundance and size structure of Nerita funiculata (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the intertidal zone of the Navachiste Bay islands, Sinaloa, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Francisco, Arzola-González; Domenico, Voltolina; Yecenia, Gutiérrez-Rubio; Luis Miguel, Flores-Campaña.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron la densidad media anual y las distribuciones de talla y peso del gasterópodo Nerita funiculata en seis islas de la Bahía de Navachiste (Sinaloa, México). Las densidades fueron mayores en las islas San Lucas y La Huitussera (28.3 ± 1.8 y 26.8 ± 2.2 ind m?2) que en La Mapachera (11.0 ± [...] 2.4 ind m?). La longitud total (LT) media fue mayor en Guasayeye (16.61 ± 2.36 mm) y las menores fueron en San Lucas y Tesobiate (14.67 ± 2.06 y 14.66 ± 2.36 mm). Las LT medias mensuales variaron entre 13.95 ± 1.87 y 13.96 ± 2.44 (Tesobiate y San Lucas) y 18.85 ± 1.98 mm (Guasayeye). La relación entre LT y PT (peso total en gramos): PT = 0.0014 LT2.518, indicó crecimiento alométrico negativo. Abstract in english The annual mean density and the weight and size distribution of the gastropod Nerita funiculata were recorded for six islands of Navachiste Bay (Sinaloa, Mexico). The densities were greater in San Lucas and La Huitussera (28.3 ± 1.8 and 26.8 ± 2.2 ind m?2) than in La Mapachera (11.0 ± 2.4 ind m?2). [...] The mean total length (TL) was greater in Guasayeye (16.61 ± 2.36 mm) and lower values were recorded in San Lucas and Tesobiate (14.67 ± 2.06 and 14.66 ± 2.36 mm). The monthly mean TL varied between 13.95 ± 1.87 and 13.96 ± 2.44 (Tesobiate and San Lucas) and 18.85 ± 1.98 mm (Guasayeye). The relationship between TL and TW (total weight in grams): TW = 0.0014 TL2.518, indicated a negative allometric growth.

  8. Larval trematodes (Digenea) of the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis (L.), (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnková, Anna; Našincová, Vanda; Kablásková, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 14, ?. 1 (2007), s. 39-51. ISSN 1252-607X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA6022404; GA ?R GP524/07/P086; GA ?R GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Trematoda * Mollusca * cercaria * metacercaria * Lymnaea stagnalis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2007

  9. pH-dependent stability of EGX, a multi-functional cellulase from mollusca, Ampullaria crossean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ying; Wang, Ji; Li, Yan-Hong; Ding, Ming; Xu, Gen-Jun; Liu, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Fu-Kun

    2004-09-01

    The cellulase activity and stability of EGX, a multi-functional cellulase previously purified from the mollusca Ampullaria crossean, was systematically studied under different pH. The pH induced con-formation and stability change of EGX have been investigated by using the intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence and CD spectrum. It has been found that the conformation and activity of this cellulase were strongly dependent on the pH. EGX was stable for both the enzyme activity and the conformation from pH 5.6 to pH 7.4. As shown by intrinsic and ANS fluorescence, no red shift of emission maximum occurred and a negligible intensity change was observed at pH 5.6-7.4. The activity of EGX remained about 80% in pH 5.6-7.4 and obviously decreased out of side the pH range. Urea-induced changes in EGX at pH 5.4 and pH 8.0 were measured by intrinsic fluorescence and CD spectrum. At pH 5.4, a significantly red shift of emission maximum occurred when the concentration of urea was 5 M compared to the concentration was 3 M at pH 8.0. The alpha-helix at pH 5.4 was 40.51% in the absence of urea and 31.04% in the presence of 4 M urea. At pH 8.0 the alpha-helix was 7.23% in the presence of 4 M urea. The data indicated that EGX was much susceptible to urea-induced unfolding at pH 8.0 and much stable at pH 5.4. The greater pH dependent stability of EGX may allow the enzyme to adequately catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials under natural or industrial extreme conditions. PMID:15346197

  10. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845; Acanthopleura granulate (Gmelin 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893. This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 129-136. Epub 2011 March 01.

  11. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cedar I, García-Ríos; Migdalia, Álvarez-Ruiz.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la do [...] cumentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845); Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840); Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886); S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845); Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791); Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893). Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889). Abstract in english Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four coll [...] ection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845); Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840); Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886); S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845); Acanthopleura granulate (Gmelin 1791); Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893). This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889). Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1): 129-136. Epub 2011 March 01.

  12. The Complete Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Chamberednautilus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Background: Mitochondria contain small genomes that arephysically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as amodel system for understanding the processes of genome evolution.Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported formore than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased towardvertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yetuncharacterized. Results: The mitochondrial genome of a cephalopodmollusk, the Chambered Nautilus, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5 percentA+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. Itcontains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs, with 15 on oneDNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can bederived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca:Polyplacophora) by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes andtranspositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in thedistribution of nucleotides between the two strands. There are an unusualnumber of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known;however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew,suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication.One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-likesequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand,but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at thebeginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of theproduct of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure.Conclusions: Nautilus sp. mtDNA contains an expected gene content thathas experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split betweencephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number ofnon-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often aregenerated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. Thisappears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrialtRNAs restores what would otherwise bean incompletestructure.

  13. Dos nuevas localizaciones para España de Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae, hospedador intermediario de Schistosomiasis urinaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ortí, A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new locations in Spain of Bulinus truncatus (Audouin, 1827 (Gastropoda, Planorbidae, intermediate host of urinary Schistosomiasis Two new populations of the planorbid snail species Bulinus truncatus were found in Spain in 2014. The first consisted of shells only, found in the lagoon of Villena (province of Alicante, which had dried up at the beginning of the 19th century. This finding is of important biogeographic interest because it links the presence of this species in northern Catalonia with its detection in southern Andalucia as this species had not been found previously in the regions of Murcia or Valencia. The second population was found in El Ejido (province of Almeria, and thousands of living specimens were found here. This allowed a complete shell characterisation and molecular assessment by means of sequencing the cox1 gene of the mitochondrial DNA genome, which showed 100% homology with sequences of other populations of the same snail species available in the GenBank. The finding of B. truncatus in Almeria is of additional value given the applied importance of this planorbid species as a vector of urinary Schistosomiasis, thus representing a risk of introduction and autochthonous transmission of the disease in Spain, as has occurred in other southern European countries in the past and recently.

  14. Populational status of the endangered mollusc Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda, Patellidae on Algerian islands (SW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Espinosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Populational status of the endangered mollusc Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda, Patellidae on Algerian islands (SW MediterraneanPatella ferruginea is the most endangered endemic marine inverte¬brate on the Western Mediterranean coasts according to the European Council Directive 92/43/EEC. A total of 1,017 individuals were recorded in the present study along western Algerian islands, with mean densities ranging from 0.8 to 35.3 ind/m per linear transect and averages of 4.8 ind/m per linear transect for Western Habibas Island and 22 ind/m for Plane Island, making these islands a hot spot for the species in the Medi¬terranean. The expected total number of specimens in Habibas would therefore be 50,400. The mean size of P. ferruginea on the Habibas Islands (4.45 cm was significantly (p < 0.001 greater than on Plane Island (2.78 cm. Recruitment was high in Plane Island and the northern sector of the western Habibas Islands. Lar¬ge adults had very conical shells. The fact that Habibas Islands is now a marine reserve could explain these differences in populations. Conservation of these populations should be a priority in order to avoid extinction of the species.

  15. Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae: Pisces) and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae: Pisces) as predators of immature Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae) and Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Planorbidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli; Carlos T. Guimaräes; Jacqueline A. do Carmo; Delza M. Soares; José S. dos Santos

    1991-01-01

    Two fish species, Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae) and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae) were tested for predacious behavior toward immature mosquitoes (Aedes fluviatili9s, Diptera: Culicidae) and schistosomiasis snail hosts (Biomphalaria glabrata, Mollusca: Planorbidae), in the presence or absence of non-living food and laboratory conditions. A. ocellatus, a species indigenous to Brazil, was a very efficient predator of both organisms (alpha=1,05); M. operculatis, an exotic species, preyed...

  16. The Histopathology of the Infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes) by Lasidium Larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ângela Teresa, Silva-Souza; Jorge C, Eiras.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae) and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae). The larvae were encysted within the epide [...] rmis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 µm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host.

  17. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Nautilus macromphalus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boore Jeffrey L

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria contain small genomes that are physically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as a model system for understanding the processes of genome evolution. Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased toward vertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yet uncharacterized. Results The mitochondrial genome of the bellybutton nautilus, Nautilus macromphalus, a cephalopod mollusk, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5% A+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains the 37 genes that are almost universally found in animal mtDNAs, with 15 on one DNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can be derived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes and transpositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in the distribution of nucleotides between the two strands, and analysis of this yields insight into modes of transcription and replication. There is an unusual number of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known; however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew, and there are several identical sequence elements at these junctions, suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication. One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-like sequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand, but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at the beginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of the product of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure. Conclusion Nautilus macromphalus mtDNA contains an expected gene content that has experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split between cephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number of non-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often are generated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. The skew in nucleotide composition between the two strands is strong and associated with the direction of transcription in various parts of the genomes, but a comparison with K. tunicata implies that mutational bias during replication also plays a role. This appears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrial tRNAs restores what would otherwise be an incomplete structure.

  18. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Ricardo L., Simone.

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a morfologia e anatomia detalhadas de 4 espécies de Scaphopoda e 5 espécies de bivalves protobrânquios. Ambas as classes são tradicionalmente agrupadas no táxon Diasoma, o qual vem sendo questionado por diferentes metodologias, tais como molecular e de desenvolvimento. Este estud [...] o é desenvolvido sob uma metodologia filogenética, a qual a maior preocupação é fornecer um procedimento inteligível e testável. As espécies de Scaphopoda analisadas provieram da costa brasileira e pertencem à família Dentaliidae [(1) Coccodentalium carduus; (2) Paradentalium disparile] e Gadilidae [(3) Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha; (4) Gadila braziliensis]. Estas espécies representam os ramos principais da classe Scaphopoda. Dos bivalves protobrânquios, representantes das famílias Solemyidae [(5) Solemya occidentalis, da Flórida; S. notialis, n. sp. do S.E. Brasil], Nuculanidae [(6) Propeleda carpentieri, da Flórida] e Nuculidae [(7) Ennucula puelcha, do sul do Brasil] são incluídos. Estas espécies representam os principais ramos dos bivalves basais. As descrições anatômicas de S. occidentalis e de P. carpentieri estão sendo publicadas em outro artigo, as das demais espécies estão incluídas neste, o qual também inclui um completo tratamento taxonômico. Além dessas espécies, representantes de outros táxons são operacionalmente incluídos como parte do ingroup (então os índices são compartilhados com eles), um procedimento visando testar a monofilia morfológica de Diasoma. Esses táxons são 2 bivalves lamelibrânquios [(8) Barbatia - Arcidae; (9) Serratina - Tellinidae; ambos publicados em artigos a parte]; Propilidium (10) Patellogastropoda e (11) Nautilus, Cephalopoda basal, baseados em táxons basais. Os outgroups efetivos são (12) Neopilina (Monoplacophora) e (13) Hanleya (Polyplacophora). A análise filogenética baseada na morfologia revelou que o táxon Diasoma é suportado por 14 sinapomorfias, sendo separada de Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda). Embora não sendo o principal enfoque do presente artigo, os táxons Scaphopoda e Bivalvia são suportados por 8 e por 7 sinapomorfias respectivamente. O táxon Protobranchia resultou parafilético. O cladograma obtido é: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile) (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis)) ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis) (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides))))) (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis)). Abstract in english This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed unde [...] r a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1) Coccodentalium carduus; (2) Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3) Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4) Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5) Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6) Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7) Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them), as a procedure to test the morpho

  19. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not the main goal of this paper, the taxa Scaphopoda and Bivalvia are supported by 8 and by 7 synapomorphies respectively. The taxon Protobranchia resulted paraphyletic. Both scaphopod orders resulted monophyletic. The obtained cladogram is: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.Este estudo analisa a morfologia e anatomia detalhadas de 4 espécies de Scaphopoda e 5 espécies de bivalves protobrânquios. Ambas as classes são tradicionalmente agrupadas no táxon Diasoma, o qual vem sendo questionado por diferentes metodologias, tais como molecular e de desenvolvimento. Este estudo é desenvolvido sob uma metodologia filogenética, a qual a maior preocupação é fornecer um procedimento inteligível e testável. As espécies de Scaphopoda analisadas provieram da costa brasileira e pertencem à família Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] e Gadilidae [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. Estas espécies representam os ramos principais da classe Scaphopoda. Dos bivalves protobrânquios, representantes das famílias Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, da Flórida; S. notialis, n. sp. do S.E. Brasil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri, da Flórida] e Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, do sul do Brasil] são incluídos. Estas espécies representam os principais ramos dos bivalves basais. As descrições anatômicas de S. occidentalis e de P. carpentieri estão sendo publicadas em outro artigo, as das demais espécies estão incluídas neste, o qual também inclui um completo tratamento taxonômico. Além dessas espécies, representantes de outros táxons são operacionalmente incluídos como parte do ingroup (então os índices são compartilhados com eles, um procedimento visando testar a monofilia morfológica de Diasoma. Esses táx

  20. Biodiversidad de gasterópodos terrestres (Mollusca) en el Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier, Tucumán, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María José, Miranda; María Gabriela, Cuezzo.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se analizaron parámetros de diversidad de la malacofauna terrestre del Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos cualitativos y cuantitativos en parcelas de 10x10m tomadas en transectas altitudinales, para un total de 22 169 especímenes recolectad [...] os. Las identificaciones taxonómicas se llevaron a cabo a nivel de especie. Se construyó una matriz de especies por parcela para analizar patrones de diversidad y se utilizaron estimadores no paramétricos (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 y Chao 2) para calcular la diversidad del Parque, el grado de completitud del muestreo y la agregación espacial de los datos. Se calcularon los índices de Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker y Jaccard. La riqueza del Parque fue estimada en 32 especies distribuidas en 21 géneros y 13 familias. Solo una especie pertenece a Caenogastropoda, el resto son Pulmonados Stylommatophora y Systellommatophora. La familia más representada fue Charopidae mientras que la especie con mayor abundancia relativa fue Adelopoma tucma. La riqueza y diversidad fue levemente mayor en chaco seco que en bosque húmedo de Yungas. Los valores de diversidad obtenidos fueron elevados en comparación con estudios previos realizados en el noroeste Argentino. Abstract in english Biodiversity of land gastropods (Mollusca) in Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina. Studies related to land mollusk diversity in tropical and subtropical forests are scarce. To assess this, a study on land snail diversity of subtropical cloudforest (Yungas) and dry forest (Chaco) areas of S [...] ierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina, was carried out. Taxonomic identifications were performed to species level and built a species per stations data matrix to analyze diversity patterns on qualitative and quantitative samples processed from 10x10m quadrates in altitudinal transects. Non parametric analysis (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 and Chao 2) were used to estimate the true diversity of the area, as well as the degree of undersampling and spatial aggregation of the data. Diversity was also calculated using Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker and Jaccard indices. The richness of the San Javier Park was estimated to be 32 species distributed into 13 families and 21 genera. From the total number of species collected, a single one belongs to Caenogastropoda, while the rest of the species are classified into Pulmonata Stylommatophora and Systellommatophora. The most representative family was the micromollusc Charopidae, while the most relatively abundant species was another micromollusc snail, Adelopoma tucma. Richness and diversity were slightly more elevated in dry forest areas of the Chacoan Ecoregion than in cloud forest areas of Yungas. Non parametric estimators showed that the inventory was complete. Diversity values obtained were high in comparison to previously studied areas of Northwestern Argentina. The total number of specimen collected (22 169 specimens), was higher than other published studies. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3): 1009- 1029. Epub 2010 September 01.

  1. Biodiversidad de gasterópodos terrestres (Mollusca en el Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier, Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se analizaron parámetros de diversidad de la malacofauna terrestre del Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos cualitativos y cuantitativos en parcelas de 10x10m tomadas en transectas altitudinales, para un total de 22 169 especímenes recolectados. Las identificaciones taxonómicas se llevaron a cabo a nivel de especie. Se construyó una matriz de especies por parcela para analizar patrones de diversidad y se utilizaron estimadores no paramétricos (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 y Chao 2 para calcular la diversidad del Parque, el grado de completitud del muestreo y la agregación espacial de los datos. Se calcularon los índices de Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker y Jaccard. La riqueza del Parque fue estimada en 32 especies distribuidas en 21 géneros y 13 familias. Solo una especie pertenece a Caenogastropoda, el resto son Pulmonados Stylommatophora y Systellommatophora. La familia más representada fue Charopidae mientras que la especie con mayor abundancia relativa fue Adelopoma tucma. La riqueza y diversidad fue levemente mayor en chaco seco que en bosque húmedo de Yungas. Los valores de diversidad obtenidos fueron elevados en comparación con estudios previos realizados en el noroeste Argentino.Biodiversity of land gastropods (Mollusca in Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina. Studies related to land mollusk diversity in tropical and subtropical forests are scarce. To assess this, a study on land snail diversity of subtropical cloudforest (Yungas and dry forest (Chaco areas of Sierra de San Javier Park, Tucumán, Argentina, was carried out. Taxonomic identifications were performed to species level and built a species per stations data matrix to analyze diversity patterns on qualitative and quantitative samples processed from 10x10m quadrates in altitudinal transects. Non parametric analysis (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 and Chao 2 were used to estimate the true diversity of the area, as well as the degree of undersampling and spatial aggregation of the data. Diversity was also calculated using Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker and Jaccard indices. The richness of the San Javier Park was estimated to be 32 species distributed into 13 families and 21 genera. From the total number of species collected, a single one belongs to Caenogastropoda, while the rest of the species are classified into Pulmonata Stylommatophora and Systellommatophora. The most representative family was the micromollusc Charopidae, while the most relatively abundant species was another micromollusc snail, Adelopoma tucma. Richness and diversity were slightly more elevated in dry forest areas of the Chacoan Ecoregion than in cloud forest areas of Yungas. Non parametric estimators showed that the inventory was complete. Diversity values obtained were high in comparison to previously studied areas of Northwestern Argentina. The total number of specimen collected (22 169 specimens, was higher than other published studies. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 1009- 1029. Epub 2010 September 01.

  2. The influence of fish cage culture on ?13C and ?15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca) / A influência dos tanques rede sobre o ?13C e ?15N de uma espécie filtradora Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Benedito; L., Figueroa; A.M, Takeda; GI., Manetta.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do cultivo de Oreochromis niloticus em tanques rede sobre os valores de ?13C e ?15N em tecidos Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) e no sedimento da cadeia alimentar aquática. As amostragens foram realizadas em períodos prévios e posteriores a instala [...] ção de tanques redes no reservatório de Rosana (Rio Paranapanema, PR-SP). As amostras de espécimes de bivalves filtradores exóticos e as de sedimento foram coletadas utilizando uma versão modificada do pegador tipo Petersen. Todas as amostras foram secas em estufa (60 °C) durante 72 horas, maceradas até obtenção de pó fino e homogêneo e enviadas para determinação do carbono (13C) e do nitrogênio (15N) em espectrofotômetro de massa. Houve diferenças significativas nos valores ?13C e ?15N do invertebrado C. fluminea entre o início e o fim do experimento. Entretanto, não foram evidenciadas diferenças nos valores ?13C e ?15N presente no sedimento. Estes resultados demonstram que a instalação dos tanques rede promoveram impactos na composição isotópica do invertebrado, que podem influenciar as espécies nativas e o ecossistema. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the ?13C and ?15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservo [...] ir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filterer C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the ?13C and ?15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the ?13C and ?15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem.

  3. Strepsodiscus austrinus Pinilla et al. (Gastropoda, Bellerophontoidea) y faunas asociadas del Cámbrico tardío del Angosto de la Quesera, provincia de Salta / Strepsodiscus austrinus Pinilla et al. (Gastropoda, Bellerophontoidea) y faunas asociadas del Cámbrico tardío del Angosto de la Quesera, Provincia de Salta

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina, Pinilla; Nora, Sabattini; Guillermo F, Aceñolaza; M. Franco, Tortello; Susana B, Esteban.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio paleontológico en la Formación Lampazar que aflora en la localidad Angosto de La Quesera, franja oeste de la Cordillera Oriental, provincia de Salta. En dicha unidad se ha registrado el género Strepsodiscus Knight (Gastropoda, Bellerophontoidea), el cual [...] ha reforzado anteriores investigaciones que revelan una edad cámbrica tardía para la asociación fosilífera y los estratos portadores. En esta oportunidad se realiza un diagnóstico de la morfología funcional de la especie Strepsodicus austrinus Pinilla et al., la cual se documenta asociada a trilobites característicos de la Biozona de Parabolina frequens argentina [Parabolina (Neoparabolina) frequens (Barrande), Olenidae indet., Micragnostus sp.], Hyolitha gen et sp. indet., placas de crinoideos y trazas fósiles de la ichnofacies de Cruziana. Abstract in english A paleontological study on the Lampazar Formation outcropping at Angosto de la Quesera locality, western Cordillera Oriental, Salta Province, is achieved. The occurrence of the genus Strepsodiscus Knight (Gastropoda, Bellerophontoidea) supports a latest Cambrian age for the formation. This paper inc [...] ludes an analysis of the functional morphology of Strepsodiscus austrinus Pinilla et al., which is associated with some characteristic trilobites of the Parabolina frequens argentina Zone [Parabolina (Neoparabolina) frequens (Barrande), Olenidae indet., Micragnostus sp.], Hyolitha gen et sp. indet, crinoid plates, and trace fossils of the archetypical Cruziana Ichnofacies.

  4. Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae: Pisces) and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae: Pisces) as predators of immature Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae) and Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Planorbidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rotraut A. G. B., Consoli; Carlos T., Guimaräes; Jacqueline A. do, Carmo; Delza M., Soares; José S. dos, Santos.

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Two fish species, Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae) and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae) were tested for predacious behavior toward immature mosquitoes (Aedes fluviatili9s, Diptera: Culicidae) and schistosomiasis snail hosts (Biomphalaria glabrata, Mollusca: Planorbidae), in the presence or absenc [...] e of non-living food and laboratory conditions. A. ocellatus, a species indigenous to Brazil, was a very efficient predator of both organisms (alpha=1,05); M. operculatis, an exotic species, preyed well on immature mosquitoes, but small snails and snail egg-masses were ingested only irregulary. Both fish species seemed to prefer live to non-living food.

  5. Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae: Pisces and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae: Pisces as predators of immature Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae and Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Two fish species, Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae were tested for predacious behavior toward immature mosquitoes (Aedes fluviatili9s, Diptera: Culicidae and schistosomiasis snail hosts (Biomphalaria glabrata, Mollusca: Planorbidae, in the presence or absence of non-living food and laboratory conditions. A. ocellatus, a species indigenous to Brazil, was a very efficient predator of both organisms (alpha=1,05; M. operculatis, an exotic species, preyed well on immature mosquitoes, but small snails and snail egg-masses were ingested only irregulary. Both fish species seemed to prefer live to non-living food.

  6. Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae:Pisces) and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae:Pisces) as predators of immature Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae) and Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca:Planorbidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, R A; Guimarães, C T; do Carmo, J A; Soares, D M; dos Santos, J S

    1991-01-01

    Two fish species, Astronotus ocellatus (Cichlidae) and Macropodus opercularis (Anabatidae) were tested for predacious behavior toward immature mosquitoes (Aedes fluviatilis, Diptera:Culicidae) and schistosomiasis snail hosts (Biomphalaria glabrata, Mollusca:Planorbidae), in the presence or absence of non-living food and in laboratory conditions. A. ocellatus, a species indigenous to Brazil, was a very efficient predator of both organisms (alpha = 0.05); M. opercularis, an exotic species, preyed well on immature mosquitoes, but small snails and snail egg-masses were ingested only irregularly. Both fish species seemed to prefer live to non-living food. PMID:1842433

  7. Reproducción, dieta y pesquería del pulpo Octopus (Octopus) hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) en la costa de Oaxaca, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria del Carmen, Alejo-Plata; José Luis, Gómez-Márquez; Samuel, Ramos Carrillo; Jorge Eduardo, Herrera- Galindo.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan algunos aspectos de la biología y pesquería de Octopus hubbsorum capturado por pesca artesanal en Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca, México. Las muestras se obtuvieron de enero 2002 a noviembre 2003 con una periodicidad quincenal. A cada uno de los organismos se les registró la longitud dorsal del ma [...] nto (LDM), peso total, sexo y estado de madurez gonádica. Asímismo se obtuvo el Índice Gonadosomático (IGS). Para el análisis del contenido estomacal se utilizaron los índices de frecuencia de presencia y vaciado. Se analizaron 352 organismos, con un intervalo de tallas de 4 a 19 cm LDM; la proporción de sexos fue diferente de 1 (.2= 24.2, p Abstract in english Reproduction, diet and fishery of Octopus (Octopus) hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in the coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. The octopus Octopus hubbsorum (Berry 1953) ranges widely and is important for the artisanal fishery in Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samples were taken approximately at every two wee [...] ks from January 2002 to November 2003. All organisms were measured for dorsal mantle length (DLM) and total weight; sex and maturity gonadic stage were registered. For the stomach content analysis, frequency of occurrence and emptying indexes were used. The 352 organisms caught ranged from 4 to 18 cm in DLM; the sex ratio was different from 1 (X² = 24.2, p

  8. The influence of fish cage culture on ?{sup 13}C and ?{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: eva@nupelia.uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the ?{sup 13}C and ?{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (?{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (?{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the ?{sup 13}C and ?{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the ?{sup 13}C and ?{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  9. The influence of fish cage culture on ?13C and ?15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the ?13C and ?15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the ?13C and ?15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the ?13C and ?15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  10. Present status of the endangered limpet Cymbula nigra (Gastropoda, Patellidae in Ceuta: how do substrate heterogeneity and area accessibility affect population structure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera–Ingraham, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cymbula nigra (Gastropoda, Patellidae is a threatened giant patellid limpet found on the North African coast from Namibia to Algeria. The objective of this study was to estimate the total number of individuals present in Ceuta (Strait of Gibraltar and to determine the effect of certain physical parameters on population structure and abundance. Between 2006 and 2010 we conducted an exhaustive census in the area. Results indicate that Ceuta could be home to 48,473 individuals. The most important populations were recorded on the North Bay, characterized by its Atlantic influence. While for other similar species, such as Patella ferruginea, human accessibility to the area plays an important role in determining the structure of populations, we found that substrate roughness (small scale topographic heterogeneity is the main determining factor in this species. Populations located on medium to low topographic heterogeneity substrates showed higher percentages of medium and large size individuals. However, recruitment rates did not differ between substrata of different roughness. Finally, and through the analysis of the C. nigra populations located on some recently constructed jetties, we obtained interesting new data regarding individual growth rates, thus contributing to our knowledge of the population structure of the species.

  11. A new species of Acteon (Opisthobranchia: Acteonidae) from Northeast Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlo Magenta, Cunha.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Acteon Montfort 1810, Acteon mirim sp. nov., from Canopus Bank, state of Ceará, Brazil is described based on shell morphology. The new species is compared with other species of the genus reported from Brazil. It differs from other Brazilian species in having a whitish color with dar [...] k orange-brown spiral bands and a shell surface covered with small spiral grooves, regularly rectangular.

  12. Reproducción, dieta y pesquería del pulpo Octopus (Octopus hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda en la costa de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Alejo-Plata

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan algunos aspectos de la biología y pesquería de Octopus hubbsorum capturado por pesca artesanal en Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca, México. Las muestras se obtuvieron de enero 2002 a noviembre 2003 con una periodicidad quincenal. A cada uno de los organismos se les registró la longitud dorsal del manto (LDM, peso total, sexo y estado de madurez gonádica. Asímismo se obtuvo el Índice Gonadosomático (IGS. Para el análisis del contenido estomacal se utilizaron los índices de frecuencia de presencia y vaciado. Se analizaron 352 organismos, con un intervalo de tallas de 4 a 19 cm LDM; la proporción de sexos fue diferente de 1 (.2= 24.2, pReproduction, diet and fishery of Octopus (Octopus hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. The octopus Octopus hubbsorum (Berry 1953 ranges widely and is important for the artisanal fishery in Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samples were taken approximately at every two weeks from January 2002 to November 2003. All organisms were measured for dorsal mantle length (DLM and total weight; sex and maturity gonadic stage were registered. For the stomach content analysis, frequency of occurrence and emptying indexes were used. The 352 organisms caught ranged from 4 to 18 cm in DLM; the sex ratio was different from 1 (X² = 24.2, p<0.05 throughout the year. The maximum values of the GSI appeared in May (4.1917 for females; 1.2675 in males. LDM for first sexual maturity (LDM50% was 16 cm (females and 14 cm (males. Octopus hubbsorum moves from deep waters to the coast, probably in search of better conditions, and lays masses of eggs on rocky substrata. They are fished from March to October, with higher intensity in April and May. Fishing effort was related to the oceanographic characteristics and the atmospheric conditions of the area. From April to September the CPUE monthly mean was 20-10 kg/divers/day. Using the CPUE and environmental condition relationship, the estimated adequate superficial temperature for fishing is 29.5 °C. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 63-78. Epub 2009 June 30.

  13. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Araujo

    2015-07-01

    European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha. Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  14. Effects of CO-60 gamma radiation on the embryonary development of Biomphalaria Glabrata (Say, 1818)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the effects of the ionizing radiation on the embryo and on the genetical material of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) are presented. The embryos weresubmitted at various stages of development to doses of 5,10,15,20 and 25 Gy of Co-60 gamma radiation. As a criteia of evaluation of the embryos radiosensitivity, four biological parameters were used: mortality, malformation, hatching and chromossomal aberrations. (M.A.C.)

  15. The influence of trematodes on the macroalgae consumption by the common periwinkle Littorina littorea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Karin T.; Larsen, Martin H.; Iversen, Nina K.; Mouritsen, Kim Nørgaard

    2008-01-01

    Trematodes are ubiquitous elements of coastal ecosystems that commonly modify the phenotype of their invertebrate hosts, often with ramifications to higher levels of ecological organization. In this context, trematode infections have been suggested to reduce the consumption of the herbivorous gastropod Littorina littorea (L.) (Mollusca: Gastropoda), in turn affecting the composition of the macroalgal community on which the snail grazes. Here, we examine the effect of two species of trematodes, R...

  16. Tolerance to air exposure of the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca as a prerequisite to survival in overland translocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alonso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spreading throughout a new ecosystem is the last step of an exotic species to become invasive. In the case of invasive aquatic molluscs, tolerance to air exposure is one of the main mechanisms allowing overland translocation and spreading. The mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca is native to New Zealand but it has spread worldwide, invading ecosystems in Europe, Australia, America and Asia. The aim of our study is to assess mudsnail tolerance to air exposure, which may contribute to the successful overland translocation of this species. We conducted a laboratory experiment with four levels of air exposure (9, 18, 24 and 36 hours in a controlled climatic chamber. Snails were placed for 60 seconds in a laboratory paper filter to remove surface snail water. Then they were placed back in empty vessels during the four periods of air exposure, except the control group, which was immediately returned to water. At the end of each period of air exposure all vessels were filled with water and the cumulative mortality was monitored after 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours of rehydration. The calculated Lethal Times (i.e. the time of air exposure (in hours necessary to cause the death of 50% (LT50 or 99% (LT99 of the population and their 95% confidence limits at 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours were 28.1 (25.2–31.9, 26.9 (24.2–30.1, 25.9 (23.4–28.9 and 25.9 (23.4–28.9 hours, respectively for LT50, and 49.6 (42.7–63.3, 45.6 (39.9–56.5, 43.2 (38.0–53.0 and 43.2 (38.0–53.0 hours, respectively for LT99. Therefore an air exposure time over 43 hours caused the death of all studied individuals during all monitoring periods. Extending the monitoring period beyond 24 hours did not significantly change lethal times. Therefore, we recommend exposing fishing tools or boats at open air during at least 53 hours as a low cost measure to control mudsnail spread in early stages of invasion.

  17. Sucesión temprana de la taxocenosis Mollusca-Annelida-Crustacea en raíces sumergidas de mangle rojo en San Andrés Isla, Caribe colombiano / Early succession of the taxocenosis Mollusca-Annelida-Crustacea on red mangrove submerged roots in San Andres Island, Colombian Caribbean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia E, Romero-Murillo; Jaime, Polanía.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la sucesión temprana de los taxa Annelida, Mollusca y Crustacea asociados a las raíces sumergidas de Rhizophora mangle (mangle rojo), empleando ramas del mismo como sustrato artificial (unidades experimentales). El análisis se relacionó con algunas variables físico-químicas y ambientales [...] durante 188 días en San Andrés Isla, entre noviembre 2002 y mayo 2003, en tres estaciones de dos bahías, Hooker y Honda. Se identificaron 34.175 individuos en 130 unidades experimentales, los anélidos mostraron la mayor proporción (77,1%). Se generó un análisis de ordenación y clasificación (dendrograma y un escalamiento multidimensional no métrico-NMDS) para cada uno de los tres taxa estudiados. Los análisis revelaron débil similaridad entre la parte interna de Bahía Hooker y las estaciones restantes. Se calcularon los índices de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener, uniformidad de Pielou, riqueza de Margalef y predominio de Simpson a lo largo del estudio; los tres primeros presentaron mayores valores en Bahía Hooker que en Honda, mientras que el índice de predominio fue mayor en Bahía Honda. Hubo organismos pioneros como el anélido Spirorbis sp. y transitorios como los crustáceos; los moluscos parecieron necesitar periodos más prolongados para asentarse. Estas respuestas revelan que características geomorfológicas, presencia o ausencia de corrientes de agua dulce, mareas y lluvias, principalmente, y factores antrópicos pueden influir en el desarrollo de estas comunidades. Dispersión larval y proximidad con otros ecosistemas aumentan o disminuyen las poblaciones; sólo algunos organismos adaptados a condiciones extremas se establecen y mantienen en el área. Bajo condiciones favorables, la abundancia y diversidad de especies tienden a aumentar Abstract in english The early succession of the taxa Annelida, Mollusca and Crustacea on Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) submerged roots was analyzed using old branches as ground (which were the experimental units) in San Andres Island. The analysis was related to some physico-chemical and environmental variables duri [...] ng 188 days, between November/2002 and May/2003, in Hooker and Honda bays. A total of 34,175 individuals in 130 experimental units were counted, where the annelids represented the largest proportion (77.1%) from the whole sample. A dendrogram and a nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were constructed for each one of the three studied taxa. The analyses showed a weak similarity between the internal part of the Hooker Bay and the remaining stations. Shannon-Wiener diversity, Pielou evenness, Margalef richness and Simpson predominance indexes were calculated throughout the study; the three first indices showed greater values in Hooker Bay than in Honda Bay, while the predominance index was greater in Bay Honda. There were pioneers organisms such as Spirorbis sp., and transient ones, such as crustaceans, whilst molluscs seemed to need longer periods to settle in. These responses reveal that geomorphological characteristics, presence or absence of freshwater currents, tides and rainfall mainly, as well as anthropic factors can influence the development of these communities. Larval dispersion and the proximity to other ecosystems increase or reduce the populations, and only some organisms, adapted to extreme conditions, settle down and maintain in the area. Under favorable conditions, abundance and species diversity tend to increase

  18. Elementos traza detectados por plasma inductivamente acoplado (ICP) en pepitonas, Arca zebra (Mollusca, Arcidae) de dos localidades costeras del estado Sucre, Venezuela / Trace elements detected by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) in Turkey wing, Arca zebra (Mollusca, Arcidae) from two coastal locations of Sucre State, Venezuela

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    Vilma, Lanza; Ildemaro, Martínez; Osmicar, Vallenilla; Julia, Márquez; Arquímedes, González; Jesús, Gamboa; José, Alió.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Los metales pesados juegan un papel importante en la dinámica de los procesos químicos y ambientales en las zonas costeras. Estos provienen de aportes naturales y antropogénicos y pueden ser bioacumulados en organismos acuáticos, en los que se encuentran como elementos traza, y tienen potenciales ef [...] ectos tóxicos a quienes los consuman, principalmente al hombre como último eslabón de la cadena alimenticia. La gravedad del daño depende del grado y el tiempo de exposición a dichos elementos. Se determinó la concentración de metales pesados (Mg, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni y Fe) por Plasma Inductivamente Acoplado (ICP) en la pepitona, Arca zebra (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Arcidae), provenientes de las inmediaciones de Caimancito y Chacopata (municipio Cruz Salmerón Acosta, estado Sucre, Venezuela). En Caimancito, las mayores concentraciones de casi todos los metales se detectaron en septiembre, a excepción del Mg que fue observada en febrero. En Chacopata, las concentraciones más elevadas se observaron en el mes de octubre (Mg, Mn y Ni), septiembre (Cu), diciembre (Fe) y en enero (Mo). No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las localidades, mientras que existen diferencias significativas entre meses. Al momento no existen normas o regulaciones venezolanas que establezcan límites máximos de concentración de los metales analizados en moluscos bivalvos procesados o frescos, que permitan establecer comparaciones con los resultados obtenidos. Sin embargo, en base a normas internacionales, las concentraciones medidas de metales pesados en pepitonas no rebasaron los límites permitidos para consumo humano. Abstract in english Heavy metals play an important role in the dynamics of chemical and environmental processes in the coastal zones. They originate from natural and anthropogenic sources and can be bioaccumulated in aquatic organisms, where they are found as trace elements, and have potential toxic effects to those wh [...] o consume them, mainly to humans as the last link in the food chain. The severity of damage depends on the degree and time of exposure to these elements. The concentration of heavy metals (Mg, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni and Fe) was estimated by Inductivelly Coupled Plasma (ICP) in the Turkey wing, Arca zebra (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Arcidae), from the vicinity to Caimancito and Chacopata (Municipality Cruz Salmerón Acosta, Sucre state, Venezuela). In Caimancito, higher concentrations of almost all metals were detected in September, except for Mg which was registered in February. In Chacopata, the highest concentrations were observed in October (Mg, Mn and Ni), September (Cu), December (Fe) and January (Mo). No significant differences were found between localities, while there were significant differences among months. At present there are not Venezuelan norms or regulations establishing the maximum concentration limits for the analyzed heavy metals in fresh or processed bivalve mollusks, which may enable comparisons with the obtained results. However, based upon international norms, the measured concentrations of heavy metals in Turkey wing apparently do not represent a threat for human consumption.

  19. Mollusks (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) of the Multiple-Use Reserve Martín García Island, Río de la Plata River: biodiversity and ecology / Moluscos (Gastropoda e Bivalvia) da Reserva Natural de Usos Múltiplos Ilha Martín García, Rio de La Plata: biodiversidade e ecologia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    II, César; SM, Martín; A, Rumi; M, Tassara.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A Ilha de Martín García está localizada na parte alta do Rio de la Plata, ao sul da desembocadura do Rio Uruguay. Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar a biodiversidade dos moluscos de água doce da ilha e sua relação com variáveis ambientais. Doze pontos de amostragem foram selecionados: cinco fora [...] m ao longo da seção litoral da ilha e sete em lagunas interiores. Sete variáveis ambientais foram medidas: temperatura da água e do ar, porcentagem de saturação de oxigênio, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica, sólidos totais dissolvidos e pH. Vinte e seis espécies de moluscos foram encontrados: Antillorbis nordestensis, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila, B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense e Limnoperna fortunei. A análise de agrupamento das espécies com base em sua ocorrência em diferentes condições ecológicas revelou dois grupos principais de espécies. A Análise de Correspondência Canônica sugere que a distribuição das espécies é relacionada com a condição físico-química da água. No eixo dois do diagrama de ordenação apresentado, há cerca de 96% de correlação entre as espécies e as variáveis ambientais. O oxigênio dissolvido, a condutividade, a temperatura da água e pH apresentaram as maiores oscilações durante o período de amostragem. A riqueza de espécies (S) apresentou relações principalmente com a temperatura da água e a condutividade. A biodiversidade de gastrópodes e bivalves da Ilha Martín García é de 26 espécies. Entre os Gastropoda, a família Planorbidae exibe a contribuição mais importante. O Lithogliphidae P. agapetus. (26,28%) e P. buschii (9,50%) apresentaram as maiores frequências relativas de ocorrência dentro dos ambientes costeiros, enquanto o Planorbidae D. cimex (23,83%) e D. kermatoides (11,59%) também apresentaram frequências expressivas nas lagunas interiores. Abstract in english The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five w [...] ere along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Twenty-seven mollusk species were found, Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila , B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense and Limnoperna fortunei. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggests that the species distribution is related to the physico-chemical condition of water. Axis two of the ordination diagram displayed the approximately 95.6% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, water temperature and pH showed the highest fluctuations during the sampling period. The species richness (S) showed relationships mainly with water temperature and conductivity. The biodiversity of the gastropods and bivalves from Martín

  20. Variabilidad temporal de la abundancia de Coralliophila abbreviata y Coralliophila caribaea (Mollusca, Coralliophilidae en un arrecife coralino del Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela

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    Carlos del Mónaco

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available C. abbreviata y C. caribaea son moluscos coralívoros del Mar Caribe. Evaluamos la variabilidad temporal de la abundancia y los cambios en la estructura de talla de C. abbreviata y C. caribaea en Cayo Sombrero, Venezuela (septiembre 2004-agosto 2005. Se colocaron transectas fijas de 50 metros de longitud a profundidades de tres y seis metros cada una, paralelas a la costa. Se evaluó mensualmente durante un año la densidad de ambos depredadores y se seleccionaron 30 individuos de C. abbreviata para medirlos cada mes. Las densidades de C. abbreviata en la transecta somera fluctuaron entre 1.78 ind/m² en septiembre y 6.26 ind/m² en mayo; las densidades de C. abbreviata en la transecta profunda estuvieron comprendidas entre 4.23 ind/m² en enero y 7.66 ind/m² en mayo. Las densidades de C. caribaea fluctuaron en la transecta somera entre 0 ind/m² (todos los meses menos septiembre y 0.03 ind/m² (septiembre mientras que la transecta profunda fluctuó entre 0 ind/m² (octubre a marzo y julio y 0.1 ind/m² (abril. La mayoría de los individuos de C. abbreviata midieron entre 12 y 16 mm de longitud. El largo de la mayoría de los individuos de C. caribaea estuvo comprendido entre 10 y 15 mm.Temporary abundance variation of Coralliophila abbreviata and Coralliophila caribaea (Mollusca, Coralliophilidae in a coral reef at Morrocoy National Park. The mollusks Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea are coral predators in the Caribbean Sea . We evaluated the temporal variability of abundance and size structure of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea in Cayo Sombrero, Morrocoy National Park, Venezuelar (September 2004 - August 2005. The density of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea was evaluated monthly by means of two 50- meter long transects paralell to the coast line, at 3 m and 6 m deep; aditionally, 30 individuals of C. abbreviata were collected to measure size. The densities of C. abbreviata at the shallow transect fluctuated between 1.78 ind/m² in September and 6.26 ind/m² in May. The densities at the deep transect fluctuated between 4.23 ind/m² in January and 7.66 ind/m² in May. The densities of C. caribaea at the shallow transect fluctuated between 0 ind/m2 (except in September and 0.03 ind/m² (September and the densities at the deep transect fluctuated between 0 ind/m² (October to March and July and 0.1 ind/m² (April. Most individuals of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea measured between 12 and 16 mm and between 10 and 15 mm long respectively. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 501-511. Epub 2008 June 30.

  1. Variabilidad temporal de la abundancia de Coralliophila abbreviata y Coralliophila caribaea (Mollusca, Coralliophilidae) en un arrecife coralino del Parque Nacional Morrocoy, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, del Mónaco; Estrella, Villamizar; Samuel, Narciso.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available C. abbreviata y C. caribaea son moluscos coralívoros del Mar Caribe. Evaluamos la variabilidad temporal de la abundancia y los cambios en la estructura de talla de C. abbreviata y C. caribaea en Cayo Sombrero, Venezuela (septiembre 2004-agosto 2005). Se colocaron transectas fijas de 50 metros de lon [...] gitud a profundidades de tres y seis metros cada una, paralelas a la costa. Se evaluó mensualmente durante un año la densidad de ambos depredadores y se seleccionaron 30 individuos de C. abbreviata para medirlos cada mes. Las densidades de C. abbreviata en la transecta somera fluctuaron entre 1.78 ind/m² en septiembre y 6.26 ind/m² en mayo; las densidades de C. abbreviata en la transecta profunda estuvieron comprendidas entre 4.23 ind/m² en enero y 7.66 ind/m² en mayo. Las densidades de C. caribaea fluctuaron en la transecta somera entre 0 ind/m² (todos los meses menos septiembre) y 0.03 ind/m² (septiembre) mientras que la transecta profunda fluctuó entre 0 ind/m² (octubre a marzo y julio) y 0.1 ind/m² (abril). La mayoría de los individuos de C. abbreviata midieron entre 12 y 16 mm de longitud. El largo de la mayoría de los individuos de C. caribaea estuvo comprendido entre 10 y 15 mm. Abstract in english Temporary abundance variation of Coralliophila abbreviata and Coralliophila caribaea (Mollusca, Coralliophilidae) in a coral reef at Morrocoy National Park. The mollusks Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea are coral predators in the Caribbean Sea . We evaluated the temporal variability of abund [...] ance and size structure of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea in Cayo Sombrero, Morrocoy National Park, Venezuelar (September 2004 - August 2005). The density of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea was evaluated monthly by means of two 50- meter long transects paralell to the coast line, at 3 m and 6 m deep; aditionally, 30 individuals of C. abbreviata were collected to measure size. The densities of C. abbreviata at the shallow transect fluctuated between 1.78 ind/m² in September and 6.26 ind/m² in May. The densities at the deep transect fluctuated between 4.23 ind/m² in January and 7.66 ind/m² in May. The densities of C. caribaea at the shallow transect fluctuated between 0 ind/m2 (except in September) and 0.03 ind/m² (September) and the densities at the deep transect fluctuated between 0 ind/m² (October to March and July) and 0.1 ind/m² (April). Most individuals of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea measured between 12 and 16 mm and between 10 and 15 mm long respectively. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2): 501-511. Epub 2008 June 30.

  2. Perfil de lípidos y ácidos grasos de Perna viridis, mejillón verde (Mollusca: Bivalvia) en el oriente venezolano y la costa oeste de Trinidad

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tamar, Koftayan; Jahiro, Milano; Haydelba, D´Armas; Gabriel, Salazar.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos totales fueron extraídos, identificados y cuantificados por gravimetría, mediante TLC/FID (sistema Iatroscan). Los ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales, fosfolípidos y triacilgliceroles fueron identificados y cuantificados por cromatografía de gases. Las mayores concentraciones de lípido [...] s totales se presentaron en las muestras de Los Cedros, La Brea y Chaguaramas con valores de 7.92, 7.74 y 7.53%; respectivamente y los valores mínimos en las de La Restinga (6.08%). En la composición lípidica, las muestras de Chacopata presentaron la menor concentración de fosfolípidos (48.86%) y los máximos valores de colesterol (38.87%) y triacilgliceroles (12.26%), y las muestras de La Esmeralda y Río Caribe exhibieron concentraciones máximas de fosfolípidos (88.71-84.93%, respectivamente) y mínimas de colesterol (6.50-4.42%). En los lípidos totales, los ácidos grasos saturados se encontraron entre 15.04 y 65.55%, con máximos en muestras de La Esmeralda y mínimos en Chacopata y los poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 7.80 y 37.18%, con máximos valores en la Brea y mínimos en la Esmeralda. En los fosfolípidos, la concentración de ácidos grasos saturados estuvo entre 38.81 y 48.68% para las muestras de Chaguaramas y Chacopata, respectivamente; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados se encontraron entre no detectado y 34.51%, con altas concentraciones en muestras de Los Cedros (27.97%) y Chaguaramas (34.51%). En los triacilgliceroles, la composición de ácidos grasos saturados variaron entre 14.27 y 53.80%, con baja concentración en Chacopata y alta concentración en La Restinga; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 4.66 y 35.55%, con valores menores en las muestras de Chacopata (4.66%) y mayores en Chaguaramas. El consumo frecuente de Perna viridis es recomendable, debido a su alto contenido de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos insaturados. Abstract in english Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, Green Mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West coast of Trinidad. The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Tr [...] inidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with l

  3. Perfil de lípidos y ácidos grasos de Perna viridis, mejillón verde (Mollusca: Bivalvia en el oriente venezolano y la costa oeste de Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Koftayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos totales fueron extraídos, identificados y cuantificados por gravimetría, mediante TLC/FID (sistema Iatroscan. Los ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales, fosfolípidos y triacilgliceroles fueron identificados y cuantificados por cromatografía de gases. Las mayores concentraciones de lípidos totales se presentaron en las muestras de Los Cedros, La Brea y Chaguaramas con valores de 7.92, 7.74 y 7.53%; respectivamente y los valores mínimos en las de La Restinga (6.08%. En la composición lípidica, las muestras de Chacopata presentaron la menor concentración de fosfolípidos (48.86% y los máximos valores de colesterol (38.87% y triacilgliceroles (12.26%, y las muestras de La Esmeralda y Río Caribe exhibieron concentraciones máximas de fosfolípidos (88.71-84.93%, respectivamente y mínimas de colesterol (6.50-4.42%. En los lípidos totales, los ácidos grasos saturados se encontraron entre 15.04 y 65.55%, con máximos en muestras de La Esmeralda y mínimos en Chacopata y los poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 7.80 y 37.18%, con máximos valores en la Brea y mínimos en la Esmeralda. En los fosfolípidos, la concentración de ácidos grasos saturados estuvo entre 38.81 y 48.68% para las muestras de Chaguaramas y Chacopata, respectivamente; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados se encontraron entre no detectado y 34.51%, con altas concentraciones en muestras de Los Cedros (27.97% y Chaguaramas (34.51%. En los triacilgliceroles, la composición de ácidos grasos saturados variaron entre 14.27 y 53.80%, con baja concentración en Chacopata y alta concentración en La Restinga; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 4.66 y 35.55%, con valores menores en las muestras de Chacopata (4.66% y mayores en Chaguaramas. El consumo frecuente de Perna viridis es recomendable, debido a su alto contenido de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos insaturados.Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, Green Mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West coast of Trinidad. The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system. Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%. Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86% and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87% and triacylglycerols (12.26%; besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42% concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97% and Chaguaramas (34.51% samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low concentrations for Chacopata and high concentration

  4. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

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    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples were cleaned, crushed, homogenized and dried by lyophilization for further analysis by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted of irradiating aliquots of the samples obtained in powder form in polyethylene envelopes in the nuclear research reactor IEA - R1 of IPEN / CNEN - SP together with synthetic standards of elements. The irradiation time in the reactor was 8 to 10 s under the thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The concentrations of the elements were calculated using the comparative method. The INAA procedure was validated with respect to accuracy and precision, through the analysis of certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST SRM 2876 Mussel Tissue. The results of these certified reference materials indicated good quality of results with respect to precision and accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis weight) of the elements obtained in mussels collected in Santos and Praia da Cocanha for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg-1 for Br; 45658 {+-} 1811 to 109166 {+-} 824 mg kg{sup -1} for Cl; 7043 {+-} 856 to 12506 {+-} 675 mg kg{sup -1} for K; 2774 {+-} 211 to 5691 {+-} 717 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg; 7.01 {+-} 0.30 to 29.74 {+-} 3.32 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and 0.77 {+-} 0.02 to 3.43 {+-} 0.28 mg kg{sup -1} for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of the concentrations of these elements were studied and the values compared to the literature. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the species of Perna perna mussels, can be used as biomonitors of marine contamination. (author)

  5. Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.

  6. Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos (MOllusca: Gastropoda), and important snail vector of schistosomiasis has not been explored. In the present work it was evaluated a suitable electron microscopical technique for embryos processing. Promising results was obtained with double fixation in 1% glutaraldehyde plus 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4), preliminary staining overnight in 1% uranyl acetate and embedding in EPON or Polylite under vacuum. It was used embryos at young trochophore stage wich is characterized by active organogenesis. Some ultrastructural aspects of B. glabrata embryos cells are presented. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples were cleaned, crushed, homogenized and dried by lyophilization for further analysis by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted of irradiating aliquots of the samples obtained in powder form in polyethylene envelopes in the nuclear research reactor IEA - R1 of IPEN / CNEN - SP together with synthetic standards of elements. The irradiation time in the reactor was 8 to 10 s under the thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The concentrations of the elements were calculated using the comparative method. The INAA procedure was validated with respect to accuracy and precision, through the analysis of certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST SRM 2876 Mussel Tissue. The results of these certified reference materials indicated good quality of results with respect to precision and accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis weight) of the elements obtained in mussels collected in Santos and Praia da Cocanha for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg-1 for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg-1 for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg-1 for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg-1 for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg-1 for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg-1 for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of the concentrations of these elements were studied and the values compared to the literature. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the species of Perna perna mussels, can be used as biomonitors of marine contamination. (author)

  8. Plesiophysa dolichomastix sp. n. (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W Lobato, Paraense.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of planorbid mollusc, Plesiophysa dolichomastix (Greek dolichos = long, mastix = flagellum), collected from Lagoa da Pedra, municipality of Santa Rosa, state of Goiás, Brazil (15°01'S, 47°13'W) is described. It is indistinguishable by the shell characters from the five congeneric speci [...] es described so far: P. striata (Orbigny, 1841), P. granulata ("Shuttleworth" Sowerby, 1873), P. guadeloupensis ("Fischer" Mazé, 1883), P. ornata (Haas, 1938) and P. hubendicki Richards & Ferguson, 1962. It differs from the anatomically studied species in the following characters: about 50 ovotestis diverticula, against 12 in granulata, 100 in ornata, unstated in hubendicki; and length of flagella - about as long as the penial complex -, against about 1/3 to 1/6 in the other three.

  9. Plesiophysa dolichomastix sp. n. (Gastropoda: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lobato Paraense

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of planorbid mollusc, Plesiophysa dolichomastix (Greek dolichos = long, mastix = flagellum, collected from Lagoa da Pedra, municipality of Santa Rosa, state of Goiás, Brazil (15°01'S, 47°13'W is described. It is indistinguishable by the shell characters from the five congeneric species described so far: P. striata (Orbigny, 1841, P. granulata ("Shuttleworth" Sowerby, 1873, P. guadeloupensis ("Fischer" Mazé, 1883, P. ornata (Haas, 1938 and P. hubendicki Richards & Ferguson, 1962. It differs from the anatomically studied species in the following characters: about 50 ovotestis diverticula, against 12 in granulata, 100 in ornata, unstated in hubendicki; and length of flagella - about as long as the penial complex -, against about 1/3 to 1/6 in the other three.

  10. Four new African turriform gastropods (Mollusca: Conoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassi, Mauro; Bonfitto, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Four new species, belonging to four distinct conoidean families, are described from east Africa and Mozambique Channel. Iredalea adenensis sp. nov. (Drilliidae Olsson, 1964), from Gulf of Aden, and Buchema shearmani sp. nov. (Horaiclavidae Bouchet et al., 2011), from off Mogadishu (Somalia), both trawled by local fishermen, represent the first record of their respective genera in eastern Africa. Crassispira somalica sp. nov. (Pseudomelatomidae Morrison, 1965), also collected offshore from Modagishu (Somalia), represents the first eastern Africa species bearing "typical" Crassispira features. Tropidoturris vizcondei sp. nov. (Borsoniidae Bellardi, 1875), from the Mozambique Channel, increases the knowledge of a genus considered endemic to southeastern Africa. PMID:26106689

  11. Comportamento agregativo em Subulina octona (Brugüière) (Mollusca, Subulinidae) Aggregative behavior in Subulina octona (Brugüière) (Mollusca, Subulinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sthefane D'Ávila; Roberto Júnio P. Dias; Elisabeth C. de A. Bessa

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a existência de comportamento agregativo na espécie Subulina octona (Brugüière, 1789) e obter evidências da mediação química desse comportamento. Foram utilizados 150 animais adultos, distribuídos em 15 caixas com terra vegetal (10 animais por caixa). Em cada caixa foram colocados quatro discos plásticos identificados, em posição eqüidistante, os quais serviram como abrigos para os animais. No experimento I, foram colocados 10 animais no centro de cada ...

  12. Levantamento de Mollusca, Crustacea e Echinodermata associados a Sargassum spp. na Ilha da Queimada Pequena, Estação Ecológica dos Tupiniquins, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil / Assessment of Sargassum spp. macrofauna at Queimada Pequena Island, Ecological Station of Tupiniquins, southern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giuliano Buzá, Jacobucci; Arthur Ziggiatti, Güth; Alexander, Turra; Cláudia Alves de, Magalhães; Márcia Regina, Denadai; André Murtinho Ribeiro, Chaves; Estevão Carino Fernandes de, Souza.

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi realizado o primeiro levantamento da macrofauna de fital da ilha da Queimada Pequena, focalizando o registro das espécies de moluscos, crustáceos e equinodermos associados a Sargassum spp. Para a amostragem da macrofauna associada, foram coletadas aleatoriamente 6 frondes de Sarga [...] ssum localizadas a 6 m de profundidade, usando-se equipamento de mergulho autônomo. As frondes foram envolvidas em sacos de tecido com malha de 200 mm, mraspadas do substrato, colocadas em recipientes com uma solução de formaldeído 10% e levadas ao laboratório para remoção e identificação da fauna. Quarenta e um táxons foram identificados, havendo dominância de crustáceos peracáridos. Em relação aos Mollusca, a composição específica foi diferente em relação àquela observada na costa norte do estado de São Paulo. Das 16 espécies de moluscos encontradas, apenas os gastrópodes dos gêneros Anachis e Odostomia e os bivalves dos gêneros Musculus e Modiolus são representantes da fauna associada à Sargassum comuns às duas regiões do estado de São Paulo, embora representantes do gênero Fissurela já tenham sido relatados na região de Santos em associação à alga Amphiroa fragilissima. A ocorrência do bivalve exótico Isognomon bicolor também foi confirmada. Os dados obtidos sugerem que a fauna de moluscos pode realmente ser distinta na região norte e sul do estado. No entanto, são necessários estudos mais extensos para confirmar esses resultados e para subsidiar futuras estratégias de manejo dessa unidade de conservação. Abstract in english This work represents the first effort to assess the phytal macrofauna of Queimada Pequena island and was focused in mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms associated to Sargassum spp. Sampling of the macrofauna was performed by random collections of 6 Sargassum fronds 6 m deep using SCUBA. The fronds [...] were sealed underwater in individual 200 mm mesh bags and detached from the rocky shore. The samples were preserved in recipients in 10% formalin and carried to the laboratory to remove and identify the associated fauna. Forty one taxa were registered, with dominance of peracarid crustaceans. Mollusk composition is different from that of northern São Paulo coast. From the sixteen mollusk species recorded, only the gastropod genera Anachis and Odostomia and the bivalves Musculus and Modiolus were recorded in the Sargassum macrofauna at both coastal regions of São Paulo state, although the genus Fissurela had already been recorded at Santos region associated with the alga Amphiroa fragilissima. The occurrence of the exotic bivalve Isognomon bicolor was also confirmed. Our data suggest differences in the composition of molluskan fauna between southern and northern coasts of the state. Extensive investigations are necessary to confirm these results and to support management strategies in this conservation unit.

  13. New species of Cyclodontina from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small forest fragment in the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia state, Brazil. Bahia is known for a high diversity of land snails and Bom Jesus da Lapa is an interesting locality, since it is close to the interface between two major Brazilian biomes: Cerrado and Caatinga. The new species is described as Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its brown shell, conical spire, convex whorls, a sculpture comprised of strong ribs, and an aperture with four barriers: a median parietal tooth, a median palatal tooth, a median basal tooth and a strong columellar lamella. This discovery is also a reminder of how little the Brazilian continental molluscan fauna is known and of the urgency in studying and preserving the rich (though usually overlooked fauna of the Caatinga.

  14. Ultrastructural studies of oogenesis in Bolinus brandaris(Gastropoda: Muricidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Amor Pérez, Ma. José (María José); Ramón Herrero, Montserrat; Durfort i Coll, Mercè

    2004-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of oogenesis in Bolinus brandaris are described. Although the initial phase of oogenesis is common to most animal species, vitellogenesis can be considered a species-specific characteristic. In the vitellogenesis of B.brandaris, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticula play a relevant role in the formation of myelinised membranous systems. Nuclear envelope, Golgi body and the oocyte plasma membrane invaginations are three possible origins for annulate lamellae. The latter...

  15. ESR studies of ?-irradiated Rapana venosa (Gastropoda, Muricidae) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unirradiated as well as 60Co ?-ray irradiated up to 11.3kGy shells of veined Rapana Whelk (Rapana venosa), collected from the Black Sea coasts (Romania) were investigated by ESR technique. The radicals produced by ?-irradiation in Rapana shell whose g-factors varied from 1.9976 to 2.0057 were attributed to CO2-, CO33-, CO3-, and SO2- species. The analysis of ESR spectra showed that the ESR signal intensity of all these radicals enhanced gradually with the increase of absorbed dose while the thermal treatment (100 deg. C) revealed an exponential decrease of the ESR amplitude with the annealing time for CO2- and CO33- free radicals

  16. ESR studies of ?-irradiated Rapana venosa (Gastropoda, Muricidae) shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Seletchi, Emilia; Duliu, Octavian G.; Georgescu, Rodica

    2007-10-01

    The unirradiated as well as 60Co ?-ray irradiated up to 11.3 kGy shells of veined Rapana Whelk ( Rapana venosa), collected from the Black Sea coasts (Romania) were investigated by ESR technique. The radicals produced by ?-irradiation in Rapana shell whose g-factors varied from 1.9976 to 2.0057 were attributed to CO2-, CO33-, CO3-, and SO2- species. The analysis of ESR spectra showed that the ESR signal intensity of all these radicals enhanced gradually with the increase of absorbed dose while the thermal treatment (100 °C) revealed an exponential decrease of the ESR amplitude with the annealing time for CO2- and CO33- free radicals.

  17. Biomphalaria prona (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: a morphological and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Two samples of Biomphalaria prona (Martens, 1873 from Lake Valencia (type locality and seven from other Venezuelan localities were studied morphologically (shell and reproductive system and biochemically (allozyme electrophoresis. In spite of marked differences in shell characters, all of them proved indistinguishable under the anatomic and biochemical criteria. So far B. prona has been considered an endemic species, restricted to Lake Valencia. It is now demonstrated that the extralacustrine populations refered to Biomphalaria havanensis (Pfeiffer, 1839 by several authors correspond in shell characters to an extreme variant of B. prona from the Lake and really belong to the last*mentioned species. They may be regarded as the result of a process of directional selection favoring a shell phenotype other than those making up the modal class in the Lake.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rapana venosa (Gastropoda, Muricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiujun; Yang, Aiguo

    2016-03-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the veined rapa whelk, Rapana venosa, was determined using genome walking techniques in this study. The total length of the mt genome sequence of R. venosa was 15,271?bp, which is comparable to the reported Muricidae mitogenomes to date. It contained 13 protein-coding genes, 21 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. A bias towards a higher representation of nucleotides A and T (69%) was detected in the mt genome of R. venosa. A small number of non-coding nucleotides (302?bp) was detected, and the largest non-coding region was 74?bp in length. PMID:25162934

  19. Ultrastructural studies of oogenesis in Bolinus brandaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Amor, María José; Ramón, Montserrat; Durfort, Mercè

    2004-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of oogenesis in Bolinus brandaris are described. Although the initial phase of oogenesis is common to most animal species, vitellogenesis can be considered a species-specific characteristic. In the vitellogenesis of B.brandaris, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticula play a relevant role in the formation of myelinised membranous systems. Nuclear envelope, Golgi body and the oocyte plasma membrane invaginations are three possible origins for annulate lamellae. The latter...

  20. The Genus Cerion (Gastropoda: Cerionidae) in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The systematic relationships and phylogeography of Cerion incanum, the only species of Cerion native to the Florida Keys, are reviewed based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes derived from 18 populations spanning the range of this species and including the type localities of all four described subspecies. Our samples included specimens of Cerion casablancae, a species introduced to Indian Key in 1912, and a population of C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrids descended from a population of C. casablancae introduced onto Bahia Honda Key in the same year. Molecular data did not support the partition of C. incanum into subspecies, nor could populations be apportioned reliably into subspecies based on morphological features used to define the subspecies. Phylogenetic analyses affirmed the derived relationship of C. incanum relative to other cerionids, and indicated a Bahamian origin for the Cerion fauna of southern Florida. Relationships among the populations throughout the Keys indicate that the northernmost populations, closest to the Tomeu paleoislands that had been inhabited by Cerion petuchi during the Calabrian Pleistocene, are the oldest. The range of Cerion incanum expanded as the archipelago that is the Florida Keys was formed since the lower Tarantian Pleistocene by extension from the northeast to the southwest, with new islands populated as they were formed. The faunas of the High Coral Keys in the northeast and the Oölite Keys in the southwest, both with large islands that host multiple discontinuous populations of Cerion, are each composed of well supported clades that are characterized by distinctive haplotypes. In contrast, the fauna of the intervening Low Coral Keys consist of a heterogeneous series of populations, some with haplotypes derived from the High Coral Keys, others from the Oölite Keys. Individuals from the C. incanum x C. casablancae hybrid population inhabiting the southeastern coast of Bahia Honda Key were readily segregated based on their mitogenome lineage, grouping either with C. incanum or with C. casablancae from Indian Key. Hybrids with C. casablancae mitogenomes had haplotypes that were more divergent from their parent mitogenome than were hybrids with C. incanum mitogenomes. PMID:26378443

  1. Histologia das glândulas salivares dos Limacoidea e Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    OpenAIRE

    Leal-Zanchet Ana Maria

    2003-01-01

    The histology of the salivary glands of six species of Limacoidea, Boettgerilla pallens Simroth, 1912, Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774), Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774), Deroceras rodnae Grossu & Lupu, 1965, Malacolimax tenellus (Müller, 1774) and Lehmannia marginata (Müller, 1774), and a species of Milacidae, Tandonia budapestensis (Hazay, 1881) is comparatively described herein. In the glandular parenchyme four to five secretory cell types are distinguished and characterised, besides a c...

  2. Physella acuta: atypical mitochondrial gene order among panpulmonates (Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Journey R; Bergthorsson, Ulfar; Adema, Coen M

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) sequences are frequently used for phylogenetic reconstruction and for identification of species of molluscs. This study expands the phylogenetic range of Hygrophila (Panpulmonata) for which such sequence data are available by characterizing the full mt genome of the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Physidae). The mt genome sequences of two P. acuta isolates from Stubblefield Lake, New Mexico, USA, differed in length (14,490 vs 14,314 bp) and showed 11.49% sequence divergence, whereas ITS1 and ITS2 sequences from the nuclear genome differed by 1.75%. The mt gene order of P. acuta (cox1, P, nad6, nad5, nad1, D, F, cox2, Y, W, nad4L, C, Q, atp6, R, E, rrnS, M, T, cox3, I, nad2, K, V, rrnL, L1, A, cytb, G, H, L2, atp8, N, nad2, S1, S2, nad4) differs considerably from the relatively conserved gene order within Panpulmonata. Phylogenetic trees show that the 13 protein-encoding mt gene sequences (equivalent codons) of P. acuta group according to gastropod phylogeny, yet branch lengths and dN/dS ratios for P. acuta indicate elevated amino acid substitutions relative to other gastropods. This study indicates that mt sequences of P. acuta are phylogenetically informative despite a considerable intraspecific divergence and the atypical gene order in its mt genome. PMID:25368439

  3. Physella acuta: atypical mitochondrial gene order among panpulmonates (Gastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Nolan, Journey R.; Bergthorsson, Ulfar; Adema, Coen M.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) sequences are frequently used for phylogenetic reconstruction and for identification of species of molluscs. This study expands the phylogenetic range of Hygrophila (Panpulmonata) for which such sequence data are available by characterizing the full mt genome of the invasive freshwater snail Physella acuta (Physidae). The mt genome sequences of two P. acuta isolates from Stubblefield Lake, New Mexico, USA, differed in length (14,490 vs 14,314 bp) and showed 11.49% sequence ...

  4. La familia Acmaeidae (Gastropoda, Archaeogastropoda en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan siete especies de la familia Acmaeidae de la zona litoral rocosa del Departamento de Lima: Scurria viridula (Lamarck, S. parasitica (Orbigny, S. variabilis (Sowerby, S. zebrina (Lesson, Collisella orbignyi (Dall, C. ceciliana (Orbigny y C. araucana (Orbigny. Se amplía el límite norte de la distribución geográfica de las dos últimas especies y asimismo para S. zebrina y S. parasitica. Se informa sobre la zonación vertical de las especies, su dominancia relativa y otras observaciones ecológicas. De la revisión de la literatura y los resultados del presente estudio se concluye que, conjuntamente con Scurria scurra (Lesson, 1830, son ocho las especies de Acmaeidae presentes en la Provincia Peruana.

  5. A new species of Lyria (Gastropoda: Volutidae) from Southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bail, Patrice; Chino, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    A new endemic species of Volutidae, Lyria (Lyria) ogasawarana sp. nov. is described from Chichijima Island, Ogasawara Islands, Japan. This new species is similar to the other Pacific Lyria: L. (Lyria) cassidula cassidula (Reeve, 1849), L. (Lyria) deliciosa (Montrousier, 1859), L. (Lyria) pattersonia (Perry, 1811) and L. (Lyria) insignata (Iredale, 1940). PMID:25781775

  6. Reproduction of Omalonyx matheroni (Gastropoda: Succineidae) under laboratory conditions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lângia, Montresor; Ana, Teixeira; Adriano, Paglia; Teofânia, Vidigal.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The life histories of succineids have received relatively little attention. To evaluate life history characteristics of Omalonyx matheroni, we studied a Brazilian population (Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Feliciano Miguel Abdala, in Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil) under laboratory condit [...] ions. The aims of the present study were (1) to describe in detail an appropriate rearing method; (2) to investigate the effects of different temperature and photoperiod conditions; and (3) to assess the effects of self and cross-fertilization on the reproductive biology of these mollusks. We studied the oviposition site, the time to sexual maturity and the influences of photoperiod and temperature on reproductive parameters of O. matheroni reared under laboratory conditions. We tested three combinations of temperature and photoperiod, designated A, B and C (A: 25ºC, 24 hours of light; B: environmental conditions of temperature and photoperiod, characterized as follows: average máximum temperature=27.1ºC, average minimum temperature=18.3ºC, average day length=12.06 hours; and C: 25ºC, zero hours of light) and two rearing densities (I: isolated and G: grouped) on reproductive parameters (number of eggs per egg mass, number of unviable eggs per mass, egg mass incubation period, and duration of the hatching period). A total of 186 individuals and 565 egg masses were studied. Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test, two-way ANOVA and Chi-Square test. Eight generations were produced (March/2004-March/2006), from 35 field specimens, 91% of 3 197 eggs hatched. The time to sexual maturity was approximately three months for individuals reared in groups or in isolation (Student’s t-test: t=1.41, df=31, p=0.16); however, they differed significantly in weight (Student’s t-test: t=3.6, df=31, p

  7. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata) en el litoral peruano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Paredes; Aldo, Indacochea; Franz, Cardoso; Kelly, Ortega.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835) y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842), Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipe [...] dinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835), Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852) y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en las playas de canto rodado en los límites de la Provincia Peruana. Cuatro especies tropicales se registran por primera vez para el mar peruano: E. stagnale, M. olivaceus, D. graminea y M. acuta. Abstract in english We report 8 species of Ellobiidae from the Peruvian coast, which belong to the subfamilies Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835) and Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842), Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 18574 and Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; and P [...] edipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835), Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852) and Marinula pepita King, 1831. Six species live associated to the mangrove of the department of Tumbes, and two in boulder beaches in the limits of the Peruvian Province. Four tropical species are registered for the first time in the Peruvian Sea: A. stagnale, M. olivaceus, D. graminea and M. acuta.

  8. Transferência do gênero monotípico Parodizia Medina de Bithyniidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) para Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) Transference of the monotypic genus Parodizia Medina from Bithyniidae Gray (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) to Pyramidellidae Gray (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Pons da Silva; Inga Ludmila Veitenheimer-Mendes

    2004-01-01

    Propõe-se a transferência do gênero monitípico Parodizia Medina, 1959 de Bithyniidae (Prosobranchia) para Pyramidellidae (Heterobranchia). A proposta está baseada em dados morfológicos de espécimens de P. uruguayensis Medina, 1959 procedentes da bacia do rio Tramandaí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The transference of the monotypic genus Parodizia Medina, 1959 from Bithyniidae (Prosobranchia) to Pyramidellidae (Heterobranchia) is proposed. The proposal is based on some morphological data of P. ur...

  9. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata en el litoral peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835 y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842, Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835, Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852 y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en las playas de canto rodado en los límites de la Provincia Peruana. Cuatro especies tropicales se registran por primera vez para el mar peruano: E. stagnale, M. olivaceus, D. graminea y M. acuta.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of the western Palaearctic Helicoidea (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razkin, Oihana; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín Juán; Prieto, Carlos Enrique; Martínez-Ortí, Alberto; Arrébola, José Ramón; Muñoz, Benito; Chueca, Luis Javier; Madeira, María José

    2015-02-01

    The Helicoidea is one of the most diverse superfamilies of terrestrial land snails. In this study we present a molecular phylogeny of the western Palaearctic Helicoidea obtained by means of neighbor joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment and the nuclear rRNA gene cluster including the 3' end of the 5.8S gene, the complete ITS2 region and 5' end of the large subunit 28S. Most of the morphologically-defined families were confirmed. We propose a revised phylogenetic classification so that families, subfamilies and tribes are monophyletic. The family Hygromiidae sensu Hausdorf and Bouchet (2005) is divided into three clades which are here given familial rank: Canariellidae and Geomitridae, which are recognized for the first time at familial rank, and Hygromiidae s.str. (including Ciliella and Trochulus) that is here restricted. The subfamilies Ciliellinae, Geomitrinae, Hygromiinae, Monachainae and Trochulinae recognized in current classifications were not recovered as monophyletic groups. The family Cochlicellidae is here given tribe rank (Cochlicellini) belonging to the Geomitridae. We describe a new tribe, Plentuisini. Three subfamilies are recognized within Helicidae: Ariantinae, Helicinae (including Theba) and Murellinae. New classification indicates that free right ommatophore retractor muscle arose only once within Geomitridae. The anatomy of the auxiliary copulatory organs of the reproductive system of families, subfamilies and tribes is highlighted. We estimate the origin of the Helicoidea at the end of the Early Cretaceous and its families as Late-Cretaceous to Paleogene. Western Palaearctic Helicoidea belongs to two different lineages that diverged around 86Ma ago, both starting their diversification at the end of the Cretaceous (around 73-76Ma). Radiation of some western Helicoidean families started during the Eocene. PMID:25485783

  11. New species of Cyclodontina from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae) / Nova espécie de Cyclodontina da Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo B., Salvador; Luiz R. L., Simone.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de gastrópode pulmonado foi coletada recentemente em um pequeno fragmento de mata em Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia, Brasil. O estado da Bahia é conhecido por sua alta diversidade de moluscos terrestres e Bom Jesus da Lapa é uma localidade particularmente interessante, pois localiza-se na [...] interface entre os biomas Cerrado e Caatinga. A nova espécie é descrita como Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. e pode ser facilmente identificada por sua concha de cor marrom, espira cônica, voltas convexas, escultura composta por fortes costelas e uma abertura com quatro barreiras: um dente parietal, um dente palatal, um dente basal e uma forte lamela columelar. A presente descoberta atua como um lembrete de quão pouco é conhecida a malacofauna continental brasileira e também da urgência em estudar e preservar a rica (mas comumente negligenciada) fauna da Caatinga. Abstract in english A new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small forest fragment in the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia state, Brazil. Bahia is known for a high diversity of land snails and Bom Jesus da Lapa is an interesting locality, since it is close to the interface between two major Brazilia [...] n biomes: Cerrado and Caatinga. The new species is described as Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its brown shell, conical spire, convex whorls, a sculpture comprised of strong ribs, and an aperture with four barriers: a median parietal tooth, a median palatal tooth, a median basal tooth and a strong columellar lamella. This discovery is also a reminder of how little the Brazilian continental molluscan fauna is known and of the urgency in studying and preserving the rich (though usually overlooked) fauna of the Caatinga.

  12. Hemócitos de Bradybaena similaris e Megalobulimus abbreviatus (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora) / Hemocytes of Bradybaena similaris and Megalobulimus abbreviatus (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta A., Rohr; Suzana B., Amato.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os hemócitos atuam no sistema de defesa contra organismos invasores e partículas estranhas, auxiliando o reconhecimento do que é próprio do corpo dos grastrópodes e o que não é. São escassas as informações e estudos sobre os hemócitos em espécies de moluscos saudáveis (sem infecções), principalmente [...] em Bradybaena similaris (Fèrussac, 1821) and Megalobulimus abbreviatus (Bequaert, 1948). Portanto, este trabalho tem como objetivos a caracterização e quantificação dos hemócitos presentes na hemolinfa destas duas espécies. Neste trabalho, foram identificados três tipos celulares na hemolinfa de ambas espécies: as células redondas, hialinócitos e granulócitos. Os três tipos de hemócitos foram medidos e foi calculada a média do diâmetro total e do núcleo para cada um deles. Para B. similaris, o diâmetro médio das células redondas foi de 10,7 µm, dos hialinócitos foi de 20 µm e dos granulócitos de 25,4 µm. Para M. abbreviatus, o diâmetro médio foi de 11,7 µm para as células redondas, de 21,5 µm para os hialinócitos e de 30,5 µm para os granulócitos. Embora os hialinócitos possuam médias parecidas entre B. similaris e M. abbreviatus, foram detectadas diferenças significativas do diâmetro celular total e diâmetro do núcleo (p Abstract in english Hemocytes act in the defense system against invading organisms, foreign particles aiding the recognition of what is own to the body of gastropods and what is not. Information and studies on the hemocytes in species of mollusks healthy (no infections), especially in Bradybaena similaris (Fèrussac, 18 [...] 21) and Megalobulimus abbreviatus (Bequaert, 1948) are scarce. Therefore, this work aims at characterization and quantification of hemocytes present in the hemolymph of these two species. In this work three cell types were identified in the hemolymph of both species: round cells, hyalinocytes and granulocytes. The three types of hemocytes were measured, and the average of total diameter and the nucleus for each was calculated. On B. similaris, the average diameter of round cells was 10.7 µm, of hyalinocytes was 20 µm and of granulocytes was 25.4 µm. On M. abbreviatus, the average diameter of round cells was 11.7 µm, of hyalinocytes was 21.5 µm and of granulocytes was 30.5 µm. Although the hyalinocytes have similar averages between B. similaris and M. abbreviatus, the cells were demonstrated significant differences in their total diameter and size of the nucleus (p

  13. A review of the Veronicellidae from Mexico (Gastropoda: Soleolifera) / Revisión de los Veronicellidae de México (Gastropoda: Soleolifera)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edna, Naranjo-García; José Willibaldo, Thomé; José, Castillejo.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se sintetiza la información conocida de los Veronicellidae de México. Los datos provienen de ejemplares depositados en la Colección Nacional de Moluscos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, de salidas complementarias de trabajo al campo y recopilación de la literatura. Es [...] tas babosas se distribuyen principalmente en el centro y sur de México, aunque existen algunos registros en el norte del país. Se han registrado 3 géneros y 5 especies: Leidyula floridana, L. moreleti, Phyllocaulis gayi, Sarasinula dubia, y S. plebeia. Los registros en México de L. floridana y P. gayi deben confirmarse. En la región de Los Tuxtlas, al sur del estado de Veracruz, se localizó un foco donde las babosas Veronicellidae son plaga, los agricultores dejaron de sembrar frijol y cambiaron a otros cultivos para evitar la plaga. Abstract in english Information is presented regarding the species of the Family Veronicellidae in Mexico. Data were gathered from specimens deposited in the Colección Nacional de Moluscos (Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), from field trips, and from the literature. These slugs are distri [...] buted mainly in the central and southern regions of Mexico, although there are a few records from the northern part of the country. Five species in three genera have been recorded, namely: Leidyula floridana, L. moreleti, Phyllocaulis gayi, Sarasinula dubia and S. plebeia. The occurrence of Leidyula floridana and Phyllocaulis gayi in Mexico needs confirmation. The Los Tuxtlas region, southern Veracruz, is a hotspot where veronicellid slugs have become a pest and farmers have stopped growing beans, switching to other crops as a measure to contain the pest.

  14. Recharacterization of Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Strophocheilidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Meire Silva, Pena; Norma Campos, Salgado; Arnaldo C.dos Santos, Coelho.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 é recaracterizado pela conquiologia e pela primeira vez a morfologia das partes moles. Complexo palial, sistemas reprodutor e digestivo forneceram importantes caracteres para enriquecer o conhecimento sobre Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. A presençca de quatro pregas [...] arqueadas na região posterior da massa cefalopediosa e a morfologia da glândula suprapediosa acrescentaram dados para a diagnose da espécie. Abstract in english Stropocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 is recharacterized by the conchology and morphology of the soft parts, the latter for the first time. Palial complex, reproductive and digestive systems provide important characteristics to enrich the knowledge of the genus Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. The presence [...] of four arched folds in the posterior region of the pediose mass and the morphology of the suprapediose gland offered more data to identify and diagnose the species.

  15. Embryogenesis and development of Epimenia babai (Mollusca Neomeniomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okusu, Akiko

    2002-08-01

    Neomenioid aplacophorans (= Solenogastres) constitute one of the main lineages of molluscs. Developmental data of early embryogenesis and larval development of neomenioids are available for some species based on histological sections. I used other techniques to study the development of Epimenia babai Salvini-Plawen, 1997, and here I report new data on neomenioid development. The embryos of E. babai are lecithotrophic and cleavage is spiral, unequal, and holoblastic. Two polar lobes are formed, one at the first cleavage stage and one at the second cleavage stage. No evidence of external metameric iteration is visible through scanning electron microscopy or histology at any stage. A ciliated foot, a pedal pit, and aragonitic spicules develop from the definitive ectoderm. A spicule begins as a solid tip, continues to an open-ended hollow spicule, and finally becomes a closed-ended hollow spicule. The free-swimming trochophore larvae of E. babai have been considered unusual in lacking the characteristic neomenioid cellular test, an outer locomotory structure within which the entire definitive adult body develops. However, through the use of scanning electron and light microscopy, semithin sections, Hoechst nuclear staining, and programmed cell death staining to study the ontogeny and fate of the apical cells, I show that the entire pre-oral sphere (the apical cap) of the larvae is similar to the test of the other neomenioids. The results suggest that the test of the neomenioid larvae is an enlarged pre-oral sphere of a trochophore. The test morphologies of neomenioid larvae are compared to those of pericalymma larvae of protobranch bivalves, and the homology and evolution of molluscan larval tests is discussed. PMID:12200259

  16. Gundlachia dutrae: n. sp. from northwest Brazil (Mollusca: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Gundlachia, Gundlachia dutrae is described from northwest Brazil. It is distinguishable from other congenerie species by characteristics of the shell, radula and internal organs. Shell relatively high. Aperture near-circular; periostracum dark brown without periostracal hairs. Apex slightly inclined to the right, projected but not hooked, with an apical depression surrounted by a sculpture of well-marked irregular punctations. Shell surface with prominent radial sculpture. No septate specimens were observed. Ratios (n= 59: shell width/shell lenght = 0,66- 0,79 (mean 0,73; shell height/shell length = 0,32- 0,45 ( mean 0,37; shell height/shell width = 0,43- 0,63 (mean 0,51. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation dark brown or black, concentrated along the mantle collar. The dorsal surface of the right anterior muscle is elongated and medially constricted. The left anterior and the posterior muscles are almost elliptical. Adhesive area is V-shaped. Pseudobranch unpigmented bearing a very small and thin dorsal lobe. Ovotestis with more than 25 unbranched diverticula. Ovispermiduct with seminal vesicle rather developed. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the glandular wall of the uterus. Nidamental gland appendix ending into a bulbous swelling Spermathecal body almost rounded. Well-developed prostate with five long diverticula. Ejaculatory complex with long glandular flagellum, without a penis or true ultra-penis. "Penis sheath" developed. "Ultra-penis" projected as a tube inside the lumem of prepuce, with a slit between "ultra-penis" and "penis sheath". Rachidian tooth tetracuspid, with two median cusps assymmetrical and aculeated. Lateral teeth tricuspid, with a reduced endocon and a prominent mesocon. A well marked gap occurs between meso and ectocon. Marginal teeth similar to lateral ones. Jaw T-shaped, with about 28 dorsal plates.

  17. Gundlachia dutrae: n. sp. from northwest Brazil (Mollusca: Basommatophora: Ancylidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia Barbosa dos, Santos.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Gundlachia, Gundlachia dutrae is described from northwest Brazil. It is distinguishable from other congenerie species by characteristics of the shell, radula and internal organs. Shell relatively high. Aperture near-circular; periostracum dark brown without periostracal hairs. Ape [...] x slightly inclined to the right, projected but not hooked, with an apical depression surrounted by a sculpture of well-marked irregular punctations. Shell surface with prominent radial sculpture. No septate specimens were observed. Ratios (n= 59): shell width/shell lenght = 0,66- 0,79 (mean 0,73); shell height/shell length = 0,32- 0,45 ( mean 0,37); shell height/shell width = 0,43- 0,63 (mean 0,51). Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation dark brown or black, concentrated along the mantle collar. The dorsal surface of the right anterior muscle is elongated and medially constricted. The left anterior and the posterior muscles are almost elliptical. Adhesive area is V-shaped. Pseudobranch unpigmented bearing a very small and thin dorsal lobe. Ovotestis with more than 25 unbranched diverticula. Ovispermiduct with seminal vesicle rather developed. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the glandular wall of the uterus. Nidamental gland appendix ending into a bulbous swelling Spermathecal body almost rounded. Well-developed prostate with five long diverticula. Ejaculatory complex with long glandular flagellum, without a penis or true ultra-penis. "Penis sheath" developed. "Ultra-penis" projected as a tube inside the lumem of prepuce, with a slit between "ultra-penis" and "penis sheath". Rachidian tooth tetracuspid, with two median cusps assymmetrical and aculeated. Lateral teeth tricuspid, with a reduced endocon and a prominent mesocon. A well marked gap occurs between meso and ectocon. Marginal teeth similar to lateral ones. Jaw T-shaped, with about 28 dorsal plates.

  18. A new dicyemid from octopus hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda: Octopoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos-Martínez, Sheila; Gómez, M. Carmen; Hochberg, F. G.; Gestal, C.; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2011-01-01

    A new species of dicyemid mesozoan is described from Octopus hubbsorum Berry, 1953, collected in the south of Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Me´xico. Dicyema guaycurense n. sp. is a medium-size species that reaches about 1,600 mm in length. It occurs in folds of the renal appendages. The vermiform stages are characterized as having 22 peripheral cells, a conical calotte, and an axial cell that extends to the base of the propolar cells. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells;...

  19. Intramantle Inking: A Stress Behavior in Octopus bimaculoides (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Heather; Toll, Ronald B

    2011-01-01

    Several Pacific 2-spot octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) shipped from California and held in a recirculating seawater system at Illinois College exhibited an unusual postshipping stress behavior not previously documented in the literature. Ink, normally ejected into the surrounding seawater, was uncharacteristically retained in the mantle cavity. We describe the resulting behaviors, discuss successful resuscitation efforts, and briefly consider the possible role(s) that ink may have played in ...

  20. Intramantle inking: a stress behavior in Octopus bimaculoides (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Heather; Toll, Ronald B

    2011-11-01

    Several Pacific 2-spot octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) shipped from California and held in a recirculating seawater system at Illinois College exhibited an unusual postshipping stress behavior not previously documented in the literature. Ink, normally ejected into the surrounding seawater, was uncharacteristically retained in the mantle cavity. We describe the resulting behaviors, discuss successful resuscitation efforts, and briefly consider the possible role(s) that ink may have played in the death of one octopus. PMID:22330791

  1. Vanadium, rubidium and potassium in Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Seixas, Sónia; Pierce, Graham J.

    2005-01-01

    Se determinaron los niveles de vanadio, rubidio y potasio en Octopus vulgaris capturado durante las actividades pesqueras en tres localidades de Portugal (Cascais, Santa Luzia y Viana do Castelo). Las concentraciones de estos elementos se determinaron en la glándula digestiva, corazón branquial, branquias, manto y en los brazos de machos y hembras en otoño y primavera. Al menos cinco machos y cinco hembras se muestrearon para cada combinación de temporada/localidad. Las concentracione...

  2. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  3. Hermaphroditism in Marine Mussel Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, (Mollusca: Mytilidae Hermafroditismo en el Chorito Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, (Mollusca: Mytilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Montenegro Villalobos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine bivalves are essentially gonochoric species. However, some occasional hermaphrodites specimens can be found. A histological description of two (among 179 hermaphrodites of the marine mussel Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 that were collected in San Jorge Bay (24S is given. The low proportion of hermaphrodites suggests that P. purpuratus hermaphroditism could be an accidental phenomenon; nevertheless other causes are also discussed in the present study.Los bivalvos marinos son principalmente especies gonocoricas. Sin embargo, ocasionales especímenes hermafroditas pueden encontrarse. Una descripción histológica de dos (de 179 especímenes hermafroditas del chorito Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 es registrada, los que fueron colectados en la bahía de San Jorge (24S. La baja proporción de hermafroditas de Perumytilus purpuratus sugiere que podría ser un fenómeno accidental, aun así otras posibles causas son discutidas en el presente estudio.

  4. Primer registro de Favorinus auritulus (Mollusca: Facelinidae) para Venezuela / First record of Favorinus auritulus (Mollusca: Facelinidae) in Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    William, Villalba; Roberta, Crescini.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Venezuela Favorinus auritulus E. Marcus, 1955, el cual fue encontrado junto a posturas de otros moluscos en parches de la fanerógama marina Thalassia testidunum en la laguna de La Restinga, isla de Margarita, Venezuela. Esta especie ha sido previamente citada para Estado [...] s Unidos (Florida), Bermuda, Bahamas, Cuba (Pinar del Río), Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Antigua, Trinidad y Tobago (Tobago), Curazao y Brasil. Abstract in english Favorinus auritulus E. Marcus, 1955 is recorded for the first time in Venezuela. Specimens were found next of other mollusks eggs species on patches of Thalassia testudinum seagrass in the lagoon La Restinga, Margarita island Venezuela. F. auritulus has been previously recorded in USA (Florida), Ber [...] muda, Bahamas, Cuba (Pinar del Río), Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Antigua, Trinidad y Tobago (Tobago), Curazao and Brazil.

  5. Diagnóstico pesquero de Chiton articulatus (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) en Acapulco, México / Fisheries diagnostic of Chiton articulatus (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Acapulco, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio, García-Ibáñez; Rafael, Flores-Garza; Pedro, Flores-Rodríguez; Juan, Violante-González; Arcadio, Valdés-González; Francis Giovani, Olea-de la Cruz.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Los quitones son moluscos marinos con un gran pie muscular que les permite amoldarse a superficies irregulares. Algunas especies como Chiton articulatus, se utilizan para el consumo humano. Durante abril, julio y diciembre de 2009, 2010 y 2011, se realizó un diagnóstico de su pesca en Acapulco, Méxi [...] co. Se registró la abundancia total de captura, tallas y pesos de ejemplares capturados en pesca artesanal. En octubre y diciembre 2009 así como febrero y abril 2010, se realizaron muestreos biológicos de la especie para analizar relaciones biométricas de la longitud total con la longitud y peso del pie. Se obtuvieron dos modelos para estimar la longitud total. Se registraron 4.007 pies de la especie. Con el modelo lineal se estimaron longitudes del organismo entre 39,75 y 48,27 mm; con el modelo potencial se encontraron entre 43,09 y 54,97 mm. En una escala de tiempo, ambas estimaciones presentaron una tendencia de disminución anual del promedio de longitud. La pesca de C. articulatus puede considerarse como artesanal. La cantidad y tallas de captura se relacionaron con la temporada climática. Ante la falta de una estrategia de manejo sostenido del recurso, la pesca no regulada puede generar cambios poblacionales de la especie y afectar la estructura y dinámica de la comunidad de organismos intermareales. Abstract in english Chitons are marine mollusks morphologically composed of a large muscular foot which allows them to conform to irregular surfaces. Few species as Chiton articulatus are used for human consumption. During April, July and December of 2009, 2010 and 2011, an evaluation was conducted on C. articulatus at [...] Acapulco, Mexico. Number, size and weight of individuals caught in fishing were recorded. Simultaneously, during October and December 2009, February and April 2010, field work was carried at 4 locations to record the amount, size and weight of individuals caught for biometric analysis of the total length versus foot length and foot weight. Two models were obtained to estimate the total length. There were 4,007 C. articulatus feet acquired; the linear model estimated lengths from 39.75 to 48.27 mm; and the potential model calculated lengths from 43.09 to 54.97 mm. On a time scale, both estimates showed a trend of decreasing the annual arithmetic mean captured. The caught of C. articulatus in Acapulco can be considered as coastal artisanal fisheries. Furthermore, the variations in amount and sizes of the specimens were related to capture and weather season. Unregulated fishing effort may impact the population dynamics affecting the community structure and dynamics on the rocky shore.

  6. Histological Description of Oogenesis in Chiton virgulatus (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) / Descripción Histológica de la Ovogénesis de Chiton virgulatus (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nurenskaya, Vélez-Arellano; Mineko, Shibayama; Esperanza, Ortíz-Ordoñez; Angélica, Silva-Olivares; Marcial, Arellano-Martínez; Federico, García-Domínguez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se describe la ovogénesis de Chiton virgulatus, utilizando histología y las técnicas de microscopía electrónica de barrido y de transmisión. Se identificaron tres tipos de ovocitos: i) ovocitos previtelogénicos con un diámetro promedio de 50±20,5 µm, rodeados por células folic [...] ulares de forma alargada y un tamaño de aproximadamente 5 µm, ii) ovocitos vitelogénicos inmaduros con un diámetro promedio de 113±15,3 µm, este tipo de ovocitos presentan pequeñas proyecciones citoplasmáticas, que indican el inicio del desarrollo del casco del ovocito. Adyacentes a cada prolongación se presentan poros con un diámetro aproximado de 0,7 µm y iii) ovocitos vitelogénicos maduros con un diámetro promedio de 146±24,8 µm, las proyecciones citoplasmáticas del casco del ovocito crecen y en su parte apical adquieren la forma de un tridente, las células foliculares, dado el crecimiento de la prolongación toman el aspecto bulboso y llegan a medir hasta 20 µm de longitud. La morfología y la ultraestructura de las proyecciones del casco del ovocito vitelogénico maduro, así como el tamaño del poro en la base de las proyecciones son particulares para C. virgulatus, dichas características podrían ser utilizadas en trabajos de taxonomía y fertilización. Abstract in english This paper describes the oogenesis of Chiton virgulatus, based on histological observations under transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Three oocyte types were identified: i) previtellogenic oocytes with a mean diameter of 50±20.5 µm, surrounded by elongated follicular cells of approximatel [...] y 5 µm, ii) immature vitellogenic oocytes with a mean diameter of 113±15.3 µm and small cytoplasmic projections denoting the onset of the oocyte hull development; adjacent to each projection are pores approximately 0.7 µm in diameter, and iii) mature vitellogenic oocytes with a mean diameter of 146±24.8 µm; the oocyte cytoplasmic projections grow and its apical zone becomes trident-shaped; follicular cells adopt a bulbous shape due to the growth of the elongation and can reach up to 20 µm in length. The morphology and ultrastructure of the projections of the mature vitellogenic oocyte, as well as the size of pores at their base, are specific to C. virgulatus; therefore, these features could be used in taxonomic or fertilization studies.

  7. Sessile and sedentary macrofauna from the Pirapama Shipwreck, Pernambuco, Brazil / Macrofauna séssil e sedentária do Naufrágio Pirapama, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone Maria de Albuquerque, Lira; Cristiane Maria Rocha, Farrapeira; Fernanda Maria Duarte, Amaral; Carla Alecrim Colaço, Ramos.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Naufrágios são classificados como ambientes recifais artificiais, estruturas imersas em ecossistemas aquáticos (principalmente marinhos) que fornecem abrigo, substratos consolidados, áreas de crescimento, alimentação e de berçário. Este estudo objetivou pesquisar a biodiversidade bentônica animal do [...] Naufrágio Pirapama, localizado a 23 m de profundidade e a seis milhas do Porto de Recife. Entre 2001 e 2007 mergulhos autônomos foram realizados para coletar, observar e fotografar as espécies. No laboratório, o material foi posteriormente classificado e identificado. Um total de 76 táxons foi registrado para a fauna séssil e sedentária, pertencentes aos seguintes filos: Porifera (Demospongiae e Calcarea), Cnidaria (Hydrozoa e Anthozoa), Mollusca (Bivalvia e Gastropoda), Annelida (Polychaeta), Arthropoda (Cirripedia), Bryozoa (Gymnolaemata), Echinodermata (Asteroidea e Echinoidea), e Chordata (Ascidiacea). A maior quantidade de espécies foi de Porifera e Bryozoa, com 13 espécies listadas para cada um. Onze novas ocorrências foram registradas para o Estado de Pernambuco, o hidróide Halopteris polymorpha e dez espécies de briozoários, uma deles sendo o primeiro registro para o Brasil (Scrupocellaria curacaoensis). A biodiversidade do Pirapama foi considerada típica quando comparada com a de outros naufrágios que foram estudados no mundo. Abstract in english Shipwrecks are considered artificial reef environments - structures immersed in aquatic environments (especially marine ones) that provide fauna with shelter, hard substrates, food and nursery areas. This study aimed to survey the benthic animal biodiversity of the Pirapama shipwreck, located 23 m d [...] eep and six miles off Recife harbor. From 2001 to 2007, species were observed, photographed and collected through scuba diving. The material was later sorted and identified in the laboratory. A total of 76 sessile and sedentary animal taxa were recorded belonging to the following phyla: Porifera (Demospongiae and Calcarea), Cnidaria (Hydrozoa and Anthozoa), Mollusca (Bivalvia and Gastropoda), Annelida (Polychaeta), Arthropoda (Cirripedia), Bryozoa (Gymnolaemata), Echinodermata (Asteroidea and Echinoidea), and Chordata (Ascidiacea). The greatest richness was for Porifera and Bryozoa - 13 listed species for each. Eleven new occurrences were recorded for the state of Pernambuco, the hydroid Halopteris polymorpha and ten bryozoan species, one of them being the first record for Brazil (Scrupocellaria curacaoensis). The Pirapama's biodiversity was considered typical when compared to other shipwrecks that have been studied around the world.

  8. Estudio Histológico de Boca, Esófago, Estómago e Intestino de Polystira albida (Gastropoda: Turridae) / Histology Study of Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach and Intestine of Polystira albida (Gastropoda: Turridae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Laura, García-López; Esther A, Uria-Galicia; Esperanza, Ortiz-Ordoñez.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se realizó la caracterización histológica del tubo digestivo de Polystira albida (Toxoglossa:Turridae) mediante microscopía óptica, utilizando ejemplares colectados en la Sonda de Campeche. Los resultados del análisis muestran que los labios, la boca y la probóscide pres [...] entan un epitelio cilindrico simple ciliado. La cavidad bucal tiene un epitelio cilindrico estratificado. El esófago presenta un epitelio cilindrico simple con células glandulares granulares acidófilas (naturaleza proteica), y es el sitio donde comienza la digestión. El estómago se divide en tres regiones histológicas, y tiene dos tipos de epitelio, uno cilindrico simple ciliado y otro cilindrico simple; el primero está formado por abundantes células glandulares acidófilas y basófilas (naturaleza proteica y glicoproteica', respectivamente); y el segundo contiene slo células glandulares acidófilas. La glándula digestiva está constituida por adenómeros túbulo-acinosos con células glandulares acidófilas y basófilas, en diferentes grados de secreción y los conductos presentan un epitelio cilindrico ciliado con células glandulares de ambos tipos. El intestino se divide en cinco regiones histológicas, la primera presenta un tiflosol con dos tipos de epitelio, cilindrico simple y cilindrico simple con chapa estriada; y el resto del tracto tiene un epitelio cilindrico simple ciliado con células glandulares granulares acidófilas y pliegues de diferentes tamaños que aumentan o reducen la cavidad del conducto. Se concluye que existen diferencias, principalmente en la región anterior del tubo digestivo (cavidad bucal, esófago y estómago), con respecto a las descripciones generales realizadas para la subclase Prosobranchia Abstract in english In the present investigation it was realized a histological characterization of the digestive tract of Polystira albida (Toxoglossa: Turridae), by using optic microscopy of specimens collected in Sonda de Campeche. Results of analysis show that lips, mouth and proboscis present a simple columnar epi [...] thelium with cilia. Buccal cavity has a stratified columnar epithelium. Esophagus presents a simple columnar epithelium with acidophilic granular glandular cells (proteic nature), and it is the place where digestion starts. Stomach is divided in three histological regions that have two epithelial types, simple columnar with cilia and without one; the first is formed by a lot of acidophilic and basophilic glandular cells (proteic and glycoproteic nature respectively), and the second only contains acidophilic glandular cells. Digestive gland is constituted by tubule-acinous adenomers with acidophilic and basophilic glandular cells in different grades of secretion, and ducts have simple columnar epithelium with cilia and scarcely glandular cells. Intestine is divided in five histological regions, the first presents atyphlosole with two types of epithelium, simple columnar with stratified border; the rest of the tract has simple columnar epithelium with cilia, acidophilic granular glandular cells and folds of different sizes that increase or reduce the cavity duct. Based on previous this, we conclude that in this study exist differences principally in front region of digestive tract (buccal cavity, esophagus and stomach) compared to general descriptions realized for Prosobranchia subclass

  9. Optimización de la solución de extracción de moléculas antibacterianas de Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda:Littorinidae) / Optimization of extracting solutions of antibacterial molecules from Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda:Littorinidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Annia Alba, Menéndez; Carlos, López Abarrategui; Antonio A, Vázquez Perera; Anselmo J, Otero González.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los moluscos marinos constituyen un reservorio natural de moléculas con potencialidades terapéuticas para el tratamiento de enfermedades infecciosas en momentos en que se han descrito numerosas cepas resistentes a los antibióticos convencionales. Objetivo: comparar 3 soluciones: ácido [...] acético 30 %, metanol 50 % y salina-ácida (NaCl 0,6 mol/L, HCl 1 %) atendiendo a sus capacidades extractivas de moléculas con actividad antibacteriana del molusco marino Cenchritis muricatus. Métodos: para el procesamiento del material biológico se utilizaron las 3 soluciones de extracción y se analizaron los extractos obtenidos de acuerdo con la concentración de proteínas totales y la inhibición del crecimiento bacteriano de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus y Escherichia coli, mediante un bioensayo turbidimétrico en microplacas de 96 pocillos en medio Luria-Bertani. Resultados: se obtuvo mayor concentración de proteínas totales (7,8 mg/mL) con el extracto total de C. muricatus obtenido con la solución salina-ácida. Además con 200 mg/mL de proteínas totales del extracto se obtuvo inhibición significativa (p Abstract in english Introduction: marine mollusks are natural reservoirs of molecules with therapeutic potential for the treatment of infectious diseases, at a time when many antibiotic-resistant strains are being described. Objective: to compare three solutions: 30% acetic acid, 50% methanol and saline-acid (NaCl 0.6 [...] mol/L, 1% HCl) according to their capacities to extract molecules with antimicrobial activity from the marine mollusk Cenchritis muricatus. Methods: the three extraction solutions were used to process the biological material, and then, the obtained extracts were analyzed in terms of total protein concentration and the bacterial growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains by means of a turbidimetric bioassay using 96 well microplates in Luria-Bertani (LB) culture medium. Results: the highest total protein concentration (7.8 mg/mL) was found in the C. muricatus extract from the saline-acid solution. Additionally, 200 mg/mL of total proteins from the extract caused significant growth inhibition (p

  10. Duas novas espécies de Simpulopsis (Gastropoda, Bulimulidae) para o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil / Two new species of Simpulopsis (Gastropoda, Bulimulidae) from Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Letícia F. da, Silva; José W., Thomé.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Simpulopsis promatensis e S. gomesae, duas novas espécies para São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, são descritas. São apresentadas a conquiliologia, conquiliometria e morfologia das partes moles, incluindo mandíbula, rádula, sistemas reprodutor e palial. [...] Abstract in english Simpulopsis promatensis and S. gomesae, two new species from São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil are described. Conchology, conchiliometry and soft-part morphology, including jaw, radula, reproductive and pallial systems are provided. [...

  11. A new species of Leiostracus from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicidae) / Uma nova espécie de Leiostracus da Bahia, Brasil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo B., Salvador; Daniel C., Cavallari.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de gastrópode pulmonado foi recentemente coletada em um pequeno fragmento de Mata Atlântica nas vizinhanças de Canavieiras, Bahia, uma área de reconhecida diversidade de moluscos terrestres. Essa espécie é aqui descrita como Leiostracus fetidus sp. nov., podendo ser facilmente ident [...] ificada pelo seu padrão de coloração composto por faixas axiais irregulares, de cor marrom a preto, uma faixa axial avermelhada "separando" o peristômio branco do restante da concha e uma faixa espiral marrom, larga e irregular, contornando a região umbilical. Outras características diagnósticas incluem um tamanho relativamente pequeno, uma proto-dobra columelar e duas leves dobras na região basal da abertura. A presente descoberta é um lembrete de quão pouco essa fauna é conhecida e também um alerta para a conservação desses fragmentos de mata. Abstract in english A remarkable new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small Atlantic Rainforest fragment near the city of Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil, an area known for a high diversity of land snails. It is described herein as Leiostracus fetidus sp. nov. and can be easily identified by i [...] ts color pattern of irregular brown to black axial stripes on a white to yellow background, a reddish axial band "separating" the white peristome from the rest of the shell and a broad brown spiral band surrounding the umbilical region. Other diagnostic features include a relatively small size, a proto columellar fold and two very weak folds delimiting the basal region of the aperture. This discovery is a reminder of how little this fauna is known and also an alarm for proper conservation of these forest fragments.

  12. Histologia das glândulas salivares dos Limacoidea e Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) Histology of the salivary glands of the Limacoidea and Milacidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Leal-Zanchet

    2003-01-01

    The histology of the salivary glands of six species of Limacoidea, Boettgerilla pallens Simroth, 1912, Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774), Deroceras reticulatum (Müller, 1774), Deroceras rodnae Grossu & Lupu, 1965, Malacolimax tenellus (Müller, 1774) and Lehmannia marginata (Müller, 1774), and a species of Milacidae, Tandonia budapestensis (Hazay, 1881) is comparatively described herein. In the glandular parenchyme four to five secretory cell types are distinguished and characterised, besides a c...

  13. A new species of Leiostracus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicoidea) from Espírito Santo, Brazil / Nova espécie de Leiostracus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicoidea) do Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo B., Salvador; Daniel C., Cavallari.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma extraordinária espécie nova de gastrópode pulmonado foi encontrada na coleção do Senckenberg Forschungninstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt (Frankfurt am Main, Alemanha) e é aqui descrita como Leiostracus faerie sp. nov. Esta espécie pode ser facilmente identificada por sua concha diminuta e trans [...] lúcida, com finas faixas axiais marrom-claras, e pela escultura de sua protoconcha. Ela é originária da região do Rio Doce, Espírito Santo, uma área conhecida por sua grande diversidade e endemicidade de gastrópodes terrestres. Esta descoberta mostra quão pouco é conhecida essa fauna e também reforça a importância das coleções de museus no estudo da biodiversidade e em medidas de conservação. Abstract in english A remarkable new species of pulmonate land snail was found in the collection of the Senckenberg Forschungninstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt (Frankfurt am Main, Germany) and is described here as Leiostracus faerie sp. nov. It can be easily identified by its small and translucent shell with fine axia [...] l light brown bands and its protoconch sculpture. It was collected in the Rio Doce ("Doce River") region in Espírito Santo, Brazil, an area known for a high diversity and endemicity of land snails. This discovery shows how little this fauna is known and reinforces the importance of museum collections in the study of biodiversity and conservation.

  14. Microescultura da concha de Rectartemon (Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann (Gastropoda, Stylomatophora, Streptaxidae The microsculpture of the shell of Rectaktbmon (Rectíartemon depressus (Heynemann (Gastropoda, Stylomatophora, Streptaxidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Picoral

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The microsculpture of Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann, 1868 shell is described on scanning electron microscope. The generics characteristics are proposed: shell's dorsal sculture formed for ribs striae radial; nuclear whorls smooth; ventral surface of the shell smooth or slightly striate; and as specifics characteristics: the number of ribs striae radial on the last world. The R. (R. depressus presented seven or eight ribs striae radial for millimeter.

  15. Microescultura da concha de Rectartemon (Rectartemon) depressus (Heynemann) (Gastropoda, Stylomatophora, Streptaxidae) / The microsculpture of the shell of Rectaktbmon (Rectíartemon) depressus (Heynemann) (Gastropoda, Stylomatophora, Streptaxidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mônica, Picoral; Vera Lúcia, Lopes-Pitoni.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The microsculpture of Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann, 1868) shell is described on scanning electron microscope. The generics characteristics are proposed: shell's dorsal sculture formed for ribs striae radial; nuclear whorls smooth; ventral surface of the shell smooth or slightly striate; and as s [...] pecifics characteristics: the number of ribs striae radial on the last world. The R. (R.) depressus presented seven or eight ribs striae radial for millimeter.

  16. Microescultura da concha de Rectartemon (Rectartemon) depressus (Heynemann) (Gastropoda, Stylomatophora, Streptaxidae) The microsculpture of the shell of Rectaktbmon (Rectíartemon) depressus (Heynemann) (Gastropoda, Stylomatophora, Streptaxidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Picoral; Vera Lúcia Lopes-Pitoni

    1998-01-01

    The microsculpture of Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann, 1868) shell is described on scanning electron microscope. The generics characteristics are proposed: shell's dorsal sculture formed for ribs striae radial; nuclear whorls smooth; ventral surface of the shell smooth or slightly striate; and as specifics characteristics: the number of ribs striae radial on the last world. The R. (R.) depressus presented seven or eight ribs striae radial for millimeter.

  17. The genus Plesiophysa, with a redescription of P. ornata (Haas, 1938) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) / O gênero Plesiophysa, com redescrição de P. ornata (Haas, 1938) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W. L., PARAENSE.

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available É apresentada uma descrição de caracteres conquiliológicos e anatômicos do molusco planorbídeo Plesiophysa ornata (Haas, 1938), baseada em material topotípico, de 14 outras localidades dos seguintes Estados brasileiros: Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo e Minas Gerais. Dev [...] ido à grande semelhança de suas conchas, uma distinção segura das cinco espécies de Plesiophysa até agora descritas (P. pilsbryi, P. granulata, P. guadeloupensis, P. ornata e P. hubendicki) só é possível por intermédio de suas características anatômicas. Os dados sobre B. hubendicki indicam alta probabilidade de sinonímia com P. ornata. São necessárias investigações sobre a anatomia de P. pilsbryi e P. guadeloupensis para definir sua relação taxionômica com as outras espécies nominais. Abstract in english A redescription of conchological and anatomical characters of the planorbid mollusc Plesiophysa ornata (Haas, 1938) is presented, based on topotypic material and specimens from 14 additional localities in the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo and Minas [...] Gerais. Due to the close similarity of their shells, a sure discrimination of the five species of Plesiophysa described so far (P. pilsbryi, P. granulata, P. guadeloupensis, P. ornata and P. hubendicki) is only possible through their anatomical features. The present study points to the high probability of synonymy of P. hubendicki with P. ornata. Investigations on the anatomy of P. pilsbryi and P. guadeloupensis are needed to define their taxonomic relation with the other nominal species.

  18. Estudio Histológico de Boca, Esófago, Estómago e Intestino de Polystira albida (Gastropoda: Turridae) Histology Study of Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach and Intestine of Polystira albida (Gastropoda: Turridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Laura García-López; Esther A Uria-Galicia; Esperanza Ortiz-Ordoñez

    2007-01-01

    En la presente investigación se realizó la caracterización histológica del tubo digestivo de Polystira albida (Toxoglossa:Turridae) mediante microscopía óptica, utilizando ejemplares colectados en la Sonda de Campeche. Los resultados del análisis muestran que los labios, la boca y la probóscide presentan un epitelio cilindrico simple ciliado. La cavidad bucal tiene un epitelio cilindrico estratificado. El esófago presenta un epitelio cilindrico simple con células glandulares granulares acidóf...

  19. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  20. Tributyltin biomonitoring using prosobranchs as sentinel organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlmann, J. [International Graduate School Zittau, Chair of Environmental High Technology, Markt 23, D-02763 Zittau (Germany); Stroben, E. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Schulte-Oehlmann, U. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Bauer, B. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Fioroni, P. [Institute for Special Zoology and Comparative Embryology, University of Muenster, Huefferstrasse 1, D-48149 Muenster (Germany); Markert, B. [International Graduate School Zittau, Chair of Environmental High Technology, Markt 23, D-02763 Zittau (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) compounds, some of the most toxic xenobiotics, produce a variety of pathological reactions in animals. A reliable biomonitoring method to assess the degree of environmental TBT pollution has been described based on investigations of virilization phenomena in prosobranch snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Examples are the imposex phenomenon in marine and freshwater species, the intersex reaction in littorinids and the reduction of female sexual glands and offspring numbers in further species resulting mainly in a sterilization of females. The degree of imposex or intersex in populations is determined by different biomonitoring indices which allow to assess the TBT pollution of the environment at low costs with high precision. The effectiveness of TBT legislations is analysed by extensive surveys in France and Ireland indicating that there is still a continuing threat to sensitive marine organisms. TBT disturbs the biosynthesis of steroid hormones on the level of estrogen biosynthesis. The observed virilization phenomena seem due to an inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 dependent aromatase by this organotin compound. (orig.). With 4 figs.

  1. A neurophylogenetic approach provides new insight to the evolution of Scaphopoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H; Schrödl, Michael; Lodde-Bensch, Eva; Lindberg, David R; Heß, Martin; Brennan, Gerard P; Sigwart, Julia D

    2015-11-01

    The position of scaphopods in molluscan phylogeny remains singularly contentious, with several sister relationships supported by morphological and phylogenomic data: Scaphopoda?+?Bivalvia (Diasoma), Scaphopoda?+?Cephalopoda (Variopoda), and Scaphopoda?+?Gastropoda. Nervous system architecture has contributed significant insights to reconstructing phylogeny in the Mollusca and other invertebrate groups, but a modern neurophylogenetic approach has not been applied to molluscs, hampered by a lack of clearly defined homologous characters that can be unequivocally compared across the radical body plan disparity among the living clades. We present the first three-dimensional reconstruction of the anterior nervous system of a scaphopod, Rhabdus rectius, using histological tomography. We also describe a new putative sensory organ, a paired and pigmented sensory mantle slit. This structure is restricted to our study species and not a general feature of scaphopods, but it forms an integral part of the description of the nervous system in R. rectius. It also highlights the potential utility of neuro-anatomical characters for multiple levels of phylogenetic inference beyond this study. This potential has not previously been exploited for the thorny problem of molluscan phylogeny. The neuroanatomy of scaphopods demonstrates a highly derived architecture that shares a number of key characters with the cephalopod nervous system, and supports a Scaphopoda?+?Cephalopoda grouping. PMID:26487042

  2. ESTADO DE LAS POBLACIONES DE QUITONES (MOLLUSCA: POLYPLACOPHORA) EN ROMPEOLAS ARTIFICIALES DE COVEÑAS, SUCRE, COLOMBIA / Populations of quitones (Mollusca: Poliplacophora) in artificial seawalls of Coveñas, Sucre, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALCIDES C, SAMPEDRO-M; SANDRA M, PRASCA-S; DANIELA, SUÁREZ-V; LILIBETH, ESCOBAR-S.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó en dos rompeolas en Coveñas, Sucre, Colombia. Los objetivos fueron determinar las especies de quitones presentes ahí y su abundancia, distribución espacial, actividad y aspectos morfológicos, así como el papel de los rompeolas en el incremento de la diversidad biológica. Se mid [...] ieron factores abióticos y se anotaron otros organismos presentes. Las especies de quitones que se encuentran en los rompeolas de Coveñas, son las mismas que aparecen en el litoral rocoso de regiones cercanas, como el departamento de Córdoba. Las poblaciones de quitones presentaron una abundancia similar a la encontrada en otras regiones naturales del Caribe. Éstos realizan movimientos nocturnos para alimentarse y regresan a los sitios de reposo diurnos una vez concluyen esa actividad. Sus tallas máximas son mayores que las registradas para otras regiones. La distribución espacial agrupada y la asociación en un mismo microhábitat de las diferentes especies de quitones, aunque obedece a la búsqueda de mejores condiciones alimentarias, en el caso de los rompeolas pudiera estar influenciada además por la estructura de los mismos y por la poca amplitud de las mareas, características de esta región. Los rompeolas permiten la presencia de diversas especies que se relacionan entre sí y que no existían allí con anterioridad, luego incrementan la diversidad biológica. Abstract in english The work was conducted in two artificial seawalls in Coveñas, Sucre, Colombia. The objectives were to determine the species of chitons found in that ecosystem and to establish their abundance, spatial distribution, activity and morphological features. The study also sought to investigate the role of [...] seawalls in increasing local biodiversity. We measured abiotic factors and recorded the organisms present. The species of chitons found in Coveñas seawalls are the same that appear in natural rocky shorelines of nearby regions, such as in the department of Cordoba. The populations of chitons are in similar good condition to those found in other natural regions of the Caribbean. Chitons forage at night and return to their resting sites during the day. Average sizes are larger than those reported for other regions. Abiotic factors measured do not appear to affect the annual variations in the abundance of chitons, which may be more related to tidal changes. The aggregated spatial distribution and association in the same microhabitats of different species of chitons seem to be influenced by the structure of seawalls and the limited tidal range, which are characteristic of this region. Seawalls support various interrelated species and thus increase the local biodiversity.

  3. Cellular biomarker responses of limpets (Mollusca as measure of sensitivity to cadmiumcontamination Sellulêre biomerkerresponse as maatstaf van gevoeligheid van klipmossels (Mollusca vir kadmiumbesoedeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koot Reinecke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the availability and chemical nature of some heavy metals, sub-lethal toxicant levels may persist in the ocean waters and may cause physiological problems and toxicity in invertebrates and other marine organisms. Although studies of metal concentrations in False Bay showed relatively low mean concentrations of Cd, invertebrates such as molluscs, crustaceans and many other groups are able to accumulate high levels of heavy metals in their tissues and still survive in the heaviest polluted areas. They can accumulate numerous pollutants from natural waters in quantities that are many orders of magnitude higher than background levels. Bioaccumulation ofcadmium in intertidal species could cause stress which may be measurable at the cellular level. A variety of limpet species that may serve as suitable ecotoxicological monitoring species occur in abundance on rocky shores along the South African coastline. The aim of this study was to obtain sensitivity data which could contribute to the selection of a suitable monitoring species and the eventual establishment of a species sensitivity distribution model (SSD with a biomarker responseas endpoint. The limpets Cymbula oculus, Scutellastra longicosta, Cymbula granatina and Scutellastragranularis as well as water samples were collected at two localities in False Bay, South Africa. Analysis of water and biological samples were done by atomic absorption spectrometry. Exposures were done to three different sublethal concentrations of cadmium in the laboratory in static flow tanks over three days. There was a moderate increase in cadmium body concentrations over time. Results obtained at three exposure concentrations showed no significant differences in metal concentrations between the different C. oculus samples. Significant differences were obtained between the control and the exposure groups for each exposure time except between the control and the 1mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 24 and 72 hours of exposure. Cd body concentrations(soft tissue varied between 4.56 and 21.41µg/g (wet mass.Mean Cd concentrations in soft tissue of S. longicosta was considerably lower (varying between 1.18 and 19.58 µg/g Cd than in the tissues of C. oculus. The control group differed significantly from the 0.8 and 1 mg/L CdCl2 exposures after 48 and 72 hours. Mean Cd body concentrations in S. granular is were the highest of all exposed species, reaching a level of 148 µg/g Cd at the highest exposure concentration and differed significantly from the means of the other samples of the 0.8 mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 72 hours and from the 1 mg/L CdCl2 group after 24 hours. Significant differences were also obtained between theCd body concentrations of C. granatina for the three exposure concentrations and three exposure times. Lysosomal membrane integrity was determined for both exposed and control animals, using the neutral red retention assay. Three of the four species showed a significant decrease in retention times with an increase in Cd concentration. Inter-species differences in sensitivity to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations were reflected in the biomarker responses. Based on reduction of NRR times, the order of relative sensitivity to cadmium was S. granularis >C. oculus> S. longicosta.> C.granatina. Die bioakkumulasie van kadmium in tussengetyspesies kan stres veroorsaak wat op sellulêre vlakmeetbaar is. Verskeie klipmosselspesies kom volop op rotse aan die Suid-Afrikaanse kuslyn vooren kan moontlik vir ekotokiskologiese monitering gebruik word. Die oogmerk van die studie wasom sensitiwiteitsdata te verkry wat kan bydrae tot die kies van ’n geskikte spesie vir monitering endie uiteindelike daarstelling van ’n model vir spesie sensitiwiteitsverspreiding (SSV wat ’nbiomerkerrespons as eindpunt gebruik. Die klipmossels Cymbula oculus, Scutellastra longicosta,Cymbula granatina en Scutellastra granularis en watermonsters is in Valsbaai versamel. Analisesvan kadmium in water en biologiese monsters is met behulp van atoomabsorpsiespektrofotometrieuit

  4. Microscopic Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System in Echinolittorina peruviana (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) Anatomía Microscópica del Sistema Reproductor Masculino de Echinolittorina peruviana (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana M Castillo; Brown, Donald I.

    2008-01-01

    Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822), a gonochoric representative of the Littorinidae on the SE Pacific coast, has a male reproductive system adapted for internal fertilization. We describe this system at both macro- and microscopic levéis, particularly the compartmentalized organization of the gonad, and the morphology of the penis. The male reproductive system has a variegated conical gonad-digestive gland complex. The gonad presents three compartments, 1) gametogenic acinar among the ...

  5. Microscopic Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System in Echinolittorina peruviana (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda Anatomía Microscópica del Sistema Reproductor Masculino de Echinolittorina peruviana (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana M Castillo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822, a gonochoric representative of the Littorinidae on the SE Pacific coast, has a male reproductive system adapted for internal fertilization. We describe this system at both macro- and microscopic levéis, particularly the compartmentalized organization of the gonad, and the morphology of the penis. The male reproductive system has a variegated conical gonad-digestive gland complex. The gonad presents three compartments, 1 gametogenic acinar among the glandular acini, 2 periacinar with a layer of fusiform somatic cells and, 3 interacinar with glycogen storage cells shared with glandular acini. Spermatogenesis occurs within the acinar gametogenic compartment, with the germinal line organized in centripetal form towards the lumen. The seminal vesicle stores the products of spermatogenesis; in its cephalic region the euspermatozoa are united to the epithelium and the paraspermatozoa are distributed in the lumen. A short duct connects the seminal vesicle to the prostate gland that is open to the pallial cavity over its entire length. The anterior zone of the prostate gland is joined to the cervical spermatic groove that runs along the neck of the snail through the right pallial region ; this continúes as the penile spermatic groove, ascending from the base to the point of the penis. The penis is acutely conical and unpigmented; towards the anterior and adjacent to its base there is a glandular complex with a mamilliform process and a discoidal glandular region . The secretion from the discoidal region is transformed in a spicule of unknown function, whose histology is described here for the first time. The mamilliform process is formed by the spicular projection and a connective-muscle tissue band which surrounds it and separates it from the discoidal follicular glandular region ; the follicular secretion crosses this band and is incorporated into the epithelium which lines the interior of the process.Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822, representante gonocórico de Littorinidae en el Pacífico Sur, tiene un sistema reproductor masculino adaptado para la fecundacion interna, que en este estudio se describe a niveles macrocoscópico y microscópico; enfatizando la organizacion compartimentalizada de la gónada y la morfología del pene. El sistema reproductor masculino se presenta como un complejo cónico gónada-glándula digestiva abigarrado. La gónada presenta tres compartimientos: 1 gametogénico acinar entre los acinos glandulares, 2 periacinar con una capa de células somáticas fusiformes y 3 interacinar con células almacenadoras de glicógeno, compartido con los acinos glandulares. En el compartimiento gametogénico acinar ocurre la espermatogénesis con la línea germinal organizada en forma centrípeta hacia el lumen. Hacia anterior, la vesícula seminal almacena los productos de la espermatogénesis; en su region cefálica los euespermatozoides se unen al epitelio y los paraespermatozoides se distribuyen en el lumen. Este órgano se conecta con un conducto corto a la glándula prostática, abierta hacia la cavidad paleal en toda su longitud. La zona anterior de la glándula prostática se une al surco espermático cervical, que recorre el cuello del animal por la region paleal derecha; éste continúa como surco espermático peniano ascendiendo desde su base hasta la punta. El pene es cónico aguzado no pigmentado; hacia anterior adyacente a su base, hay un complejo glandular con un proceso mamiliforme y una region glandular discoidal. Su producto de secrecion sería una espícula de funcion desconocida, cuya histología es descrita por primera vez. En este complejo glandular, el proceso mamiliforme está constituido por la proyección espicular y una banda conjuntivo-muscular que lo rodea y separa de la region glandular folicular discoidal; su secrecion atraviesa dicha banda, incorporándose al epitelio de revestimiento interno del proceso.

  6. Limatula chilensis sp. nov. A new Limidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from northern Chile / Limatula chilensis sp. nov. Un nuevo Limidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) en el norte de Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Adriana, Campusano; Paula Mariela, Ruz; Marcelo Enrique, Oliva.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Limatula chilensis sp. nov. se describe en base a la morfología de la concha y tejidos blandos. Los especímenes estudiados se obtuvieron periódicamente entre junio de 2008 y enero de 2009 desde fondos blandos someros submareales en Punta Coloso, norte de Chile, a profundidades entre 22 y 33 m. La mo [...] rfología de la concha es diferente a la de las 4 especies de Limatula descritas para las costas del Pacífico de Sudamerica y Península Antártica (5º-65ºS). Las características más evidentes de L. chilensis fueron el tamaño 3,50 mm (rango 2,36-4,42, DE ± 0,60, n = 34), número de costillas radiales 16-21 (moda = 20, DE = 1,69, n = 8) y una fuerte oblicuidad de la concha. L. chilensis es la única especie conocida del género, para las costas del norte de Chile. Abstract in english Limatula chilensis sp. nov. is described on the basis of shell morphology and soft tissue anatomy. Studied individuals were obtained periodically between June 2008 and January 2009 from sublittoral soft-sediments off Punta Coloso in northern Chile at depths of 22 to 33 m. Shell morphology of the new [...] species differs from the 4 described species of Limatula from the Pacific coast of South America and Antarctic Peninsula (5°-65°S). Main characteristics of L. chilensis include an average height of 3.50 mm (range 2.36-4.42, SD ± 0.60, n = 34), number of radial ribs 16-21 (mode = 20, SD= 1.69, n = 8) and greater shell obliqueness. L. chilensis is the only known species of the genus found off northern Chile.

  7. CEFALÓPODOS (MOLLUSCA: CEPHALOPODA) DEL TALUD SUPERIOR DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO / CEPHALOPODS SPECIES (MOLLUSCA: CEPHALOPODA) IN THE UPPER SHELF SLOPE OF THE COLOMBIAN CARIBBEAN

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana, Gracia C; Néstor, Ardila E; Juan M, Díaz.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Siete especies de cefalópodos de aguas profundas fueron identificadas entre el material colectado en cuatro cruceros exploratorios realizados durante 1998 y 1999, a lo largo del talud superior del Caribe colombiano, entre 200 y 500 m de profundidad. Semirossia tenera, S. equalis, Heteroteuthis dispa [...] r, Opisthoteuthis agassizii, Octopus burryi y Benthoctopus oregonae son registradas por primera vez para el área. S. tenera fue la especie más común, acumulando el 75% de la abundancia total. Abstract in english Seven cephalopod species were identified from material collected during four exploratory cruises carried out in 1998 and 1999 along the upper shelf slope of the Colombian Caribbean at depths between 200 and 500 m. Semirossia tenera, S. equalis, Heteroteuthis dispar, Opisthoteuthis agassizii, Benthoc [...] topus oregonae and Octopus burryi are first recorded for the area. S. tenera was the most common species, representing 75% of the total abundance.

  8. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species for Cuba and Venezuela is discussed and some considerations about Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000 species complex are given.

  9. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae) de Cuba y Venezuela / New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae) from Cuba and Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Espinosa; Jesús, Ortea; Manuel, Caballer.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negr [...] a y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000. Abstract in english Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of [...] black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species for Cuba and Venezuela is discussed and some considerations about Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000 species complex are given.

  10. Faunistics (marine animals) : Porifera, Cnidaria, "Lower" worms, Annelida, "Gephyrea", Crustacea, Arthropoda, Mollusca-1, Mollusca-2, Tentaculata, Echinodermata, Deuterostomia. (About 570 species).

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    These PowerPoint files are compiled from various sources: Internet, field guides, scientific monographs, textbooks, my own photos and drawings, etc. I have no copyright or permission to use most of the illustrations. The file is therefore only intended for internal use within the Marine Biology course. Please, do not put it on Internet or distribute it by any means.     The reason for me to create this file is to facilitate the learning of species. We do not have enough time for field and laboratory work to allow students to learn to know the most important species by that method. We hope that the students will use the files as a preparation before the practicals.     Each slide in the files contain text, references to two books (see below), illustration(s) of a species and the name of that species. You are recommended to run the file in the slide show mode (Slide Show menue: View Show; or press the button (        ) in the lower left corner of the screen). If you do this, the contents of each slide will appear without the species name. Next time the return button is pressed the name will appear. Next time return is pressed, the following species will appear, etc. (Text covering characters for identification have only been included for about a quarter of the species only, because of lack of time).     These files contain information of about 570 species of marine invertebrates found in the waters around Denmark. They should be the most common species. Which species should be selected for files like these? It is a difficult question and it could always be argued that additional species should be included, but I had to define the limit somewhere. I decided to include the species in the two books stated below, plus a few more. The files were made on a Macintosh computer (PowerBook G4) with the programme PowerPoint X for Mac® Service Release 1.     Comments and suggestions are welcome from students and colleagues. HD&P = Køie, Kristiansen & Weitemeyer, Havets dyr og planter. DN = Danmarks Natur, vol. 3, Havet     Tomas Cedhagen, Department of Marine Ecology, University of Aarhus, Finlandsgade 14, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. Email: cedhagen@biology.au.dk Fysisk medie: CD

  11. Nuevas especies de la familia Marginellidae (Mollusca: Neogastropoda: Muricoidea) de Venezuela / New species of the family Marginellidae (Mollusca: Neogastropoda: Muricoidea) from Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Caballer; José, Espinosa; Jesús, Ortea; Samuel, Narciso.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hasta la fecha se han citado en Venezuela 10 especies del género Volvarina y una del género Hyalina, aunque de ellas solamente 2 se conocen con certeza. En este trabajo se describen 4 especies nuevas de moluscos de la familia Marginellidae a partir de ejemplares recolectados en 3 localidades diferen [...] tes: la isla de La Tortuga, el Parque Nacional Morrocoy e Isla de Aves. Además, se discute la validez de las citas de Venezuela y la de Caribeginella flormarina Espinosa & Ortea, 1998, sinonimizada con Hyalina pallida. Se aportan ilustraciones de los animales vivos de las 4 especies y también nuevas fotos de la concha del neotipo de H. pallida, depositado en el Museo de Historia Natural de Londres. Las nuevas especies se caracterizan por: Volvarina morrocoyensis Caballer, Espinosa & Ortea especie nueva; 5 bandas pardas en la concha, pliegues paralelos 2 a 2, cuerpo blanco con manchas rojas, manto con manchas negras formando bandas. Volvarina monchoi Caballer, Espinosa & Ortea especie nueva; concha blanca con una banda parda, pliegues desiguales, cuerpo blanco sin manchas. Volvarina avesensis Caballer, Espinosa & Ortea especie nueva; 3 bandas anaranjadas en la concha, pliegues paralelos, cuerpo anaranjado sin manchas, manto con manchas castañas. Hyalina nelsyae especie nueva; 3 bandas pardas en la concha, pliegues posteriores divergentes, anteriores casi paralelos, cuerpo con manchas rojizas formando un diamante en la cola, manto con manchas rojizas en 3 bandas. Abstract in english To date, 10 species of the genus Volvarina and one species of the genus Hyalina have been cited in Venezuela, but only 2 of them are certain. In this paper 4 new species of mollusks of the family Marginellidae are described, based on specimens collected from 3 different locations: La Tortuga Island, [...] Morrocoy National Park and Aves Island. Additionally, the records in Venezuela of all the species of both genus and the validity of Caribeginella flormarina, synonymized with Hyalina pallida, are discussed. Illustrations of the living animals for all the species are included, so as new photos of the shell of the Neotype of H. pallida, housed in the Natural History Museum in London. The new species are characterized by: Volvarina morrocoyensis Caballer, Espinosa & Ortea new species; 5 brownish bands in the shell, paired parallel plications, white body with red spots, mantle with black spots grouped in bands. Volvarina monchoi Caballer, Espinosa & Ortea new species; white shell with a brown band, uneven plications, white body without spots. Volvarina avesensis Caballer, Espinosa & Ortea new species; 3 orange bands in the shell, parallel plications, orange body, lacking spots, mantle with dull spots. Hyalina nelsyae new species; 3 dull bands in the shell, posterior plications divergent, anterior plications quasi-parallel, body with reddish spots forming a diamond in the tail, mantle with reddish spots forming 3 bands.

  12. Gloquídio de Diplodon martensi (lhering (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae e seu ciclo parasitário The glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae and its parasitic cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Conchological and anatomical studies of the glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering, 1893 were performed on samples collected in a small river, tributary from the Caí River, that belong to the Jacuí River sub-basin in south-eastern Brazil. The parasitic development of the glochidium was observed in laboratory on a small cichlid fish Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel, 1870.

  13. Gloquídio de Diplodon martensi (lhering) (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) e seu ciclo parasitário / The glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering) (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) and its parasitic cycle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Cristina Dreher, Mansur.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Conchological and anatomical studies of the glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering, 1893) were performed on samples collected in a small river, tributary from the Caí River, that belong to the Jacuí River sub-basin in south-eastern Brazil. The parasitic development of the glochidium was observed i [...] n laboratory on a small cichlid fish Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel, 1870).

  14. Observations on the morphology of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Ampullariidae) Observações sobre a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Ampullaridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the morpholgy of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) collected at its type locality. The shell is globose, moderately heavy, horn-colored with brown spiral bands; apex subelevated; 4 - 5 rounded whorls increasing in diameter rather rapidly, separated by deep suture. Aperture large and ovoid; outer lip sharp; umbilicus narrow and deep; operculum concentric, corneous. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.74 - 0.83 (mean 0.78); spire length/shell length = 0.10 - 0.18 (mean 0.13); ...

  15. Observations on the morphology of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Ampullariidae) / Observações sobre a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Ampullaridae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvana Carvalho, Thiengo.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho e estudada a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) baseada em material coletado na localidade-tipo. Concha com espessura moderada, globosa, castanha, com faixas espirais castanhas-escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros arredondados crescendo rapidamente em diâmetro, separados po [...] r suturas profundas. Abertura grande oval; lábio externo simples; umbigo pequeno e profundo; opérculo concêntrico, córneo. Razão: largura da concha/comprimento da concha = 0.74 - 0.83 (média 0.78); comprimento da espira/comprimento da concha = 0.10 - 0.18 (média 0.13); comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha = 0.70 - 0.77 (média 0.73). Animal com sifão bem desenvolvido. A rádula é tenioglossa (2.1.1.1.2) e tem em média 35 fileiras transversais de dentes. A forma e a disposição dos dentes radulares são semelhantes ao padrão dos ampularídeos. Rim de cor castanha apresentando uma invaginação acentuada na parede direita. Ureter alongado e transversal ao eixo principal do rim. Testículo constituído por uma massa cor creme, ocupando as três primeiras voltas da espira. Espermiduto estreito e uniforme, correndo para a base da espira. Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada levemente achatada dorso-ventralmente. Próstata cilíndrica e compacta com coloração semelhante à do testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote com canal espermático fechado e de contorno circular. Bolsa do pênis ovalada, envolvendo-o completamente. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída gradualmente da base para a extremidade; sua superfície interna apresenta um canal mediano em sua metade proximal e duas glândulas, uma mediana e outra apical. Ovário constituído por túbulos ramificados branco-amarelados situados superficilamente sobre a glândula digestiva. Oviduto estreito correndo pelo eixo columelar até a base da espira. Receptáculo seminal tubular com parede espessa e extremidade proximal alargada. Glândula de albume volumosa e rosada envolvendo o receptáculo seminal e a glândula da casca em espiral. Vestígio do aparelho copulador masculino (pênis e sua bainha) presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas. Abstract in english This paper deals with the morpholgy of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) collected at its type locality. The shell is globose, moderately heavy, horn-colored with brown spiral bands; apex subelevated; 4 - 5 rounded whorls increasing in diameter rather rapidly, separated by deep suture. Aperture large and [...] ovoid; outer lip sharp; umbilicus narrow and deep; operculum concentric, corneous. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.74 - 0.83 (mean 0.78); spire length/shell length = 0.10 - 0.18 (mean 0.13); aperture length/shell length = 0.70 - 0.77 (mean 0.73). The animal is longisiphonate. Renal organ brownish with marked invagination at its right edge. Ureter elongated with its long axis transverse to the main axis of the kidney. The radula is taenioglossate (2.1.1.1.2) and has on average 35 transverse rows of teeth. The form and arrangement of the radula teeth are nearly the same as in other Ampullariidae. The testis is cream-colored and lies in the first three whorls of the spire. Spermiduct uniformly narrow, running to the base of the spire. Seminal vesicle whitish, slightly pressed dorsoventrally. Prostate cylindric and thick, similar in color to the testis. Penis whiplike, with a closed circular spermiduct. Penis pouch ovoid completely envelping the penis. Penis sheath elongated, broad prosimally, tapering distally. Its inner surface shows a longitudinal channel along its proximal half and two glands, one on the middle and the other apical. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules situated on the surface of the digestive gland. Oviduct slender running along the columellar axis toward the base of the spire. Seminal receptalble tubiform, thick-walled and rounded proximally. Albumen gland large, pink, enclosing the receptacle and the spiral capsule gland. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath) present in all females examined.

  16. Observations on the morphology of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Mollusca, Ampullariidae Observações sobre a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Mollusca, Ampullaridae

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    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morpholgy of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 collected at its type locality. The shell is globose, moderately heavy, horn-colored with brown spiral bands; apex subelevated; 4 - 5 rounded whorls increasing in diameter rather rapidly, separated by deep suture. Aperture large and ovoid; outer lip sharp; umbilicus narrow and deep; operculum concentric, corneous. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.74 - 0.83 (mean 0.78; spire length/shell length = 0.10 - 0.18 (mean 0.13; aperture length/shell length = 0.70 - 0.77 (mean 0.73. The animal is longisiphonate. Renal organ brownish with marked invagination at its right edge. Ureter elongated with its long axis transverse to the main axis of the kidney. The radula is taenioglossate (2.1.1.1.2 and has on average 35 transverse rows of teeth. The form and arrangement of the radula teeth are nearly the same as in other Ampullariidae. The testis is cream-colored and lies in the first three whorls of the spire. Spermiduct uniformly narrow, running to the base of the spire. Seminal vesicle whitish, slightly pressed dorsoventrally. Prostate cylindric and thick, similar in color to the testis. Penis whiplike, with a closed circular spermiduct. Penis pouch ovoid completely envelping the penis. Penis sheath elongated, broad prosimally, tapering distally. Its inner surface shows a longitudinal channel along its proximal half and two glands, one on the middle and the other apical. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules situated on the surface of the digestive gland. Oviduct slender running along the columellar axis toward the base of the spire. Seminal receptalble tubiform, thick-walled and rounded proximally. Albumen gland large, pink, enclosing the receptacle and the spiral capsule gland. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Neste trabalho e estudada a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 baseada em material coletado na localidade-tipo. Concha com espessura moderada, globosa, castanha, com faixas espirais castanhas-escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros arredondados crescendo rapidamente em diâmetro, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande oval; lábio externo simples; umbigo pequeno e profundo; opérculo concêntrico, córneo. Razão: largura da concha/comprimento da concha = 0.74 - 0.83 (média 0.78; comprimento da espira/comprimento da concha = 0.10 - 0.18 (média 0.13; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha = 0.70 - 0.77 (média 0.73. Animal com sifão bem desenvolvido. A rádula é tenioglossa (2.1.1.1.2 e tem em média 35 fileiras transversais de dentes. A forma e a disposição dos dentes radulares são semelhantes ao padrão dos ampularídeos. Rim de cor castanha apresentando uma invaginação acentuada na parede direita. Ureter alongado e transversal ao eixo principal do rim. Testículo constituído por uma massa cor creme, ocupando as três primeiras voltas da espira. Espermiduto estreito e uniforme, correndo para a base da espira. Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada levemente achatada dorso-ventralmente. Próstata cilíndrica e compacta com coloração semelhante à do testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote com canal espermático fechado e de contorno circular. Bolsa do pênis ovalada, envolvendo-o completamente. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída gradualmente da base para a extremidade; sua superfície interna apresenta um canal mediano em sua metade proximal e duas glândulas, uma mediana e outra apical. Ovário constituído por túbulos ramificados branco-amarelados situados superficilamente sobre a glândula digestiva. Oviduto estreito correndo pelo eixo columelar até a base da espira. Receptáculo seminal tubular com parede espessa e extremidade proximal alargada. Glândula de albume volumosa e rosada envolvendo o receptáculo seminal e a glândula da casca em espiral. Vestígio do aparelho copulador masculino (pênis e sua bainha presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas.

  17. New records of Bentharca asperula (Dall, 1881) (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Arcidae) from Brazil / Novos registros de Bentharca asperula (Dall, 1881) (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Arcidae) para o Brasil

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    Flávio Dias, Passos; Adolpho, Birman.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Espécimes de Bentharca asperula (Dall, 1881) foram obtidos em águas profundas da costa dos Estados de Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, e suas conchas descritas, ilustradas e comparadas com descrições e ilustrações obtidas da literatura. A espécie possui concha pequena, fortemente inequilateral, com valva [...] s de contorno trapezoidal e expandidas ventro-posteriormente; os umbos são localizados aproximadamente no terço anterior do comprimento da linha da charneira, que é reta. A escultura externa consiste de linhas concêntricas, irregularmente espaçadas, interceptadas por estrias radiais finas; o perióstraco é piloso, formando uma cobertura semelhante a sapé. Os dentes da charneira são pequenos, dispostos em duas séries interrompidas pelo ligamento. Com este registro feito a partir de espécimes vivos provenientes da Bacia de Campos, a distribuição geográfica de B. asperula pode ser então estendida na costa brasileira, confirmando sua larga ocorrência no Oceano Atlântico. Abstract in english Specimens of Bentharca asperula (Dall, 1881) were obtained from deep waters of the coasts of the Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo States, and their shells described, illustrated and compared with descriptions and illustrations obtained from the literature. This species has a small strongly inequilateral [...] shell, trapezoidal in outline and expanded ventro-posteriorly; their umbos are placed at about 1/3 of the anterior length of their straight hinge line. The external sculpture consists of irregular spaced concentric ridges, intercepted by fine radiating striae; the periostracum is hairy, forming a cover as a thatch. Hinge teeth are small, disposed in two series interrupted by the ligament. With this finding of living specimens from the Bacia de Campos, the distribution of B. asperula can now be extended in the Brazilian coast, confirming its wide spread in the Atlantic Ocean.

  18. Microscopic Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System in Echinolittorina peruviana (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) / Anatomía Microscópica del Sistema Reproductor Masculino de Echinolittorina peruviana (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda)

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    Viviana M, Castillo; Donald I, Brown.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822), representante gonocórico de Littorinidae en el Pacífico Sur, tiene un sistema reproductor masculino adaptado para la fecundacion interna, que en este estudio se describe a niveles macrocoscópico y microscópico; enfatizando la organizacion compartimentalizad [...] a de la gónada y la morfología del pene. El sistema reproductor masculino se presenta como un complejo cónico gónada-glándula digestiva abigarrado. La gónada presenta tres compartimientos: 1) gametogénico acinar entre los acinos glandulares, 2) periacinar con una capa de células somáticas fusiformes y 3) interacinar con células almacenadoras de glicógeno, compartido con los acinos glandulares. En el compartimiento gametogénico acinar ocurre la espermatogénesis con la línea germinal organizada en forma centrípeta hacia el lumen. Hacia anterior, la vesícula seminal almacena los productos de la espermatogénesis; en su region cefálica los euespermatozoides se unen al epitelio y los paraespermatozoides se distribuyen en el lumen. Este órgano se conecta con un conducto corto a la glándula prostática, abierta hacia la cavidad paleal en toda su longitud. La zona anterior de la glándula prostática se une al surco espermático cervical, que recorre el cuello del animal por la region paleal derecha; éste continúa como surco espermático peniano ascendiendo desde su base hasta la punta. El pene es cónico aguzado no pigmentado; hacia anterior adyacente a su base, hay un complejo glandular con un proceso mamiliforme y una region glandular discoidal. Su producto de secrecion sería una espícula de funcion desconocida, cuya histología es descrita por primera vez. En este complejo glandular, el proceso mamiliforme está constituido por la proyección espicular y una banda conjuntivo-muscular que lo rodea y separa de la region glandular folicular discoidal; su secrecion atraviesa dicha banda, incorporándose al epitelio de revestimiento interno del proceso. Abstract in english Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822), a gonochoric representative of the Littorinidae on the SE Pacific coast, has a male reproductive system adapted for internal fertilization. We describe this system at both macro- and microscopic levéis, particularly the compartmentalized organization of the [...] gonad, and the morphology of the penis. The male reproductive system has a variegated conical gonad-digestive gland complex. The gonad presents three compartments, 1) gametogenic acinar among the glandular acini, 2) periacinar with a layer of fusiform somatic cells and, 3) interacinar with glycogen storage cells shared with glandular acini. Spermatogenesis occurs within the acinar gametogenic compartment, with the germinal line organized in centripetal form towards the lumen. The seminal vesicle stores the products of spermatogenesis; in its cephalic region the euspermatozoa are united to the epithelium and the paraspermatozoa are distributed in the lumen. A short duct connects the seminal vesicle to the prostate gland that is open to the pallial cavity over its entire length. The anterior zone of the prostate gland is joined to the cervical spermatic groove that runs along the neck of the snail through the right pallial region ; this continúes as the penile spermatic groove, ascending from the base to the point of the penis. The penis is acutely conical and unpigmented; towards the anterior and adjacent to its base there is a glandular complex with a mamilliform process and a discoidal glandular region . The secretion from the discoidal region is transformed in a spicule of unknown function, whose histology is described here for the first time. The mamilliform process is formed by the spicular projection and a connective-muscle tissue band which surrounds it and separates it from the discoidal follicular glandular region ; the follicular secretion crosses this band and is incorporated into the epithelium which lines the interior of the process.

  19. Kadmium in Valsbaai: moniteringspotensiaal van die mariene slak, Oxystele tigrina (Mollusca Cadmium in False Bay: Monitoring potential of the marine snail, Oxystele tigrina (Mollusca

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    Koot Reinecke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available n Opname is onderneem van die kadmiumvlakke in die tussengetygebied van Valsbaai, Suid-Afrika. Kadmiumkonsentrasies is seisoenaal bepaal in die water en sediment in verskillende lokaliteite. Die metings is oor ’n periode van een jaar gedoen deur seisoenaal monsters te versamel by ses verskillende versamelpunte in en een buite die baai. Dit is met behulp van atoom-absorpsiespektrofotometrie ontleed vir kadmium en die hoogste kontaminasievlakke is by die noordelike kusstreek gevind tussen Strand en Muizenberg waar die digsbevolkte gebiede en die eeste industriële aktiwiteit voorkom. Betekenisvolle variasie in konsentrasies van kadmium het seisoenaal en ruimtelik voorgekom. Die gemiddelde konsentrasies in die water en sediment was in sommige gevalle effens hoër as die vlakke wat deur die Suid-Afrikaanse waterkwalitetis-riglyne aanbeveel is. Kadmiumkonsentrasies is ook in versamelde eksemplare van die mariene slak Oxystele tigrina vir verskillende seisoene vir drie lokaliteite bepaal. Laboratoriumeksperimente is uitgevoer om die opname, akkumulasie en verlies van kadmium in verskillende organe van die tussen-getyslak, Oxystele tigrina te ondersoek. Weefselspesi? eke kadmiumkonsentrasies in kontrole- sowel as blootgestelde lewende eksemplare is vergelyk oor ’n blootstellingsperiode van veertien dae. Die eksperimentele slakke is aan twee subletale konsentrasies van onderskeidelik 0.20 en 0.40 µg/ml watergedraagde kadmium in die vorm van CdCl 2 blootgestel. Die proefdiere is gereeld gemonitor en kadmiumkonsentrasies is in verskillende organe, na suurvertering, atoomabsorpsie-spektrofotometries bepaal. Die resultate het ’n algemene toename van kadmium in die liggame van die slakke uitgewys. Kadmium is in variërende konsentrasies in alle weefsel gevind. ’n Ongeveer liniêre patroon van akkumulasie het aangetoon dat die metaal waarskynlik nie deur O. tigrina gereguleer is nie. Die metaal se teenwoordigheid het verskil tussen die sagteweefsel en skulp op so ’n wyse dat die sagteweefsel normaalweg ’n hoër opnamekoers van die kadmium weerspieël het. Nadat die blootgestelde organismes in kadmiumvrye seewater oorgeplaas is, het gedeeltelike kadmiumverlies wel plaasgevind. Die variasie in kadmiumverlies van die verskillende organe dui moontlik daarop dat slegs ’n gedeelte van die geakkumuleerde kadmium sterk gebind was in sekere weefsels of organe. Die behoud van kadmium in beide sediment en diereliggame was sodanig dat afgelei kan word dat kadmium teen huidige omgewingskonsentrasies in sekere dele van Valsbaai, wat algemeen as laag beskou word, steeds met verloop van tyd in hierdie tussengetydiere kan akkumuleer tot vlakke wat nadelig is vir die spesies self, maar ook vir hulle redatore. Dit sal veral kan gebeur indien ? siese toestande verander om die biobeskikbaarheid te verhoog.Cadmium contamination levels in the False Bay intertidal zone in South Africa were assessed in the water and sediments over a period of one year. Samples were collected seasonally from six sites within the bay, and from a reference site situated just outside the eastern arm of False Bay in order to obtain a general overview of contamination levels to which invertebrates in the coastal areas are exposed. The results from the chemical analyses of water and sediment samples revealed that most contamination was associated with the northern shore of the bay between Strand and Muizenberg, where the most populated and industrialised catchments occur. The high contamination factors calculated for Cd for sediments from some sites suggested a strong input of industrial and other discharges containing this heavy metal. There were signi? cant seasonal and spatial differences in the cadmium concentrations, with spatial variations indicating localised contamination, while seasonal variations were assumed to be predominantly related to changes in precipitation and runoff at different times of the year. The mean cadmium concentrations in the water and sediments were occasionally higher than the levels recommended by the South Afr

  20. Ocorrência do bivalve exótico Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, no Brasil Occurrence of exotic bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, in Brazil

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    José R. B. de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O molusco Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831, natural da América do Norte, foi localizado no litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, em 2004, trazido provavelmente por água de lastro de navios. Na região, sua distribuição atualmente abrange zonas estuarinas adjacentes ao Porto do Recife. Os organismos foram encontrados restritos à região entre-marés, formando agregados densos com até 176.800 ind./m².The mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831 is native to North America. It was found at Pernambuco Coast, northeastern Brazil, in 2004, probably brought by ships' ballast water. The distribution of this species has been now spread to estuarial area near Recife Harbour. They showed a clumped distribution with a maximum of 176,800 ind./m² only in the intertidal zone.

  1. Verspreiding en habitats van Ceratophallus natalensis (Mollusca: Planorbidae in Suid-Afrika Distribution and habitats of Ceratophallus natalensis (Mollusca: Planorbidae in South Africa

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    K. N. de Kock

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel handel oor die geografiese verspreiding en habitats van Ceratophallus natalensis soos weerspieël deur die 1 797 monsters wat tans in die databasis van die Nasionale Varswater- slakversameling (NVWSV opgeneem is. Hierdie spesie is in al 14 verskillende waterliggaamtipes wat in die databasis verteenwoordig word, aangetref. Die grootste getal monsters was afkomstig van damme, spruite en riviere. Habitats met standhoudende, stilstaande en varswater waarvan die substratum oorwegend uit modder bestaan het, was die beste verteenwoordig. Die resultate van ’n geïntegreerde besluitnemingsboom- en effekgrootte-analise het getoon dat temperatuur, hoogte bo seevlak en waterliggame as sodanig, ’n deurslaggewende rol in die gedokumenteerde geografiese verspreiding van hierdie spesie in Suid-Afrika gespeel het. ’n Temperatuurindeks wat bereken is, het getoon dat C. natalensis ook goed toegerus is om habitats in die koeler streke van Suid-Afrika te bevolk. Gesien in die lig van die wye geografiese verspreiding van hierdie spesie in hierdie land en dat dit elders in Afrika bevind is dat dit serkarieë van verskeie helmintspesies onder natuurlike toestande kan vrystel, word dit aanbeveel dat sy rol as tussengasheer in Suid-Afrika deeglik ondersoek behoort te word.Species of the genus Ceratophallus are known only from some islands in the western Indian Ocean and Africa, where they occur in Eritrea and the area extending southwards and westwards into the Western Cape of South Africa. The most recent classification recognises nine species of this genus of which only two, namely Ceratophallus natalensis (Krauss and Ceratophallus gibbonsi (Nelson occur in South Africa. Although partially sympatric, C. gibbonsi is largely associated with a tropical climate and perennial water-bodies while C. natalensis is fairly common in cooler areas and are often found in ephemeral rain pools. This article focuses on the geographical distribution and habitats of C. natalensis, the most widespread species of the genus, as reflected by the data on record in the National Freshwater Snail Collection (NFSC. Details pertaining to the habitats of 1 797 samples of C. natalensis as recorded at the time of collection were extracted from the database of the NFSC. In view of the finding of Brown1 that C. natalensis and C. gibbonsi are partly sympatric, but that the latter is associated with fully tropical climatic areas, samples of Ceratophallus collected in loci ( 1 / 16 th square degrees that fall within the altitude interval ranging from 0-500 m, were selected for closer investigation. A number of 153 samples from 64 loci falling within this altitude interval was subsequently identified as C. natalensis. The number of loci in which the 1 797 collection sites were located, was distributed in intervals of mean annual air temperature and rainfall, as well as intervals of mean altitude, to illustrate the frequency of occurrence within specific intervals. A temperature index was calculated for all mollusc species in the database from their frequencies of occurrence within selected temperature intervals and the results were used to rank them in order of their association with low to high climatic temperatures. Chi-square values were calculated to evaluate the significance of the difference between the frequency of occurrence in, on, or at the different options for each variable. Additionally, an effect size value was calculated to determine the significance of the effect of all the different variables discussed in this paper on the geographical distribution of C. natalensis in South Africa. A multivariate analysis in the form of a decision tree was also constructed. This is a statistical model that enables the selection and ranking of those variables that can maximally discriminate between the frequency of occurrence of a given species under specific conditions as compared to all other mollusc species in the database.The 1 797 samples of C. natalensis of which the collection sites could be located on a 1:250 000 topo-cadastral map

  2. Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements

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    Zardoya Rafael

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mitochondrial genomes exhibit an unusually great variety of gene orders compared to other metazoan mitochondrial genome such as e.g those of vertebrates. Hence, gastropod mitochondrial genomes constitute a good model system to study patterns, rates, and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome rearrangement. However, this kind of evolutionary comparative analysis requires a robust phylogenetic framework of the group under study, which has been elusive so far for gastropods in spite of the efforts carried out during the last two decades. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of five mitochondrial genomes of gastropods (Pyramidella dolabrata, Ascobulla fragilis, Siphonaria pectinata, Onchidella celtica, and Myosotella myosotis, and we analyze them together with another ten complete mitochondrial genomes of gastropods currently available in molecular databases in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the main lineages of gastropods. Results Comparative analyses with other mollusk mitochondrial genomes allowed us to describe molecular features and general trends in the evolution of mitochondrial genome organization in gastropods. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (ME, MP, ML, BI arrived at a single topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in the group. Conclusion Four main lineages were identified within gastropods: Caenogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Patellogastropoda, and Heterobranchia. Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are sister taxa, as well as, Patellogastropoda and Heterobranchia. This result rejects the validity of the derived clade Apogastropoda (Caenogastropoda + Heterobranchia. The position of Patellogastropoda remains unclear likely due to long-branch attraction biases. Within Heterobranchia, the most heterogeneous group of gastropods, neither Euthyneura (because of the inclusion of P. dolabrata nor Pulmonata (polyphyletic nor Opisthobranchia (because of the inclusion S. pectinata were recovered as monophyletic groups. The gene order of the Vetigastropoda might represent the ancestral mitochondrial gene order for Gastropoda and we propose that at least three major rearrangements have taken place in the evolution of gastropods: one in the ancestor of Caenogastropoda, another in the ancestor of Patellogastropoda, and one more in the ancestor of Heterobranchia.

  3. Functional chloroplasts in metazoan cells - a unique evolutionary strategy in animal life

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    Krug Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among metazoans, retention of functional diet-derived chloroplasts (kleptoplasty is known only from the sea slug taxon Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia. Intracellular maintenance of plastids in the slug's digestive epithelium has long attracted interest given its implications for understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis. However, photosynthetic ability varies widely among sacoglossans; some species have no plastid retention while others survive for months solely on photosynthesis. We present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sacoglossa and a survey of kleptoplasty from representatives of all major clades. We sought to quantify variation in photosynthetic ability among lineages, identify phylogenetic origins of plastid retention, and assess whether kleptoplasty was a key character in the radiation of the Sacoglossa. Results Three levels of photosynthetic activity were detected: (1 no functional retention; (2 short-term retention lasting about one week; and (3 long-term retention for over a month. Phylogenetic analysis of one nuclear and two mitochondrial loci revealed reciprocal monophyly of the shelled Oxynoacea and shell-less Plakobranchacea, the latter comprising a monophyletic Plakobranchoidea and paraphyletic Limapontioidea. Only species in the Plakobranchoidea expressed short- or long-term kleptoplasty, most belonging to a speciose clade of slugs bearing parapodia (lateral flaps covering the dorsum. Bayesian ancestral character state reconstructions indicated that functional short-term retention arose once in the last common ancestor of Plakobranchoidea, and independently evolved into long-term retention in four derived species. Conclusion We propose a sequential progression from short- to long-term kleptoplasty, with different adaptations involved in each step. Short-term kleptoplasty likely arose as a deficiency in plastid digestion, yielding additional energy via the release of fixed carbon. Functional short-term retention was an apomorphy of the Plakobranchoidea, but the subsequent evolution of parapodia enabled slugs to protect kleptoplasts against high irradiance and further prolong plastid survival. We conclude that functional short-term retention was necessary but not sufficient for an adaptive radiation in the Plakobranchoidea, especially in the genus Elysia which comprises a third of all sacoglossan species. The adaptations necessary for long-term chloroplast survival arose independently in species feeding on different algal hosts, providing a valuable study system for examining the parallel evolution of this unique trophic strategy.

  4. Ecomorphological Analyses of Marine Mollusks' Shell Thickness of Rapana venosa (VALENCIENNES, 1846 (Gastropoda: Muricidae

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    Igor P. Bondarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shell thickness of Rapana venosa was investigated from ecologically different places of the Azov – Black Sea basin. In the formation of the shell thickness there are two major trends: thickening with age, and inversely proportional to the size of the thickening of even-aged individuals of the same population. Shell thickness formation was analyzed in connection with biotic and abiotic environmental factors of influence. R. venosa ontogeny is not conducive to the rapid succession newly acquired characters in local populations. The formation of a thick shell is mainly the individual response of bions to the environment. Individuals’ of the same type reaction is the cause of formation of specific conchological characters of separate populations or parts thereof. Mechanical impacts (e.g. damage by breaking predators and storm waves hitting on rocks have no significant effect on the increasing of thickness of shells. Comparative analysis of the thickness of the shell of R. venosa from areas with different salinity shows that the direct relationship between these parameters is absent. R. venosa is capable of forming its own salinity medium in the mantle cavity, which is different from the external environment. The main factor influencing the formation of a thick-walled shell is the amplitude of the temperature fluctuations in the locality. Shell thickness of R. venosa was considered as ecomorphological character in comparison with the same feature of shell-bearing mollusks from the World Ocean at different latitude zones. It is shown that high temperature gradient is one of the most important factors of forming a thick shell. The greatest show this intertidal species and ecomorphs of temperate and high latitudes, where the temperature gradients are most expressed.

  5. Composición de ácidos grasos de los caracoles marinos Phyllonotus pomum y Chicoreus brevifrons (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haydelba D’Armas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el contenido de ácidos grasos en los lípidos totales de los caracoles Phyllonotus pomum y Chicoreus brevifrons, recolectados en tres diferentes épocas del año en Punta Arena, estado Sucre, Venezuela. Las concentraciones lipídicas oscilaron entre 0.87 y 1.85%, correspondiendo el valor mínimo y el máximo a C. brevifrons colectado en lluvia y sequía, respectivamente. La esterificación de los ácidos grasos presentes en estos lípidos seguida de la cromatografía de gases permitió la caracterización y cuantificación de los ácidos grasos. En los lípidos totales de las dos especies, en todas las épocas, se observaron elevadas concentraciones de ácidos grasos insaturados (57.21-70.05% seguido de los saturados (20.33-31.94%. Entre los ácidos grasos insaturados, predominaron los de tipo poliinsaturados, exceptuándose el extracto lipídico de P. pomum en época de transición donde las grasas monoinsaturadas fueron las mayoritarias (38.95%. Los ácidos grasos que prevalecieron fueron: C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:1, C22:1 ?- 11, C22:1 ?-9, C18:3 ?-3, C20:5 ?-3 y el C22:6 ?-3, siendo este ?ltimo el predominante entre los ?cidos grasos poliinsaturados, presentando porcentajes de distribuci?n comprendidos entre 4.62 y 33.11%. Debido a las altas concentraciones de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados encontradas en ambos caracoles, se recomienda su consumo para la alimentación de los seres humanos.

  6. ESR studies of {gamma}-irradiated Rapana venosa (Gastropoda, Muricidae) shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana Seletchi, Emilia [Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele, P.O. Box, MG-11, RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: ed_seletchi@yahoo.com; Duliu, Octavian G. [Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, University of Bucharest, Magurele, P.O. Box, MG-11, RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Georgescu, Rodica [National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Magurele, P.O. Box, MG-6, RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-10-15

    The unirradiated as well as {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiated up to 11.3kGy shells of veined Rapana Whelk (Rapana venosa), collected from the Black Sea coasts (Romania) were investigated by ESR technique. The radicals produced by {gamma}-irradiation in Rapana shell whose g-factors varied from 1.9976 to 2.0057 were attributed to CO{sub 2}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 3-}, CO{sub 3}{sup -}, and SO{sub 2}{sup -} species. The analysis of ESR spectra showed that the ESR signal intensity of all these radicals enhanced gradually with the increase of absorbed dose while the thermal treatment (100 deg. C) revealed an exponential decrease of the ESR amplitude with the annealing time for CO{sub 2}{sup -} and CO{sub 3}{sup 3-} free radicals.

  7. Composición de ácidos grasos de los caracoles marinos Phyllonotus pomum y Chicoreus brevifrons (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Haydelba, D’Armas; Dayanis, Yáñez; Dilia, Reyes; Gabriel, Salazar.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el contenido de ácidos grasos en los lípidos totales de los caracoles Phyllonotus pomum y Chicoreus brevifrons, recolectados en tres diferentes épocas del año en Punta Arena, estado Sucre, Venezuela. Las concentraciones lipídicas oscilaron entre 0.87 y 1.85%, correspondiendo el valor míni [...] mo y el máximo a C. brevifrons colectado en lluvia y sequía, respectivamente. La esterificación de los ácidos grasos presentes en estos lípidos seguida de la cromatografía de gases permitió la caracterización y cuantificación de los ácidos grasos. En los lípidos totales de las dos especies, en todas las épocas, se observaron elevadas concentraciones de ácidos grasos insaturados (57.21-70.05%) seguido de los saturados (20.33-31.94%). Entre los ácidos grasos insaturados, predominaron los de tipo poliinsaturados, exceptuándose el extracto lipídico de P. pomum en época de transición donde las grasas monoinsaturadas fueron las mayoritarias (38.95%). Los ácidos grasos que prevalecieron fueron: C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:1, C22:1 ?- 11, C22:1 ?-9, C18:3 ?-3, C20:5 ?-3 y el C22:6 ?-3, siendo este ?ltimo el predominante entre los ?cidos grasos poliinsaturados, presentando porcentajes de distribuci?n comprendidos entre 4.62 y 33.11%. Debido a las altas concentraciones de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados encontradas en ambos caracoles, se recomienda su consumo para la alimentación de los seres humanos. Abstract in english Fatty acids composition of the marine snails Phyllonotus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons (Muricidae). Muricid species of P. pomum and C. brevifrons are of economic importance in the Caribbean. This study includes a comparative evaluation of fatty acid content in the total lipid composition of Phyllon [...] otus pomum and Chicoreus brevifrons. Snail samples were collected during the rainy, dry and transition seasons, in Punta Arena, Sucre (Venezuela). Total lipids were extracted and the specific fatty acid contents were analyzed by gas chromatography. Lipid concentrations varied between 0.87 and 1.85%, with minimum and maximum values corresponding to C. brevifrons collected during rainy and dry seasons, respectively. In the case of total lipids, a high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids (57.21-70.05%) was observed followed by saturated fatty acids (20.33- 31.94%), during all seasons. The polyunsaturated occurred in higher proportion among the unsaturated fatty acids, except for P. pomum which showed higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (38.95%) during the transition season. The prevailing fatty acids were: C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:1, C22:1 ?-11, C22:1 ?-9, C18:3 ?-3, C20:5 ?-3 and C22:6 ?-3, among which docosahexaenoic acid was the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, showing values between 4.62 and 33.11%. The presence of high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in P. Pomum and C. brevifrons allow their recommendation for human consumption with appropriate resource utilization. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2): 645-654. Epub 2010 June 02.

  8. Monoamines in the pedal plexus of the land snail Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccioni-Heuser M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In molluscs, the number of peripheral neurons far exceeds those found in the central nervous system. Although previous studies on the morphology of the peripheral nervous system exist, details of its organization remain unknown. Moreover, the foot of the terrestrial species has been studied less than that of the aquatic species. As this knowledge is essential for our experimental model, the pulmonate gastropod Megalobulimus oblongus, the aim of the present study was to investigate monoamines in the pedal plexus of this snail using two procedures: glyoxylic acid histofluorescence to identify monoaminergic structures, and the unlabeled antibody peroxidase anti-peroxidase method using antiserum to detect the serotonergic component of the plexus. Adult land snails weighing 48-80 g, obtained from the counties of Barra do Ribeiro and Charqueadas (RS, Brazil, were utilized. Monoaminergic fibers were detected throughout the pedal musculature. Blue fluorescence (catecholamines, probably dopamine was observed in nerve branches, pedal and subepithelial plexuses, and in the pedal muscle cells. Yellow fluorescence (serotonin was only observed in thick nerves and in muscle cells. However, when immunohistochemical methods were used, serotonergic fibers were detected in the pedal nerve branches, the pedal and subepithelial plexuses, the basal and lateral zones of the ventral integument epithelial cells, in the pedal ganglion neurons and beneath the ventral epithelium. These findings suggest catecholaminergic and serotonergic involvement in locomotion and modulation of both the pedal ganglion interneurons and sensory information. Knowledge of monoaminergic distribution in this snail´s foot is important for understanding the pharmacological control of reflexive responses and locomotive behavior.

  9. Monoamines in the pedal plexus of the land snail Megalobulimus oblongus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.C., Faccioni-Heuser; D.M., Zancan; M., Achaval.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In molluscs, the number of peripheral neurons far exceeds those found in the central nervous system. Although previous studies on the morphology of the peripheral nervous system exist, details of its organization remain unknown. Moreover, the foot of the terrestrial species has been studied less tha [...] n that of the aquatic species. As this knowledge is essential for our experimental model, the pulmonate gastropod Megalobulimus oblongus, the aim of the present study was to investigate monoamines in the pedal plexus of this snail using two procedures: glyoxylic acid histofluorescence to identify monoaminergic structures, and the unlabeled antibody peroxidase anti-peroxidase method using antiserum to detect the serotonergic component of the plexus. Adult land snails weighing 48-80 g, obtained from the counties of Barra do Ribeiro and Charqueadas (RS, Brazil), were utilized. Monoaminergic fibers were detected throughout the pedal musculature. Blue fluorescence (catecholamines, probably dopamine) was observed in nerve branches, pedal and subepithelial plexuses, and in the pedal muscle cells. Yellow fluorescence (serotonin) was only observed in thick nerves and in muscle cells. However, when immunohistochemical methods were used, serotonergic fibers were detected in the pedal nerve branches, the pedal and subepithelial plexuses, the basal and lateral zones of the ventral integument epithelial cells, in the pedal ganglion neurons and beneath the ventral epithelium. These findings suggest catecholaminergic and serotonergic involvement in locomotion and modulation of both the pedal ganglion interneurons and sensory information. Knowledge of monoaminergic distribution in this snail´s foot is important for understanding the pharmacological control of reflexive responses and locomotive behavior.

  10. A phylogeny for the pomatiopsidae (Gastropoda: Rissooidea): a resource for taxonomic, parasitological and biodiversity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Pomatiopsidae are reported from northern India into southern China and Southeast Asia, with two sub-families, the Pomatiopsinae (which include freshwater, amphibious, terrestrial and marine species) and the freshwater Triculinae. Both include species acting as intermediate host for species of the blood-fluke Schistosoma which cause a public health problem in East Asia. Also, with around 120 species, triculine biodiversity exceeds that of any other endemic freshwater molluscan fauna. Nevertheless, the origins of the Pomatiopsidae, the factors driving such a diverse radiation and aspects of their co-evolution with Schistosoma are not fully understood. Many taxonomic questions remain; there are problems identifying medically relevant species. The predicted range is mostly unsurveyed and the true biodiversity of the family is underestimated. Consequently, the aim of the study was to collect DNA-sequence data for as many pomatiopsid taxa as possible, as a first step in providing a resource for identification of epidemiologically significant species (by non-malacologists), for use in resolving taxonomic confusion and for testing phylogeographical hypotheses. Results The evolutionary radiation of the Triculinae was shown to have been rapid and mostly post late Miocene. Molecular dating indicated that the radiation of these snails was driven first by the uplift of the Himalaya and onset of a monsoon system, and then by late-Pliocene global warming. The status of Erhaia as Anmicolidae is supported. The genera Tricula and Neotricula are shown to be non-monophyletic and the tribe Jullieniini may be polyphyletic (based on convergent characters). Triculinae from northern Vietnam could be derived from Gammatricula of Fujian/Yunnan, China. Conclusions The molecular dates and phylogenetic estimates in this study are consistent with an Australasian origin for the Pomatiopsidae and an East to West radiation via Oligocene Borneo-Philippines island hopping to Japan and then China (Triculinae arising mid-Miocene in Southeast China), and less so with a triculine origin in Tibet. The lack of monophyly in the medically important genera and indications of taxonomic inaccuracies, call for further work to identify epidemiologically significant taxa (e.g., Halewisia may be potential hosts for Schistosoma mekongi) and highlight the need for surveys to determine the true biodiversity of the Triculinae. PMID:24548800

  11. Two new species of Thaumastus (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae) from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Meire Silva, Pena; Norma Campos, Salgado; Arnaldo C. dos Santos, Coelho.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Thaumastus (Thaumastus) from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, are described. They are diagnosed and characterized by the morphology of the shell and soft parts and compared with Brazilian species of the subgenus Thaumastus s.s. Martens, 1860. Thaumastus (T.) parvus [...] sp. nov. is similar to T. (T.) baixoguanduensis Pena, Coelho & Salgado, 1996 but can be distinguished by the smaller size, smaller number of plates in the jaw, different number of follicle groups in the ovotestis and form of the fertilization complex. Thaumastus (T.) caetensis sp. nov. is similar to T. (T.) largillierti (Philippi, 1845) but differs by the width and the contour of the parietal side of the shell aperture. T. (T.) caetensis is also closer to Thaumastus (T.) baixoguanduensis but can be distinguished by the smaller dimensions (height, width and number of protoconch whorls), the lack of a transversal light band on the body whorl, the jaw with smaller number of plates, and the radula with 35 teeth. In the soft parts, this new species differs also in the number of follicle gatherings in ovotestis, fertilization complex with globose shape, and penian retractor muscle terminally and laterally attached to flagellum

  12. Four marine digenean parasites of Austrolittorina spp. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in New Zealand: morphological and molecular data.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    O'Dwyer, K.; Blasco-Costa, I.; Poulin, R.; Faltýnková, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 89, ?. 2 (2014), s. 133-152. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ?R GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematode parasites * life cycles * intertidal ecosystems * phylogenetics analysis * SW Iceland * Notocotylidae * history * snail Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  13. A contribution to distribution of genus Stagnicola and Catascopia (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Luboš Beran

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings a contribution to the distribution of genus Stagnicola Jeffreys, 1830 and Catascopia Meier-Brook & Bargues, 2002 in the Czech Republic. Occurrence of four species has been confirmed in the Czech Republic so far. Two species – Stagnicola corvus (Gmelin, 1791) and S. palustris (O.F. Müller, 1774) (including S. turricula (Held, 1836)), are widespread and common especially in lowlands along bigger rivers (Labe, Oh?e, Morava, Dyje, Odra). Occurrence of S. fuscus (Pfeiffer, 1821) ...

  14. A contribution to distribution of genus Stagnicola and Catascopia (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Beran

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a contribution to the distribution of genus Stagnicola Jeffreys, 1830 and Catascopia Meier-Brook & Bargues, 2002 in the Czech Republic. Occurrence of four species has been confirmed in the Czech Republic so far. Two species – Stagnicola corvus (Gmelin, 1791 and S. palustris (O.F. Müller, 1774 (including S. turricula (Held, 1836, are widespread and common especially in lowlands along bigger rivers (Labe, Oh?e, Morava, Dyje, Odra. Occurrence of S. fuscus (Pfeiffer, 1821 is restricted to the territory of the north-western part of Bohemia and Catascopia occulta (Jackiewicz, 1959 is a rare species with only two known sites.

  15. A new species of Nassarius (Gastropoda, Nassariidae) from Canopus Bank, off Northeast Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel, Abbate; Daniel Caracanhas, Cavallari.

    Full Text Available Nassarius levis sp. nov. é descrita para o banco de Canopus, estado do Ceará, Brasil com base na morfologia da concha. Difere das outras espécies locais por apresentar uma concha mais alongada, com um escudo parietal pouco desenvolvido e uma superfície notavelmente lisa. Essa última característica a [...] inda não foi descrita entre as espécies de Nassarius do Atlântico oeste, mas é comum a outros congêneres do Atlântico leste, como Nassarius elatus (Gould, 1845) e Indo-Pacífico, como Nassarius excellens (Kuroda & Habe, 1961). Abstract in english Nassarius levis sp. nov. is described from Canopus Bank, off Ceará, Northeast Brazil, based on shell morphology. It differs from other Brazilian species of the genus in having a more elongate shell, with a weakly developed parietal shield and a notably smooth surface. This last trait has not yet bee [...] n described among the Western Atlantic Nassarius, but it is common to other congeners from the Eastern Atlantic, such as Nassarius elatus (Gould, 1845) and the Indo-Pacific, such as Nassarius excellens (Kuroda & Habe, 1961).

  16. Bacteriological and biochemical assessment of marinating cephalopods, crustaceans and gastropoda during 24 weeks of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Yesim; Ozogul, Fatih; Olgunoglu, Ilkan A; Kuley, Esmeray

    2008-09-01

    The quality and safety parameters of mixed marinated seafood salad containing common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris), European squid (Loligo vulgaris), sea snail (Rapana thomasiana) and common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) at 4 degrees C during storage of 24 weeks were investigated. In addition, the nutritional value in terms of proximate and fatty acid composition of seafood salad was also determined. Sensory scores of seafood salad in terms of appearance, odour, flavour and texture slightly decreased throughout the storage period. However, at the end of the storage period (5 months), the marinated seafood salad was still acceptable by the panellist. At the beginning of storage the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value was 6.05 mg/100 g flesh, and the TVB-N values rose to 11.19 mg TVB-N/flesh by the end of the storage period. The pH value of the marinated seafood salad showed fluctuations, ranging from 3.57 to 3.65, and did not change significantly during the storage period. The concentrations of the biogenic amines in both the muscle of all species and in the solution of salad were also investigated. Among the biogenic amines, histamine was not detected in all samples throughout the storage period. The putrescine and cadaverine levels increased throughout the storage period, with a lower increase in the solution of seafood salad. Salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected while the total viable count remained low (3 log CFU/g) after 3 months of storage. PMID:19086240

  17. Limnaea peregrina Clessin, 1882, Synonym of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lobato Paraense

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A description is given of the shell, radula, renal region, reproductive system and egg capsules of topotypic specimens of limnaea peregrina Clessin, 1882. This investigation intends contributing to define the specific identity of that nominal species. A close anatomical comparison with Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 from Michigan, USA, shows that both forms are indistinguishable, giving support to previous inferences from some authors. Data on egg hatching are presented.

  18. First record of Grossuana angeltsekovi Glöer & Georgiev, 2009 (Gastropoda: Risooidea from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian Georgiev

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is reported the first finding of a representative of the genus Grossuana from the Greek Rhodopes Mts. – Grossuana angeltsekovi Glöer & Georgiev, 2009 which is and the first record of the species for this country. The locality is a karstic spring, Rodopi county, Papikio Oros, near Vronti (= 4 km N of Kerasia (445 m a.s.l.. The material is stored in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest.

  19. Size-mass relationships of Melanoides tuberculatus (Thiaridae: Gastropoda) in a eutrophic reservoir

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Carvalho, Silva; Joseline, Molozzi; Marcos, Callisto.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the relationships of certain allometric measurements in Melanoides tuberculatus Muller, 1774, in order to develop a statistical model to estimate the biomass of this mollusc species. We measured the total length and aperture of 70 shells. These measurements were correlated with [...] the biomass values to construct exponential and power-function models, and both models showed high coefficients of determination. The exponential model was the better biomass predictor, with a coefficient of determination over 93%. These proposed models may be an effective tool to determine the biomass of M. tuberculatus in eutrophic Brazilian reservoirs.

  20. Four new species and two new records of Odostomiinae (Gastropoda: Pyramidellidae) from Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Dias, Pimenta.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of the pyramidellid Odostomiinae from Brazil are described: Chrysallida conifera sp. nov., characterized by a small and regularly conical shell with prominent nodules; Parthenina biumbilicata sp. nov., characterized by a deep and wide umbilicus and a regularly increasing aperture di [...] ameter at the protoconch, which bears a small circular umbilicus; Eulimastoma franklini sp. nov., which is very similar to Eulimastoma dydima (Verrill & Bush, 1900) but has a prominent helicoid protoconch; Eulimastoma exiguum sp. nov., similar to Eulimastoma weberi (Morrison, 1965) but without spiral ridges. Fargoa diantophila (Wells & Wells, 1961) and Chrysallida nioba (Dall & Bartsch, 1911) are reported from the southwestern Atlantic for the first time.

  1. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mudflat snails (Gastropoda: Euthyneura: Amphiboloidea) supports an Australasian centre of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Rosemary E

    2012-04-01

    Amphiboloidea is a small but widespread group of snails found exclusively, and often abundantly, in mudflat and associated salt marsh or mangrove habitat. This study uses molecular data from three loci (COI, 16S and 28S) to infer phylogenetic relationships in Amphiboloidea and examine its position in Euthyneura. All but two of the named extant species of Amphiboloidea and additional undescribed taxa from across Southeast Asia and the Arabian Gulf were sampled. In contrast to the current morphology-based classification dividing Amphiboloidea into three families, analysis of molecular data supports revision of the classification to comprise two families. Maningrididae is a monotypic family basal to Amphibolidae, which is revised to comprise three subfamilies: Amphibolinae, Phallomedusinae and Salinatorinae. Sequence divergence between Asian populations of Naranjia is relatively large and possibly indicative of species complexes divergent across the Strait of Malacca. Salinatorrosacea and Salinator burmana do not cluster with other Salinator species, and require generic reassignment. In addition, sequences were obtained from an undescribed species of Lactiforis from the Malay Peninsula. Reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a plesiomorphic distribution and centre of origin in Australasia, with two genera subsequently diversifying throughout Asia. Increasing the sampling density of amphiboloid taxa in a phylogenetic analysis of Euthyneura did not resolve the identity of the sister taxon to Amphibolidae, but confirmed its inclusion in Pulmonata/Panpulmonata. PMID:22210412

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese land snail Mastigeulota kiangsinensis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Bradybaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pu-Juan; Wang, Wen-Min; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Wu, Xiao-Ping; Xie, Guang-Long; Ouyang, Shan

    2016-03-01

    Mastigeulota kiangsinensis is an endemic and widespread land snail in China. The complete mitochondrial genome of M. kiangsinensis was first determined using long PCR reactions and primer walking method (accession number KM083123). The genome has a length of 14,029?bp, containing 37 typical mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). The base composition of the whole heavy strand is A 29.48%, T 37.92%, C 14.38% and G 18.22%. Gene order of M. kiangsinensis is identical to Euhadra herklotsi, but gene rearrangements are found compared with other mitochondrial genomes described in Stylommatophora. tRNA(Thr) is located in COIII, which has not been found in other helicoids so far. This new complete mitochondrial genome can be the basic data for further studies on mitogenome comparison, molecular taxonomy and phylogenetic analysis in land snails and Molluscs at large. PMID:25185698

  3. Molecular analysis of Muticaria syracusana and M. neuteboomi from Southeastern Sicily, Italy (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Clausiliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stella Colomba

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Muticaria Lindholm, 1925, is currently distributed either in Southeastern Sicily or in the Malteseislands and comprises the species M. syracusana (Philippi, 1836, M. neuteboomi Beckmann, 1990 and M.macrostoma (Cantraine, 1835. For the first time, we report a molecular study on the topotypicous populationsof M. syracusana and M. neuteboomi carried out on fragments of the ribosomal 16S rDNA subunit and thecytochrome oxydase I (COI mitochondrial genes by Neighbour Joining, Maximum Likelihood, MaximumParsimony and Bayesian Inference algorithms. Our results revealed the existence of nucleotide-sequencedivergence (Dxy: 5% for 16S rDNA and 12% for COI sequences between the two taxa.

  4. ESR dating of Soma (Manisa, West Anatolia - Turkey) fossil gastropoda shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy technique has been employed to date the aragonitic fresh-water gastropod shells (Melanoides curvicosta) collected from Soma (Manisa) district (West Anatolia) of Turkey. The influence of the annealing temperature and ?-radiation dose on dating signal at g = 2.0016 is investigated. The thermal stability and dose response of the ESR signals were found to be suitable for an age determination using a signal at g = 2.0016. The activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and mean-lifetime (?) at 15 deg. C of the g = 2.0016 center were calculated to be 1.67 ± 0.01 eV (3.6 ± 0.7) x 1013 s-1 and 2.02 x 108 years, respectively. The ESR signal growth curve on additional ?-irradiation has been best fitted by an exponential saturation function. Based on this model, accumulated dose (AD) value for dating is obtained. We have determined the ESR age of the terrestrial gastropods to be 2.57 ± 0.30 Ma. The results show that the ESR age falls into the Late Pliocene (Romanian) epoch of the geological time scale, which agreed with the paleoecological and paleogeographic distribution and stratigraphic level of the fauna

  5. ESR dating of Soma (Manisa, West Anatolia - Turkey) fossil gastropoda shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, Birol [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: birol_engin65@yahoo.com; Kapan-Yesilyurt, Sevinc [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Department of Geological Engineering, Canakkale (Turkey); Taner, Gueler [Ankara University, Department of Geological Engineering, Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Demirtas, Hayruennisa [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Eken, Mahmut [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-02-15

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy technique has been employed to date the aragonitic fresh-water gastropod shells (Melanoides curvicosta) collected from Soma (Manisa) district (West Anatolia) of Turkey. The influence of the annealing temperature and {gamma}-radiation dose on dating signal at g = 2.0016 is investigated. The thermal stability and dose response of the ESR signals were found to be suitable for an age determination using a signal at g = 2.0016. The activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and mean-lifetime ({tau}) at 15 deg. C of the g = 2.0016 center were calculated to be 1.67 {+-} 0.01 eV (3.6 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup 13} s{sup -1} and 2.02 x 10{sup 8} years, respectively. The ESR signal growth curve on additional {gamma}-irradiation has been best fitted by an exponential saturation function. Based on this model, accumulated dose (AD) value for dating is obtained. We have determined the ESR age of the terrestrial gastropods to be 2.57 {+-} 0.30 Ma. The results show that the ESR age falls into the Late Pliocene (Romanian) epoch of the geological time scale, which agreed with the paleoecological and paleogeographic distribution and stratigraphic level of the fauna.

  6. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.boshoff@ua.ac.be [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Royal Museum for Central Africa (JEMU), Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Backeljau, Thierry [University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (JEMU), Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Tack, Filip [Ghent University, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 265, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Bart [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Burg van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); De Jonge, Maarten; Bervoets, Lieven [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the digestive gland and foot respectively). Our study emphasizes that background metal levels should be taken into account when using invertebrates as bioindicators of metal contamination and that bioindicators may show substantial differences in accumulation patterns even if they have a highly comparable ecology. - Highlights: ? Concentrations of accumulated metals differ among localities and between the snail species in the foot. ? Organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. ? Total metal concentrations and soil physicochemical properties alone are not enough to explain organ bioaccumulation.

  7. A new species of Cerithium (Gastropoda: Cerithiidae) from the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qimeng; Zhang, Suping

    2014-09-01

    Specimens of a new species of Cerithiidae, Cerithium mangrovum n. sp., were collected during two surveys along the coasts of Hainan and Guangdong Province, China. Usually associated with potamidid snails, this species often occurs in large populations between the mid-high tidal zones in a range of habitats, including mangroves, grass beds, silt, mud, and coral reefs. C. mangrovum n. sp. has a slender and tapering shell and the straight-sided whorl bears three aligned beaded spiral cords. The thick outer lip has a wide posterior sinus. It morphologically resembles C. coralium Kiener, 1841. The shell of C. coralium is usually larger and wider and the spiral cords are not as beaded as in C. mangrovum n. sp. Its radula has a rachidian tooth with a shallow, wide, median basal projection while the rachidian tooth of C. mangrovum n. sp. has a moderately long, median basal projection.

  8. A new hygromiid for the Iberian malacofauna: Candidula corbellai n. sp. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Ortí, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a new Iberian hygromiid, Candidula corbellai n. sp., and describe its conchological and anatomical characteristics. This new species is compared with two other Iberian endemic species, Candidula camporroblensis and C. rocandioi, which present similarities in the reproductive system, such as the long flagellum. The shell of the new species is compared with specimens of the type series of these taxa. The reproductive system of C. corbellai n. sp. is distinguished from C. camporroblensis by its longer male part, although the flagellum is shorter than the penis and epiphallus together and it has a long bursa copulatrix with respect to its duct, which is shorter. The epiphallus and the bursa copulatrix duct are longer in C. rocandioi than in C. corbellai n. sp. A geographical distribution map of the three species in the Iberian peninsula is shown.

  9. Estudos anatômicos e histológicos, principalmente do aparelho genital de Bulimulus corumbaensis Pilsbry, 1897: (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimulidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P. D., Lanzieri; H. E. B. de, Rezende.

    Full Text Available No trabalho apresentado os autores fazem um estudo sôbre a estrutura anatômica e histológica do aparelho genital de Bulimulus corumbaensis Pilsbry, 1897, considerando também a descrição da concha, mandíbula, rádula e câmara paleal. Esta espécie, que era conhecida apenas pelos seus caracteres conchio [...] lógicos, apresenta como caracteres importantes para a sua diagnose a morfologia e a estrutura das seguintes partes: 1 - Conchas de adultos com comprimento variando entre 19 mm e 29 mm. Muito característico nesta espécie é sua ornamentação com faixas axiais translúcidas e opacas. As primeiras variam de incolores a castanhas com tôdas as tonalidades. Devido a isto, conforme a intensidade da pigmentação e a freqüência das faixas translúcidas, a coloração da concha fica entre o branco e o castanho. Nas conchas totalmente brancas, existem faixas axiais translúcidas (desprovidas de pigmentação castanha) e faixas branco opacas intercaladas. As conchas intensamente castanhas, apresentam esta tonalidade pela proximidade das faixas castanhas translúcidas. 2 - Ovotestis constiuído por numerosos grupos de folículos bem individualizados, variando nos exemplares dissecados de 4 a 6. 3 - "Talon" aproximadamente três vêzes menor que o canal hermafrodita, apresentando-se dividido em dois tubos. O menos, situado no lado oposto à entrada do canal hermafrodita, histològicamente, é constituído por um único tupo de luz ampla. O maior, situado entre o canal hermafrodita e o tubo acima referido, microscòpicamente mostra 7 túbulos, que em alturas diferentes vão desembocar no tubo menor. O canal hermafrodita, por sua vez, desemboca um pouco mais abaixo. 4 - A bainha muscular do pênis, que é bem desenvolvida, é atravessada aproximadamente na metade do seu comprimetno pelo canal deferente. 5 - Porção proximal do falus apresentando 5 glândulas tubulosas ramificadas, distribuídas do seguinte modo: posteriormente são em número de 4, dispostas envolvendo a luz central do pênis e nela desembocando em alturas variáveis. A outra glândula, anteriormente situada, tem numerosos septos e resulta de uma divisão da luz central do pênis, com modificação do epitélio que se tornou glandular. 6 - A inserção do músculo retrator no flagelo é subterminal.

  10. First studies on the susceptibility of Omphiscola glabra (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) from central France to Fascioloides magna.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rondelaud, D.; Novobilský, A.; Vignoles, P.; Treuil, P.; Koudela, B?etislav; Dreyfuss, G.

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 98, ?. 4 (2006), s. 299-303. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ?R GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Fascioloides magna * intermediate host * snails Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2006

  11. NOTES ON THE FAMILY AMPULLARIIDAE (GASTROPODA: PROSOBRANCHIA) IN THE PHILIPPINES: I. DIGESTIVE, CIRCULATORY, AND EXCRETORY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTO C. PAOULAYAN; ELPIDIO A. REMIGIO

    1992-01-01

    A total of 232 ampullariid snails collected from 23 sites covering 7 islands in the Philippines were compared conchologically and 200 alcohol-preserved specimens were dissected for anatomical characteristics. Conchological comparison of the shells of the collected snails with that of identified lots from the Senckenberg Natur-museum, Frankfurt, Germany, the British Museum for Natural History, London, England, the Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen, Brussels, Belgium, and t...

  12. New taxa of terrestrial molluscs from Turkey (Gastropoda, Pristilomatidae, Enidae, Hygromiidae, Helicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümü?, Burçin A?k?m; Neubert, Eike

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on results of several collecting trips of the authors in Turkey. In the course of this research, a long-lasting question was addressed. It could be proven that the nominal species Bulimus frivaldskyi L. Pfeiffer, 1847 is closely related to Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, and thus this species is shifted from the genus Ena Turton, 1831, to the genus Meijeriella Bank, 1985. Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, could be recorded from Turkey for the first time. The nomenclatural situation of the species Euchondrus septemdentatus (Roth, 1839) vs. its replacement name Euchondrus borealis (Mousson, 1874) is discussed. A new arrangement of the species formely comprised in the genus Zebrina Held, 1837 is presented, and the genera Rhabdoena Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1902, and Leucomastus A. Wagner, 1927 are re-established. The following species and subspecies new to science could be described: Vitrea gosteliisp. n. (Pristilomatidae), Turanena demirsoyisp. n., Euchondrus paucidentatussp. n., Rhabdoena gosteliisp. n. (all Enidae), Metafruticicola kizildagensissp. n. (Hygromiidae), and Assyriella thospitis menkhorstissp. n. (Helicidae). For several other species, new distribution records are listed. PMID:22423194

  13. New taxa of terrestrial molluscs from Turkey (Gastropoda, Pristilomatidae, Enidae, Hygromiidae, Helicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin Gümüs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on results of several collecting trips of the authors in Turkey. In the course of this research, a long-lasting question was addressed. It could be proven that the nominal species Bulimus frivaldskyi L. Pfeiffer, 1847 is closely related to Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, and thus this species is shifted from the genus Ena Turton, 1831, to the genus Meijeriella Bank, 1985. Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, could be recorded from Turkey for the first time. The nomenclatural situation of the species Euchondrus septemdentatus (Roth, 1839 vs. its replacement name Euchondrus borealis (Mousson, 1874 is discussed. A new arrangement of the species formely comprised in the genus Zebrina Held, 1837 is presented, and the genera Rhabdoena Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1902, and Leucomastus A. Wagner, 1927 are re-established. The following species and subspecies new to science could be described: Vitrea gostelii sp. n. (Pristilomatidae, Turanena demirsoyi sp. n., Euchondrus paucidentatus sp. n., Rhabdoena gostelii sp. n. (all Enidae, Metafruticicola kizildagensis sp. n. (Hygromiidae, and Assyriella thospitis menkhorsti ssp. n. (Helicidae. For several other species, new distribution records are listed.

  14. New taxa of terrestrial molluscs from Turkey (Gastropoda, Pristilomatidae, Enidae, Hygromiidae, Helicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Burçin Gümüs; Eike Neubert

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on results of several collecting trips of the authors in Turkey. In the course of this research, a long-lasting question was addressed. It could be proven that the nominal species Bulimus frivaldskyi L. Pfeiffer, 1847 is closely related to Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, and thus this species is shifted from the genus Ena Turton, 1831, to the genus Meijeriella Bank, 1985. Meijeriella canaliculata Bank, 1985, could be recorded from Turkey for the first time. The nomencl...

  15. Aquatic Macrophytes as Microhabitats of Radix auricularia (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: A Case Study from Southeast Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Y. Vasileva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to investigate the abundance of thefreshwater pulmonate snail Radix auricularia among different aquatic plants communities, with the view of understanding if there is any particular habitat preference, comparing two freshwater basins having similar environmental conditions. The freshwater plant species were collected by net from two ponds at the end of May 2009 - 650 g wet plant mass, micro dam at Chernoochene Village, East Rhodopes Mts.; 138 g wet plant mass, small flood pond near the Maritza River, Plovdiv City, Upper Thracian Lowland. The plant mass was weighted in the laboratory after the alive snails were collected from the plant surface. Totally three species of freshwater plants were inhabited by R. auricularia, but its abundance and possible preference was highest on the Rigid Hornworth (Ceratophyllum demersum.

  16. THE DIET OF PLATYDORIS ARGO (GASTROPODA: NUDIBRANCHIA) AND THE DIETARY SPECIALIZATION OF SPONGE EATING DORIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megina, C.; Carballo, J. L.; Cervera, J. L.; Garcia-Gomez, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    The diet of the dorid nudibranch Platydoris argo was studied in relation to prey availability, and under different environmental conditions to evaluate richness, evenness, and plasticity of its diet. In order to assess the availability of possible prey, the sponge assemblage at two different habitats was characterized. The results showed that P. argo is a relatively specialized benthic carnivore, feeding exclusively on spiculated demosponges. However, it has a relatively polyphagous diet (16 prey-species) and adapts well to contrasting patterns of prey availability at different sites. At the location with lower sponge diversity, the diet of P. argo included more prey categories, was more diverse, and less selective (lower dietary evenness), foraging preferentially on the most frequent resource, Stylopus dujardini. In contrast, at a station with a clearly more diverse and abundant sponge assemblage, the diet was more selective, and Phorbas tenacior was its principal component. Despite its trophic plasticity, P. argo displayed a specialized pattern of resource exploitation in terms of niche breadth within a given habitat. Foraging was focussed on one preferred prey (which changed from one habitat to another) as indicated by the significant positive selection indexes (S. dujardini = +0.29, P. tenacior = +0.74). The revision of quantitative data on the diet of so-called 'sponge eating dorids' indicates the existence of a more specialized guild of 'spiculated demosponge eating dorids'. Most species revised are 'non-stereotyped specialist', which indicates that they have a polyphagous and plastic diet but only exploit one or few main prey species in each habitat. However, obligate specialists, with a monophagous (or rather oligophagous) diet also seem to be present. PMID:12011244

  17. On the occurrence of Oxychilus camelinus (Bourguignat, 1852) in Bulgaria (Gastropoda: Zonitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dilian Georgiev

    2014-01-01

    Adult shells and living specimens of the terrestrial gastropod Oxychilus camelinus were collected on Rahat Tepe Hill in Plovdiv city, and in Stara Zagora. These records confirm the findings of Hesse (1913) of the occurrence of this species in Bulgaria.

  18. On the occurrence of Oxychilus camelinus (Bourguignat, 1852 in Bulgaria (Gastropoda: Zonitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian Georgiev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult shells and living specimens of the terrestrial gastropod Oxychilus camelinus were collected on Rahat Tepe Hill in Plovdiv city, and in Stara Zagora. These records confirm the findings of Hesse (1913 of the occurrence of this species in Bulgaria.

  19. A new species of Lataxiena Jousseaume, 1883 (Gastropoda: Muricidae) from the East and South China Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suping; Zhang, Shuqian

    2015-03-01

    A new muricid gastropod species, Lataxiena lutescena sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species was recognized during reidentification of the Muricidae collection in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao. The specimens of the new species were collected from the East and South China Seas off Fujian, Guangdong, and Hainan Provinces. Lataxiena lutescena sp. nov. is similar to Lataxiena blosvillei (Deshayes, 1832) in general shape, but can be distinguished from the latter by the shell sculpture and radular characteristics. Lataxiena lutescena sp. nov. also resembles Lataxiena bombayana (Melvill, 1893), but differs from that species in the shell shape and anal notches and in lacking short spines on the shell.

  20. Sexual Maturity and Sex Determination in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda: Strombidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidi Che Cob; Aziz Arshad; Japar Sidik Bujang; Mazlan Abd. Ghaffar

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted at the Merambong Shoal, Johor Straits, Malaysia. Strombus canarium was the most abundant herbivorous mollusc within the study site, highly prized as seafood and contributes to the economics of the locals. Ontogenetic development of sex characters and sexual maturity were determined via logistic curve analysis, using shell-length and/or lip thickness as predictors. The minimum shell-length at which sex characters appeared was at 30 mm in males and 32 mm in females...

  1. Sexual Maturity and Sex Determination in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda: Strombidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidi Che Cob

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Merambong Shoal, Johor Straits, Malaysia. Strombus canarium was the most abundant herbivorous mollusc within the study site, highly prized as seafood and contributes to the economics of the locals. Ontogenetic development of sex characters and sexual maturity were determined via logistic curve analysis, using shell-length and/or lip thickness as predictors. The minimum shell-length at which sex characters appeared was at 30 mm in males and 32 mm in females and both sexes can definitely be determined at more than 41 mm shell-length. The SX50 (probability of individuals can be sexed is 0.5 was at 38.33 ± 0.41 mm for male and at 37.15 ± 0.31 mm for female. The SL50 (length at which the probability of individuals are matured is 0.5 was at 54.14 ± 0.86 mm shell-lengths for males and at 58.51 ± 1.02 mm shell-lengths for females. The LIP50 (lip thickness at which the probability of individuals are matured is 0.5 values on the other hand was about 0.69 ± 0.0003 and 0.80 ± 0.014 mm for males and females respectively. The findings indicate that sexual dimorphisms occurred at very early stage in S. canarium life history.

  2. Taxonomic review of Metaxia (Gastropoda: Triphoridae) from Brazil, with description of a new species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurício Romulo, Fernandes; Alexandre Dias, Pimenta.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the species of Metaxia Monterosato, 1884 from Brazil is revised. Previously to this study, only Metaxia excelsa Faber & Moolenbeek, 1991 was known to occur in this country, under its older name Metaxia exilis (C.B. Adams, 1850). The review of a large amount of shells in malacological [...] collections in Brazil revealed the occurrence of three known additional species: Metaxia taeniolata (Dall, 1889); Metaxia rugulosa (C.B. Adams, 1850); Metaxia prompta Rolán & Fernández-Garcés, 2008, all previously reported from the southeast coast of the USA and/or the Caribbean region. Metaxia gongyloskymnus sp. nov., diagnosed by the globose protoconch with continuous axial ribs and microscopic spiral sculpture, is restricted to localities off the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

  3. Growth Ecology of Pila globosa (Swainson (Gastropoda: Pilidae in Simulated Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sarwar Jahan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth ecology of Pila globosa was studied in the simulated habitat with reference to its natural food habit. Growth rate and obesity index value for the snail population reared on natural aquatic food plants were higher than those, reared on cultivated food, Puni (Basela rubra. For natural food, the minimum and maximum mortality rates at age intervals of 224-238 days and 0-14 days were calculated as 0.00% and 16.00% while, on supplied cultivated vegetable food, (B. rubra at 252-266 days and 0-14 days age intervals, were obtained as 0.00% and 18.00% respectively. The life table was constructed on 266 days study of snails, reared on both types of food plants. The findings indicate the possibility of snail culture on large scale, in simulated habitats provided with physico-chemical parameters, like water temperature, pH, turbidity and dissolve oxygen of water, strictly maintained.

  4. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the digestive gland and foot respectively). Our study emphasizes that background metal levels should be taken into account when using invertebrates as bioindicators of metal contamination and that bioindicators may show substantial differences in accumulation patterns even if they have a highly comparable ecology. - Highlights: ? Concentrations of accumulated metals differ among localities and between the snail species in the foot. ? Organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. ? Total metal concentrations and soil physicochemical properties alone are not enough to explain organ bioaccumulation

  5. Crecimiento del caracol Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) en cuatro ambientes de Quintana Roo, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto de Jesús, Navarrete.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la tasa de crecimiento de caracoles cultivados en corrales en cuatro ambientes diferentes. El cultivo se realizó de octubre de 1993 a marzo de 1994. 16 corrales de 50 m² de área cada uno, cuatro por ambiente, fueron colocados en los siguientes ambientes: Thalassia, Thalassia-arena, Arena [...] y Coral, todos dentro de la laguna arrecifal en Punta Gavilán y Banco Chinchorro. En cada ambiente se introdujeron 20 caracoles de las siguientes tallas: 1) 100-120, 2) 120-140, 3) 140-160 y 4) 160-180 mm de longitud de concha. Los caracoles se midieron mensualmente con un vernier con una precisión de un mm. El crecimiento se evaluó por dos métodos: a) el incremento marginal promedio de la concha y por el método de Gulland-Holt. En el primer método, el ambiente Arena mostró el mayor crecimiento (3.21 + 0.26 mm/mes) en Punta Gavilán, mientras que en Banco Chinchorro, el mayor crecimiento ocurrió en coral (2.31 + 0.44 mm/mes). Con el segúndo método la mayor longitud asintótica en Punta Gavilán se midió en Thalassia-arena (287.5 mm), mientras que en Banco Chinchorro, la mayor longitud asintótica se midió en Arena (318.1 mm). Existieron diferencias significativas en el crecimiento entre los sitios y eso muestra que el crecimiento de los juveniles se relaciona con la cantidad de alimento disponible el cual fue mayor en Thalassia y Thalassia-arena. Sin embargo se requiere evaluar la cantidad de alimento, principalmente microfitobentos en los ambientes sin vegetación como Arena y Coral. Abstract in english The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m² each, four pens per environment), were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were i [...] ntroduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length) and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a) shell marginal mean increase and b) the Gulland-Holt method considering all conch within pens. In the first method, the environment Sand had the highest growth (3.21 + 0.26 mm/month) at Punta Gavilan, whereas at Banco Chinchorro, highest growth was recorded in Coral (2.31 + 0.44 mm/month). Considering the second method, highest asymptotic length conch in Punta Gavilan occurred in Thalassia-sand (287.5 mm), whereas in Banco Chinchorro the highest asymptotic length was measured in Sand (318.1 mm). There were significant differences in growth between sites; juvenile growth is related with habitat quality mainly food availability.

  6. Crecimiento del caracol Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae en cuatro ambientes de Quintana Roo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de Jesús Navarrete

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la tasa de crecimiento de caracoles cultivados en corrales en cuatro ambientes diferentes. El cultivo se realizó de octubre de 1993 a marzo de 1994. 16 corrales de 50 m² de área cada uno, cuatro por ambiente, fueron colocados en los siguientes ambientes: Thalassia, Thalassia-arena, Arena y Coral, todos dentro de la laguna arrecifal en Punta Gavilán y Banco Chinchorro. En cada ambiente se introdujeron 20 caracoles de las siguientes tallas: 1 100-120, 2 120-140, 3 140-160 y 4 160-180 mm de longitud de concha. Los caracoles se midieron mensualmente con un vernier con una precisión de un mm. El crecimiento se evaluó por dos métodos: a el incremento marginal promedio de la concha y por el método de Gulland-Holt. En el primer método, el ambiente Arena mostró el mayor crecimiento (3.21 + 0.26 mm/mes en Punta Gavilán, mientras que en Banco Chinchorro, el mayor crecimiento ocurrió en coral (2.31 + 0.44 mm/mes. Con el segúndo método la mayor longitud asintótica en Punta Gavilán se midió en Thalassia-arena (287.5 mm, mientras que en Banco Chinchorro, la mayor longitud asintótica se midió en Arena (318.1 mm. Existieron diferencias significativas en el crecimiento entre los sitios y eso muestra que el crecimiento de los juveniles se relaciona con la cantidad de alimento disponible el cual fue mayor en Thalassia y Thalassia-arena. Sin embargo se requiere evaluar la cantidad de alimento, principalmente microfitobentos en los ambientes sin vegetación como Arena y Coral.The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m² each, four pens per environment, were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were introduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a shell marginal mean increase and b the Gulland-Holt method considering all conch within pens. In the first method, the environment Sand had the highest growth (3.21 + 0.26 mm/month at Punta Gavilan, whereas at Banco Chinchorro, highest growth was recorded in Coral (2.31 + 0.44 mm/month. Considering the second method, highest asymptotic length conch in Punta Gavilan occurred in Thalassia-sand (287.5 mm, whereas in Banco Chinchorro the highest asymptotic length was measured in Sand (318.1 mm. There were significant differences in growth between sites; juvenile growth is related with habitat quality mainly food availability.

  7. The effects of endosulfan on the great ramshorn snail Planorbarius corneus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata): a histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otludil, Birgül; Cengiz, Elif Ipek; Yildirim, M Zeki; Unver, Ozkan; Unlü, Erhan

    2004-08-01

    In this study the great ramshorn snail (Planorbarius corneus), one of the most abundant gastropod of Turkish limnic systems, was investigated to determine the histopathological effects of endosulfan on the digestive gland, foot and mantle under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from small artificial pools in Karaot at Gelendost-Isparta (southwest of Turkey), where agricultural activities are widespread. The snails were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of endosulfan (0.4 and 0.8 mg/l) for periods of 10, 20 and 30 days. Fifteen snails were kept in 2.5 l glass jars containing dechlorinated tap water and exposed under semi-static test (daily exchange of test water). All the testing was carried out on adult specimens, and snails were maintained on a photothermal period with 16 light hours at 22 +/- 2 degrees C. The histopathological examinations revealed the following changes: amoebocytes infiltration, dilatation in hemolymphatic spaces between the tubules, degeneration of cells, abnormal lumen, necrosis of cells and atrophy in the connective tissue of digestive gland; desquamation of the epithelium cells, changes in the number of mucocytes and protein gland cells, lipid vacuolus and atrophy of the columnar muscle fibers of the foot and mantle tissues. Pycnotic state of cells was also seen in the mantle tissues. Endosulfan caused significant histopathological alterations in the digestive gland, foot and mantle tissues of the snail, irrespective of concentrations of the pesticide and its exposure periods. The results are discussed, particularly in comparison to those of other aquatic organisms. PMID:15234168

  8. Mapping of Buccal Neurons Innervating the Feeding Apparatus of Eobania vermiculata (Gastropoda, pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Essawy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paired buccal ganglia of Eobania vermiculata were investigated by light and electron microscopical methods, and a surface map of the ganglia was constructed. Mostly eight paired plus an unpaired buccal nerves were observed in dissected animals. Four giant neurons with a diameter more than 100 ?m were identified in the lateral region of each ganglion. Besides the giant neurons, middle - ( 30-60?m as well as small- ( <30?m sized neurons were localized. Possible axonal projections of buccal neurons in the pharyngeal nerves innervating the buccal musculature were determined with the aid of retrograde infusion of cobalt lysine. Large amounts of neuro secretory granules in most neurons were also present. In the neuropile of the ganglion, synapses were found in large numbers which are of axo-axonic type. The map produced herein provides an important first step towards the neural circuitry controlling feeding behavior in Eobania vermiculata.

  9. Freshwater snail Pomacea bridgesii (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae, life history traits and aquaculture potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. A. Coelho

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the reproductive biology, life cycle and feeding habits of Pomacea bridgesiihave been undertaken to assess its potential as a cultured species for the ornamental trade. The speciesis dioecious and, under optimal culture conditions of temperature and food supply, it can breed all yearround. The total developmental period at 23±1ºC varied from 15 to 24 days after oviposition. Hatchingcan last for up to 20 hours in the same egg cluster. Hatching success was very high (mean94.56±0.62% and no significant differences were observed in hatching rates between different clutchsizes. Development is direct and juveniles hatch at shell length (SL = 2.4±0.25 mm. Maturity is reached192±1.5 days after hatching and at SL = 32.80±2.03 mm. Two feeding experiments were undertaken toassess the impact of food type on juvenile survival during the first 8 days post-hatching and subsequentgrowth until 90 days post-hatching. Compatibility between other fish and plants fresh-water aquariumspecies were performed. A combination of environmental tolerance, moderately amphibious behavior,fast growth, short development and hatching at an advanced stage, compatibility with other aquariumspecies (fishes or other invertebrates, and simple low cost diet, make P. bridgesii highly suitable forintensive culture for the ornamental trade.

  10. Molecular evidence for the polyphyly of Bostryx (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae) and genetic diversity of Bostryx aguilari

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge L., Ramirez; Rina, Ramírez.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bostryx is largely distributed in Andean Valleys and Lomas formations along the coast of Peru and Chile. One species, Bostryx aguilari, is restricted to Lomas formations located in the Department of Lima (Peru). The use of genetic information has become essential in phylogenetic and population studi [...] es with conservation purposes. Considering the rapid degradation of desert ecosystems, which threatens the survival of vulnerable species, the aim of this study was, first, to resolve evolutionary relationships within Bostryx and to determine the position of Bostryx within the Bulimulidae, and second, to survey the genetic diversity of Bostryx aguilari, a species considered rare. Sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear rRNA regions were obtained for 12 and 11 species of Bulimulidae, respectively, including seven species of Bostryx. Sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were obtained for 14 individuals (from four different populations) of Bostryx aguilari. Phylogenetic reconstructions were carried out using Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The monophyly of Bostryx was not supported. In our results, B. solutus (type species of Bostryx) grouped only with B. aguilari, B. conspersus, B. modestus, B. scalariformis and B. sordidus, forming a monophyletic group that is strongly supported in all analyses. In case the taxonomy of Bostryx is reviewed in the future, this group should keep the generic name. Bostryx aguilari was found to have both low genetic diversity and small population size. We recommend that conservation efforts should be increased in Lomas ecosystems to ensure the survival of B. aguilari, and a large number of other rare species restricted to Lomas.

  11. Cercarial production of Fascioloides magna in the snail Galba truncatula (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoles, P; Novobilský, A; Rondelaud, D; Bellet, V; Treuil, P; Koudela, B; Dreyfuss, G

    2006-04-01

    Single-miracidium infections of Fascioloides magna in two populations of Galba truncatula were carried out under laboratory conditions to count free rediae and cercariae in snail cadavers just after death. Cercaria-shedding snails were in low numbers, and their shell height at day 60 p.e. was significantly greater than that of numerous infected snails that died without cercarial shedding. In snails that died between days 44 and 60 p.e. (at 20 degrees C), the numbers of second-generation rediae significantly increased with increasing shell heights of infected snails. First-generation rediae showed insignificant, quantitative variations, while scarce rediae of the third generation were only found in the highest snails. Cercariae were only produced by the second redial generation. In both groups of snails, free cercariae appeared from 6 mm of shell height, and their numbers increased in the upper classes up to 32.9 per snail. Metacercariae were only found from 9 mm of shell height and were in low numbers. The global cercarial production ranged from 163.5 to 210.0 in the highest classes of snail size from both groups and was limited, whereas the mean burdens of free rediae fluctuated from 39.5 to 43.9. The death of numerous infected snails without cercarial shedding might be explained by the presence of a very high number of second-generation rediae simultaneously growing within the body of these snails. PMID:16416118

  12. First studies on the susceptibility of Omphiscola glabra (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) from central France to Fascioloides magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelaud, D; Novobilský, A; Vignoles, P; Treuil, P; Koudela, B; Dreyfuss, G

    2006-03-01

    Experimental infections of Omphiscola glabra (preadult snails), originating from central France, to a Czech isolate of Fascioloides magna miracidia were carried out to determine if the local populations of O. glabra may ensure the larval development of this parasite and to compare these results with those noted for a natural snail host, Galba truncatula. The presence of experimentally infected snails was noted in the six populations of snails studied. However, only a few snails shed their cercariae (O. glabra 5.3 to 17.1%, G. truncatula 15.1% in the first population, and no shedding in the other). The shell heights of cercariae-shedding (CS) snails were significantly greater than those of other infected snails, for O. glabra as well as for G. truncatula. The number of metacercariae noted in each snail group was low and showed insignificant variations. When experimental infections of O. glabra were performed in relation to the shell height of snails (from 1 to 14 mm) at miracidial exposure, the prevalence of infected snails significantly decreased with increasing shell heights at exposure. However, the presence of CS snails was only noted from the 5-6 to the 9-10 mm groups, and the mean number of metacercariae per group ranged from 27 to 44.2. Despite the high infectivity of the Czech isolate of F. magna miracidia, there was an incomplete adaptation with the French G. truncatula and O. glabra used in this study, as the metacercarial production was low, and cercarial shedding only occurred for snails which showed a strong increase of their shell height during F. magna infections. PMID:16362339

  13. The genus Plesiophysa, with a redescription of P. ornata (Haas, 1938) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)

    OpenAIRE

    PARAENSE W. L.

    2002-01-01

    A redescription of conchological and anatomical characters of the planorbid mollusc Plesiophysa ornata (Haas, 1938) is presented, based on topotypic material and specimens from 14 additional localities in the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais. Due to the close similarity of their shells, a sure discrimination of the five species of Plesiophysa described so far (P. pilsbryi, P. granulata, P. guadeloupensis, P. ornata and P. hubend...

  14. The genus Plesiophysa, with a redescription of P. ornata (Haas, 1938 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARAENSE W. L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A redescription of conchological and anatomical characters of the planorbid mollusc Plesiophysa ornata (Haas, 1938 is presented, based on topotypic material and specimens from 14 additional localities in the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Sergipe, Bahia, Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais. Due to the close similarity of their shells, a sure discrimination of the five species of Plesiophysa described so far (P. pilsbryi, P. granulata, P. guadeloupensis, P. ornata and P. hubendicki is only possible through their anatomical features. The present study points to the high probability of synonymy of P. hubendicki with P. ornata. Investigations on the anatomy of P. pilsbryi and P. guadeloupensis are needed to define their taxonomic relation with the other nominal species.

  15. TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE OF RED-RIMMED MELANIA MELANOIDES TUBERCUATA, (GASTROPODA: PROSOBRANCHIA: THIARIDAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red-rimmed melania Melanoides tuberculata is an exotic aquatic snail of the family Thiaridae that is spreading across the southern United States and in geothermal waters in several midwestern and northwestern states. In addition to its potential to displace native mollusks it is known to harbor...

  16. Study on the contamination by transuranides of Pulmonata gastropoda collected in Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the contamination levels and distribution of plutonium in gastropods collected in Palomares (south-east Spain) has been performed. This region is partially contaminated with actinides following the nuclear accident occurred in 1966. The existence of plutonium in gastropods (Helix albicans and Theba pisana) along with their great gastronomic interest in the area reinforces the concern in studying the incorporation of these radioelements into a trophic level of the alimentary chain. In this work, plutonium concentration levels have been determined in the excrements, washing waters, flesh and shell of different types of gastropods collected in the Palomares most contaminated area. Plutonium analyses have been carried out following normalized procedures for the determination of this radionuclide. The results show the distribution of plutonium in washing and boiling water, excrements, soft tissues and shell of the snails. In addition, it has been estimated that the consumption of one kilogram of snails collected in the most contaminated area of Palomares could contribute up to 1/3 of the effective dose (due to ingestion) to the inhabitants of the area. (author)

  17. Study on the contamination by transuranides of pulmonata gastropoda collected in palomares (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, A.; Espinosa, A.; Antón, M. P.

    2006-01-01

    A study on the contamination levels and distribution of plutonium in gastropods collected in Palomares (south-east Spain) has been performed. This region is partially contaminated with actinides following the nuclear accident occurred in 1966. The existence of plutonium in gastropods (Helix albicans and Theba pisana) along with their great gastronomic interest in the area reinforces the concern in studying the incorporation of these radioelements into a trophic level of the alimentary chain. In this work, plutonium concentration levels have been determined in the excrements, washing waters, flesh and shell of different types of gastropods collected in the Palomares most contaminated area. Plutonium analyses have been carried out following normalized procedures for the determination of this radionuclide. The results show the distribution of plutonium in washing and boiling water, excrements, soft tissues and shell of the snails. In addition, it has been estimated that the consumption of one kilogram of snails collected in the most contaminated area of Palomares could contribute up to 1/3 of the effective dose (due to ingestion) to the inhabitants of the area.

  18. Study on the contamination of transuranides in Pulmonata gastropoda collected in Palomares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study on the contamination levels and distribution of plutonium and americium in gastropods collected in Palomares (south-east Spain) was performed. This region is partially contaminated with actinides following the 1966 nuclear accident. The existence of plutonium and americium in gastropods (Helix albicans and Theba pisana), along with their great gastronomic interest in the area, reinforces the concern in studying the incorporation of these radioelements to a trophic level of the alimentary chain. In this work, plutonium concentration levels have been determined in the excrements, washing waters, flesh and shell of different types of gastropods collected in various sampling campaigns. Pretreatment of the snail samples for further transuranics analyses was based on culinary customs of the region. First, the gastropods had a biological rest, allowing the removal of the non-adsorbed or non-retained ingested material, and then the excrements were collected by washing the snails. Water with excrements was filtered using different filters and analyzed separately. Once rinsed, the snails were dipped into salty water to eliminate the slime, finally, after boiling, the soft tissue was separated from the shell. Plutonium and americium analyses have been carried out sequentially, following normalized procedures for the determination of these radionuclides. The results show the distribution of plutonium in washing and boiling water, excrements, soft tissues and shell of the snails. Autoradiographies performed to soft tissues made evident that the contamination was incorporated into the gastropods as radioactive particles. In addition, it has been estimated that the consumption of one kilogram of snails collected in the most contaminated area of Palomares could reach 1/3 of the effective dose (due to ingestion) to the inhabitants of the area. (author)

  19. Periwinkle (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) habitat selection and its impact upon microalgal populations

    OpenAIRE

    M. APOLINÁRIO; Coutinho, R; BAETA-NEVES M. H.

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines habitat selection and grazing pressure of the periwinkle Nodilittorina lineolata (Gmelin, 1791) on the rocky shore of Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil (lat. 23°S, long. 43°W). Transfer experiments suggest that periwinkles actively select the mid intertidal, where the cirripede Chthamalus bisinuatus Pilsbry is the dominant sessile invertebrate. We also conducted a caging experiment in the middle intertidal, manipulating grazers and light, to assess the impact of grazing u...

  20. Three new species of Scissurellidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia) from the coast of Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pierre Ch., Montouchet.

    Full Text Available Pela leitura das descrições originais dos gêneros de Scissurellidae , conclue-se que os nomes validos destes gêneros são: Scissurella d'Orbigny, 1823 (redescriçao por Sowerby, 1824), Anatoma Woodward, 1859, Inoisura Hedley,1904, Soissurona Iredale, 1924 e Sinezona Finlay, 1927. Scissurella e Anatoma [...] são cosmopolitas; o primeiro encontra-se geralmente em águas rasas e associado a algas; o segundo habita Iguas profundas. Os três últimos gêneros são restritos à Australásia. Três novas espécies são descritas para a costa do Brasil: Scissurella alexandrei, Soissurelía eleotilis e Scissurella morretesi. Da primeira foi estudada a anatomia interna. Estas tres espécies novas foram encontradas em ãguas rasas; S. alexandrei e S.eleotilis provem de amostras de algas do mesolitoral inferior. Conhece-se uma quarta espécie de Scissure11idae para o Brasil: Anatoma aedonia (Watson, 1886), dragada em 1873 pelo 'Challenger', ao largo da costa de Pernambuco, em profundidade de 640 m. Abstract in english A consultation of the original descriptions of the genera of Scissurellidae led the author to conclude that the valid names for the genera of this family are: Scissurella d'Orbigny, 1823 (redescription by Sowerby, 1824), Anatoma Woodward, 1859, Inoisura Hedley, 1904, Scissurona Iredale, 1924, Sinezo [...] na Finlay, 1927. Scissurella and Anatoma are cosmopolites, the first generally living in shallow waters, associated to sea-weeds, while the second is found in deep waters. The three last genera are restricted to Australasia. Three new species are described from the Brazilian coast: Soissu rella alexandrei, Scissurella eleotilis and Scissurella morretesi. The internal anatomy of S. alexandrei is described. These three new species have been found in littoral shallow waters, the two first on the northeast Brazilian coast, the third on the coast of the State of São Paulo. The fourth known species of Scissurellidae from Brazil, Anatoma aedonia (Watson, 1886), was dredged by H.M.S, "Challenger", in 1873, off Pernambuco, 350 fm (640 m).

  1. Molecular data for Crenavolva species (Gastropoda, Ovulidae reveals the synonymy of C. chiapponii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Reijnen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During fieldwork in Indonesia and Malaysia, eight lots containing 33 specimens belonging to the genus Crenavolva (Ovulidae were collected. Species were initially identified as C. aureola, C. chiapponii, C. striatula and C. trailli, respectively. For C. chiapponii this is the second record. In contrast to the ecological data available from the original description of this species, it was found in shallow water on a gorgonian host coral, i.e. Acanthogorgia sp. A molecular analysis based on COI and 16S mtDNA markers, including sequence data obtained from GenBank, showed that C. chiapponii should be considered a junior synonym of C. aureola and that previously identified ovulid specimens are probably misidentified.

  2. Population ecology and fishery of Cittarium pica (Gastropoda: Trochidae) on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Stefanie, Schmidt; Matthias, Wolff; José A., Vargas.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El caracol Cittarium pica (West Indian Top Shell) es recolectado en forma artesanal en zonas rocosas de la costa Caribe de Costa Rica. A la fecha no hay datos sobre esta extracción ni existe regulación de su pesquería. La dinámica poblacional de esta especie fue evaluada, desde octubre del 2000 hast [...] a marzo del 2001, en dos sitios en los cuales la especies es recolectada (Playa Negra y Cahuita), y en un sitio protegido de la actividad pesquera (Isla Uvita). La densidad promedio de la población fue 14 ind/m², cerca de tres veces más alta en el sitio protegido que en los dos no protegidos. Los histogramas de frecuencia de tallas mostraron un fuerte sesgo hacia los ejemplares más pequeños en los sitios no protegidos, lo que se refleja también en tasas de mortalidad total significativamente más altas (Z = 4.05 y 4.47) cuando se les compara con el sitio protegido (Z = 1.47). Los parámetros de crecimiento según von Bertalanffy fueron estirnados en k = 0.19 - 0.28 / año y L?= 104 mm. No se encontró diferencias significativas entre los sitios. A partir de estos valores el índice ? (performance index ?) estuvo en un ?mbito de 3.31 a 3.48, el cual se encuentra entre los valores bajos informados para otros gastrópodos tropicales. La edad a la primera madurez sexual para ambos sexos combinados fue estimada en 29.20 ± 1.14 mm. Las tasas de explotación fueron mayores a 0.6 para los sitios no protegidos y un alto componente de ejemplares pequeños (menos de 30 mm) en las recolectas, sugieren una sobre explotación de los adultos y sobrepesca en el reclutamiento. Con base en la estimación de la captura máxima sostenible (maximum sustainable yield), se recomienda algunas medidas reguladores de la pesquería como el control de un tamaño mínimo de desernbarque de 40 mm y la veda de la pesquería durante los rneses de reproducción (de julio a noviembre). Abstract in english The West Indian Topshell Cittarium pica is artisanally collected on rocky shores along the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica. There are neither data on the state of its exploitation nor exist any regulation of the fishery. From October 2000 to March 2001, the population dynamics of this species were stu [...] died at an unexploited and two exploited sites to determine the present impact of the fishery on the resource. Average population density with 14 ind./m² about three times higher at the unexploited than at the exploited sites. Length-frequeney histograms showed a strong shift towards smaller specimens at the exploited sites, which is also reflected in significantly higher rates of total mortality (Z = 4.05 and 4.47) when compared to the unexploited site (Z = 1.47). Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated as k = 0.19-0.28 (yr-1) and L?= 104 mm. No significant differences were found among sites. From these values a range of the growth performance index ? was computed ( ? = 3.31-3.48) which lies at the lower end of the values reported for other tropical marine gastropods. The size at first maturity for both sexes combined was estimated as 29.20 ± 1.14 mm. Exploitation rates >0.6 for both exploited sites and a large fraction of small specimens (

  3. Population ecology and fishery of Cittarium pica (Gastropoda: Trochidae on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Schmidt

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The West Indian Topshell Cittarium pica is artisanally collected on rocky shores along the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica. There are neither data on the state of its exploitation nor exist any regulation of the fishery. From October 2000 to March 2001, the population dynamics of this species were studied at an unexploited and two exploited sites to determine the present impact of the fishery on the resource. Average population density with 14 ind./m² about three times higher at the unexploited than at the exploited sites. Length-frequeney histograms showed a strong shift towards smaller specimens at the exploited sites, which is also reflected in significantly higher rates of total mortality (Z = 4.05 and 4.47 when compared to the unexploited site (Z = 1.47. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated as k = 0.19-0.28 (yr-1 and L?= 104 mm. No significant differences were found among sites. From these values a range of the growth performance index ? was computed ( ? = 3.31-3.48 which lies at the lower end of the values reported for other tropical marine gastropods. The size at first maturity for both sexes combined was estimated as 29.20 ± 1.14 mm. Exploitation rates >0.6 for both exploited sites and a large fraction of small specimens (El caracol Cittarium pica (West Indian Top Shell es recolectado en forma artesanal en zonas rocosas de la costa Caribe de Costa Rica. A la fecha no hay datos sobre esta extracción ni existe regulación de su pesquería. La dinámica poblacional de esta especie fue evaluada, desde octubre del 2000 hasta marzo del 2001, en dos sitios en los cuales la especies es recolectada (Playa Negra y Cahuita, y en un sitio protegido de la actividad pesquera (Isla Uvita. La densidad promedio de la población fue 14 ind/m², cerca de tres veces más alta en el sitio protegido que en los dos no protegidos. Los histogramas de frecuencia de tallas mostraron un fuerte sesgo hacia los ejemplares más pequeños en los sitios no protegidos, lo que se refleja también en tasas de mortalidad total significativamente más altas (Z = 4.05 y 4.47 cuando se les compara con el sitio protegido (Z = 1.47. Los parámetros de crecimiento según von Bertalanffy fueron estirnados en k = 0.19 - 0.28 / año y L?= 104 mm. No se encontró diferencias significativas entre los sitios. A partir de estos valores el índice ? (performance index ? estuvo en un ?mbito de 3.31 a 3.48, el cual se encuentra entre los valores bajos informados para otros gastrópodos tropicales. La edad a la primera madurez sexual para ambos sexos combinados fue estimada en 29.20 ± 1.14 mm. Las tasas de explotación fueron mayores a 0.6 para los sitios no protegidos y un alto componente de ejemplares pequeños (menos de 30 mm en las recolectas, sugieren una sobre explotación de los adultos y sobrepesca en el reclutamiento. Con base en la estimación de la captura máxima sostenible (maximum sustainable yield, se recomienda algunas medidas reguladores de la pesquería como el control de un tamaño mínimo de desernbarque de 40 mm y la veda de la pesquería durante los rneses de reproducción (de julio a noviembre.

  4. Microbioerosão em conchas de Heleobia australis (Gastropoda: Rissooidea da lagoa Salgada,Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Célia Elias Senra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Traces of microbioerosion are recorded on microgastropods shells thatoccur in association with recent stromatolites from lagoa Salgada, Rio de Janeiro State. The high destruction levels produced by microborers on the bioclasts were directly observed through optical and scanning electron microscroscopy. This study goals the identification and description of the bioerosion patterns on microgastropods of the species Heleobia australis (D’Orbigny. Themicroborings consist of sinuous ramified microborings galeries that were related to the ichnogenera Fascichnus, as well as groups of circular and irregular perforations that remained unidentified. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS analysis of the dark shells surfaces detected the elements sulfur and iron, both closely tied to the microbial metabolism.

  5. Macroevolution of venom apparatus innovations in auger snails (Gastropoda; Conoidea; Terebridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelin, M; Puillandre, N; Kantor, Yu I; Modica, M V; Terryn, Y; Cruaud, C; Bouchet, P; Holford, M

    2012-07-01

    The Terebridae are a diverse family of tropical and subtropical marine gastropods that use a complex and modular venom apparatus to produce toxins that capture polychaete and enteropneust preys. The complexity of the terebrid venom apparatus suggests that venom apparatus development in the Terebridae could be linked to the diversification of the group and can be analyzed within a molecular phylogenetic scaffold to better understand terebrid evolution. Presented here is a molecular phylogeny of 89 terebrid species belonging to 12 of the 15 currently accepted genera, based on Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of amplicons of 3 mitochondrial (COI, 16S and 12S) and one nuclear (28S) genes. The evolution of the anatomy of the terebrid venom apparatus was assessed by mapping traits of six related characters: proboscis, venom gland, odontophore, accessory proboscis structure, radula, and salivary glands. A novel result concerning terebrid phylogeny was the discovery of a previously unrecognized lineage, which includes species of Euterebra and Duplicaria. The non-monophyly of most terebrid genera analyzed indicates that the current genus-level classification of the group is plagued with homoplasy and requires further taxonomic investigations. Foregut anatomy in the family Terebridae reveals an inordinate diversity of features that covers the range of variability within the entire superfamily Conoidea, and that hypodermic radulae have likely evolved independently on at least three occasions. These findings illustrate that terebrid venom apparatus evolution is not perfunctory, and involves independent and numerous changes of central features in the foregut anatomy. The multiple emergence of hypodermic marginal radular teeth in terebrids are presumably associated with variable functionalities, suggesting that terebrids have adapted to dietary changes that may have resulted from predator-prey relationships. The anatomical and phylogenetic results presented serve as a starting point to advance investigations about the role of predator-prey interactions in the diversification of the Terebridae and the impact on their peptide toxins, which are promising bioactive compounds for biomedical research and therapeutic drug development. PMID:22440724

  6. Macroevolution of venom apparatus innovations in auger snails (Gastropoda; Conoidea; Terebridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Castelin, M.; Puillandre, N.; Kantor, Yu. I.; Modica, M. V.; Terryn, Y.; C Cruaud; Bouchet, P; Holford, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Terebridae are a diverse family of tropical and subtropical marine gastropods that use a complex and modular venom apparatus to produce toxins that capture polychaete and enteropneust preys. The complexity of the terebrid venom apparatus suggests that venom apparatus development in the Terebridae could be linked to the diversification of the group and can be analyzed within a molecular phylogenetic scaffold to better understand terebrid evolution. Presented here is a molecular phylogeny o...

  7. An investigation of the "Ancyloplanorbidae" (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Hygrophila): preliminary evidence from DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Aslak; Kristensen, Thomas K; Stothard, J Russell

    2004-09-01

    The Planorbidae is the largest family of freshwater pulmonate snails, yet an understanding of their intrafamily phylogenetic relationships is lacking and existing inferences are tentative. Moreover, it has been suggested that the Ancylidae, limpet-like freshwater pulmonates, should be merged with Planorbidae according to analysis of internal organ morphology. The present study explicitly tests this hypothesis by phylogenetic inference from partial DNA sequences of three molecular markers, nuclear ribosomal small subunit 18S and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase, and large subunit 16S. A molecular phylogeny was inferred based upon 22 taxa representing 12 ancylid and planorbid genera; additional taxa were included from the authors' database and from available sequences from GenBank, to further explore this basic data set. Taxa from Acroloxidae, Lymnaeidae, and Physidae were used as outgroups. Ancylidae and Planorbidae were found to be paraphyletic, with Planorbidae including some members of Ancylidae. "Ancyloplanorbidae" was also found to be paraphyletic because Acroloxus (Acroloxidae) surprisingly was included. Burnupia was found to be ancestral to "Ancyloplanorbidae" (including Acroloxus). The following clades of Planorbidae were supported: Bulininae and Planorbinae, Biomphalarini (including Helisoma and Planorbarius), and Planorbini and Segmentini. PMID:15288055

  8. Gonad characterization and reproductive cycle of Collisella subrugosa (Orbigny, 1846) (Gastropoda: Acmaeidae) in the Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C. A. ROCHA-BARREIRA

    2002-01-01

    Gonad characteristics and reproductive cycle in the acmaeid Collisella subrugosa from Northeastern Brazil were investigated. The individuals were collected monthly from February 1993 to April 1994 at Farol do Mucuripe Beach, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. There is no external characteristic on the shell and the soft body structures except the gonad that allows sex differenciation. The gonad of limpet Collisella subrugosa showned four stages (1) "partially ripe", (2) "ripe", (3) "partially spawned"...

  9. Gonad characterization and reproductive cycle of Collisella subrugosa (Orbigny, 1846) (Gastropoda: Acmaeidae) in the northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Barreira, C A

    2002-11-01

    Gonad characteristics and reproductive cycle in the acmaeid Collisella subrugosa from Northeastern Brazil were investigated. The individuals were collected monthly from February 1993 to April 1994 at Farol do Mucuripe Beach, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. There is no external characteristic on the shell and the soft body structures except the gonad that allows sex differentiation. The gonad of limpet Collisella subrugosa shown four stages (1) "partially ripe", (2) "ripe", (3) "partially spawned" and (4) "spawned", stages. The reproductive cycle is continuous, with the maturation and spawning running parallell in this population. The temperature was constant during the study period and it did not seem to be important to induce the spawning. The salinity had a weak negative correlation with the spawn process. PMID:12659041

  10. New distribution record for the rare limpet Acroloxus coloradensis (Henderson) (Gastropoda: Acroloxidae) from Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, Blake R.; Robert L. Newell

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Capshell, Acroloxus coloradensis (Henderson, 1930), the only North American member of the basommatophoran family Acroloxidae, is broadly distributed across southern Canada and south into the Rocky Mountains in the USA (Turgeon et al., 1998; Lee and Ackerman, 2000). Despite its wide geographic range, A. coloradensis has been documented from < 30 locations, mostly in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec (Lee and Ackerman, 2000; Anderson, 2005). Relict populations of A. coloradensis in the USA have been documented from only 6 sites in Colorado and 2 sites in Glacier National Park (Glacier NP), Montana (Anderson, 2005; Ellis et al., 2004). In Glacier NP, A. coloradensis was first reported from Lost Lake (Figure 1; Russell and Brunson, 1967). A second population in the park was discovered in Trout Lake in 2001 (Ellis et al., 2004). In both lakes, A. coloradensis was found primarily under rocks and other cover objects.

  11. Field Evidence of Metal Transfer from Invertebrate Prey to an Intertidal Predator, Thais clavigera (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, G.

    2000-08-01

    The predatory gastropod mollusc Thais clavigera inhabiting two shores within the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve, Hong Kong, had very different diets. On an exposed shore the barnacle Tetraclita squamosa dominated the diet. In contrast, on an adjacent sheltered shore diet was more varied. A variety of molluscs were preyed upon year round and the temporally patchily distributed pulmonate limpet Siphonaria japonica and the barnacle Balanus amphitrite dominated the diet in winter and summer, respectively. This differing feeding ecology over a limited geographical area provided a unique opportunity to study the importance of dietary uptake of cadmium, copper and zinc in an unpolluted environment. Thais clavigera feeding on either barnacles or, mainly, gastropods will receive a significant input of trace metals from such sources. Thais clavigera collected from the exposed shore had higher zinc body concentrations (313±14 ?g g -1) compared to sheltered shore conspecifics (261±11 ?g g -1), attributed here to the higher zinc concentrations in their barnacle prey. Conversely, T. clavigera collected from the sheltered shore had higher copper body concentrations (310±22 ?g g -1) compared to exposed shore conspecifics (183±14 ?g g -1) attributed to the higher proportion of haemocyanin-containing gastropods in the diet. No difference in accumulated T. clavigera body cadmium concentrations were observed in individuals with differing feeding ecologies. Cadmium body concentrations of prey were, however, similar and the route of cadmium uptake in this gastropod, therefore, remains unclear.

  12. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  13. Record of imposex in Cronia konkanensis (Gastropoda, Muricidae) from Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VishwaKiran, Y.; Anil, A.C.

    (1971) for Ilyanassa obsoleta (Nassariidae). Bryan and co-workers confirmed Smith’s earlier work through a series of laboratory Marine Environmental Research 48 (1999) 123–130 www.elsevier.com/locate/marenvrev 0141-1136/99/$ - see front matter # 1999... large scale (Isensee et al., 1994), accounting for some two-thirds of the global antifouling market (Pidgeon, 1993). This fact calls for an evaluation of the scenario at any vulnerable environment. To our knowledge, in India there has been no study...

  14. EPR Investigation of Gamma-Irradiated Rapana Thomasiana (Gastropoda, Muricidae) Shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shell of Rapana Thomasiana snail, a carnivorous gastropod collected from the coasts of the Black Sea (Romania) was investigated by using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The samples in powder form were irradiated with a 60Co gamma-ray source at ambient temperature in the dose range between 1.06 and 11.3 kGy. The measurements showed that the EPR signal intensity enhanced following saturation exponential with the absorbed dose. The estimated EPR parameters: g1 = 1.9976, g2 = 2.0006, g3 = 2.0015, g4 = 2.0030 and g5 = 2.0043 revealed a complex spectrum consisting of CO2-, CO33- and CO3- species. A very weak signal at g6 = 2.0057 was associated to SO2- electron center. All EPR signals of gamma-irradiated samples decreased with various rate with the of 100 deg. C isothermal annealing time

  15. On the morphology of Laevapex vazi n. sp. from Brazil (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Basommatophora: Ancylidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia Barbosa dos, Santos.

    Full Text Available A description of Laevapex vazi n. sp. based on 8 specimens collectec in Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, is presented. Shell thin, diaphanous, with a light brown periostracum and moderately elliptical opening. Apex not pointed, smooth, situated on the right posterior region of the shell, inclined to th [...] e right often reaching the edge of the shell or extending beyond it. Concentric lines clearly visible; radial striation not visible or when perceptible very thin, here and there. Ratios: shell width/shell lenght = 0,60 - 0,67 (mean = 0,63); shell height/shell length = 0,50 - 0,61 (mean = 0,55); shell height/shell width = 0,33 - 0,40 (mean = 0,35). Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation concentrated on the left side; three muscles are seen: a round posterior one on the left side, an elliptical muscle on the right anterior side and an almost almond-shaped one on the left anterior side. Tentacles with a medium core of black pigment. Pseudobranch two-lobed and folded, the dorsal lobe smaller than the vetral one. Ovotestis with 20 unbranched diverticula, around a short collecting canal. Ovispermiduct with an enlargement with several round outpocketings constituting the seminal vesicle. Carrefour as a round sac. Albumen gland almost cylindrical with several acinous diverticula. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the galndular wall of the uterus; uterus flattened and thin-walled. Spermathecal body almost rounded. Pear-shaped prostate without diverticula. Penial complex without flagellum but with well-developed ultra-penis and penis. Jaw horseshoe shaped. Radular forma 20.1.20; raquidian tooth quadricuspid, asymmetrical. The genus Laevapex Walker, 1903 is recorded for the first time in Brazil. It is easily distinguished from South American Gundlachia Pfeiffer, 1849 by its penial complex. Laevapex vazi is dedicated to Dr. Jorge Faria Vaz, from SUCEN-SP, who have been sent to me the specimens.

  16. A molecular method to detect and identify the native species of southwestern Atlantic Crassostrea (Mollusca: Ostreidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Ludwig; Raquel, Patella; Sérgio, Stoiev; Gisela, Castilho-Westphal; Marcus V. F, Girotto; Antonio, Ostrensky.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among oysters, species of Crassostrea (Sacco, 1897) are the most attractive to aquaculture. In Brazil, the genus is represented by C. rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828) and C. brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819). Because the maturation and breeding technology is not well developed for these species, aquaculturists [...] need a reliable method to decide the correct time to place spat collectors in the field, and to identify both species, which are morphologically similar. In this study a specific Multiplex PCR protocol was developed, using one pair of universal primers from 18S rDNA as a positive control and a pair of specific primers for each target species. The sensitivity and specificity of the protocol was evaluated. It detected C. rhizophorae DNA in low concentrations, and C. brasiliana DNA in even lower concentrations. Further, the Multiplex PCR proved efficient in detecting DNA in concentrations equivalent to that of a single larva of each species, either separated or combined, when mixed with total DNA extract of a plankton sample representing 1000 L of filtered water. Field tests confirmed the applicability of the protocol, which holds the promise to become an important tool for aquaculture or conservation programs, allowing for the continuous monitoring of the life cycle of C. brasiliana and C. rhizophorae, by detecting the right periods of larval release and settlement.

  17. The surface morphology of the ctenidia of Spondylus spinosus (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Antalya Bay, Turkey

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Deniz, Aksit; Beria Falakali, Mutaf; Ahmet, Balci.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface morphology of the ctenidia of Spondylus spinosus Schreibers, 1793 was studied with light and scanning electron microscopy for comparison with the gill structures of other bivalves. The demibranch of S. spinosus is heterorhabdic, with the principal filaments at the descending lamellae and [...] ordinary filaments at the ascending lamellae. The gill lamellae have a prominent gauze-like structure at their distal part, with numerous groups of eight ordinary filaments. They bear ciliary arrays on their frontal surfaces and ostia at their latero-frontal surfaces. Frequent cirral plates form regular interfilamentary junctions. The description of the gill structure of S. spinosus presented here can be used to derive implications for the correlations among the structure, habitat and mode of life of this species. At a particular stage of its adult life, Spondylus spinosus could be used as a subject for biomonitoring studies in natural and experimental environments.

  18. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  19. Isolation and identification of enkephalins in pedal ganglia of Mytilus edulis (Mollusca).

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, M K; Stefano, G B

    1984-01-01

    An acid extract of pedal ganglia of the mollusc Mytilus edulis was fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography with a reverse-phase column. Peak fractions with retention times of those of [Met]- and [Leu]enkephalin were subjected to binding assays in both invertebrate and vertebrate tissues. The results showed that these fractions have the same binding activities as authentic enkephalins. Peptides from these fractions were purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography under isocrati...

  20. [Reproduction, diet and fishery of Octopus (Octopus) hubbsorum (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in the coast of Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo-Plata, Maria del Carmen; Gómez-Márquez, José Luis; Carrillo, Samuel Ramos; Herrera-Galindo, Jorge Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The octopus Octopus hubbsorum (Berry 1953) ranges widely and is important for the artisanal fishery in Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samples were taken approximately at every two weeks from January 2002 to November 2003. All organisms were measured for dorsal mantle length (DLM) and total weight; sex and maturity gonadic stage were registered. For the stomach content analysis, frequency of occurrence and emptying indexes were used. The 352 organisms caught ranged from 4 to 18 cm in DLM; the sex ratio was different from 1 (chi2 = 24.2, pOctopus hubbsorum moves from deep waters to the coast, probably in search of better conditions, and lays masses of eggs on rocky substrata. They are fished from March to October, with higher intensity in April and May. Fishing effort was related to the oceanographic characteristics and the atmospheric conditions of the area. From April to September the CPUE monthly mean was 20-10 kg/divers/day. Using the CPUE and environmental condition relationship, the estimated adequate superficial temperature for fishing is 29.5 degrees C. PMID:19637689

  1. Life history of the bathyal octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; González, María; Franco, Ignacio

    2009-08-01

    The life cycle of the deep-sea octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus was studied from monthly samples obtained throughout the year in different areas of the western Mediterranean (mainly around the Balearic Islands and along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula). A total of 373 individuals (205 females, 168 males) were analyzed; females ranged from 4.5 to 14.0 cm mantle length (ML) and males from 4.5 to 11.5 cm ML. There were few small-sized octopuses (octopus inhabits the lower continental shelf and upper slope in both areas, primarily between 200 and 500 m depth. Modal lengths were followed from autumn, when recruits were caught by trawlers, to summer, when reproduction took place. Females grew from 8 to 10 cm ML from winter to spring, but this modal size did not increase further in summer; males grew from 7 to 9 cm ML from winter to spring. The total disappearance of large individuals after summer suggests a life cycle lasting a single year. The evolution of the monthly mean sizes showed that the growth was best described by log-linear functions in both sexes. The length at first maturity was clearly higher in females (12 cm ML) than in males (8 cm ML). A total of 30 different prey items, belonging to four major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes, cephalopods and gastropods), were identified in the stomach contents. The diet of the octopus was based on crustaceans and teleosts, which accounted for 75% and 23% of the prey items, respectively. Cephalopods and gastropods were accessory prey as they only represented 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of the total. The octopus showed a marked preference for the benthic fish Symphurus nigrescens and the endobenthic crustacean Alpheus glaber. The bathymetric distribution of P. tetracirrhus coincides with those of these two main prey, which suggests that the distribution of the octopus might be strongly linked to its trophic resources.

  2. High accumulation of cobalt-60 by the particular organ or part of some species in mollusca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large amounts of samples in marine Cephalopoda and Tridacna were sampled in north west pacific ocean, near Japan. The samples were separated into organs or parts for determination of Co-60 concentration. A peculiar accumulation of Co-60 by the branchial heart of Octopus was also recognized in field condition, but it had become apparent that branchial heart of squid had not same ability. Liver of Cephalopoda had the ability to highly accumulate the Co-60 and specific activity of squid was one order highter than Octopus. The concentration of Cobalt-60 in visceral muss kidney of Tridacna maxima lineally increased with increasing shell length but that in other soft parts was kept constant. After examination of the other papers it was assumed that Co-60 highly accumulated in these organs was transfered by the food chain. (author)

  3. Recrutamento larval e crescimento de teredinidae (mollusca-bivalvia em região entremarés de manguezais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Godoy Bueno Carvalho Lopes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O recrutamento larval e o crescimento de Teredinidae na região entremarés do manguezal da Praia Dura, Ubatuba, SP, foi acompanhado durante doze meses (08/84 a 08/85 utilizando coletores construídos com madeira de mangue. O tempo decorrido para se detectar a presença dos primeiros Teredinidae foi de aproximadamente sete meses após o início do experimento e o número de indivíduos por coletor foi muito reduzido no período de amostragem. Esses resultados contrastam com os obtidos por outros autores que instalaram coletores em ambiente marinho, mas são semelhantes aos obtidos por autores que instalaram coletores em regiões estuarinas do litoral brasileiro. Essas diferenças nos resultados talvez possam ser explicadas pelo fato da salinidade ser mais baixa e mais variável nos estuários que no ambiente marinho. A análise dos dados sobre o recrutamento larval, permite concluir que a espécie mais abundante foi Nausitora fustieula (Jeffreys, 1860, com principal época de instalação em março e taxa inicial de crescimento de 1,86 mm/day. As outras espécies de Teredinidae, Bankiaflmbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931, Bankia roehi Moll, 1931 e Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, apresentaram pequeno número de indivíduos e em função disso, não foi possível determinar suas épocas de instalação e respectivas taxas de crescimento.The larval settlement and growth of Teredinidae in the intertidal region of the Praia Dura mangrove, Ubatuba, SP, were undertaken during one year (08/84 to 08/85 using colectors made from mangrove wood. The presence of the first Teredinidae was detected approximately seven month after the inicial experiment and the number of specimens per coletor was small during the sampling period. These results contrast with those obtained by other authors working in a marine environment, but are similar to those obtained in experiments developed in Brazilian estuaries. The differences between data obtained in marine and estuarine environments, might be explained by the lower and more variable salinity gradient in estuaries. Larval settlement data revealed that the most abundant species was Nausitora fustieula (Jeffreys,1860, which settles on wood prefrerably in March, and has an initial growth rate of 1.86 mm/day. The other Teredinidae species Banida fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931, Bankia rochi Moll, 1931 and Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, occurred in a very small number of specimens and therefore, their time of settlement and growth rates could not be determined.

  4. Crescimento de órgãos do aparelho reprodutor durante o desenvolvimento de Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny) (Mollusca, Planorbidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, W; T. KAWANO

    1998-01-01

    Biomphalaria tenagophila é um hermafrodita simultâneo cujo investimento na função masculina foi avaliado pelo crescimento de seus órgãos sexuais em relação ao diâmetro da concha. Foram criadas novas técnicas para medir órgãos reprodutivos, sem aparentes distorções, e contar folículos do ovoteste. Durante o crescimento de espécimes sexualmente maduros de B. tenagophila, cresceu o número de folículos do ovoteste, mas seus números máximos e mínimos são menores do que os citados na literatura. O ...

  5. Comparative morphological study and phylogeny of representatives of the superfamily Calyptraeoidea (including Hipponicoidea) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Ricardo L., Simone.

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de testar a monofilia dos Calyptraeoidea e obter seu "plano básico", um estudo morfológico detalhado é desenvolvido nas seguintes espécies: a) Família Calyptraeidae, 1) Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Gmelin) (previamente Crepidula); 2) Crepidula aff. plana Say; 3) C. protea Orbigny (todos d [...] o Brasil); 4) C. aff. protea (da Argentina) (publicada em outro artigo); 5) C. convexa Say (da Venezuela); 6) C. fornicata (L.) (da Europa); 7) Calyptraea centralis (Conrad) (do Brasil); 8) Crucibulum auricula (Gmelin) (da Venezu-ela); 9) Cr. quiriquinae (Lesson) (do Chile); 10) Trochita trochiformis (Born) (do Chile); 11) Sigapatella calyptraeformis (Lam.) (da Nova Zelândia, previamente Calyptraea); b) Família Hipponicidae, 12) Hipponix costellatus Carpenter (previamente H. grayanus); 13) H. subrufus (Lam.); 14) H. incurvus (Gmelin) (previamente Capulus incurvatus) (estes 3 do NE Brasil); 15) H. grayanus Menke (do México e Equador); 16) H. leptus n. sp. (N.E. Brasil); 17) Sabia conica (Schumacher); 18) Malluvium devotus (Hedley) (ambos da Austrália); 19) Cheilea equestris (L.) (N.E. Brasil); c) Família Capulidae, 20) Capulus sycophanta Garrard (Austrália); d) Família Trichotropidae, 21) Trichotropis cancellata Hinds (W. USA); 22) T. borealis Broderip & Sowerby (N. Atlântico); 23) T. sp. (Alaska); e) Família Vanikoridae, 24) Vanikoro sp. (Austrália). Uma análise filogenética fundamentada em 112 caracteres (177 estados) é realizada, baseada na morfologia de todos os órgãos e sistemas. A única árvore obtida é a seguinte: ((Trichotropis cancellata - T. borealis) (Capulus sycophanta (Vanikoro sp ((Cheilea equestris (Sabia conica (Malluvium devotus ((Hipponix grayanus - H. leptus) (H. incurvus (H. costellatus - H. subrufus)))))) (Sigapatella calyptraeformis (Trochita trochiformis (Calyptraea centralis ((Crucibulum auricula - Cr. quiriquinae) (Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Crepidula argentina (C. convexa (C. fornicata (C. aff. plana - C. protea))))))))))))). Passos: 267, IC: 67, IR: 88. como grupos externos são usados representantes de outras superfamílias de Caenogastropoda, assim como de outros grupos de arqueogastrópodes. Como resultados principais destacam-se a monofilia de Calyptraeoidea, suportada por 27 sinapomorfias se os grupos externos forem os Caenogastropoda basais (Cerithioidea, Hydrobioidea) e 21 sinapomorfias com Stromboidea e Cypraeoidea como grupos externos. Calyptraeoidea inclui sucessivamente ao longo da árvore as seguintes famílias monofiléticas: Trichotropidae, Capulidae, Vanikoridae, Hipponicidae e Calyptraeidae. A afinidade com Hipponicidae de Cheilea é confirmada, dentre alguns problemas taxonômicos encontrados nos representantes amostrados (como mencionados acima), foram parcialmente resolvidos. Abstract in english With the objective of testing the monophyly of the Calyptraeoidea and of searching for its ground plan, a detailed morpho-logical analysis was conducted for the following species: a) Family Calyptraeidae, 1) Bostrycapulus aculeatus (Gmelin) (formerly Crepidula); 2) Crepidula aff. plana Say; 3) C. pr [...] otea Orbigny (these from Brazil); 4) C. aff. protea (from Argentina) (published elsewhere); 5) C. convexa Say (from Venezuela); 6) C. fornicata (L.) (from Europe); 7) Calyptraea centralis (Conrad) (from Brazil); 8) Crucibulum auricula (Gmelin) (from Venezuela); 9) Cr. quiriquinae (Lesson) (from Chile); 10) Trochita trochiformis (Born) (from Chile); 11) Sigapatella calyptraeformis (Lam.) (from New Zealand, formerly Calyptraea); b) Family Hipponicidae, 12) Hipponix costellatus Carpenter (formerly H. grayanus); 13) H. subrufus (Lam.); 14) H. incurvus (Gmelin) (formerly Capulus incurvatus) (these 3 from NE Brazil); 15) H. grayanus Menke (from Mexico and Ecuador); 16) H. leptus n. sp. (N.E. Brazil); 17) Sabia conica (Schumacher); 18) Malluvium devotus (Hedley) (both Australia); 19) Cheilea equestris (L.) (N.E. Brazil); c) Family Capulidae, 20) Capulus sycophanta Garrard (Australia); d) Family Trichotropidae, 21) Trichotropis cancellata Hinds (W. USA

  6. Recrutamento larval e crescimento de teredinidae (mollusca-bivalvia) em região entremarés de manguezais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sônia Godoy Bueno Carvalho, Lopes; Walter, Narchi.

    Full Text Available O recrutamento larval e o crescimento de Teredinidae na região entremarés do manguezal da Praia Dura, Ubatuba, SP, foi acompanhado durante doze meses (08/84 a 08/85) utilizando coletores construídos com madeira de mangue. O tempo decorrido para se detectar a presença dos primeiros Teredinidae foi de [...] aproximadamente sete meses após o início do experimento e o número de indivíduos por coletor foi muito reduzido no período de amostragem. Esses resultados contrastam com os obtidos por outros autores que instalaram coletores em ambiente marinho, mas são semelhantes aos obtidos por autores que instalaram coletores em regiões estuarinas do litoral brasileiro. Essas diferenças nos resultados talvez possam ser explicadas pelo fato da salinidade ser mais baixa e mais variável nos estuários que no ambiente marinho. A análise dos dados sobre o recrutamento larval, permite concluir que a espécie mais abundante foi Nausitora fustieula (Jeffreys, 1860), com principal época de instalação em março e taxa inicial de crescimento de 1,86 mm/day. As outras espécies de Teredinidae, Bankiaflmbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931, Bankia roehi Moll, 1931 e Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920), apresentaram pequeno número de indivíduos e em função disso, não foi possível determinar suas épocas de instalação e respectivas taxas de crescimento. Abstract in english The larval settlement and growth of Teredinidae in the intertidal region of the Praia Dura mangrove, Ubatuba, SP, were undertaken during one year (08/84 to 08/85) using colectors made from mangrove wood. The presence of the first Teredinidae was detected approximately seven month after the inicial e [...] xperiment and the number of specimens per coletor was small during the sampling period. These results contrast with those obtained by other authors working in a marine environment, but are similar to those obtained in experiments developed in Brazilian estuaries. The differences between data obtained in marine and estuarine environments, might be explained by the lower and more variable salinity gradient in estuaries. Larval settlement data revealed that the most abundant species was Nausitora fustieula (Jeffreys,1860), which settles on wood prefrerably in March, and has an initial growth rate of 1.86 mm/day. The other Teredinidae species Banida fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931, Bankia rochi Moll, 1931 and Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920), occurred in a very small number of specimens and therefore, their time of settlement and growth rates could not be determined.

  7. Morphological and molecular evidence for cryptic species of springsnails [genus Pseudamnicola ( Corrosella) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delicado, Diana; Ramos, Marian A

    2012-01-01

    Several Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) populations of the central and eastern Iberian Peninsula have been ascribed to Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) astieri (Dupuy, 1851), though recent evidence demonstrates the species could be endemic to the departments of Var and Alpes-Maritimes in France. Through the identification of cryptic species using a combined morphological and phylogenetic approach, this paper provides a detailed morphological description of Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) astieri, clarifying its taxonomic boundaries and confirming it as a French endemic. In parallel, by comparing Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) populations from the provinces of Castellón and Valencia in Eastern Spain, it was observed that rather than Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) astieri they represented a new species here described as Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) hauffeisp. n. Among other characters, the two species show marked differences in shell shape, male and female genital systems, radular formula and concentration of the nervous system. Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) hauffeisp. n. was also compared morphologically to another two Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) species living in nearby areas [Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) hinzi Boeters, 1986 and Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) navasiana (Fagot, 1907)], molecularly to Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) falkneri (Boeters, 1970), the type species of the subgenus, and to the rest of the Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) species described so far. Morphological differentiation between the species is supported by a genetic divergence of 7.4% inferred from a partial sequence (658 bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). On the basis of an average 8% (5.39 to 11.15%) divergence estimated for the COI gene in other Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) species reported in GenBank, the existence of two specific entities is here proposed, which will have impact on conservation policies both in France and in Spain. PMID:22639531

  8. Morphological and molecular evidence for cryptic species of springsnails [genus Pseudamnicola ( Corrosella) (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Ramos; Diana Delicado

    2012-01-01

    Several Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) populations of the central and eastern Iberian Peninsula have been ascribed to Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) astieri (Dupuy, 1851), though recent evidence demonstrates the species could be endemic to the departments of Var and Alpes-Maritimes in France. Through the identification of cryptic species using a combined morphological and phylogenetic approach, this paper provides a detailed morphological description of Pseudamnicola (Corrosella) astieri, clarifying ...

  9. Morphological and molecular evidence for cryptic species of springsnails [genus Pseudamnicola (Corrosella (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Hydrobiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Delicado

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several Pseudamnicola (Corrosella populations of the central and eastern Iberian Peninsula have been ascribed to P. (C. astieri (Dupuy, 1851, though recent evidence demonstrates the species could be endemic to the departments of Var and Alpes-Maritimes in France. Through the identification of cryptic species using a combined morphological and phylogenetic approach, this paper provides a detailed morphological description of P. (C. astieri, clarifying its taxonomic boundaries and confirming it as a French endemic. In parallel, by comparing Pseudamnicola (Corrosella populations from the provinces of Castellón and Valencia in Eastern Spain, it was observed that rather than P. (C. astieri they represented a new species here described as P. (C. hauffei sp. n. Among other characters, the two species show marked differences in shell shape, male and female genital systems, radular formula and concentration of the nervous system. P. (C. hauffei sp. n. was also compared morphologically to another two Pseudamnicola (Corrosella species living in nearby areas [P. (C. hinzi Boeters, 1986 and P. (C. navasiana (Fagot, 1907], molecularly to P. (C. falkneri (Boeters, 1970, the type species of the subgenus, and to the rest of the Pseudamnicola (Corrosella species described so far. Morphological differentiation between the species is supported by a genetic divergence of 7.4% inferred from a partial sequence (658 bp of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI. On the basis of an average 8% (5.39 to 11.15% divergence estimated for the COI gene in other P. (Corrosella species reported in GenBank, the existence of two specific entities is here proposed, which will have impact on conservation policies both in France and in Spain.

  10. Comet assay comparison of different Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca) tissues for the detection of genotoxicity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Janaina, Rigonato; Mário Sérgio, Mantovani; Berenice Quinzani, Jordão.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay was used to study the sensitivity of the widely distributed freshwater bivalve mollusk Corbicula fluminea to the DNA-damaging alkylating-agent methylmethane sulfonate (MMS). This study was undertaken to ascertain if C. fluminea is a good bioindicator of pollutants in aquatic environm [...] ents and identify which C. fluminea tissue is most effective and practical for genotoxicity studies. The mollusks were exposed to 0.6, 1.2 or 2.4 X 10-4 M MMS for 40 min and their hemolymph, gill tissue and digestive gland tissue assessed for the level of DNA damage and the time needed for the tissues to recovery. Regression analysis showed a direct linear dose-response relationship between MMS concentration and the number of damaged cells for hemolymph and digestive gland tissue but a quadratic relationship for gill tissue, which made the interpretation the gill tissue results difficult. The basal level of DNA damage to gill tissue was very high, possibly because gill is the organs most directly exposed to environmental toxins and mutagenic agents. Although all three types of tissue produced useful results, hemolymph and digestive gland tissue produced more reproducible and reliable results. Hemolymph was the best sample type in that it was easy to obtain and handle, while gill tissue required more manipulation to obtain cell suspensions. Our results indicate that C. fluminea is an optimal bioindicator for the determination genotoxic contaminants in aquatic environments.

  11. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

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    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  12. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

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    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.

  13. Ueber die formveraenderungen des golgiapparates waehrend der spermiogenese von Australorbis glabratus olivaceus: (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rudolf, Barth; Geth, Jansen.

    1961-04-01

    Full Text Available Na primeira parte do presente trabalho, descreve-se a citogênese e histogênese dos espérmios de Australorbis glabratus olivaceus, enquanto na segunda parte são estudadas as modificações do aparelho de Golgi. Foram aplicados os seguintes métodos: contraste de fases, campo escuro e semiescuro; coloraç [...] ões vitais por verde de Janus e vermelho-neutro; colorações histológicas com hematoxilina férrica depois de fixação por ácido ósmico, e com o método "Azan" segundo Heidenhain com coloração suplementar por verde de luz depois de fixação com sublimado (Susa de Heidenhain), a fim de provar hsitològicamente a presença da substância cromófoba. Até a formação do espermídeo, a citogênese não mostra fatos especiais, pois enquadra-se bem no esquema geral da espermiogênese dos moluscos, já descrita por numerosos autores. Na histogênese, porém, observamos alguns pontos interessantes que se distanciam, consideràvelmente, dos fatos conhecidos e descritos em outros moluscos. Em virtude da eliminação de líquido nuclear, como conseqüência da condensação da cromatina, a membrana nuclear do espermídeo forma sôbra a superfície do núcleo uma dobra em forma de espiral, com mais de dois giros. O centríolo proximal é duplo, uma parte forma um revestimento do pólo basal do núcleo, do qual nasce um filamento que atravessa todo o interior do núcleo, no sentido do seu eixo longitudinal, até chegar ao pólo apical. A segunda parte do centríolo proximal forma o filamento axial e funciona como ponto de inserção dos fios espirais da parte mediana do espérmio. O centríolo distal tem forma de campânula invertida, em cuja borda se inserem os fios espirais e em cujo centro se encontra a implantação do filamento axial. Em direção distal, o centríolo continua em forma de um fio nu que representa a cauda do espérmio. O aparelho de Golgi pode ser acompanhado, continuamente, a partir do espermiogônio primordial até o espermídeo em maturação, sem interrupção pelos estádios de divisões celulares . No espermiócito, êle consta da massa cromófoba e de 12 dictiosomas, justapondo-se nela, bem como de 4 pré-acroblastos. Os 16 concretos separam-se em 16 corpúsculos, dos quais cada pólo do fuso recebe a metade. O pré-espermídeo possui 6 dictiosomas e 2 pré-acroblastos, que se distribuem como 3 dictiosomas e 1 pré-acroblasto sôbre os dois espermídeos. O último transforma-se em acroblasto que se justapõe sôbre o pólo apical do núcleo, formando então o acrosoma.

  14. ACUTE TOXICITY OF MERCURY TO EMBRYOS OF Helisoma trivolvis (SAY, 1817 (MOLLUSCA: PLANORBIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passuni, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a metal very employed at industry and mining in Peru. The aim of current research was to determine embryotoxic lethal acute toxicity of Hg2+, in form of chloride of mercury (HgCl on 2 Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817 at 24 h exposure. Concentrations assayed were 514, 51.4, 5.14 and 0.51 ug Hg2+ L-1, since salt on base of HgCl using dechlorined water as diluents. Snail embryos 2 were considered dead when none rotation movement during since 30 seconds. Percentage of mortality of embryonic stages of H. trivolvis increased with each of concentrations crescents of Hg2+ at 24 h exposure. At a concentration of 514.4 ug Hg2+ L-1 was observed significantly differences in relation to control. Moreover, concentration of 514.4 ug Hg2+ L-1 showed differences with relation to other three treatments. LC was 2.49 ug Hg2+ L-1. Embryos of H. trivolvis were 50 higher sensible to Hg2+ in comparison to other freshwater snail species was concluded.

  15. Producción secundaria e índice de condición en Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalvia) del Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antulio, Prieto Arcas; Omar, Ramos A.; Dwight, Arrieche; José, Villalba; César, Lodeiros.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la biomasa, producción secundaria e índice de condición del bivalvo Arca zebra, desde agosto, 1984 hasta agosto, 1985 en Pariche, localidad situada en la costa norte del Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. La densidad promedio fue de 37 ind.m-2, con una mayor abundancia a 3 m de profundidad (49. [...] 75 ind.m-2). La estructura poblacional es estable con reclutamientos en octubre, diciembre 1984 y junio 19885. Los valores bimensuales de biomasa oscilaron entre 189.86 g Ps m-2 (agosto-84) y 28.51 g Ps m-2 (octubre-84), con un promedio de 93.69 g Ps m-2, y no presentaron diferencias significativas (Fs, P 0.05). Utilizando un método para poblaciones con reproducción contínua y edades no separables, se obtuvo una producción secundaria de 131.61 g Ps. m-2.año-1, y la relación P/B de1.41 año-1. La mayor producción secundaria ocurrió entre febrero 1985 y agosto 1985 (65%), con el mayor aporte por el intervalo 60.00-79.95 mm (45.73%). Se observaron cambios significativos en la variación mensual del índice de condición (IC= (Ps/ Ph) x100) en dos clases de tallas analizadas, presentando los valores más altos en julio de 1985 (26.84%) y el mínimo en enero de 1985 (16.31%). Abstract in english Production and condition index of a turkeywing (Arca zebra) population were studied from August 1984 to August 1985 in Pariche, Cariaco Gulf, Venezuela. Production was studied through bimonthly collections using a method designed for populations with continuous reproduction and indistinguishable age [...] classes. The population distribution was stable with a mean density of 37 ind.m-2. A production of 131.61 g dry weight m-2.year-1 was calcuclated from data on density, biomass and weight increase along the year. Highest production was between February 1985 and August 1985 (65%) and concentrated in individuals 60.00-79.95 mm long (45.73%). There was large seasonal variation in the mean monthly condition index (IC= (Ps/Ph) x100) in the two size classes examined: it reached a maximum in July 1985 (26.84%) and a minimum in January 1985 (16.31%).

  16. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata)

    OpenAIRE

    Gary E. Rodrick; Monteiro, W.; W. A. Sodeman Júnior

    1981-01-01

    The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros), B. tenagophila (Caçapava) and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil). All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specifi...

  17. Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

  18. Seasonal Impact On Nutriotnal Content In Marine Mollusca From Mid Coast Of Ratnagiri District.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shaikh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations play an important role in nutritional content (protein, glycogen and lipid in mollusc. Environmental factors like temperature, salinity changes as change in seasons which affects on consumption and availability of molluscan food. Besides this, their various physiological processes are concerned respective to season like reproduction. Heavy rainfall is one of the responsible factor for nutritional content in mollusc. Variation in protein, glycogen and lipid with spawning in marine gastropod molluscs. Giese (1969 had emphasized that mollusc lack discrete nutrition storage depots such as the vertebrate liver, the subdermal and mental adipose tissue of mammals and lipid of lower invertebrate. Therefore nutrients storage occurs primarily through production of new cellular elements, seasonal shifts in protein, lipid and glycogen level are merely reflections of their relative rates of synthesis and degradation.

  19. Notes on natural infection of some Helicidae spp. (Mollusca, Stylommatophora) by Protostrongylinae sheep larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Manga-González, M. Yolanda; Morrondo-Pelayo, M. Patrocinio

    1980-01-01

    This work summarizes facts about natural infection by Protostrongylinae of the 8 Heicella spp. which, according to studies by GITTENBERGER & MANGA (1977) and MANGA (1977) are to be found in the province of León. These species belong to the Helicellinae Subfamily...

  20. Notes on some slugs (Mollusca, Stylommatophora) of the N.W. part of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castillejo, José; Manga-González, M. Yolanda

    1983-01-01

    In this work, the characteristics (geological, geographical, etc.) of the research area (Galicia and León) together with the taxonomical, anatomi— cal, ecological and biogeographical study of 15 species of slugs are summarised....

  1. Evidence for the main foot protein gene in Perna perna (Mollusca, Mytilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clezar, C; Weber, L I; Malaquias, G S; Silva, P O

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigated the gene that encodes the main protein component of the byssus in Perna perna (Ppfp) using a consensus fluorescent probe for the Mytilus group and by polymerase chain reaction amplification using specific and random primers. A 524-bp fragment resulting from polymerase chain reaction amplification was found to be homologous to the fp-1 gene of Mytilus coruscus. This fragment was identified as the 3' end of the Ppfp-1 gene, which included the heptapeptide coding sequence for Lys-Pro-Ser-Tyr-Pro-Pro-Ter (probably the incomplete last tandem repeat unit of the giant exon), the stop codon and the polyadenylation signal. PMID:18752182

  2. Using DNA barcoding to differentiate invasive Dreissena species (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    OpenAIRE

    Marescaux, Jonathan; Van Doninck, Karine

    2013-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) are considered as the most competitive invaders in freshwaters of Europe and North America. Although shell characteristics exist to differentiate both species, phenotypic plasticity in the genus Dreissena does not always allow a clear identification. Therefore, the need to find an accurate identification method is essential. DNA barcoding has been proven to be an adequate procedure to discriminate ...

  3. Using DNA barcoding to differentiate invasive Dreissena species (Mollusca, Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Marescaux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis are considered as the most competitive invaders in freshwaters of Europe and North America. Although shell characteristics exist to differentiate both species, phenotypic plasticity in the genus Dreissena does not always allow a clear identification. Therefore, the need to find an accurate identification method is essential. DNA barcoding has been proven to be an adequate procedure to discriminate species. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (COI is considered as the standard barcode for animals. We tested the use of this gene as an efficient DNA barcode and found that it allow rapid and accurate identification of adult Dreissena individuals.

  4. Nucularcidae: A new family of palaeotaxodont Ordovician pelecypods (Mollusca) from North America and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojeta, J., Jr.; Stott, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The new Ordovician palaeotaxodont family Nucularcidae and the new genus Nucularca are described. Included in Nucularca are four previously described species that have taxodont dentition: N. cingulata (Ulrich) (the type species), N. pectunculoides (Hall), N. lorrainensis (Foerste), and N. gorensis (Foerste). All four species are of Late Ordovician (Cincinnatian; Katian) age and occur in eastern Canada and the northeastern USA. Ctenodonta borealis Foerste is regarded as a subjective synonym of Nucularca lorrainensis. No new species names are proposed. The Nucularcidae includes the genera Nucularca and Sthenodonta Pojeta and Gilbert-Tomlinson (1977). Sthenodonta occurs in central Australia in rocks of Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) age. The 12 family group names previously proposed for Ordovician palaeotaxodonts having taxodont dentition are reviewed and evaluated in the Appendix. ?? 2007 NRC Canada.

  5. Wood-Boring Bivalves (Mollusca: Teredinidae, Pholadidae) of Pacific coast of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve species of wood-boring bivalves, ten of the family Teredinidae and two of family Pholadidae were collected in mangroves at 6 locations of the Pacific coast of Colombia. This paper presents a brief description of these species, including size, ecological notes and geographical distribution.

  6. A new species of the genus Crenilabium (Mollusca, Heterobranchia, Acteonidae) from Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Ricardo L., Simone.

    Full Text Available Crenilabium birmani, uma nova espécie de Acteonidae é descrita conquiliologicamente para a costa sudeste e sul do Brasil. A espécie nova é o primeiro registro do gênero para o sul do Atlântico Oeste e difere em detalhes e proporções da sutura e abertura. Duas variantes de sutura foram detectadas, al [...] guns espécimes apresentam sutura simples, enquanto outros uma sutura funda e escalonada. Informações sobre um possível espécime de Crenilabium figurado por Abbott (1974), representando Rictaxis punctocaelatus, é discutido neste, com a ilustração do holótipo desta espécie. Abstract in english Crenilabium birmani, a new species of acteonid is conchologically described from the southwestern and southern coast of Brazil. The new species is the fist record of the genus for the South Western Atlantic and differ in details and proportions of the suture and aperture. Two variants of the suture [...] were detected, some specimens have simple suture, while others possess a deep, scaled suture. Information about a possible specimen of Crenilabium figured by Abbott (1974) representing Rictaxis punctocaelatus is here discussed, and its holotype if figured.

  7. A new species of the genus Crenilabium (Mollusca, Heterobranchia, Acteonidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Crenilabium birmani, a new species of acteonid is conchologically described from the southwestern and southern coast of Brazil. The new species is the fist record of the genus for the South Western Atlantic and differ in details and proportions of the suture and aperture. Two variants of the suture were detected, some specimens have simple suture, while others possess a deep, scaled suture. Information about a possible specimen of Crenilabium figured by Abbott (1974 representing Rictaxis punctocaelatus is here discussed, and its holotype if figured.Crenilabium birmani, uma nova espécie de Acteonidae é descrita conquiliologicamente para a costa sudeste e sul do Brasil. A espécie nova é o primeiro registro do gênero para o sul do Atlântico Oeste e difere em detalhes e proporções da sutura e abertura. Duas variantes de sutura foram detectadas, alguns espécimes apresentam sutura simples, enquanto outros uma sutura funda e escalonada. Informações sobre um possível espécime de Crenilabium figurado por Abbott (1974, representando Rictaxis punctocaelatus, é discutido neste, com a ilustração do holótipo desta espécie.

  8. Genetic sex determination, gender identification and pseudohermaphroditism in the knobbed whelk, Busycon carica (Mollusca: Melongenidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Avise, John C.; Power, Alan J.; Walker, DeEtte

    2004-01-01

    We report perhaps the first genic-level molecular documentation of a mammalian-like 'X-linked' mode of sex determination in molluscs. From family inheritance data and observed associations between sex-phenotyped adults and genotypes in Busycon carica, we deduce that a polymorphic microsatellite locus (bc2.2) is diploid and usually heterozygous in females, hemizygous in males, and that its alleles are transmitted from mothers to sons and daughters but from fathers to daughters only. We also em...

  9. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

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    Tëmkin Ilya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  10. Sinanodonta woodiana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae: Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers

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    Elena Iulia Iorgu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 is a large Unionid species with a real invasion success. It colonized Europe, Central America, the Indonesian Islands and recently North America. The species life cycle involves a larval parasitic stage on freshwater fish species which contributes to the spread of the mussel. In this paper we describe, for the first time, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the species Sinanodonta woodiana. The genetic screening of individuals confirmed that all loci were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 14 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.650 to 0.950. These loci should prove useful to study the species population genetics which could help to infer important aspects of the invasion process.

  11. Kadmium in Valsbaai: moniteringspotensiaal van die mariene slak, Oxystele tigrina (Mollusca

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    Koot Reinecke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available n Opname is onderneem van die kadmiumvlakke in die tussengetygebied van Valsbaai, Suid-Afrika. Kadmiumkonsentrasies is seisoenaal bepaal in die water en sediment in verskillende lokaliteite. Die metings is oor ’n periode van een jaar gedoen deur seisoenaal monsters te versamel by ses verskillende versamelpunte in en een buite die baai. Dit is met behulp van atoom-absorpsiespektrofotometrie ontleed vir kadmium en die hoogste kontaminasievlakke is by die noordelike kusstreek gevind tussen Strand en Muizenberg waar die digsbevolkte gebiede en die eeste industriële aktiwiteit voorkom. Betekenisvolle variasie in konsentrasies van kadmium het seisoenaal en ruimtelik voorgekom. Die gemiddelde konsentrasies in die water en sediment was in sommige gevalle effens hoër as die vlakke wat deur die Suid-Afrikaanse waterkwalitetis-riglyne aanbeveel is. Kadmiumkonsentrasies is ook in versamelde eksemplare van die mariene slak Oxystele tigrina vir verskillende seisoene vir drie lokaliteite bepaal. Laboratoriumeksperimente is uitgevoer om die opname, akkumulasie en verlies van kadmium in verskillende organe van die tussen-getyslak, Oxystele tigrina te ondersoek. Weefselspesi? eke kadmiumkonsentrasies in kontrole- sowel as blootgestelde lewende eksemplare is vergelyk oor ’n blootstellingsperiode van veertien dae. Die eksperimentele slakke is aan twee subletale konsentrasies van onderskeidelik 0.20 en 0.40 µg/ml watergedraagde kadmium in die vorm van CdCl 2 blootgestel. Die proefdiere is gereeld gemonitor en kadmiumkonsentrasies is in verskillende organe, na suurvertering, atoomabsorpsie-spektrofotometries bepaal. Die resultate het ’n algemene toename van kadmium in die liggame van die slakke uitgewys. Kadmium is in variërende konsentrasies in alle weefsel gevind. ’n Ongeveer liniêre patroon van akkumulasie het aangetoon dat die metaal waarskynlik nie deur O. tigrina gereguleer is nie. Die metaal se teenwoordigheid het verskil tussen die sagteweefsel en skulp op so ’n wyse dat die sagteweefsel normaalweg ’n hoër opnamekoers van die kadmium weerspieël het. Nadat die blootgestelde organismes in kadmiumvrye seewater oorgeplaas is, het gedeeltelike kadmiumverlies wel plaasgevind. Die variasie in kadmiumverlies van die verskillende organe dui moontlik daarop dat slegs ’n gedeelte van die geakkumuleerde kadmium sterk gebind was in sekere weefsels of organe. Die behoud van kadmium in beide sediment en diereliggame was sodanig dat afgelei kan word dat kadmium teen huidige omgewingskonsentrasies in sekere dele van Valsbaai, wat algemeen as laag beskou word, steeds met verloop van tyd in hierdie tussengetydiere kan akkumuleer tot vlakke wat nadelig is vir die spesies self, maar ook vir hulle redatore. Dit sal veral kan gebeur indien ? siese toestande verander om die biobeskikbaarheid te verhoog.

  12. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Pointier JP; Noya, O; B. Alarcón de Noya; Théron, A.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large ...

  13. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JP, Pointier; O, Noya; B, Alarcón de Noya; A, Théron.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea c [...] ousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed.

  14. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata, intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JP Pointier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large distribution area throughout the Northern part of Venezuela and was encountered from sea level to an altitude of 1,802 m in state of Trujillo. The second local species L. cousini was collected at only two sites of the Andean Region at altitudes of 3,550 m and 4,040 m, respectively. The European L. truncatula was found at 24 sites all located in the states of Mérida and Táchira at an altitude varying between 1,540-4,000 m. The respective distribution areas of L. cubensis and L. truncatula do not appear to overlap, but more detailed malacological surveys are needed. The fourth lymnaeid species, L. columella was collected in a canal from Mérida at an altitude of 1,929 m and in an irrigation canal from the state of Guárico, at an altitude of 63 m. The role of these four lymnaeid species in the transmission of fascioliasis in Venezuela is discussed.

  15. Biochemical Composition Of The Squid (Loligo Vulgaris) (Mollusca) From The Mediterranean Waters Off Alexandria, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El Sayed, Abdel Fattah M. [??? ?????? ???? ?????

    1996-01-01

    The seasonal biochemical variations of the squid Loligo vulgaris from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters off Alexandria were studied during November 1989 through August 1990. Water, lipid, protein and ash contents were determined in the mantles of 353 individuals representing a wide range of sizes of both males and females. Average monthly values of these parameters in both sexes followed approximately the same trends. An increase in body water was noticed in spring and early summer. Maximum m...

  16. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, ?-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  17. Morphological and histological organization of the pyriform appendage of the tetrabranchiate Nautilus pompilius (Cephalopoda, Mollusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spintzik, Jessica; Springer, Jochen; Westermann, Bettina

    2009-04-01

    The pyriform appendage, an organ only found in nautiloid cephalopods was investigated with histological, histochemical and ultrastructural methods in order to characterize the anatomical and the cytological structure of this organ. The pyriform appendage is situated within the genital septum and lies in close contact with the ventricle of the heart. The proximal side ends blindly near the gonad whereas the distal side is developed into a duct. The duct was observed to open into the mantle cavity in juvenile and adult Nautilus pompilius of both sexes. Injections of India ink in the heart demonstrate that the organ is supplied with hemolymph from an artery that extends from the heart. The pyriform appendage is a hollow organ consisting mainly of glandular tissue. The lumen is covered with a columnar epithelium, the tunica mucosa, consisting of only one cell type containing vacuoles with different inclusions. Underneath the tunica mucosa is the tunica muscularis, which is embedded in connective tissue and folded, enlarging the internal surface. A cuboidal tunica serosa surrounds this organ. The vacuoles and the secretory products contain neutral mucopolysaccharides, glycoproteins and glycolipids. Acid phosphatase and serotonin were localized in the tunica mucosa. Acetylcholinesterase, catecholamines and the tetrapeptide FMRF-amide were demonstrated within the nerve endings of the tunica muscularis indicating a dual "cholinergic-aminergic" neuroregulation, possibly modulated by FMRF-amide. These findings suggest that the pyriform appendage is not a rudimentary organ but instead has distinct biological functions in nautiloid cephalopods, possibly in intraspecific communication. PMID:19107812

  18. The sensorial structures of Spondylus americanus Hermann,1781 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Spondylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Gomes Viana; Cristina de Almeida Rocha-Barreira

    2007-01-01

    Adult animals of Spondylus americanus were analyzed and specialized sensorial structures, the sensorial papillae and the eyes, were characterized. The sensorial papillae were projections on the edge of the mantle in form of light brown fingers which had function of percepting stimulus coming from the medium. They were constituted by loose conjunctive tissues with longitudinal muscular fibers and externally covered by ciliated cubic epithelium, which presented high amount of melanocytes that g...

  19. Biología reproductiva del pulpo Octupus mimus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda de la región de Matarani, Arequipa, Perú

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    Victor Ishiyama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available De mayo de 1995 a abril de 1996, se realizaron al azar muestreos mensuales de 25 ejemplares de Octopus mimus de los desembarques del puerto de Matarani, Arequipa (16° 59'40"S y 72° 06'13"W. Son animales gonocóricos, presentan dimorfismo sexual, y los machos tienen el brazo ectocotilizado o copulador. La proporción de sexos fue de 2,1:1,0 a favor de los machos; se determinaron ocho estadios de desarrollo de los ovocitos, durante la ovogénesis. De acuerdo a su comportamiento reproductivo, se estableció la siguiente escala de madurez gonadal: a indiferenciado, b inmaduro, c inicio de maduración, d en desarrollo, e maduros, fl cópula, g postcópula, autofecundación y evacuación, h postevacuación. Las hembras maduras se encontraron preferentemente, en la primavera y verano; los machos maduros a fines de la primavera y en el verano; la cópula se realizó preferentemente durante el verano; la autofecundación y evacuación de los huevos, se evidenciaron en agosto (50%, octubre 50%, noviembre (71,4%, diciembre (33% y enero (33%. La primera madurez en los machos se encontró a los 9,5 cm y en las hembras a los 12,5 cm de la longitud dorsal del cuerpo. Se observó algunas hembras con ovocitos maduros en lisis y con inicio de ovogénesis avanzada de un nuevo ciclo, que evidencia que no todas las hembras mueren después de cuidar los huevos hasta el final de la eclosión.

  20. Molecular systematics of the marine gastropod families Trochidae and Calliostomatidae (Mollusca: Superfamily Trochoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S T; Donald, K M; Spencer, H G; Nakano, T

    2010-03-01

    This study is the most extensive molecular study of the gastropod families Trochidae and Calliostomatidae published to date, in terms of both numbers of taxa and of gene sequences. As a result of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data from one nuclear gene and three mitochondrial genes, we propose dramatic changes to Trochidae family systematics, present the first molecular phylogeny for Calliostomatidae and include the first published sequence data for the enigmatic subfamily Thysanodontinae. Our phylogeny demonstrates that within the family Trochidae there is strong support for three subfamilies new to traditional classifications: Alcyninae subfam. nov., Fossarininae and Chrysostomatinae subfam. nov. As proposed, Alcyninae consists only of the nominotypical genus Alcyna, which is sister to all other trochids. The subfamily Fossarininae, as defined here, includes Fossarina, Broderipia, Synaptocochlea and "Roya"eximia and probably also Clydonochilus and Minopa. The subfamily Chrysostomatinae comprises the genera Chrysostoma and Chlorodiloma. Additional molecular support is also obtained for recently redefined Trochinae, Monodontinae, and Cantharidinae and for the traditionally recognised subfamilies Umboniinae and Stomatellinae. The subfamily Lirulariinae is not supported by the molecular data, but rather is incorporated into Umboniinae. We also demonstrate that the current concept of the subfamily Margaritinae (previously a trochid subfamily, but recently and provisionally assigned to Turbinidae) is not monophyletic. We provide preliminary evidence that whereas Margarella rosea (previously a member of Margaritinae) belongs in the trochid subfamily Cantharidinae, its presumptive congener M. antarctica is not a trochid, but instead clusters with the thysanodontine genus Carinastele. Based on the phylogenetic placement of C. kristelleae, we agree with previous proposals based on morphological data that Thysanodontinae are more closely related to Calliostomatidae than Trochidae. Both Calliostoma and Carinastele are carnivorous and if a sister relationship can be confirmed between Carinastele and Margarella antarctica it might mean that carnivory evolved twice in Trochoidea. The direction of dietary changes was not investigated in this study, but mapping diet onto the phylogeny suggests that true herbivory is predominantly a derived character. The new classification system also means that five trochid subfamilies are predominantly associated with hard substrata, one with soft substrata (Umboniinae) and two with algae and seagrass (Alcyninae and Cantharidinae). There has been a shift back to hard substrata in one umboniine clade. Two of three clades within Calliostomatidae were predominantly associated with hard substrata, but one Japanese clade is associated with sand. The finding of three new, unidentified species from very deep water means that Trochidae, like Calliostomatidae, now includes species found at bathyal depths. More deep-water species may be found as increased sampling leads to the discovery of new species. PMID:19919851

  1. Biostratigraphy and palaeoecology of the marine Pleistocene of Rhodes, Greece: Scleractinia, Serpulidae, Mollusca and Brachiopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen J K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A biostratigraphical and palaeoecological study of the Pleistocene marine fauna from the Kallithea area (northeast Rhodes, Greece has been conducted. In this area, the Lindos Bay Clay and the Cape Arkhangelos Calcarenite, which constitute the Rhodes Formation, are well exposed in ancient quarries. The study has revealed the presence of 120 mollusc taxa, viz scaphopods (3 taxa, bivalves (65, gastropods (52 and indeterminate polyplacophorans, together with brachiopods (6 taxa, corals (3 and serpulids (7. The fauna of the Lindos Bay Clay contains counterparts of the modern biocoenoses of the coastal detritic (DC and muddy detritic bottoms (DE, whereas the Cape Arkhangelos Calcarenite shows evidence of the coralligenous biocoenosis (C, the biocoenosis of the 'Posidonia' meadows (HP, the biocoenosis of the photophilic algae (AP, the biocoenosis of fine-grained, well-sorted sand (SFBC, and the biocoenosis of coarse-grained sands and fine gravels under bottom currents (SGCF. The Windmill Bay Boulder Bed and the Kleopolu Calcirudite, which comprise the overlying Lindos Acropolis Formation, contain indeterminate bivalves and gastropods between eroded blocks from the Cape Arkhangelos Calcarenite. The Lindos Acropolis Formation shows remains of the coralligenous biocoenosis (C. The taxa identified confirm the warm-temperate conditions in the northeastern Mediterranean during the Pleistocene. Finds of Arctica islandica, which can be considered a 'northern guest', indicate the Pleistocene age of the Cape Arkhangelos Calcarenite. Two uranium/thorium dates of bivalves also support this age. Pteropods in the uppermost Lindos Bay Clay also suggest a Pleistocene age.

  2. Freshwater bivalve mollusca (unionidae, sphaeriidae, corbiculidae) of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A guide to freshwater bivalve molluscs found at the Savannah River Plant is presented. A dichotomous taxonomic key is provided to common forms and to unreported species whose geographic distributions include nearby localities. Discussions of ecology, life history, larval hosts, and other pertinent information is provided

  3. On the morphology of Laevapex vazi n. sp. from Brazil (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of Laevapex vazi n. sp. based on 8 specimens collectec in Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, is presented. Shell thin, diaphanous, with a light brown periostracum and moderately elliptical opening. Apex not pointed, smooth, situated on the right posterior region of the shell, inclined to the right often reaching the edge of the shell or extending beyond it. Concentric lines clearly visible; radial striation not visible or when perceptible very thin, here and there. Ratios: shell width/shell lenght = 0,60 - 0,67 (mean = 0,63; shell height/shell length = 0,50 - 0,61 (mean = 0,55; shell height/shell width = 0,33 - 0,40 (mean = 0,35. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation concentrated on the left side; three muscles are seen: a round posterior one on the left side, an elliptical muscle on the right anterior side and an almost almond-shaped one on the left anterior side. Tentacles with a medium core of black pigment. Pseudobranch two-lobed and folded, the dorsal lobe smaller than the vetral one. Ovotestis with 20 unbranched diverticula, around a short collecting canal. Ovispermiduct with an enlargement with several round outpocketings constituting the seminal vesicle. Carrefour as a round sac. Albumen gland almost cylindrical with several acinous diverticula. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the galndular wall of the uterus; uterus flattened and thin-walled. Spermathecal body almost rounded. Pear-shaped prostate without diverticula. Penial complex without flagellum but with well-developed ultra-penis and penis. Jaw horseshoe shaped. Radular forma 20.1.20; raquidian tooth quadricuspid, asymmetrical. The genus Laevapex Walker, 1903 is recorded for the first time in Brazil. It is easily distinguished from South American Gundlachia Pfeiffer, 1849 by its penial complex. Laevapex vazi is dedicated to Dr. Jorge Faria Vaz, from SUCEN-SP, who have been sent to me the specimens.

  4. Diversidad malacológica en una comunidad de Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalvia)en Chacopata, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antulio S., Prieto; Lilia J., Ruiz; Natividad, García; Miyosky, Alvarez.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad malacológica de una comunidad submareal de Arca zebra se estudió, desde septiembre, 1990 hasta septiembre, 1991, en Chacopata, Estado Sucre, Venezuela. Se identificaron 40 especies (24 de bivalvos y 16 de gasterópodos). Los parámetros de diversidad en número de la comunidad fueron bajo [...] s (H` = 2.087 bits /ind., J` = 0.392, Simpson = 0.528) cuando se comparan con otros reportes de áreas tropicales. Los datos del número de individuos por especies con el rango conforman una línea recta ajustada por la serie logaritmica, con un índice de diversidad (a) de 5.66. Las máximas diversidades mensuales se observaron en septiembre, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind.) y julio, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind.), la mínima ocurrió en junio, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.). De las 40 especies identificadas, la pepitona, Arca zebra fue la especie dominante en número (68.87 %) y en biomasa (72.34 %), seguida por Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla y Anadara notabilis. Los gasterópodos predadores Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons y Murex recurvirostris parecen tener relaciones tróficas con la especie dominante. La biomasa promedio total en peso húmedo con la concha (469.20 + 263 g m-2) es alta e indica que A. zebra, la especie dominante de rápido crecimiento, desempeña el papel más importante en la comunidad como un eficiente filtrador, que convierte el alimento planctónico en biomasa disponible, soportando una de las pesquerías más importantes de la región. Abstract in english The diversity of a subtidal epifaunal mollusk community was studied from September, 1990 to September, 1991 in Chacopata, Sucre State, Venezuela. There were 40 species (24 bivalves and 16 gastropods). The diversity indexes (H` = 2.087, J`=0.392, 1/D = 0.528) were low when compared with other tropica [...] l zones. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in September, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind.) and July, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind.); minimum diversity occurred in June, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.). A Log series model applied to species abundance data showed a straight line with a diversity index a of 5.56. Of 40 species identified, the turkeywing Arca zebra was dominant (69 % in number of individuals and 72 % of biomass) followed by Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla and Anadara notabilis. The predatory snails Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons and Murex recurvirostris seemed to have trophic relationships with A. zebra. The total mean biomass in wet weight (469.20 + 263g m-2, shell included) was high which indicates that A. zebra, a species with a rapid growth rate, occupies a central role in the assemblage as an efficient filter feeder that converts planktonic food into available biomass, supporting one of the most important fisheries in Venezuela.

  5. An energy budget for the subtidal bivalve Modiolus barbatus (Mollusca) at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezgeta-Bali?, D; Rinaldi, A; Peharda, M; Prusina, I; Montalto, V; Niceta, N; Sarà, G

    2011-02-01

    Clearance rates, respiration rates and food absorption efficiencies of the commercially interesting subtidal bivalve Modiolus barbatus were measured at different temperatures under laboratory conditions and scope for growth calculated. Clearance rates were highest at temperatures from 20 °C to 28 °C, whereas respiration rate was maximal at 9 °C and minimal at 26 °C. Highest mean values of absorbed energy occurred at 20 °C and 26 °C. Scope for growth trend had negative values at 9 °C, 15 °C and 28 °C and positive values at temperatures 20 °C and 26 °C. The profitable thermal window for M. barbatus to have energy sufficient for growth and reproduction corresponded to <5 months per year. Seawater temperature increases will potentially impact the eco-physiological responses of subtidal M. barbatus causing life history traits to change with important repercussions for subtidal biodiversity in the Mediterranean. PMID:21093040

  6. Diversidad malacológica en una comunidad de Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalviaen Chacopata, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antulio S. Prieto

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad malacológica de una comunidad submareal de Arca zebra se estudió, desde septiembre, 1990 hasta septiembre, 1991, en Chacopata, Estado Sucre, Venezuela. Se identificaron 40 especies (24 de bivalvos y 16 de gasterópodos. Los parámetros de diversidad en número de la comunidad fueron bajos (H` = 2.087 bits /ind., J` = 0.392, Simpson = 0.528 cuando se comparan con otros reportes de áreas tropicales. Los datos del número de individuos por especies con el rango conforman una línea recta ajustada por la serie logaritmica, con un índice de diversidad (a de 5.66. Las máximas diversidades mensuales se observaron en septiembre, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind. y julio, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind., la mínima ocurrió en junio, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.. De las 40 especies identificadas, la pepitona, Arca zebra fue la especie dominante en número (68.87 % y en biomasa (72.34 %, seguida por Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla y Anadara notabilis. Los gasterópodos predadores Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons y Murex recurvirostris parecen tener relaciones tróficas con la especie dominante. La biomasa promedio total en peso húmedo con la concha (469.20 + 263 g m-2 es alta e indica que A. zebra, la especie dominante de rápido crecimiento, desempeña el papel más importante en la comunidad como un eficiente filtrador, que convierte el alimento planctónico en biomasa disponible, soportando una de las pesquerías más importantes de la región.The diversity of a subtidal epifaunal mollusk community was studied from September, 1990 to September, 1991 in Chacopata, Sucre State, Venezuela. There were 40 species (24 bivalves and 16 gastropods. The diversity indexes (H` = 2.087, J`=0.392, 1/D = 0.528 were low when compared with other tropical zones. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in September, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind. and July, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind.; minimum diversity occurred in June, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.. A Log series model applied to species abundance data showed a straight line with a diversity index a of 5.56. Of 40 species identified, the turkeywing Arca zebra was dominant (69 % in number of individuals and 72 % of biomass followed by Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla and Anadara notabilis. The predatory snails Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons and Murex recurvirostris seemed to have trophic relationships with A. zebra. The total mean biomass in wet weight (469.20 + 263g m-2, shell included was high which indicates that A. zebra, a species with a rapid growth rate, occupies a central role in the assemblage as an efficient filter feeder that converts planktonic food into available biomass, supporting one of the most important fisheries in Venezuela.

  7. A new genus and species of cavernicolous Pomatiopsidae (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda) in Bahia, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Ricardo L., Simone.

    Full Text Available Spiripockia punctata é gênero e espécie novos de Pomatiopsidae encontrado em uma caverna da Serra Ramalho, SW Bahia, Brasil. O táxon é troglóbio (restrito à vida subterrânea), caracterizado pela concha levemente alongada, frágil, translúcida, normalmente esculturada por pústulas contendo pelos do pe [...] rióstraco no topo das pústulas; perístoma altamente expandido; umbílico aberto; dente raquidiano da rádula com 6 cúspides apicais e 3 pares de basais; osfrádio curto e curvo; filamentos branquiais com topo arredondado; próstata achatada, com vaso deferente inserindo subterminalmente; ducto do pênis fracamente sinuoso; oviduto palial anteriormente simples, possuindo um by-pass convoluto da base da porção bulbosa da porção entre oviduto visceral e palial com a base do receptáculo seminal; ducto da espermateca completo, originado da glândula de albume. A descrição dessa espécie endêmica deve contribuir com ações protetivas do ambiente da caverna e à área da Serra Ramalho. Abstract in english Spiripockia punctatais a new genus and species of Pomatiopsidae found in a cave from Serra Ramalho, SW Bahia, Brazil. The taxon is troglobiont (restricted to subterranean realm), and is characterized by the shell weakly elongated, fragile, translucent, normally sculptured by pustules with periostrac [...] um hair on tip of pustules; peristome highly expanded; umbilicus opened; radular rachidian with 6 apical and 3 pairs of lateral cusps; osphradium short, arched; gill filaments with rounded tip; prostate flattened, with vas deferens inserting subterminally; penis duct narrow and weakly sinuous; pallial oviduct simple anteriorly, possessing convoluted bypass connecting base of bulged portion of transition between visceral and pallial oviducts with base of seminal receptacle; spermathecal duct complete, originated from albumen gland. The description of this endemic species may raise protective environmental actions to that cave and to the Serra Ramalho Karst area.

  8. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic parte of female duct to penial complex = 1.36 to 2.81 ((mean 1.90 +- 0.33; penial sheath to prepuce = 042 to 0.96 (mean 0.67 +- 0.13. Comparison with Morelet’s type specimens of Planorbis orbiculus and P. retusus points to the identity of those nominal species with B. obstructa.

  9. Biodiversidad de gasterópodos terrestres (Mollusca en el Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier, Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Miranda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se analizaron parámetros de diversidad de la malacofauna terrestre del Parque Biológico Sierra de San Javier. Se llevaron a cabo muestreos cualitativos y cuantitativos en parcelas de 10x10m tomadas en transectas altitudinales, para un total de 22 169 especímenes recolectados. Las identificaciones taxonómicas se llevaron a cabo a nivel de especie. Se construyó una matriz de especies por parcela para analizar patrones de diversidad y se utilizaron estimadores no paramétricos (ICE, ACE, Chao 1 y Chao 2 para calcular la diversidad del Parque, el grado de completitud del muestreo y la agregación espacial de los datos. Se calcularon los índices de Shannon, Simpson, Whittaker y Jaccard. La riqueza del Parque fue estimada en 32 especies distribuidas en 21 géneros y 13 familias. Solo una especie pertenece a Caenogastropoda, el resto son Pulmonados Stylommatophora y Systellommatophora. La familia más representada fue Charopidae mientras que la especie con mayor abundancia relativa fue Adelopoma tucma. La riqueza y diversidad fue levemente mayor en chaco seco que en bosque húmedo de Yungas. Los valores de diversidad obtenidos fueron elevados en comparación con estudios previos realizados en el noroeste Argentino.

  10. Biodiversidad de moluscos terrestres en México / Biodiversity of terrestrial mollusks in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edna, Naranjo-García.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Mollusca terrestres pertenecen exclusivamente a la clase Gastropoda. Son muy diversos en formas, tamaños (1 a 200-300 mm), hábitos, ambientes (por clima y vegetación), ciclos de vida y en la edad que alcanzan. Prosobranchia, con pocos representantes; los Pulmonata son los exitosos. Son presas o [...] depredadores. Hacia el final del siglo XIX e inicios del XX obras colosales conjuntaron la diversidad conocida entonces. Reconocemos 8 familias en Prosobranchia y 39 en Pulmonata, con 5 familias agregadas recientemente: Cerionidae, Eucalodiidae, Holospiridae, Epirobiidae y Echinichidae. El endemismo alcanza 62% en las familias pequeñas; las 1 184 especies terrestres mexicanas representan el 3.4% del total mundial y por hallarse habrá 2 200 más. Los patrones poblacionales de las familias Holospiridae y Epirobiidae están bien definidos pues se rigen por el tipo de suelo con caliza y/o dolomita. Los moluscos terrestres americanos son solitarios; empero, florecen poblaciones abundantes (Xerarionta, Praticolella, Humboldtiana). Bajo explotación local como alimento está Lysinoe ghiesbreghti. Nueve familias son las más diversas: Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae, Holospiridae, Helicinidae, Eucalodiidae, Helminthoglyptidae, Vertiginidae (= Pupillidae), Polygyridae y Humboldtianidae. La riqueza por estados es desigual, la de Veracruz es más conocida, mientras Aguascalientes y Tlaxcala carecen de registros. Entre 1891-1895 y 1926-1930 se describió un alto número de especies. En el grupo hacen falta estudios sobre los ciclos de vida, conducta y ecología. Abstract in english The land Mollusca are exclusively from the class Gastropoda. They are diverse in shapes, sizes (1 to 200-300 mm), habits, environments (by climate and vegetation), life cycles and life spans. Prosobranchia has the least number of species, Pulmonata is the richest. They are either preys or predators. [...] Towards the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century comprehensive works compiled the known diversity. We recognize 8 families in Prosobranchia, and 39 in Pulmonata, with 5 families: Cerionidae, Eucalodiidae, Holospiridae, Epirobiidae, Echinichidae, recently added. Endemism among the lesser families attains 62%; the 1 184 known Mexican terrestrial species represent 3.4% of the global molluscan diversity; 2 200 additional species are estimated yet to be found. The population patterns of the families Holospiridae and Epirobiidae are well established since they are defined by the presence of calcite and /or dolomite in the soil. Land American mollusks are solitary; however, some develop abundant populations (Xerarionta, Praticolella, Humboldtiana). Lysinoe ghiesbreghti is utilized locally for food consumption. Nine families are the most diverse: Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae, Holospiridae, Helicinidae, Eucalodiidae, Helminthoglyptidae, Vertiginidae, Polygyridae and Humboldtianidae. Richness per state is unequal; Veracruz is the best known, whereas Aguascalientes and Tlaxcala possess no records. Between the years 1891-1895 and 1926-1930, a great number of species were described. Studies on life cycles, behavior and ecology are still needed in the group.

  11. Taxocenosis of mollusks and crustaceans on roots of Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae at Cispatá Bay, Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alexander Quirós R

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the existing knowledge on the ecology of mangroves at Cispatá Bay, few studies have focused on the association of invertebrates on red mangrove roots, so between December 2010 and September 2011, it was characterized taxocenosis of mollusks and crustaceans on roots of Rhizophora mangle in two study sites at Cispatá Bay, Colombia. For the collections of biological material were randomly taken three red mangrove roots with a diameter. Mollusks and crustaceans were obtained from the root surface with a scraping knife then were removed and fixed in 10 % formalin for later identification to species using specialized taxonomic keys. Of the 12289 individuals collected in the four samples, 10470 belonged to the phylumMollusca (85,2 % and the remaining 1819 to subphylum Crustacea (14,8 %. For mollusks were identified 14 species distributed in 11 families and two classes; Bivalvia and Gastropoda. For crustaceans were identified 24 species distributed in 16 families and four orders; Sessillia, Decapoda, Isopoda and Amphipoda. In both sectors sampling Mytella charruana, Balanus eburneusand Crassostrea rhizophorae were the most important species in terms of abundance, however mollusks like M. charruana and B. eburneus have a great ability to adapt and adjust to changing hydroclimatic, which was reflected in the dominance of these species in the sector with the greatest influence Sinu River. The presence of crustaceans Petrolisthes armatus and Aratus pisonii in the sector with more proximity to the Caribbean Sea indicate that are species with great mobility and physiological adaptation mechanisms.TAXOCENOSIS DE MOLUSCOS Y CRUSTÁCEOS EN RAÍCESDE Rhizophora mangle (RHIZOPHORACEAEEN LA BAHÍA DE CISPATÁ, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIAA pesar del conocimiento existente sobre la ecología de los manglares en la bahía de Cispatá, pocos estudios han sido enfocados en invertebrados asociados a las raíces del mangle rojo. Entre diciembre 2010 y septiembre 2011, se evaluó la estructura de los ensamblajes de moluscos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces de Rhizophora mangle en dos sectores de muestreo de la bahía de Cispatá, Colombia. Para la recolección del material biológico se tomaron al azar tres raíces de mangle homogéneas en cuanto al diámetro. Los organismos fueron obtenidos de la raíz raspando la superficie con un cuchillo, luego fueron separados y fijados en formalina al 10% para su posterior identificación. De los 12289 individuos recolectados en los cuatro muestreos, 10470 pertenecieron al phylum Mollusca (85,2% y los restantes 1819 al subphylum Crustacea (14,8%. Para los moluscos se identificaron 14 especies distribuidas en 12 familias y dos clases; Bivalvia y Gastropoda. Para los crustáceos se identificaron 24 especies distribuidas en 16 familias y cuatro órdenes; Sessillia, Decapoda, Isopoda y Amphipoda. En los dos sectores de muestreo Mytella charruana, Balanus eburneus y Crassostrea rhizophorae fueron las especies más importantes en términos de abundancia, no obstante M. charruana y B. eburneus presentan una gran capacidad de adaptación y ajuste a las variaciones hidroclimáticas, mostrándose como especies fuertemente eurihalinas, lo que se relejó en la dominancia de dichas especies en el sector B. La presencia de Petrolisthes armatus y Aratus pisonii indica que son especies de bosques de manglar con gran movilidad y mecanismos de adaptación fisiológicos, lo que justifica su presencia en el sector A.  Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE

  12. TAXOCENOSIS DE MOLUSCOS Y CRUSTÁCEOS EN RAÍCES DE Rhizophora mangle (RHIZOPHORACEAE) EN LA BAHÍA DE CISPATÁ, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA / Taxocenosis of mollusks and crustaceans on roots of Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) at Cispatá Bay, Córdoba, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JORGE ALEXANDER, QUIRÓS R; JORGE ENRIQUE, ARIAS R.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del conocimiento existente sobre la ecología de los manglares en la bahía de Cispatá, pocos estudios han sido enfocados en la asociación de invertebrados en las raíces del mangle rojo, por lo que entre diciembre 2010 y septiembre 2011, se caracterizó la taxocenosis de moluscos y crustáceos e [...] n raíces de Rhizophora mangle en dos sectores de muestreo de la bahía de Cispatá, Colombia. Para la recolección del material biológico se tomaron al azar tres raíces de mangle homogéneas en cuanto al diámetro. Los moluscos y crustáceos fueron obtenidos de la raíz raspando la superficie con un cuchillo, luego fueron separados y fijados en formalina al 10 % para su posterior identificación hasta especie mediante claves taxonómicas especializadas. De los 12289 individuos recolectados en los cuatro muestreos, 10470 pertenecieron al phylum Mollusca (85,2 %) y los restantes 1819 al subphylum Crustacea (14,8 %). De moluscos se identificaron 14 especies distribuidas en 11 familias y dos clases; Bivalvia y Gastropoda. De crustáceos se identificaron 24 especies distribuidas en 16 familias y cuatro órdenes; Sessillia, Decapoda, Isopoda y Amphipoda. En los dos sectores de muestreo Mytella charruana, Balanus eburneus y Crassostrea rhizophorae fueron las especies más importantes en términos de abundancia, no obstante se sabe que moluscos como M. charruana y B. eburneus presentan una gran capacidad de adaptación y ajuste a las variaciones hidroclimáticas, lo que se reflejó en la dominancia de dichas especies en el sector con mayor influencia del río Sinú. La presencia de los crustáceos Petrolisthes armatus y Aratus pisonii en el sector con más cercanía al mar Caribe, indica que son especies de bosques de manglar con gran movilidad y mecanismos de adaptación fisiológicos. Abstract in english Despite the existing knowledge on the ecology of mangroves at Cispatá Bay, few studies have focused on the association of invertebrates on red mangrove roots, so between December 2010 and September 2011, it was characterized taxocenosis of mollusks and crustaceans on roots of Rhizophora mangle in tw [...] o study sites at Cispatá Bay, Colombia. For the collections of biological material were randomly taken three homogeneous mangrove roots in diameter. Mollusks and crustaceans were obtained from the root surface with a scraping knife then were removed and fixed in 10 % formalin for later identification to species using specialized taxonomic keys. Of the 12289 individuals collected in the four samples, 10470 belonged to the phylum Mollusca (85,2 %) and the remaining 1819 to subphylum Crustacea (14,8 %). For mollusks were identified 14 species distributed in 11 families and two classes; Bivalvia and Gastropoda. For crustaceans were identified 24 species distributed in 16 families and four orders; Sessillia, Decapoda, Isopoda and Amphipoda. In both sectors sampling Mytella charruana, Balanus eburneus and Crassostrea rhizophorae were the most important species in terms of abundance, however mollusks like M. charruana and B. eburneus have a great ability to adapt and adjust to changing hydroclimatic, which was reflected in the dominance of these species in the sector with the greatest influence Sinu River. The presence of crustaceans Petrolisthes armatus and Aratus pisonii in the sector with more proximity to the Caribbean Sea indicate that are species with great mobility and physiological adaptation mechanisms.

  13. The Purisima Formation at Capitola Beach, Santa Cruz County, CA: A Deeper Examination of Pliocene Fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. D.; Brooks, K.; Chen, R.; Chen, T.; James, T.; Gonzales, J.; Schumaker, D.; Williams, D.

    2005-12-01

    Fossil samples from the Pliocene Purisima Formation at Capitola Beach in Santa Cruz County, CA were collected in July-August 2005. The Purisima Formation composes the bulk of the cliffs exposed at Capitola Beach and a rich assemblage of well-preserved fossils occur in gray to brown sandstone and siltstone. Erosion of the cliff face averages 0.3 meter/year and fresh cliff falls in the winter and spring months of 2005 provided an excellent opportunity to resample the Capitola Beach section of the Purisima Formation previously documented by Perry (1988). Organisms were identified from information in Perry (1988) and were compared with collections at the California Academy of Sciences. The most abundant fossils found are from the phylum Mollusca, classes Bivalvia and Gastropoda. Abundant bivalve taxa are: Anadara trilineata, Clinocardium meekianum, Macoma sp., Protothaca staleyi, and Tresus pajaroanus. Also common are the gastropods, Calyptraea fastigata, Crepdiula princeps, Mitrella gausapata, Nassarius grammatus, Nassarius californianus, Natica clausa, and Olivella pedroana. Less common invertebrate fossils are from the phylum Echinodermata ( Dendraster sp., the extinct fossil sand dollar) and from the phylum Arthropoda ( Crustacea), crab fragments ( Cancer) and barnacles ( Balanus). Because numerous fossils are concentrated as fragments in shell beds, Norris (1986) and Perry (1988) believe many were redeposited as storm beds during strong current events that promoted rapid burial. In contrast, whale and other vertebrate bones are common in certain horizons and their presence may be related to the conditions that promoted phosphate mineralization, such as episodes of low sedimentation rates and prolonged exposure on the seafloor (Föllmi and Garrison, 1991). The bone beds, together with the rich infaunal and epifaunal invertebrate assemblages, represent a community of invertebrate organisms that thrived in a shallow marine sea during the Pliocene epoch, approximately 3-5 million years ago.

  14. Aspectos ultraestruturais de hemócitos de Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analisados sob microscopia eletrônica de transmissão Ultrastructural aspects of hemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae analysed with transmission eletronic microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hemócitos do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata, um importante transmissor do trematódeo Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil, foram coletados de especimens na região Bragantina, localizada a oeste do estado do Pará. Os hemócitos foram examinados por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. As células foram fixadas pelo método de rotina com o uso do tampão PHEM (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA e Magnésio. Foram descritos os aspectos ultra-estruturais celulares como inclusões citoplasmáticas limitadas por membranas, mitocôndrias, retículos endoplasmáticos e outros. As observações mostram que esse tampão possui a propriedade de preservação do citoesqueleto celular, apresentando bons resultados na preservação das estruturas dos hemócitos e suas organelas.The blood cells of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata from the region of Bragantina in the state of Pará, an important vector of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, were collected and fixed by routine method with PHEM buffer and examined with transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural cellular aspects like cytoplasmic inclusions, mitochondrion, vesicles and others organelles are described. The buffer used resulted in good preservations of the hemocytes and their organelles.

  15. Nueva especie del género Liotia (Gastropoda: Trochoidea: Liotiidae) del Pacífico sur oriental, norte de Chile / New species of the genus Liotia (Gastropoda: Trochoidea: Liotiidae) of the southeastern Pacific, northern Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cecilia, Osorio.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se describe una nueva especie del género Liotia descubierta en Bahía Inglesa, norte de Chile, el 8 de agosto de 2007. Liotia chilensis sp. nov. se caracteriza por presentar una concha planoespiral, gruesa, pequeña, ombligo abierto y de color blanco. La escultura externa de Liotia chi [...] lensis sp. nov. presenta cordones axiales primarias marcadas bien definidas y sobresalientes que la diferencian claramente de la especie simpátrica L. cancellata, el único representante del género descrito hasta ahora en la región. Liotia chilensis sp. nov. posee otras características diagnósticas adicionales, como una abertura de la concha con el borde liso y una leve prolongación triangular hacia la columela, lo que dispone una forma cuadrangular a la abertura. Las conchas de Liotia chilensis sp. nov. fueron encontradas sobre sustrato arenoso, entre 15 y 32 m de profundidad. Abstract in english This study describes a new species of the genus Liotia discovered in Bahía Inglesa, northern Chile, on 8 August 2007. Liotia chilensis sp. nov. is characterized by a planispiral shell which is thick, small, umbilicated and white. The external sculpture of L. chilensis sp. nov. has well-defined consp [...] icuous primary axial cords which clearly differentiate it from the sympatric species L. cancellata, the only species of this genus described up to now in Chile. As additional diagnostic character of L. chilensis sp. nov. is a shell aperture with a smooth border that has a slight triangular prolongation towards the columella, which gives a quadrangular form to the aperture. Shells of L. chilensis sp. nov. were found on sandy substrate between 15 and 32 m depth.

  16. Arion intermedius (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora): first record of this introduced slug in Chile, with notes on its anatomy and natural history / Arion intermedius (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora): primer registro de esta babosa introducida en Chile, con notas sobre su anatomía e historia natural

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FRANCISCO J, CÁDIZ; CARLOS S, GALLARDO.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se entregan los resultados y conclusiones de las observaciones anatómicas y de campo realizadas sobre un grupo de babosas terrestres capturadas principalmente en el parque Arboretum y Jardín Botánico de la Universidad Austral de Chile, en la ciudad de Valdivia, además de sus hallazgos puntuales en o [...] tros puntos del sur de Chile. Los ejemplares analizados corresponden a Arion intermedius Normand, 1852, especie endémica del este de Europa conocida en diversos lugares del mundo por su alta capacidad de colonización e invasión, ello aparentemente facilitado por su hábito de alimentación y particularmente su inusual estrategia reproductiva dentro de los pulmonados (autofecundación estricta). De esta manera, registramos una nueva especie introducida antrópicamente en Chile, sumándose de esta forma la familia Arionidae a las ya conocidas Limacidae, Agriolimacidae y Helicidae como una potencial amenaza a la agricultura y a la flora y fauna nativas chilenas Abstract in english Results and conclusions are presented on morphological and field observations made on a collection of land slugs from the Arboretum and Botanical Garden administered by the Universidad Austral de Chile at Valdivia, as well as various records from other collection sites in southern Chile. Based on so [...] me anatomical features, the individuals studied were identified as Arion intermedius Normand, 1852, endemic to eastern Europe, and known from various locations around the world for its invasive capacity, apparently facilitated by its feeding habits and particularly by its reproductive strategy of strict self fertilization which is unusual in pulmonates. This is the first report of this species, introduced to Chile by human activities, added to previous literature citing the presence of Limacidae, Agriolimacidae, and Helicidae. This slug is a potential threat to agriculture and to native flora and fauna of Chile

  17. Redescrição de Potamolithus catharinae com base em topótipos (Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae), rio Hercílio, Santa Catarina, Brasil / Redescription of Potamolithus catharinae based on topotypes (Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae), Hercílio river, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Maria Cristina Pons da, Silva; Inga Ludmila, Veitenheimer-Mendes.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Potamolithus catharinae Pilsbry, 1911 is characterized on specimens from Hercílio river, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, type-locality. Conchology, conchometry, soft-part morphology including head and food complex, pallial structures, radula and some aspects of the female and male reproductive syst [...] ems are provided.

  18. Malacofauna marinha da região costeira do Canal de São Sebastião, SP, Brasil: Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Polyplacophora e Scaphopoda / A faunal survey of the marine molluscs of the Channel of São Sebastião, SP, Brazil: Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Polyplacophora and Scaphopoda

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alvaro Esteves, Migotto; Cláudio Gonçalves, Tiago; Aimê Rachel Magenta, Magalhães.

    Full Text Available Um levantamento faunístico dos moluscos marinhos do Canal de São Sebastião foi realizado entre junho de 1982 e fevereiro de 1983. Um total de 195 espécies foram encontradas: 103 gastrópodes, 87 bivalves, 4 quitons e 1 escafópodo. 140 espécies pertecem a fauna caribeana, 22 são cosmopolitas ou circun [...] tropicais, 13 são endêmicas da costa brasileira e 10 pertecem à fauna patagônica. A maioria das espécies foi encontrada na região entremarés. São também listadas outras 142 espécies de moluscos registradas por outros autores para a região e não reencontradas. Foi notada uma redução no número de espécies ao se comparar os dados do presente trabalho com dados mais recentes, obtidos por outros autores. Levanta-se a hipótese de que esta situação é devida a poluição crônica e outros impactos ambientais. Abstract in english Between June 1982 and February 1983 a survey of the marine molluscs of the Channel of São Sebastião, State of São Paulo, was carried out A total of 195 species were found: 103 gastropods, 87 bivalves, 4 chitons, and 1 scaphopod. 140 species belong to the Caribbean fauna, 22 are circumtropical or wor [...] ldwide in distribution, 13 are endemic to the Brazilian coast, and 10 belong to the Patagonian fauna. Most species (77,6 %) were found in the intertidal zone. 142 species, recorded for the region by other authors and not found in the present survey, are also listed. A reduction in the number of species was also observed comparing the present data (1982-1983) with more recent data from other authors (1987-1989). This situation is probably due to chronic pollution and other environmental impacts.

  19. Aspectos ultraestruturais de hemócitos de Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) analisados sob microscopia eletrônica de transmissão / Ultrastructural aspects of hemocytes from Biomphalaria glabrata Say (1818) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) analysed with transmission eletronic microscopy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos, Santos; José Antonio Picanço, Diniz.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os hemócitos do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata, um importante transmissor do trematódeo Schistosoma mansoni no Brasil, foram coletados de especimens na região Bragantina, localizada a oeste do estado do Pará. Os hemócitos foram examinados por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. As células [...] foram fixadas pelo método de rotina com o uso do tampão PHEM (PIPES, HEPES, EGTA e Magnésio). Foram descritos os aspectos ultra-estruturais celulares como inclusões citoplasmáticas limitadas por membranas, mitocôndrias, retículos endoplasmáticos e outros. As observações mostram que esse tampão possui a propriedade de preservação do citoesqueleto celular, apresentando bons resultados na preservação das estruturas dos hemócitos e suas organelas. Abstract in english The blood cells of the pulmonate snail Biomphalaria glabrata from the region of Bragantina in the state of Pará, an important vector of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil, were collected and fixed by routine method with PHEM buffer and examined with transmission electron microscopy. Ultrast [...] ructural cellular aspects like cytoplasmic inclusions, mitochondrion, vesicles and others organelles are described. The buffer used resulted in good preservations of the hemocytes and their organelles.

  20. Estudo quantitativo de metais presentes na hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infectadas e não infectadas com Schistosoma mansoni Quantitative study of metal present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infected and uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para quantificar e comparar as concentrações de alguns metais presentes em duas amostras de hemolinfa do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (infectados e não-infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. A espectrometria de emissão óptica com fonte de plasma induzido (ICP-OES, foi utilizada para analisar os metais nas duas amostras. Os metais estudados foram: alumínio, cálcio, cádmio, cobalto, cromo, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, chumbo e zinco. Os resultados mostram que, a princípio, os metais não são fatores determinantes no processo de defesa desses organismos contra este parasita, quando presente nos seus tecidos.We conducted a preliminary study to quantify and compare two concentrations of the same metals present in the hemolymph of snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In this context, we used Induction Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES, to analyze the metals in the two samples (snails infected and not infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The metals studied were: aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, lead and zinc. Preliminary results showed that such metals are not involved in the defense of these organisms against the parasite, when present in their tissues.

  1. Atividade moluscicida de princípios ativos de folhas de Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanales, Solanaceae em Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Planorbidae Moluscicide activity of active principles in the leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanales, Solanaceae on Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Planorbidae

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    Vilma Leyton

    Full Text Available Foram obtidos extratos aquosos e alcoólicos a partir de pó de folhas secas de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. c.v. Cereja. Por extração metanólica e precipitação alcalina, foi obtido um produto que denominamos "glicoalcalóide esteroidal bruto" (GEb, no qual foi caracterizada a presença de tomatina. Em ensaios laboratoriais, os extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e o GEb apresentaram atividade moluscicida em Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818. O "glicoalcalóide esteroidal bruto" apresentou alta atividade moluscicida (CL50 = 8,01 ppm e CL90 = 13,17 ppm, comparável à atividade da tomatina. Desovas de B. glabrata mostraram-se resistentes aos extratos testados. Os níveis de atividade moluscicida apresentados pelos diversos extratos e o GEb, apontam apenas o GEb como candidato para a continuação dos estudos visando a sua possível utilização em campo.Aqueous and alcoholic extracts were obtained from crushed dried leaves of tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. c.v. Cherry. By the use of a methanolic extraction and alkaline precipitation, a product named crude steroidal glycoalkaloid (GEb, was obtained. The presence of tomatidine was characterized in this product. In laboratory, the aqueous and alcoholic extracts and GEb have shown molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818. The crude steroidal glycoalkaloid presented a high molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 8.01 ppm and LC90 = 13.17 ppm, similar to that of tomatine. None of the compounds tested affected B. glabrata egg masses. The level of activity showed by the different extracts and by the GEb, pointed out the GEb as the only candidate able to be considered for further tests toward field trials as molluscicidal agent.

  2. Avaliação dos problemas enfrentados no manejo do caramujo gigante africano Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) no Brasil / Evaluation of the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Colley; Marta Luciane, Fischer.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Paraná, Brazil, in the 1980s. Since then, it has spread across the country, despite its known invasive status on a global scale. The main objective of this study was to assess the problems faced in the management of the giant [...] African snail. To accomplish that, we gathered and analyzed information available on the internet, scientific databases, field studies, as well as interviews and consultations with official agencies, NGOs, museums, the scientific community and people that coexist with the species. Despite the fact that extensive information has been generated regarding A. fulica (1,340 articles, 65 summaries in national annals, 40,700 pages on the internet), essential to promote control measures to hinder the propagation of this species, the majority of the available information remains inaccessible to the world at large. Moreover, the environmental, economic and health impacts of this species remain unclear, which may contribute to discouraging the initiation of management actions. Finally, control measures are still inefficient due to the generalist profile of this species and the lack of knowledge concerning its biology and ecology. Thus, in conclusion, even though A. fulica has been an invasive species for over a century in many other countries, it is difficult to find evidence supporting the need to subsidize its management. This may be an indication that many other, poorly known exotic species will have time and the proper conditions to become established and cause problems before they come to be recognized as invasive.

  3. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae) en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central / Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae) in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RUBÉN E., SOTO; JUAN C., CASTILLA; FRANCISCO, BOZINOVIC.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificam [...] os la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayores densidades de individuos de A. monodon fueron observadas en la franja intermareal cercana al nivel cero de marea. En terreno, A. monodon realiza sus actividades de forrajeo principalmente durante la noche y su dieta consistió principalmente de mitílidos (95 %) y cirripedios (5 %). La composición de la dieta de A. monodon en terreno presentó variaciones temporales las cuales dependerían principalmente de cambios en la oferta de los distintos tipos de mitílidos presentes en terreno durante los dos años de muestreo. En el laboratorio, los individuos de Acanthina presentaron preferencias alimentarias significativas por el mitílido Semimytilus algosus. En general, A. monodon bajo condiciones de laboratorio presentó una conducta de forrajeo en la cual maximizó la ganancia neta de energía, mediante la selección de las especies y tamaños de presas que le retribuyen la mayor rentabilidad energética Abstract in english We investigated the ecology and foraging behavior of Acanthina monodon, a muricid gastropod that inhabits in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile. In the field, we studied temporal variation of their spatial distribution, density, and diet composition. While in the laboratory, we quantified [...] the consumption rate, alimentary preferences, ingestion times and energy profitability obtained with different types of prey using experiments and video recording. High densities of A. monodon individuals were observed in the intertidal fringe near at the level tide zero. In the field, A. monodon actively foraged at night preying mainly on mussels (95 %) and barnacles (5 %). Temporal variation in diet composition of A. monodon was caused mostly by changes in the cover of different mussel species during the two years of sampling. In the laboratory, individual of A. monodon showed significant preference for the mussel Semimytilus algosus. In these experiments, A. monodon's foraging behavior maximized the net gain of energy by selecting species and sizes of prey that provided the greatest energy profitability

  4. Conducta de forrajeo del gastrópodo Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae) en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central Foraging behavior of the gastropod Acanthina monodon Pallas, 1774 (Gastropoda: Muricidae) in the intertidal rocky shores of central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    RUBÉN E. SOTO; Castilla, Juan C.; FRANCISCO BOZINOVIC

    2004-01-01

    En el presente trabajo investigamos aspectos de la ecología y conducta de forrajeo de Acanthina monodon, un gastrópodo murícido que habita en el intermareal rocoso de Chile central. En terreno, estudiamos las variaciones temporales en su distribución, densidad y dieta. En el laboratorio, cuantificamos la tasa de consumo, las preferencias alimentarias, el tiempo de ingestión y la rentabilidad energética obtenida con distintos tipos de presas mediante experimentos y registros en video. Las mayo...

  5. Estudo quantitativo de metais presentes na hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda), infectadas e não infectadas com Schistosoma mansoni / Quantitative study of metal present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda), infected and uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos, Santos; Edilson da Silva, Brabo; Bruno Santana, Carneiro; Kleber de Freitas, Faial; Isabel Raimunda Carvalho, Rodrigues.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para quantificar e comparar as concentrações de alguns metais presentes em duas amostras de hemolinfa do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (infectados e não-infectados com Schistosoma mansoni). A espectrometria de emissão óptica com fonte de plasma induzido (ICP-O [...] ES), foi utilizada para analisar os metais nas duas amostras. Os metais estudados foram: alumínio, cálcio, cádmio, cobalto, cromo, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, chumbo e zinco. Os resultados mostram que, a princípio, os metais não são fatores determinantes no processo de defesa desses organismos contra este parasita, quando presente nos seus tecidos. Abstract in english We conducted a preliminary study to quantify and compare two concentrations of the same metals present in the hemolymph of snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In this context, we used Induction Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES), to analyze the metals in the two samples (snail [...] s infected and not infected with Schistosoma mansoni). The metals studied were: aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, lead and zinc. Preliminary results showed that such metals are not involved in the defense of these organisms against the parasite, when present in their tissues.

  6. Parámetros reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata (Duelos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae, en la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata (Duclos, 1832 (Gastropoda, Thaididae in La Rinconada marine reserve, Antofagasta, Chile

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    Marcela Cantillánez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Para obtener antecedentes reproductivos y poblacionales de Thais chocolata que contribuyan a validar su actual normativa pesquera, se realizó un estudio en el área protegida de la reserva marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile, entre diciembre 2008 y enero 2010. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron a nivel reproductivo, que el desarrollo gonadal de la población es asincrónico, encontrándose ejemplares en diferentes etapas de maduración durante el año. Los individuos maduros se estratificaron entre 5 y 13 m de profundidad, y gran parte del año formaron agregaciones a 5 m de profundidad. Se determinaron períodos de mayor madurez en julio-agosto, y en noviembre-enero, manifestándose las agregaciones más importantes al final de ellos. Una relación se observó entre meses de mayor madurez y registro de agregaciones, con aquellos de mayor variación intradiaria de temperatura. A nivel poblacional los resultados permitieron estimar una población de 2,3*10(6 ejemplares, donde el 39% se encontró sobre la talla mínima legal (TML = 55 mm. Los parámetros de crecimiento mostraron crecimiento relativamente lento, que podría estar influenciado por la alta variabilidad que presenta la temperatura de fondo en este sector. Mientras que su talla crítica, y la talla de primera madurez sexual poblacional, resultaron ser mayores a la TML. Se determinó la necesidad de revisar la normativa pesquera actual de esta especie, y se demostró la efectividad de las reservas marinas propiciadas por el Estado en la conservación de los recursos marinos.Reproductive and population parameters of Thais chocolata that would contribute to the validation of the current extraction standards were obtained by performing a study in the protected area of La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile, from December 2008 to January 2010. In terms of reproduction, the results revealed asynchronic gonad development in the population, with specimens in different stages of maturity throughout the year. Mature individuals were distributed between 5 and 13 m depth, forming aggregations at 5 m depth during much of the year. Periods of greater maturity were observed from July to August and November to January, with the most important aggregations at the end of both periods. A relationship was observed between the months with the greatest maturity and aggregations and the months with the highest daily temperature fluctuations. At the population level, the results allowed us to estimate 2.3*10(6 individuals, with 39% of this population over the minimum legal size (55 mm. The relatively slow growth estimated for this population was probably influenced by the high variability of the bottom temperature in this area. The critical size and size at first maturity of the population were higher than the minimal legal size, making it is necessary to review the current fishing regulation for this species. The effectiveness of the State marine reserves in the conservation of this marine resource was demonstrated.

  7. The effects of temperature and oxygen availability on intracapsular development of Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae) / El efecto de la temperatura y la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre el desarrollo intracapsular de Acanthina monodon (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MIRIAM, FERNÁNDEZ; PAULA, PAPPALARDO; KATHERINE, JENO.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los organismos marinos y dulceacuícolas muestran modelos similares de cuidado parental y están confrontados con similares restricciones para incubar, lo que sugiere que existen límites ambientales comparables guiando la evolución del cuidado parental en sistemas acuáticos. El bajo coeficiente de dif [...] usión y la baja solubilidad del oxígeno en ambientes acuáticos afecta la adquisición de oxígeno y por lo tanto la capacidad para agregar los embriones. El efecto de otras variables ambientales críticas, como la temperatura, es menos claro. Se evaluaron los efectos de la temperatura y la disponibilidad de oxígeno sobre (1) el número de embriones desarrollados y sin desarrollar, (2) la proporción de embriones que alcanza estados avanzados de desarrollo (contabilizando no solo embriones desarrollados y sin desarrollar sino también anormales), (3) la asincronía en el desarrollo (estimada solo cuando ocurrió desarrollo embrionario), y (4) el tamaño final, con el objetivo final de identificar las limitaciones que estos factores imponen sobre el cuidado parental en el mar. La especie modelo fue el gastrópodo Acanthina monodon. Cápsulas recientemente depositadas fueron colectadas e incubadas bajo diferentes condiciones experimentales de temperatura (7, 11, 15 y 19 °C) y oxígeno (hipoxia: 50-60 % saturación de aire; normoxia; e hiperoxia: 150-160 %). Más embriones permanecieron en fases tempranas del desarrollo al final del experimento en hipoxia y a 19 °C. El número promedio de embriones desarrollados fue significativamente más bajo en hipoxia que bajo normoxia e hiperoxia, pero no fue influenciado por la temperatura. Sin embargo, la temperatura de incubación afectó otras variables de respuesta. Menores tamaños de los embriones y mayores niveles de asincronía al final del desarrollo fueron observados en las más altas temperaturas experimentales, lo que podría tener consecuencias negativas sobre la sobrevivencia posasentamiento. Las altas temperaturas también afectan el comportamiento y los costos asociados a la provisión de oxígeno a los embriones en braquiuros. Estas evidencias sugieren que agregar embriones en el océano, aun en condiciones óptimas de oxígeno, podría ser desfavorable a altas temperaturas. Los patrones espaciales de distribución de especies incubadoras tienden a apoyar esta predicción. Nuestro análisis también cobra relevancia en el escenario actual de aumento de la temperatura media de los océanos y de la proporción de zonas anóxicas Abstract in english Freshwater and marine organisms show similar models of parental care and are faced with similar constraints to brood, which suggest that comparable environmental limits drive the evolution of parental care in aquatic systems. In fact, the low diffusion coefficient and solubility of oxygen in aquatic [...] environments affect oxygen acquisition and therefore the capacity to aggregate embryos. The effect of other critical environmental variables, such as temperature, is less clear. We assessed the effects of temperature and oxygen availability on (1) the number of developed and undeveloped encapsulated embryos, (2) the proportion of embryos reaching advanced stages during intracapsular development (counting not only developed and undeveloped embryos but also abnormal embryos), (3) asynchrony in development (estimated only in capsules in which development occurred), and (4) final embryo size, as the first step toward identifying the main factors constraining parental care in the ocean. We used the gastropod Acanthina monodon as a model because it has an extended latitudinal range of distribution and exhibits feeding larvae during intracapsular development. The latter factor is relevant because previous studies have suggested that sibling cannibalism could be triggered by intracapsular competition for oxygen. Freshly laid egg capsules were collected and incubated until embryos hatched under different experimental temperatures (7, 11, 15 and 19 °C) and oxygen conditions (hypoxia: 50-60 % air saturat

  8. Variabilidad geográfica en la tolerancia térmica y economía hídrica del gastrópodo intermareal Nodilittorina peruviana (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822 Geographic variability in thermal tolerance and water economy of the intertidal gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae, Lamarck, 1822

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    JOSE MIGUEL ROJAS

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available El gastrópodo Nodilittorina peruviana es un habitante común de la zona intermareal rocosa de la costa norte y centro de Chile. Las poblaciones de esta especie se caracterizan por presentar distribuciones agregadas. Por medio de mediciones de terreno y ensayos de laboratorio se evaluó la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades de termorregulación y conservación de agua, en individuos pertenecientes a dos localidades de la costa de Chile que presentan distintos regímenes termales (Taltal 25º 25' S; 70º 29' W y Las Cruces 33º 35' S; 71º 38' W. Los resultados indican que la influencia de la agregación sobre las habilidades termorregulatorias es dependiente de las condiciones locales. A pesar de que los individuos de ambas localidades presentaron puntos de tolerancia térmica similares, los caracoles de Taltal mostraron tasas de pérdidas de agua menores. El tamaño de las agregaciones se relacionó en forma negativa con la tasa de pérdida de agua de los individuos de ambas localidades. En el caso de Taltal se observó un límite de tolerancia menor que en Las Cruces y una relación positiva entre tamaño de la agregación y temperatura grupal. Los resultados demuestran que las condiciones ambientales locales puede ser determinante para la efectividad de los mecanismos de termorregulación.The gastropod Nodilittorina peruviana inhabit rocky intertidal of the north and center Chile. Populations of this species exhibits aggregated distributions. Through field and lab records we studied the effect of spatial distribution of snails on their thermoregulatory and water conservation efficiencies. We studied individuals from two localities of the Chilean coast with different climatic conditions (Taltal 25° 25 ` S; 70° 29 ` W and Las Cruces 33° 35 ` S; 71° 38 ` W. Results indicate that the influence of spatial distribution thermoregulatory efficiency is dependent of the local conditions. Although individuals from both localities presented similar thermal tolerances, snails from Taltal showed lower rates of water loss. Aggregations size were negatively related with the rate of water loss in individuals from both localities. Only, individuals from Taltal decreased their limit of thermal tolerance, and exhibited a positive relationship between aggregation size and the temperature of the group. Results demonstrated that the local environmental conditions are determinate thermoregulatory strategies.

  9. EL GÉNERO ECHINOLITTORINA HABE, 1956 (GASTROPODA: LITTORINIDAE) DE LOS ECOSISTEMAS ROCOSOS DE LA COSTA PACÍFICA COLOMBIANA / The genus Echinolittorina Habe, 1956 (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) from rocky shores of Colombian Pacific Coast

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ÁLVARO, GIRALDO-CARDONA; FANNY LORENA, GONZÁLEZ-ZAPATA; LUZ ÁNGELA, LÓPEZ DE MESA-AGUDELO; EDGARDO, LONDOÑO-CRUZ; JAIME R., CANTERA-K..

    2014-06-30

    Full Text Available Se analizaron taxonómicamente por medio de caracteres de la concha 233 especímenes del género Echinolittorina (familia Littorinidae) recolectados en ecosistemas rocosos del Pacífico colombiano. Los especímenes revisados se encuentran depositados en la Colección de Referencia de Biología Marina de la [...] Universidad del Valle (CRBMUV) y provienen de localidades en los departamentos de Valle del Cauca (Bahía Málaga, Bahía de Buenaventura), Cauca (Isla Gorgona, Guapi) y Nariño (Mulatos, Parque Nacional Natural Sanquianga). Hasta este trabajo, se pensaba que esta familia estaba representada solamente por tres especies en el Pacifico colombiano y en este estudio se registran seis especies: Echinolittorina apicina, E. atrata, E. conspersa, E. dubiosa, E. paytensis, y E. tenuistriata. Se incluye una descripción morfológica de cada una de ellas para facilitar su identificación. Abstract in english Shell characters were used to carry out a taxonomic analysis of 233 specimens of the family Littorinidae collected at rocky shores on the Colombian Pacific coast. The specimens were deposited in the Marine Biology Reference Collection-Universidad del Valle. The lots included in the study were from V [...] alle del Cauca ( Malaga and Buenaventura bays), Cauca ( Gorgona Island) and Nariño ( Sanquianga National Natural Park) departments. Six species are reported in this work (Echinolittorina apicina, E. atrata, E. conspersa, E. dubiosa, E. paytensis, and E. Tenuistriata), although the family was previously thought to be represented in the Colombian Pacific coast by three species. To facilitate their identification, a morphological description of each species is also presented.

  10. Review of the geographic distribution of Hoffmannola hansi (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the Mexican Pacific / Revisión del ámbito de distribución geográfica de Hoffmannola hansi (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) en el Pacífico mexicano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Omar Hernando, Avila-Poveda; Quetzalli Yasú, Abadia-Chanona; Raúl, Herrera-Fragoso; Benoît, Dayrat.

    Full Text Available Hoffmannola hansi (babosa de cuero intermareal mexicana) es tradicionalmente registrada como una especie endémica del golfo de California, México. Sin embargo, su presencia en el sur del Pacífico mexicano ha sido mencionada en listas de control y en informes regionales. Ofrecemos nuevos registros de [...] poblaciones de H. hansi de al menos 3 localidades de Oaxaca, México. Las características anatómicas que ayudan a identificar a H. Hansi se describen para ejemplares vivos y conservados. Se mencionan los ejemplares desde el golfo de California hasta Oaxaca, México, proporcionando una distribución ampliada a lo largo del Pacífico mexicano. Un mapa con la distribución geográfica de H. Hansi también se actualiza. Por lo tanto, esta especie no es endémica del golfo de California, sino que está bien distribuida en el Pacífico mexicano. Sin embargo, su distribución es discontinua, con la posible existencia de 2 especies crípticas geográficamente separadas por la brecha sinaloense: una en el Norte (golfo de California) y otra en el Sur. Sigue siendo necesario realizar trabajo adicional para explorar en mayor detalle la distribución geográfica completa de las poblaciones de H. hansi en toda la costa del Pacífico mexicano. Abstract in english Hoffmannola hansi (Mexican intertidal leather slug) is traditionally reported as an endemic species to the Gulf of California, Mexico. However, its presence in the southern Mexican Pacific has been mentioned in regional checklists and reports. Here we provide new records of H. hansi populations from [...] at least 3 locations from Oaxaca, Mexico. The anatomical characteristics useful for H. hansi identification are described for both, living and preserved specimens. Specimen's reports from the Gulf of California to Oaxaca, Mexico, are mentioned, yielding a revised distribution throughout the Mexican Pacific. A map with the wider geographic distribution of H. hansi is also updated. Therefore, this species is not "endemic" to the Gulf of California, but is distributed throughout the Mexican Pacific. However its distribution is discontinuous with the possible existence of 2 cryptic species geographically separated by the Sinaloan gap: 1 in the North (Gulf of California) and 1 in the South. Additional work is needed to explore in more detail the complete geographical range of H. hansi populations on the entire Mexican Pacific Coast.

  11. Analysis of the secondary structure of mitochondrial LSU rRNA of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae: Gastropoda) / Análisis de la estructura secundaria del LSU rRNA mitocondrial de caracoles terrestres peruanos (Orthalicidae: Gastropoda)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge, Ramirez; Rina, Ramírez.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available El alineamiento de genes ribosomales es dificultoso debido a eventos de inserción y deleción de nucleótidos, convirtiendo el alineamiento en ambiguo; esto puede ser superado utilizando la información de la estructura secundaria. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la utilidad de la estructur [...] a secundaria en mejorar el alineamiento del gen 16S rRNA de caracoles terrestres de la familia Orthalicidae. Se evaluaron 10 especies de Orthalicidos (5 géneros). El ADN total fue aislado y parte del gen 16S rRNA fue amplificado y secuenciado usando primers internos. Las secuencias fueron alineadas con ClustalX y corregidas a mano, en formato DCSE, usando la estructura secundaria del 16S rRNA de Albinaria caerulea (Pulmonata: Clausiliidae). Las secuencias obtenidas variaron de 323 a 345 pb correspondiendo a partes del dominio IV y V del gen 16S rRNA. Se pudo recuperar por homología la estructura secundaria para los Orthalicidos usando RnaViz 2.0. La mayoría de las hélices son conservadas, siendo en general los bucles más variables. El fenómeno de mutaciones compensatorias en las hélices, estaría relacionado con la conservación de la estructura. La ausencia de un "bulge-stem-loop" en el dominio V ubica a la familia Orthalicidae dentro de Heterobranchia. Abstract in english The alignment of ribosomal genes is difficult due to insertion and deletion events of nucleotides, making the alignment ambiguous. This can be overcome by using information from the secondary structure of ribosomal genes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of the secondary structure i [...] n improving the alignment of the 16S rRNA gene in land snails of the family Orthalicidae. We assessed 10 Orthalicid species (five genera). Total DNA was isolated and the partial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using internal primers. The sequences were aligned with ClustalX and manually corrected, in DCSE format, using the 16S rRNA secondary structure of Albinaria caerulea (Pulmonata: Clausiliidae). The sequences obtained ranged from 323 to 345 bp corresponding to parts of both domains IV and V of the 16S rRNA gene. The secondary structure was recovered by homology using RnaViz 2.0. Most stems are conserved, and in general the loops are more variable. The compensatory mutations in stems are related to maintenance of the structure. The absence of a bulge-stem-loop in domain V places the family Orthalicidae within the Heterobranchia.

  12. Avaliação de efeitos de espécies de mangue na distribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae no Ceará, nordeste do Brasil Evaluation of local effects of mangrove species on the distribution of Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae in Ceara, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela C. Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 é um gastrópode pulmonado, macrodetritívoro, importante na transferência de energia em manguezais neotropicais, mas sua distribuição em diferentes escalas espaciais ainda é pouco conhecida nas regiões brasileiras. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a distribuição de M. coffeus com relação: 1 às espécies Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 à posição dos rizóforos de R. mangle e 3 à altura das árvores em diferentes manguezais. O seu comportamento ao longo do ciclo de marés também foi descrito. A densidade de M. coffeus foi similar entre R. mangle e L. racemosa, porém os maiores caramujos foram encontrados nas árvores de R. mangle. A distribuição dos caramujos encontrados no sedimento diferiu em relação aos rizóforos, com maior densidade no centro e o maior tamanho na borda da área amostral. Entretanto, não houve relação com a disponibilidade de recursos alimentares formados por folhas. A densidade também foi maior nos manguezais baixo e médio quando comparados ao alto, porém não foram encontradas diferenças de tamanho dos caramujos em mangues de alturas distintas. Observamos também que, durante a maré alta, M. coffeus sobe nas árvores mais próximas. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados principalmente com a disponibilidade de recursos e abrigos fornecidos por R. mangle. Desta forma, novos estudos sobre a distribuição de M. coffeus sob diversas condições são recomendáveis, já que as regiões de manguezais estão cada vez mais sujeitas a perturbações.Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a pulmonate, macrodetritivore gastropod, important in energy flows in neotropical mangroves, but its distribution in different spatial scales is still unknown in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of M. coffeus: 1 among the mangrove trees Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae and Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2 in relation to the position of R. mangle prop roots and 3 among mangroves with different tree heights. Further, its behavior along one tidal cycle was also described. The densities of M. coffeus did not differ between R. mangle and L. racemosa, but the largest snails were found on R. mangle. The distribution of snails found on the sediment differed relative to the position of the prop roots, with the highest density in the center and largest size in the edge of the studied areas. However, this distribution was not related with the availability of food resources provided by decayed leaves. Higher densities were also recorded in intermediate and low-stature mangroves when compared with taller ones, but no differences in snail's sizes among mangroves were found. During the high tide, M. coffeus individuals climb nearby trees. These results are possibly related to the availability of resources and shelter supplied by R. mangle. Thus, studies on the distribution of M. coffeus in diverse conditions are essential, because mangroves are being intensively disturbed.

  13. Avaliação de efeitos de espécies de mangue na distribuição de Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae) no Ceará, nordeste do Brasil / Evaluation of local effects of mangrove species on the distribution of Melampus coffeus (Gastropoda, Ellobiidae) in Ceara, northeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafaela C., Maia; Marcel O., Tanaka.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758) é um gastrópode pulmonado, macrodetritívoro, importante na transferência de energia em manguezais neotropicais, mas sua distribuição em diferentes escalas espaciais ainda é pouco conhecida nas regiões brasileiras. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a dis [...] tribuição de M. coffeus com relação: 1) às espécies Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2) à posição dos rizóforos de R. mangle e 3) à altura das árvores em diferentes manguezais. O seu comportamento ao longo do ciclo de marés também foi descrito. A densidade de M. coffeus foi similar entre R. mangle e L. racemosa, porém os maiores caramujos foram encontrados nas árvores de R. mangle. A distribuição dos caramujos encontrados no sedimento diferiu em relação aos rizóforos, com maior densidade no centro e o maior tamanho na borda da área amostral. Entretanto, não houve relação com a disponibilidade de recursos alimentares formados por folhas. A densidade também foi maior nos manguezais baixo e médio quando comparados ao alto, porém não foram encontradas diferenças de tamanho dos caramujos em mangues de alturas distintas. Observamos também que, durante a maré alta, M. coffeus sobe nas árvores mais próximas. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados principalmente com a disponibilidade de recursos e abrigos fornecidos por R. mangle. Desta forma, novos estudos sobre a distribuição de M. coffeus sob diversas condições são recomendáveis, já que as regiões de manguezais estão cada vez mais sujeitas a perturbações. Abstract in english Melampus coffeus (Linnaeus, 1758) is a pulmonate, macrodetritivore gastropod, important in energy flows in neotropical mangroves, but its distribution in different spatial scales is still unknown in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of M. coffeus: 1) among the mang [...] rove trees Rhizophora mangle Rhizophoraceae and Laguncularia racemosa Combretaceae; 2) in relation to the position of R. mangle prop roots and 3) among mangroves with different tree heights. Further, its behavior along one tidal cycle was also described. The densities of M. coffeus did not differ between R. mangle and L. racemosa, but the largest snails were found on R. mangle. The distribution of snails found on the sediment differed relative to the position of the prop roots, with the highest density in the center and largest size in the edge of the studied areas. However, this distribution was not related with the availability of food resources provided by decayed leaves. Higher densities were also recorded in intermediate and low-stature mangroves when compared with taller ones, but no differences in snail's sizes among mangroves were found. During the high tide, M. coffeus individuals climb nearby trees. These results are possibly related to the availability of resources and shelter supplied by R. mangle. Thus, studies on the distribution of M. coffeus in diverse conditions are essential, because mangroves are being intensively disturbed.

  14. Pteropoda (Gastropoda, Thecosomata e Gymnosomata) coligidos ao largo dos arquipélagos de São Pedro e São Paulo, costa nordeste, Brasil / Pteropoda (Gastropoda, Thecosomata and Gymnosomata) collected along the northeast coast of the archipelago of São Pedro and São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdeni Soares de, Oliveira; Maria Eduarda L., Larrazábal.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Pteropoda studies were carried out offshore São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (0º56'2"N e 29º20'6"W) to assess biodiversity and spatial distribution. A Bongo net (mesh size 300 micrometer) was hauled obliquely from a depth between 0 and 50 m and Oand 100 m by the REVIZEE-SCORE/NE I oceanographic e [...] xpedition on board of the Brazilian Navy Oceanographic Ship Antares. Samples were collected at 16 stations from September to October 1995. A total of 880 organisms distributed in 20 species, 14 genera and 9 families were identified. At the layer 0-50 m, Creseis virgula (Rang (828) was the most frequent species (71.43%), followed by Limacina inflata (Orbigny, (836) and Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 18(3) (64.28%, each). ln terms of relative abundance outranked L. inflara (varying between 57.5 and 92.24%) and C. virgula (varying between 60.0 and 72.73%). At the layer 0-100 m, C. virgula was very frequent (80%), L. inflata (70%) and Cuvierina columnella (Rang (827) (40%) were frequent, other species had less than 30% of frequency. L. inflata varied from 37.5 to 100% and C. virgula from 42.42 to 100% of relative abundance. Species diversity varied from medium to low (

  15. Pteropoda (Gastropoda, Thecosomata e Gymnosomata coligidos ao largo dos arquipélagos de São Pedro e São Paulo, costa nordeste, Brasil Pteropoda (Gastropoda, Thecosomata and Gymnosomata collected along the northeast coast of the archipelago of São Pedro and São Paulo, Brazil

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    Valdeni Soares de Oliveira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Pteropoda studies were carried out offshore São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (0º56'2"N e 29º20'6"W to assess biodiversity and spatial distribution. A Bongo net (mesh size 300 micrometer was hauled obliquely from a depth between 0 and 50 m and Oand 100 m by the REVIZEE-SCORE/NE I oceanographic expedition on board of the Brazilian Navy Oceanographic Ship Antares. Samples were collected at 16 stations from September to October 1995. A total of 880 organisms distributed in 20 species, 14 genera and 9 families were identified. At the layer 0-50 m, Creseis virgula (Rang (828 was the most frequent species (71.43%, followed by Limacina inflata (Orbigny, (836 and Cavolinia inflexa (Lesueur, 18(3 (64.28%, each. ln terms of relative abundance outranked L. inflara (varying between 57.5 and 92.24% and C. virgula (varying between 60.0 and 72.73%. At the layer 0-100 m, C. virgula was very frequent (80%, L. inflata (70% and Cuvierina columnella (Rang (827 (40% were frequent, other species had less than 30% of frequency. L. inflata varied from 37.5 to 100% and C. virgula from 42.42 to 100% of relative abundance. Species diversity varied from medium to low ( < 2.0 bits.ind-1 in both layers. At the layer 0-50 m C. virgula was directly correlated to temperature and salinity, while at the layer 0-100 m L. inflata was correlated to these parameters, showing that these species are Tropical Water indicators.

  16. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil / Ecologia do caracol exótico Achatina fulica (Gastropoda:Pulmonata) no nordeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FS., Albuquerque; MC., Peso-Aguiar; MJT., Assunção-Albuquerque.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi documentar a distribuição e o estabelecimento de Achatina fulica, assim como sua preferência alimentar e aspectos comportamentais in situ. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida na cidade de Lauro de Freitas, Estado da Bahia, Brasil, durante os meses de novembro de 2001 a novembr [...] o de 2002. Usamos o método de esforço de captura determinado por homem/hora para calcular a abundância e distribuição, habitats preferidos, além de preferência alimentar. Vimos que a abundância e distribuição de A. fulica foram mais representativas em áreas urbanas, sobretudo cerca da linha de costa. Os terrenos e jardins de casas foram os locais preferidos pelos caracóis quando estavam em atividade. Os resultados indicaram que os caracóis A. fulica iniciam sua atividade no final da tarde e hibernam no meio da manhã. A comida preferida destes caracóis foram plantas vasculares como Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus Communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Nossos dados sugerem que o A. fulica está plenamente adaptado e estabelecido nesta cidade e, também, que ambientes modificados facilitam seu estabelecimento e dispersão. Entretanto, a perturbação humana, como a limpeza de terrenos pode ser um fator limitante para a persistência da população de A. fulica. Abstract in english The goal of this study was to document the distribution and establishment A. fulica such as their feeding preference and behavior in situ. The study was carried out at the city of Lauro de Freitas, Bahia state, Brazil, between November 2001 and November 2002. We used catch per unit effort methods to [...] determine abundance, distribution, habitat choice and food preferences. The abundance and distribution of A. fulica was most representative in urban area, mainly near to the coastline. Lots and house gardens were the most preferred sites during active hours. The results indicated that A. fulica started their activity at the end of the evening and stopped in mid-morning. Their preferred food were vascular plants such as Hibiscus syriacus, Ricinus communis, Carica papaya, Galinsonga coccinea, Lippia alba, Ixora coccinea, Musa parasidisiaca, Mentha spicata and Cymbopogon citrates. Our results indicate that A. fulica are well adapted and established in this city and modified environments facilitate their establishment and dispersion. However, human perturbation, such as clearance of lots could be limiting for the persistence of A. fulica populations.

  17. Gonad characterization and reproductive cycle of Collisella subrugosa (Orbigny, 1846 (Gastropoda: Acmaeidae in the Northeastern Brazil Caracterização da gônada e ciclo reprodutivo de Collisella subrugosa (Gastropoda: Acmaeidae no Nordeste do Brasil

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    C. A. ROCHA-BARREIRA

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Gonad characteristics and reproductive cycle in the acmaeid Collisella subrugosa from Northeastern Brazil were investigated. The individuals were collected monthly from February 1993 to April 1994 at Farol do Mucuripe Beach, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. There is no external characteristic on the shell and the soft body structures except the gonad that allows sex differenciation. The gonad of limpet Collisella subrugosa showned four stages (1 "partially ripe", (2 "ripe", (3 "partially spawned" and (4 "spawned", stages. The reproductive cycle is continous, with the maturation and spawning running parallelly in this population. The temperature was constant during the study period and it did not seem to be important to induce the spawning. The salinity had a weak negative correlation with the spawn process.As características da gônada e o ciclo reprodutivo de uma população de Collisella subrugosa foram estudados. Os indivíduos foram coletados mensalmente de fevereiro de 1993 a abril de 1994, na Praia do Farol do Mucuripe, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Não foi evidenciada nenhuma característica da concha e de outras estruturas da parte mole que permitisse identificar o sexo dos animais, exceto a gônada. A gônada de Collisella subrugosa apresentou as seguintes fases: (1 "parcialmente madura"; (2 "madura"; (3 "parcialmente esvaziada; e (4 "esvaziada". A reprodução é contínua, com a maturação e a eliminação de gametas ocorrendo paralelamente dentro da população. A temperatura manteve-se constante no período de estudo e não pareceu exercer influência no processo de eliminação dos gametas. A salinidade apresentou correlação negativa fraca no período de desova.

  18. Gonad characterization and reproductive cycle of Collisella subrugosa (Orbigny, 1846) (Gastropoda: Acmaeidae) in the Northeastern Brazil Caracterização da gônada e ciclo reprodutivo de Collisella subrugosa (Gastropoda: Acmaeidae) no Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    C. A. ROCHA-BARREIRA

    2002-01-01

    Gonad characteristics and reproductive cycle in the acmaeid Collisella subrugosa from Northeastern Brazil were investigated. The individuals were collected monthly from February 1993 to April 1994 at Farol do Mucuripe Beach, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. There is no external characteristic on the shell and the soft body structures except the gonad that allows sex differenciation. The gonad of limpet Collisella subrugosa showned four stages (1) "partially ripe", (2) "ripe", (3) "partially spawned"...

  19. Gonad characterization and reproductive cycle of Collisella subrugosa (Orbigny, 1846) (Gastropoda: Acmaeidae) in the Northeastern Brazil / Caracterização da gônada e ciclo reprodutivo de Collisella subrugosa (Gastropoda: Acmaeidae) no Nordeste do Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C. A., ROCHA-BARREIRA.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available As características da gônada e o ciclo reprodutivo de uma população de Collisella subrugosa foram estudados. Os indivíduos foram coletados mensalmente de fevereiro de 1993 a abril de 1994, na Praia do Farol do Mucuripe, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Não foi evidenciada nenhuma característica da concha e [...] de outras estruturas da parte mole que permitisse identificar o sexo dos animais, exceto a gônada. A gônada de Collisella subrugosa apresentou as seguintes fases: (1) "parcialmente madura"; (2) "madura"; (3) "parcialmente esvaziada; e (4) "esvaziada". A reprodução é contínua, com a maturação e a eliminação de gametas ocorrendo paralelamente dentro da população. A temperatura manteve-se constante no período de estudo e não pareceu exercer influência no processo de eliminação dos gametas. A salinidade apresentou correlação negativa fraca no período de desova. Abstract in english Gonad characteristics and reproductive cycle in the acmaeid Collisella subrugosa from Northeastern Brazil were investigated. The individuals were collected monthly from February 1993 to April 1994 at Farol do Mucuripe Beach, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. There is no external characteristic on the shell [...] and the soft body structures except the gonad that allows sex differenciation. The gonad of limpet Collisella subrugosa showned four stages (1) "partially ripe", (2) "ripe", (3) "partially spawned" and (4) "spawned", stages. The reproductive cycle is continous, with the maturation and spawning running parallelly in this population. The temperature was constant during the study period and it did not seem to be important to induce the spawning. The salinity had a weak negative correlation with the spawn process.

  20. First record of Thylaeodus (Gastropoda: Vermetidae) from the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean, with the description of a new species

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    Paula, Spotorno; Luiz Ricardo L., Simone.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The vermetid Thylaeodus equatorialis sp. nov. is endemic to the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, located at the mid equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The species is closely related to Thylaeodus rugulosus (Monterosato, 1878), as indicated by similar shell characters, coloration of the soft parts, and f [...] eeding tube scars. However, T. equatorialis sp. nov. mainly differs from T. rugulosus in the operculum/aperture diameter ratio (~79% versus 100%), by having well developed pedal tentacles and fewer egg capsules in brooding females. In addition, the new species has the following unique characteristics: size almost twice as large (shell, tube aperture, erect feeding tube, protoconch and egg capsules) as the other Atlantic species; unusual method of brooding egg capsules; radula with prominent and more numerous flanking cusps; and small pustules following the suture of the protoconch. A detailed discussion on the taxonomy and biology of vermetid Thylaeodus and allies is also presented.

  1. Shell morphology of the freshwater snail Gundlachia ticaga (Gastropoda: Ancylidae) from four sites in Ilha Grande, southeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Eduardo M., Lacerda; Igor C., Miyahira; Sonia B., Santos.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater snail Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962) is widely distributed in Brazil, but its morphology has been poorly studied. We compared the shell morphology of samples from four sites (Vila do Abraão, Vila de Provetá, Parnaioca and Praia do Sul) in Ilha Grande (Angra dos Reis, state [...] of Rio de Janeiro) in order to evaluate differences within and among four populations. We used nine morphometric characters representing shell size and shape. To analyze shell morphology we considered aperture shape, sculpture of teleoconch, apex carving and position. The resulting dataset was correlated by Pearson´s linear correlation and shell differences among populations were tested using ANOVA and Discriminant Function Analysis. The results showed that there is significant variation among populations concerning shell shape and morphology. Shells from preserved localities (Praia do Sul and Parnaioca) and shells from highly modified environments (Vila do Abraão and Vila de Provetá) were the most similar to each other. Results from the visual assessment and from the discriminant analysis were almost identical. The shell indices are the most important variables in the differentiation of samples. The observed variation corroborates the hypothesis that G. ticaga displays phenotypic plasticity, which may lead to wrong identifications. Narrower shells with an elongate aperture could be misidentified as Ferrissia Walker, 1903 and, broader shells with a roundish aperture could be wrongly identified as Burnupia Walker, 1912. We confirmed that the absence of radial lines is not a good diagnostic character for G. ticaga. The analysis of the apical micro-sculpture and soft parts is essential for a correct identification.

  2. Morphology of the shell of Happiella cf. insularis (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Systrophiidae) from three forest areas on Ilha Grande, Southeast Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amilcar Brum, Barbosa; Sonia Barbosa dos, Santos.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study on shell morphology variation among three populations of Happiella cf. insularis (Boëttger, 1889) inhabiting different areas (Jararaca, Caxadaço, and Parnaioca trails) at Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Linear and angular measurement [...] s, shell indices representing shell shape, and whorl counts were obtained from images drawn using a stereomicroscope coupled with a camera lucida. The statistical analysis based on ANOVA (followed by Bonferroni's test), Pearson's correlation matrix, and discriminant analysis enabled discrimination among the populations studied. The variable that most contributed to discriminate among groups was shell height. Mean shell height was greatest for specimens collected from Jararaca, probably reflecting the better conservation status of that area. Good conservation is associated with enhanced shell growth. Mean measurements were smallest for specimens from Parnaioca, the most disturbed area surveyed. Mean aperture height was smallest for specimens from Parnaioca, which may represent a strategy to prevent excessive water loss. Discriminant analysis revealed that the snails from Jararaca differ the most from snails collected in the two other areas, reflecting the different conservation status of these areas: shells reach larger sizes in the localities where the humidity is higher. The similarities in shell morphology were greater between areas that are more similar environmentally (Caxadaço and Parnaioca), suggesting that conchological differences may correspond to adaptations to the environment.

  3. Cm-p5: an antifungal hydrophilic peptide derived from the coastal mollusk Cenchritis muricatus (Gastropoda: Littorinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Abarrategui, Carlos; McBeth, Christine; Mandal, Santi M; Sun, Zhenyu J; Heffron, Gregory; Alba-Menéndez, Annia; Migliolo, Ludovico; Reyes-Acosta, Osvaldo; García-Villarino, Mónica; Nolasco, Diego O; Falcão, Rosana; Cherobim, Mariana D; Dias, Simoni C; Brandt, Wolfgang; Wessjohann, Ludger; Starnbach, Michael; Franco, Octavio L; Otero-González, Anselmo J

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides form part of the first line of defense against pathogens for many organisms. Current treatments for fungal infections are limited by drug toxicity and pathogen resistance. Cm-p5 (SRSELIVHQRLF), a peptide derived from the marine mollusk Cenchritis muricatus peptide Cm-p1, has a significantly increased fungistatic activity against pathogenic Candida albicans (minimal inhibitory concentration, 10 µg/ml; EC50, 1.146 µg/ml) while exhibiting low toxic effects against a cultured mammalian cell line. Cm-p5 as characterized by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance revealed an ?-helical structure in membrane-mimetic conditions and a tendency to random coil folding in aqueous solutions. Additional studies modeling Cm-p5 binding to a phosphatidylserine bilayer in silico and isothermal titration calorimetry using lipid monophases demonstrated that Cm-p5 has a high affinity for the phospholipids of fungal membranes (phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine), only moderate interactions with a mammalian membrane phospholipid, low interaction with ergosterol, and no interaction with chitin. Adhesion of Cm-p5 to living C. albicans cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy with FITC-labeled peptide. In a systemic candidiasis model in mice, intraperitoneal administration of Cm-p5 was unable to control the fungal kidney burden, although its low amphiphaticity could be modified to generate new derivatives with improved fungicidal activity and stability. PMID:25921828

  4. Growth rate fitting using the von Bertalanffy model: analysis of natural populations of Drepanotrema spp. snails (Gastropoda: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rumi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drepanotrema includes six species in Argentina. The life cycle in natural systems of Drepanotrema depressissimum, and D. lucidum has been little studied, except for some casual observations. The aim of this study is to analyze main population trends (age structures, recruitment periods, life span and curves of individual growth in Paiva pond, Argentina. We explored growth model fitting and comparison methodologies between species and environments in Paiva pond and Isla Martín García (IMG, to determine interspecific patterns. Theoretical curves of von Bertalanffy’s model for each population were contrasted with samplings using the ?2 test. Expected sizes were transformed into a percentage of maximum size and cohorts started from zero time, which allowed them to be independent of the real or estimated starting date and a comparison was possible. A similar time scale was used, because the k values proved to be sensitive to time scale. Maximum size reached by D. lucidum was 6.9 mm and by D. depressissimum 9.38 mm. Growth rates (k fluctuated from 1.302 to 1.368 in the first and 1.339 to 1.509 in the second species. No statistically significant differences were found in growth curves among species inhabiting the Paiva pond and in the different IMG water bodies independent of the beginning of each cohort and maximum size. In general, no winter cohorts were observed, except in one population of D. kermatoides (IMG. Comparing circannual and biannual growth rhythms most of the species reached 60 % of their development during their first year, and 85 % or more during their second year. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2: 559-567. Epub 2007 June, 29.En Argentina se encuentran seis especies del género Drepanotrema. El ciclo de vida en sistemas naturales de Drepanotrema depressissimu y D. lucidum ha sido muy poco estudiado, excepto por algunas observaciones aisladas. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las principales tendencias de la población en la Laguna Paiva, Argentina. Usamos modelos de crecimiento y metodologías comparativas entre las especies y los ambientes en Paiva y la isla Martín García (IMG. Además, las curvas teóricas del modelo de von Bertalanffy para cada población fueron contrastadas con las muestras utilizando la prueba ?². Los tamaños esperados fueron transformados en porcentajes de tamaño máximo y las cohortes se iniciaron a partir del tiempo cero, lo cual les permitió ser independientes de la fecha inicial real o estimada y con ello ser comparables. Se utilizó una escala de tiempo similar debido a que los valores de k demostraron ser sensibles a la escala de tiempo. El tamaño máximo alcanzado por D. lucidum fue de 6.9 mm y por D. depressissimun fue de 9.38 mm. Las tasas de crecimiento (k fluctuaron de 1.302-1.368 en la primera especie y 1.339-1.509 para la segunda especie. No fueron encontradas diferencias significativas en las curvas de crecimiento entre las especies que habitaban en Paiva ni en los diferentes cuerpos de agua de IMG, independientes del inicio de cada cohorte y del tamaño máximo. En general no se observaron cohortes de invierno, excepto en una población de D. kermatoides (IMG. Al comparar los ritmos de crecimiento anuales y semestrales, la mayoría de las especies alcanzaron el 60 % de su desarrollo durante el primer año y el 85 % ó más durante su segundo año.

  5. Growth rate fitting using the von Bertalanffy model: analysis of natural populations of Drepanotrema spp. snails (Gastropoda: Planorbidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandra, Rumi; Diego, E; Gregoric, Gutiérrez; M. Andrea, Roche.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina se encuentran seis especies del género Drepanotrema. El ciclo de vida en sistemas naturales de Drepanotrema depressissimu y D. lucidum ha sido muy poco estudiado, excepto por algunas observaciones aisladas. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las principales tendencias de la poblaci [...] ón en la Laguna Paiva, Argentina. Usamos modelos de crecimiento y metodologías comparativas entre las especies y los ambientes en Paiva y la isla Martín García (IMG). Además, las curvas teóricas del modelo de von Bertalanffy para cada población fueron contrastadas con las muestras utilizando la prueba ?². Los tamaños esperados fueron transformados en porcentajes de tamaño máximo y las cohortes se iniciaron a partir del tiempo cero, lo cual les permitió ser independientes de la fecha inicial real o estimada y con ello ser comparables. Se utilizó una escala de tiempo similar debido a que los valores de k demostraron ser sensibles a la escala de tiempo. El tamaño máximo alcanzado por D. lucidum fue de 6.9 mm y por D. depressissimun fue de 9.38 mm. Las tasas de crecimiento (k) fluctuaron de 1.302-1.368 en la primera especie y 1.339-1.509 para la segunda especie. No fueron encontradas diferencias significativas en las curvas de crecimiento entre las especies que habitaban en Paiva ni en los diferentes cuerpos de agua de IMG, independientes del inicio de cada cohorte y del tamaño máximo. En general no se observaron cohortes de invierno, excepto en una población de D. kermatoides (IMG). Al comparar los ritmos de crecimiento anuales y semestrales, la mayoría de las especies alcanzaron el 60 % de su desarrollo durante el primer año y el 85 % ó más durante su segundo año. Abstract in english The genus Drepanotrema includes six species in Argentina. The life cycle in natural systems of Drepanotrema depressissimum, and D. lucidum has been little studied, except for some casual observations. The aim of this study is to analyze main population trends (age structures, recruitment periods, li [...] fe span and curves of individual growth) in Paiva pond, Argentina. We explored growth model fitting and comparison methodologies between species and environments in Paiva pond and Isla Martín García (IMG), to determine interspecific patterns. Theoretical curves of von Bertalanffy’s model for each population were contrasted with samplings using the ?2 test. Expected sizes were transformed into a percentage of maximum size and cohorts started from zero time, which allowed them to be independent of the real or estimated starting date and a comparison was possible. A similar time scale was used, because the k values proved to be sensitive to time scale. Maximum size reached by D. lucidum was 6.9 mm and by D. depressissimum 9.38 mm. Growth rates (k) fluctuated from 1.302 to 1.368 in the first and 1.339 to 1.509 in the second species. No statistically significant differences were found in growth curves among species inhabiting the Paiva pond and in the different IMG water bodies independent of the beginning of each cohort and maximum size. In general, no winter cohorts were observed, except in one population of D. kermatoides (IMG). Comparing circannual and biannual growth rhythms most of the species reached 60 % of their development during their first year, and 85 % or more during their second year. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (2): 559-567. Epub 2007 June, 29.

  6. Phylogeography and Genetic Differentiation among Populations of the Moon Turban Snail Lunella granulata Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda: Turbinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuen-Tan Jean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined the genetic variation and phylogeographic relationships among 10 populations of Lunella granulata from mainland China, Penghu Archipelago, Taiwan Island, and Japan using mitochondrial COI and 16S markers. A total of 45 haplotypes were obtained in 112 specimens, and relatively high levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.903 and low levels of nucleotide diversity (? = 0.0046 were detected. Four major phylogenetic lineage clusters were revealed and were concordant with their geographic distribution, agreeing with the haplotype network. These results suggested that geographic barrier isolating effects were occurring among the populations. This hypothesis was also supported by a significant genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.709 and by a spatial analysis of molecular variance (SAMOVA analysis. A mismatch distribution analysis, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots found a single significant population expansion. This expansion occurred on the coast of mainland China before 20–17 ka. Consequently, although the dispersal ability of the planktonic stage and the circulation of ocean currents generally promote genetic exchanges among populations, L. granulata has tended to maintain distinct genetic groups that reflect the respective geographic origins of the constituent lineages. Although the circulation of ocean currents, in principle, may still play a role in determining the genetic composition of populations, long-distance migration between regions is difficult even at the planktonic stage.

  7. Fusceulima and Halielloides (Gastropoda: Eulimidae) in the southwestern Atlantic, with descriptions of two new species of Fusceulima

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Santos de, Souza; Alexandre Dias, Pimenta.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusceulima Laseron, 1955 and Halielloides Bouchet & Warén, 1986 are reported from the southwestern Atlantic for the first time. Halielloides ingolfiana Bouchet & Warén, 1986 is considered a valid name, and the taxon is distinct from its previous senior synonym Eulima verrilliana Bush, 1909 in shell [...] shape and absence of an umbilicus. Fusceulima saturata sp. nov. is characterized by a conical shell, domed at the apex, a short ovoid aperture, and a distinct dark-brown spiral band near the suture. Fusceulima toffee sp. nov. also has a conical shell and a dome-shaped apex, but has a taller high aperture and the entire shell is dark brown. Halielloides cf. ingolfiana, Fusceulima cf. boscheineni, and Fusceulima cf. minuta, are here recorded from the continental shelf off southeastern Brazil. The nominal species of these taxa were originally described from the northeastern Atlantic. Their status remains dubious because of lack of information on their biology, anatomy and molecular data. Regarding shell morphology, we cannot distinguish the Brazilian specimens from species in the northeastern Atlantic with the material available. A series of short grooves close to the suture of the protoconch in all species of Fusceulima, including the type species Fusceulima jacksonensis Laseron, 1955, is a possible diagnostic character for this genus.

  8. Observations on Neotricula aperta (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae population densities in Thailand and central Laos: implications for the spread of Mekong schistosomiasis

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    Attwood Stephen W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The snail Neotricula aperta transmits Mekong schistosomiasis in southern Laos and Cambodia, with about 1.5 million people at risk of infection. Plans are under consideration for at least 12 hydroelectric power dams on the lower Mekong river and much controversy surrounds predictions of their environmental impacts. Unfortunately, there are almost no ecological data (such as long term population trend studies available for N. aperta which could be used in impact assessment. Predictions currently assume that the impacts will be the same as those observed in Africa (i.e., a worsening of the schistosomiasis problem; however, marked ecological differences between the snails involved suggest that region specific models are required. The present study was performed as an initial step in providing data, which could be useful in the planning of water resource development in the Mekong. Snail population density records were analyzed for populations close to, and far downstream of, the Nam Theun 2 (NT2 project in Laos in order to detect any changes that might be attributable to impoundment. Results The population immediately downstream of NT2 and that sampled 400?km downstream in Thailand both showed a long term trend of slow growth from 1992 to 2005; however, both populations showed a marked decline in density between 2005 and 2011. The decline in Thailand was to a value significantly lower than that predicted by a linear mixed model for the data, whilst the population density close to NT2 fell to undetectable levels in 2011 from densities of over 5000?m-2 in 2005. The NT2 dam began operation in 2010. Conclusions The impact of the NT2 dam on N. aperta population density could be more complex than first thought and may reflect the strict ecological requirements of this snail. There was no indication that responses of N. aperta populations to dam construction are similar to those observed with Bulinus and Schistosoma haematobium in Africa, for example. In view of the present findings, more ecological data (in particular population density monitoring and surveillance for new habitats are urgently required in order to understand properly the likely impacts of water resource development on Mekong schistosomiasis.

  9. Observations on Neotricula aperta (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae) population densities in Thailand and central Laos: implications for the spread of Mekong schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood Stephen W; Upatham E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The snail Neotricula aperta transmits Mekong schistosomiasis in southern Laos and Cambodia, with about 1.5 million people at risk of infection. Plans are under consideration for at least 12 hydroelectric power dams on the lower Mekong river and much controversy surrounds predictions of their environmental impacts. Unfortunately, there are almost no ecological data (such as long term population trend studies) available for N. aperta which could be used in impact assessment....

  10. Revision of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789 (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae) with the description of six new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Richard N.; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789, type genus of the family Turridae, widespread in shallow-water habitats of tropic Indo-Pacific, is revised. A total of 31 species of Turris, are here recognized as valid. New species described: Turris chaldaea, Turris clausifossata, Turris guidopoppei, Turris intercancellata, Turris kantori, T. kathiewayae. Homonym renamed: Turris bipartita nom. nov. for Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836). New synonymies: Turris ankaramanyensis Bozzetti, 2006 = Turris tanyspira Kilburn, 1975; Turris imperfecti, T. nobilis, T. pulchra and T. tornatum Röding, 1798, and Turris assyria Olivera, Seronay & Fedosov, 2010 = T. babylonia; Turris dollyi Olivera, 2000 = Pleurotoma crispa Lamarck, 1816; Turris totiphyllis Olivera, 2000 = Turris hidalgoi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000; Turris kilburni Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Turris pagasa Olivera, 2000; Turris (Annulaturris) munizi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Gemmula lululimi Olivera, 2000. Revised status: Turris intricata Powell, 1964, Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836) and Pleurotoma yeddoensis Jousseaume, 1883, are regarded as full species (not subspecies of Turris crispa). Neotype designated: For Pleurotoma garnonsii Reeve, 1843, to distinguish it from Turris garnonsii of recent authors, type locality emended to Zanzibar. New combination: Turris orthopleura Kilburn, 1983, is transferred to genus Makiyamaia, family Clavatulidae. PMID:23847408

  11. Hábitos de Vida dos Gastropoda e Bellerophontida da Formação Maecuru,Devoniano Médio, Bacia do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira Ponciano

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Maecuru Formation comprises the Devonian-Carboniferous sedimentary sequence of Amazonas Basin and consists of fluvialdeltaics and pelites layers. Its fossiliferous sediments (the uppermost part of the Lontra Member consists of hummocky cross-stratified fine-grained to very coarse sandstones beds.With the purpose of adding more information about the palaeoecology of The Maecuru Formation fossils, the life habits of gastropods and bellerophontids were inferred based on functional analysis and similarities with the living forms. The more significant features used were: (1 total frontal cross-sectional area, (2height and relative positions of pressure point and center of gravity, (3 apertural margin morphology, (4 kind of symmetry and (5surface smoothness. The species Platyceras (Orthonychia steinmanni; Platyceras (Tumbophalus hartti; Platyceras (Platyostomadarwini; Platyceras (Platyostoma (? agassizi; Platyceras (Orthonychia meerwarthi; Platyceras (Orthonychia gracilis; Platyceras (Tumbophalus coutoanus; “Platyceras” tschernischewi; “Platyceras” subconicum; “Platyceras” (Ortonychia hussaki; “Platyceras” (Ortonychia whitii; “Platyceras” (Ortonychia whitii var. curua and “Platyceras” symmetricum var. maecuruensis represent the epifaunal gastropods with low mobility (coprophagous/suspension feeders of the Maecuru Formation, living symbiotically directly over the anus of a crinoid or nearby. This coprophagous mode of life was probably a non-obligate relationship, because only the closest organisms will get all the advantages of using the crinoid host as a nutrient source. The others adult platyceratids would have a broader feeding repertoire, like as suspension feeders. The bellerophonts Plectonotus (Plectonotus derbyi, Plectonotus (? (Plectonotus salteri e Bucanella reissi would have an epifaunal medium to high mobility, showing a predator habit preferably. On the other hand Bucania freitasi, Ptomatis forbesi and Bellerophon steltzneri showed morphologies compable to a grazer habit with medium mobility. This relative high diversity of gastropods and bellerophonts corroborates the environment of medium and inner shelf inferred for the Maecuru Formation among the others macrofossils, since the majority of Paleozoic fauna of gastropods were typically from shallow seas.

  12. The genus Pustulatirus Vermeij and Snyder, 2006 (Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae: Peristerniinae) in the western Atlantic, with descriptions of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, William G; Snyder, Martin Avery

    2013-01-01

    Western Atlantic species of the New World genus Pustulatirus Vermeij and Snyder, 2006 are revised. Types of previously named taxa are figured. Species recognized as valid include P. attenuata (Reeve, 1847), range uncertain; P. eppi (Melvill, 1891), Curagao; P. ogum (Petuch, 1979), northeastern Brazil; and P. virginensis (Abbott, 1958), Bahama Islands and eastern Caribbean Sea to Aruba. Latirus karinae Nowell-Usticke, 1969 is confirmed as ajunior subjective synonym of P. virginensis. Syrinx annulata Röding, 1798, treated as a Caribbean Pustulatirus by Vermeij and Snyder (2006), and Latirus annulatus Melvill, 1891 are regarded as species inquirenda. Three new species are described: P biocellatus, northeastern Brazil; P. utilaensis, Bay Islands, Honduras and northwestern Panamá; and P. watermanorum, Honduras continental shelf and offshore Colombian banks. Most western Atlantic Pustulatirus shells exhibit little intraspecific variability in morphology or color and occur within rather precise, well-defined ranges; an exception is P. virginensis, whose shells exhibit much variability in size, morphology and color. PMID:26042283

  13. Influence of joint application of heavy metals on level of each metal accumulated in the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus (Gastropoda: Potamididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most laboratory assessments on toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have been concentrated on the accumulation of these metal ions when exposed singly to the test organisms. However, under the natural environmental settings, the metals are never present in isolation and may interact with each other, therefore justifying the need to study the influence of joint application of metals on accumulated levels in exposed animals. In this study, exposure of the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus to sublethal concentrations (equivalent to 0.1 and 0.01 of 96 h LC50) of heavy metals revealed that they were bioaccumulative varying amounts, depending on the type of metal, exposure period and concentration in the test media. while Zn and Pb ions accumulation increased steadily with exposure time, the amounts of Cu accumulated fluctuated regularly over the 30-day experimental period. The levels of Zn, Cu and Cd bioaccumulated over the 30-day experimental period were reduced by over 2-6 folds (with bioaccumulation radio values ranging from 0.15 to 0.81) when compared to concentrations of the respective metals accumulated during single bioaccumulation studies. However, Pb concentrations accumulated during the joint action studies increased nearly 2-fold (bioaccumulation ratio range 1.36 to 2.0-fold). (author)

  14. Population structure and accompanying biota of the snail Turbo (Callopoma) funiculosus (Gastropoda: Turbinidae), on Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar E, Holguin Quiñones; Jesús E, Michel-Morfín.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El caracol porcelana, Turbo funiculosus, es un recurso pesquero potencial que casi no ha sido estudiado ni se ha utilizado comercialmente. En marzo de 1992, se realizó un muestreo de T. funiculosus en Bahía Binners y Bahía Blanca, isla Socorro, archipiélago Revillagigedo, empleando cuadrantes de 25 [...] m2. Se encontraron variaciones en la longitud total entre 3.0 y 85 mm, el peso proporcional entre 3.0 y 228 g, y la densidad entre 6.21 y 9.87 ind/m2. Los organismos de mayor tamaño (más de 50 mm) contienen 30.6 % de partes suaves. Las poblaciones del caracol porcelana siguen siendo inexplotadas en el archipiélago Revillagedo y podrían ser un recurso potencial de la industria pesquera bajo un adecuado plan de manejo. Abstract in english The porcelain snail, Turbo funiculosus, is a potential fishery resource that almost has not been studied or used commercially. In March of 1992, we sampled T. funiculosus in Bahía Binners and Bahía Blanca, Socorro Island, Revillagigedo Archipelago, using 25 m² quadrants. We found that total length v [...] aries between 3.0 and 85 mm, proportional weight between 3.0 and 228 g, and density between 6.21 and 9.87 ind/m². The largest organisms (over 50 mm) contain 30.6 % of soft parts. Porcelain snail populations remain unexploited on Revillagedo Archipelago and could be a potential resource under an adequate management strategy. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4): 1079-1084. Epub 2006 Dec. 15.

  15. Moluscos (Gastropoda e Bivalvia) da reserva natural de usos múltiplos ilha martín garcía, Rio de La Plata: Biodiversidade e ecologia

    OpenAIRE

    II César; SM. Martín; A Rumi; M Tassara

    2012-01-01

    The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five were along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved ox...

  16. Systematics and evolution of the Acochlidia (Gastropoda, Euthyneura) - a microanatomical approach by means of 3D reconstruction using Amira

    OpenAIRE

    Neusser, Timea Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Only a small fraction of the estimated species diversity on Earth already has been discovered, and expected high extinction rates force biologists to rapid surveys. Molecular barcoding techniques meet such goals, but taken alone they can hardly connect genetic discoveries with the large morphology-based body of taxonomic knowledge that accumulated during centuries. Also, the study of organismic evolution requires reliable information on phenotypes. Morphological and biological knowledge on fo...

  17. [Genetic diversity in two populations of the snail Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) from Yucatan, Mexico, using microsatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; García de León, Francisco J; Tello Cetina, Jorge

    2011-09-01

    The pink conch Strombus gigas is an important fisheries resource in the Caribbean region, including the Yucatán Peninsula. We analyzed the genetic diversity and genetic structure of two populations (Alacranes Reef and Chinchorro Bank) with the use of five microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that the two populations are in the same rank of genetic diversity (He), from 0.613 to 0.692. Significant deviation from H-WE was observed in the both populations due to deficit to heterozygotes, this was attributed to inbreeding as a consequence of over-fishing; nevertheless, other possible causes considered are mixing of individuals from two or more populations, and the existence of null alleles. Levels of genetic differentiation indicated the existence of a single homogenous population in the Yucatan Peninsula (F(ST) de 0.003, p = 0.49), which fits with highest levels of gene flow is significant (2.3 individuals) between both populations. Results from this study support the hypothesis that S. gigas is part of a single panmictic population in the Yucatan Peninsula; therefore, this fishery resource should be regulated the same way for both areas. PMID:22017119

  18. The South American radiation of Jerrybuccinum (Gastropoda, Buccinidae), with a new deep-water species from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Fraussen, Koen; Sellanes, Javier; Stahlschmidt,Peter

    2014-01-01

    A new deep water species from off the Chilean coast, Jerrybuccinum kantori sp. n., is described. The animal is equipped with a large statocyst. Kryptos explorator Fraussen & Sellanes, 2008 from off Concepción is found to be congeneric and transferred to the genus Jerrybuccinum. Differences in size and sculpture serve to distinguish the new species from J. explorator. Both Chilean species are associated with methane seep or low oxygen environments. They are compared with J. malvinense Kantor &...

  19. The South American radiation of Jerrybuccinum (Gastropoda, Buccinidae, with a new deep-water species from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Fraussen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new deep water species from off the Chilean coast, Jerrybuccinum kantori sp. n., is described. The animal is equipped with a large statocyst. Kryptos explorator Fraussen & Sellanes, 2008 from off Concepción is found to be congeneric and transferred to the genus Jerrybuccinum. Differences in size and sculpture serve to distinguish the new species from J. explorator. Both Chilean species are associated with methane seep or low oxygen environments. They are compared with J. malvinense Kantor & Pastorino, 2009 and two still unnamed species from the Falkland Plateau.

  20. Surviving the Messinian Salinity Crisis? Divergence patterns in the genus Dendropoma (Gastropoda: Vermetidae) in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Marta; Alda, Fernando; Oliverio, Marco; Templado, José; Machordom, Annie

    2015-10-01

    Four genetically distinct clades were recently described under the name Dendropoma petraeum, a Mediterranean endemic vermetid gastropod. The aim of this work is to date the processes that drove to the diversification within this taxon and to relate them to the corresponding historical events occurred in the Mediterranean Sea. Sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear markers were obtained from specimens collected in 29 localities spanning over 4000km across the entire distribution range of D. petraeum species complex. The phylogenetic and coalescent-based analyses confirmed the four well-supported and largely differentiated lineages of D. petraeum, clearly delimited geographically along a west-east axis within the Mediterranean Sea: Western, Tyrrhenian-Sicilian, Ionian-Aegean and Levantine lineages. Divergence time estimates, obtained using a range of known substitution rates for other marine gastropods, indicated two main stages of diversification. In the first period (between 9.5 and 4.5mya), the ancestral D. petraeum diverged into the current four lineages. The most recent period occurred between 3.72 and 0.66mya in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, and included the main within-lineage diversification events. Therefore, if the divergence time between the major lineages of Dendropoma in the Mediterranean actually predated or coincided with the Messinian Salinity Crisis, then they should have survived to this dramatic period within the Mediterranean, as supported by Bayes Factors model comparison. Conversely, if the divergence started after the crisis, congruent with the idea that no true marine organism survived the Messinian Salinity Crisis, then our results indicate substitution rates of Dendropoma much higher than usual (5.16% per million years for COI, 3.04% for 16S). More recent climate changes seem to have conditioned the demographic history of each lineage differently. While Western and Tyrrhenian-Sicilian lineages both underwent an increase in their effective population sizes from 1.5 to 0.6mya coinciding with a long interglacial period, the Ionian-Aegean and Levantine lineages showed constant effective population sizes since 2-2.5mya, suggesting that these eastern lineages might represent small and relict populations surviving the subsequent Quaternary glaciations in isolated refugia. PMID:26002830

  1. Phylogeography of the land snail genus Circassina (Gastropoda: Hygromiidae) implies multiple Pleistocene refugia in the western Caucasus region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiber, Marco T; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Caucasian land snail genus Circassina was reconstructed using multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Diversification within the group started with a divergence of populations from the western Lesser Caucasus from those of the Greater Caucasus during the late Miocene. Distinct AFLP clusters and major mitochondrial clades separated by long internal branches lend evidence to the hypothesis of separate glacial refuges in the Lesser and Greater Caucasus during the Pleistocene. High genetic distances across low geographic distances and admixture analysis revealed a phylogeographic boundary running through the Colchis lowlands, which may have been established and maintained in part by repeated transgressions of the Black Sea during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Localities in Ciscaucasia were probably colonised through long-distance dispersal across the main ridge of the Greater Caucasus. The phylogeny implies multiple independent losses of accessory genital organs, i.e. dart sac and mucus glands, within Circassina. None of the anatomically defined (sub-) species distinguished so far is monophyletic and there is gene flow between the two main population groups across the Colchis lowlands. Thus, we propose to classify these population groups as subspecies of a single species. PMID:26220841

  2. Spawn morphology and features of the protoconch of Cerithium alucaster (Brocchi, 1814) and Euspira fusca (Blainville, 1825) (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón, Montserrat

    1994-01-01

    [EN] Spawn morphology and subsequent development are described and illustrated from laboratory observations for two species of marine prosobranch gastropods, Cerithium alucaster (Brocchi, 1814) and Euspira fusca (Blainville, 1825). The spawn of C. alucaster consisted of a white and amorphous, irregularly coiled string. The egg capsule had a mean diameter of 155 mm. Shell dimensions of the free-swimming larvae at hatching were 130 mm length and 90 mm height. The appearance of the protoconch I ...

  3. Influence of joint application of heavy metals on level of each metal accumulated in the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus (Gastropoda: Potamididae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.A, Otitoloju; K.N, Don-Pedro.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La mayoría de los análisis de laboratorio sobre toxicidad y bioacumulación de metales pesados se han concentrado en la acumulación individual de los iones metálicos en los organismos de prueba expuestos a ellos. Sin embargo, bajo condiciones naturales del ambiente, los metales nunca se presentan en [...] forma aislada y deben interactuar unos con otros, justificando así la necesidad de estudiar el efecto de la aplicación conjunta de metales en animales de prueba. En este estudio la exposición de Tympanotonus fuscatus a concentraciones subletales (0.1-0.01 de 96 h LC50) de metales pesados reveló que la bioacumulación varía según el tipo de metal, el período de exposición y la concentración en el medio de prueba. Mientras los iones de Zn y Pb incrementaron gradualmente su acumulación al pasar el tiempo, las cantidades de Cu fluctuaron regularmente durante los 30 días del experimento. Los niveles de Zn, Cu y Cd bioacumulados durante los 30 días del experimento son de dos a seis veces menores (con un rango de bioacumulación de 0.15-0.81) que los que se obtienen por la exposición a los metales en forma individual. Por el contrario, la acumulación de Pb aumentó al doble (rango de bioacumulación 1.36-2.0). Abstract in english Most laboratory assessments of toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have been concentrated on the accumulation of these metal ions when exposed singly to the test organisms. However, under the natural environmental settings, the metals are never present in isolation and may interact with eac [...] h other, therefore justifying the need to study the influence of joint application of metals on accumulated levels in exposed animals. In this study, exposure of the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus to sublethal concentrations (equivalent to 0.1 and 0.01 of 96 h LC50) of heavy metals revealed that they were bioaccumulative varying amounts, depending on the type of metal, exposure period and concentration in the test media. While Zn and Pb ion accumulation increased steadily with exposure time, the amounts of Cu accumulated fluctuated regularly over the 30-day experimental period. The levels of Zn, Cu and Cd bioaccumulated over the 30-day experimental period were reduced by over 2-6 folds (with bioaccumulation ratio values ranging from 0.15 to 0.81) when compared to concentrations of the respective metals accumulated during single bioaccumulation studies. However, Pb concentrations accumulated during the joint action studies increased nearly 2-fold (bioaccumulation ratio range 1.36 to 2.0-fold). Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3): 803-814. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.

  4. Influence of joint application of heavy metals on level of each metal accumulated in the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus (Gastropoda: Potamididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Otitoloju

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Most laboratory assessments of toxicity and bioaccumulation of heavy metals have been concentrated on the accumulation of these metal ions when exposed singly to the test organisms. However, under the natural environmental settings, the metals are never present in isolation and may interact with each other, therefore justifying the need to study the influence of joint application of metals on accumulated levels in exposed animals. In this study, exposure of the periwinkle Tympanotonus fuscatus to sublethal concentrations (equivalent to 0.1 and 0.01 of 96 h LC50 of heavy metals revealed that they were bioaccumulative varying amounts, depending on the type of metal, exposure period and concentration in the test media. While Zn and Pb ion accumulation increased steadily with exposure time, the amounts of Cu accumulated fluctuated regularly over the 30-day experimental period. The levels of Zn, Cu and Cd bioaccumulated over the 30-day experimental period were reduced by over 2-6 folds (with bioaccumulation ratio values ranging from 0.15 to 0.81 when compared to concentrations of the respective metals accumulated during single bioaccumulation studies. However, Pb concentrations accumulated during the joint action studies increased nearly 2-fold (bioaccumulation ratio range 1.36 to 2.0-fold. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 803-814. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.La mayoría de los análisis de laboratorio sobre toxicidad y bioacumulación de metales pesados se han concentrado en la acumulación individual de los iones metálicos en los organismos de prueba expuestos a ellos. Sin embargo, bajo condiciones naturales del ambiente, los metales nunca se presentan en forma aislada y deben interactuar unos con otros, justificando así la necesidad de estudiar el efecto de la aplicación conjunta de metales en animales de prueba. En este estudio la exposición de Tympanotonus fuscatus a concentraciones subletales (0.1-0.01 de 96 h LC50 de metales pesados reveló que la bioacumulación varía según el tipo de metal, el período de exposición y la concentración en el medio de prueba. Mientras los iones de Zn y Pb incrementaron gradualmente su acumulación al pasar el tiempo, las cantidades de Cu fluctuaron regularmente durante los 30 días del experimento. Los niveles de Zn, Cu y Cd bioacumulados durante los 30 días del experimento son de dos a seis veces menores (con un rango de bioacumulación de 0.15-0.81 que los que se obtienen por la exposición a los metales en forma individual. Por el contrario, la acumulación de Pb aumentó al doble (rango de bioacumulación 1.36-2.0.

  5. Recovery of Fascioloides magna (Digenea) population in spite of treatment programme? Screening of Galba truncatula (Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae) from Lower Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Michaela; Hörweg, Christoph; Liesinger, Kerstin; Sattmann, Helmut; Walochnik, Julia

    2012-07-01

    During the past decade, Fascioloides magna, the large American liver fluke, has spread within free-living deer in wetlands of the Danube in Lower Austria. The aim of this study was to determine the current infection rates with F. magna and other digenean parasites in the intermediate host snail Galba truncatula from risk areas in Lower Austria. A total of 3444 G. truncatula were collected and examined microscopically for the presence of digenean trematodes. A set of randomly selected snails and isolated trematode stages were also investigated molecular biologically by PCR and sequencing. Digenean parasites were detected with a prevalence of 2.41% (1.83% Paramphistomoidea; 0.46% Echinostomatoidea; 0.09% Strigeida; 0.06% Plagiorchiida). F. magna was found with an overall prevalence of 0.23%, which may indicate a recovery of the parasite population in spite of an ongoing triclabendazole treatment programme. Moreover, high risk areas and a seasonality of infections were observed. PMID:22381476

  6. The Application of Electric Shock as a Novel Pest Control Method for Apple Snail, Pomacea canaliculata (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagyu, Yoshihito; Tsuji, Satoshi; Satoh, Saburoh; Yamabe, Chobei

    The apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, brought to Japan from Taiwan for human consumption in the 1980s, has come to be considered as deleterious for rice cultivation. The snail is unable to injure young rice plants while receiving electric shock because the snail retracts its entire body into its shell and shuts its aperture with its operculum. Electric shock should be applied intermittently to reduce the amount of energy that is wasted when the snail is in its shell made of one of the insulator. The minimum electric shock required for controlling snails and the time required for movement after application of electric shock to determine the frequency of each electric shock were investigated using two methods; vertical and horizontal application of the electrical stimulation. The results showed that there is a strong correlation between the strength of electric shock and the reaction of the snails, and electric shock made snails inactive when it was applied 0.35 A/m2 in the horizontal direction and 0.45 A/m2 in the vertical direction with water of 11 mS/m. A positive correlation was also found between electric shock and the reaction of the snails and shell height. In comparison with larger snails, the smaller snails had higher threshold levels against electric current density because their shorter feet tended to have lower voltage dorp. Moreover, the frequency of electric shock should be chosen the minimum duration for the inactive condition, and it was approximately 10 seconds. Consequently the direction of electric current should be in the horizontal direction above 0.35 A/m2 and the frequency of electric shock should be less than 10 seconds for practical use. However, electric shock would have to be maintained at greater than 0.35 A/m2 because snails might become habituated to electric shock and water in paddy field would have high electric conductivity.

  7. A new member of troglobitic Carychiidae, Koreozospeum nodongense gen. et sp. n. (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea is described from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Jochum

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of troglobitic Carychiidae Jeffreys, 1830 is designated from Nodong Cave, North Chungcheong Province, Danyang, South Korea. This remarkable find represents a great range extension and thus, a highly distant distribution of troglobitic Carychiidae in Asia. The Zospeum-like, carychiid snails were recently included, without a formal description, in records documenting Korean malacofauna. The present paper describes Koreozospeum Jochum & Prozorova, gen. n. and illustrates the type species, K. nodongense Lee, Prozorova & Jochum, sp. n. using novel Nano-CT images, including a video, internal shell morphology, SEM and SEM-EDX elemental compositional analysis of the shell.

  8. A new member of troglobitic Carychiidae, Koreozospeum nodongense gen. et sp. n. (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Ellobioidea) is described from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Adrienne; Prozorova, Larisa; Sharyi-Ool, Mariana; Páll-Gergely, Barna

    2015-01-01

    A new genus of troglobitic Carychiidae Jeffreys, 1830 is designated from Nodong Cave, North Chungcheong Province, Danyang, South Korea. This remarkable find represents a great range extension and thus, a highly distant distribution of troglobitic Carychiidae in Asia. The Zospeum-like, carychiid snails were recently included, without a formal description, in records documenting Korean malacofauna. The present paper describes Koreozospeum Jochum & Prozorova, gen. n. and illustrates the type species, Koreozospeum nodongense Lee, Prozorova & Jochum, sp. n. using novel Nano-CT images, including a video, internal shell morphology, SEM and SEM-EDX elemental compositional analysis of the shell. PMID:26312456

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Haliotis laevigata (Gastropoda: Haliotidae) using MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nick A; Hall, Nathan E; Ross, Elizabeth M; Cooke, Ira R; Shiel, Brett P; Robinson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, is reported. MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing of one individual was assembled to yield a single 16,545?bp contig. The sequence shares 92% identity to the H. rubra mitochondrial genome (a closely related species that hybridize with H. laevigata in the wild). The sequence will be useful for determining the maternal contribution to hybrid populations, for investigating population structure and stock-enhancement effectiveness. PMID:24660910

  10. Effects of environmental concentrations of atrazine on hemocyte density and phagocytic activity in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunotoxicological effects of environmentally relevant concentrations (10, 23, 50, 100 ?g/l) of atrazine were studied in Lymnaea stagnalis. Individual hemolymph sampling was performed at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 168, 336, 504 and 672 h during exposure. Every atrazine concentration induced a significant increase in the mean number of circulating hemocytes, without any concentration-response relation. A peak (1.6-fold increase) of hemocyte density was observed after 96 h of exposure. After 504 h, the number of hemocytes remained higher only in the snails exposed to the two highest concentrations. Granulocytes contributed most to the increase in hemocyte density in herbicide-exposed snails. Both short- (24 and 96 h) and long-term (504 h) exposures resulted in significant inhibition of hemocyte phagocytic activity upon E. coli. Over the long-term, phagocytosis recovered for the two lowest concentrations. After 504 h of exposure, every herbicide level resulted in a significant reduction of reactive oxygen species production in E. coli-stimulated hemocytes, which was not observed for short-term exposures. - Phagocytosis and oxidative burst of hemocytes may be a functional biomarker for atrazine effects on snails

  11. A good compromise: rapid and robust species proxies for inventorying biodiversity hotspots using the Terebridae (Gastropoda: Conoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, Maria Vittoria; Puillandre, Nicolas; Castelin, Magalie; Zhang, Yu; Holford, Mandë

    2014-01-01

    Devising a reproducible approach for species delimitation of hyperdiverse groups is an ongoing challenge in evolutionary biology. Speciation processes combine modes of passive and adaptive trait divergence requiring an integrative taxonomy approach to accurately generate robust species hypotheses. However, in light of the rapid decline of diversity on Earth, complete integrative approaches may not be practical in certain species-rich environments. As an alternative, we applied a two-step strategy combining ABGD (Automated Barcode Gap Discovery) and Klee diagrams, to balance speed and accuracy in producing primary species hypotheses (PSHs). Specifically, an ABGD/Klee approach was used for species delimitation in the Terebridae, a neurotoxin-producing marine snail family included in the Conoidea. Delimitation of species boundaries is problematic in the Conoidea, as traditional taxonomic approaches are hampered by the high levels of variation, convergence and morphological plasticity of shell characters. We used ABGD to analyze gaps in the distribution of pairwise distances of 454 COI sequences attributed to 87 morphospecies and obtained 98 to 125 Primary Species Hypotheses (PSHs). The PSH partitions were subsequently visualized as a Klee diagram color map, allowing easy detection of the incongruences that were further evaluated individually with two other species delimitation models, General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) and Poisson Tree Processes (PTP). GMYC and PTP results confirmed the presence of 17 putative cryptic terebrid species in our dataset. The consensus of GMYC, PTP, and ABGD/Klee findings suggest the combination of ABGD and Klee diagrams is an effective approach for rapidly proposing primary species proxies in hyperdiverse groups and a reliable first step for macroscopic biodiversity assessment. PMID:25003611

  12. A Good Compromise: Rapid and Robust Species Proxies for Inventorying Biodiversity Hotspots Using the Terebridae (Gastropoda: Conoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Modica, Maria Vittoria; Puillandre, Nicolas; Castelin, Magalie; Zhang, Yu; Holford, Mandë

    2014-01-01

    Devising a reproducible approach for species delimitation of hyperdiverse groups is an ongoing challenge in evolutionary biology. Speciation processes combine modes of passive and adaptive trait divergence requiring an integrative taxonomy approach to accurately generate robust species hypotheses. However, in light of the rapid decline of diversity on Earth, complete integrative approaches may not be practical in certain species-rich environments. As an alternative, we applied a two-step stra...

  13. Characterization of 13 polymorphic microsatellite loci for two land snail species, Trochulus villosus and T. sericeus (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Hygromiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dépraz, A; Rathey, E; Hausser, J

    2008-05-01

    Thirteen new microsatellite loci were isolated and tested on two land snail species, Trochulus villosus and T. sericeus (Pulmonata: Hygromiidae), resulting in a set of eight polymorphic markers for each species. The expected heterozygosity was high for all loci and species (between 0.616 and 0.944). Such levels of variability will allow detailed insights into the population genetic structure of some Trochulus species. PMID:21585877

  14. Hemocyte-specific responses to the peroxidizing herbicide fomesafen in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responses of circulating hemocytes were studied in Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to 10, 30, 90, and 270 ?g/L fomesafen for 24 and 504 h. Flow cytometry was used to quantify fomesafen-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagocytic activity on Escherichia coli, and oxidative burst when hemocytes were challenged by E. coli or phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Lysosomal membrane damage was assessed, using the neutral-red retention time (NRRT) assay. Exposure to fomesafen for 24 h resulted in increase in ROS levels and decreases in phagocytosis and the oxidative burst in PMA-stimulated hemocytes. After 504 h, intracellular levels of ROS returned to normal, but phagocytosis of E. coli was still inhibited and the associated oxidative burst significantly reduced. After both durations of exposure, decreases of NRRT indicated that lysosome membrane fragility increased with fomesafen concentration. Potential implications for the health and survival of the snails and consequences on populations are discussed. - Fomesafen inhibited phagocytosis and the associated oxidative burst, and increased lysosome fragility in L. stagnalis hemocytes

  15. Phylogeography of the Land Snail Eobania vermiculata (O.F. Müller, 1774 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata along the Croatian Coast and Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Puizina

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Eobania vermiculata (O.F. Müller, 1774, is a typical Mediterranean species of large land snails. Nonindigenous populations of this species, however, are already established in the USA, Australia and elsewhere in the world, where this species is considered to represent a potentially serious threat as a pest and invasive species. The aims of this study were: 1 to determine the pattern of genetic variation within the Croatian E. vermiculata populations based on analyses of sequence diversity of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI, and 2 to shed more light upon the phylogeography of E. vermiculata in this area. Seventy-seven specimens of land snail Eobania vermiculata were sampled at 19 sampling sites along Croatian coastal region and islands. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequences (379 bp grouped into 14 haplotypes, whereas the partial COI gene sequences (523 bp grouped into 13 haplotypes. The overall population is characterized by relatively high haplotype (gene diversity (0.719±0.042 for 16S rDNA and 0.869±0.020 for COI. Demographic Fu F’s tests and Tajima's D value indicated no significant change in the population size, thus suggesting long historical presence of E. vermiculata in this region. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis, Bayesian inference and median joining haplotype network showed a genetic splitting of Croatian 16S rRNA and COI sequences, with a clear distinction between south-Adriatic and north-Adriatic haplotypes. A possible explanation for the observed phylogeography of E. vermiculata, could be related to the climate change, glaciations and the Adriatic Sea level oscillations during the Quaternary

  16. A new species of Haplosporidium Caullery & Mesnil, 1899 in the marine false limpet Siphonaria lessonii (Gastropoda: Siphonariidae) from Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ituarte, Cristián; Bagnato, Estefanía; Siddall, Mark; Cremonte, Florencia

    2014-05-01

    A new species of Haplosporidium Caullery & Mesnil, 1899 parasitising the pulmonate gastropod Siphonaria lessonii Blainville in Patagonia, Argentina, is described based on morphological (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) and sequence (small subunit ribosomal RNA gene) data. Different stages of sporulation were observed as infections disseminated in the digestive gland. Haplosporidium patagon n. sp. is characterised by oval or slightly subquadrate spores with an operculum that is ornamented with numerous short digitiform projections of regular height, perpendicular to and covering its outer surface. The operculum diameter is slightly larger than the apical diameter of the spore. Neither the immature nor mature spores showed any kind of projections of the exosporoplasm or of the spore wall. Regarding phylogenetic affinities, the new species was recovered as sister to an undescribed species of Haplosporidium Caullery & Mesnil, 1899 from the polychaete family Syllidae Grube from Japanese waters. The morphological characters (ornamentation of the operculum, spore wall structure, shape and size of spores, and the lack of spore wall projections) corroborate it as an as yet undescribed species of Haplosporidium and the first for the phylum in marine gastropods of South America. Siphonaria lessonii is the only known host to date. PMID:24711113

  17. Seasonal variation in glycoconjugates of the pedal glandular system of the rayed Mediterranean limpet, Patella caerulea (Gastropoda: Patellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccioli, Agnese; Maio, Nicola; Guarino, Fabio Maria; Scillitani, Giovanni

    2013-06-01

    Glycoconjugates secreted by the pedal system of the rayed limpet, Patella caerulea, were characterised in situ by histochemical and lectin-histochemical methods in individuals collected around the annual cycle, in November, March, and June. Stainings with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), Alcian blue pH 2.5 (AB pH 2.5), Alcian blue pH 1.0 (AB pH 1.0), high-iron diamine-Alcian blue pH 2.5 and lectin binding assays with 9 lectins (Con A, WGA, succinylated-WGA, PNA, DBA, SBA, AAA, UEA-I, LTA) were performed. Four secreting cell types were observed in the sole, one in the peripheric region, and two in the sidewall. Glycoconjugate composition varied among cell types and also in one and the same cell type throughout the year. ?-Elimination followed by PAS and AB pH 2.5 stainings indicated that most saccharidic chains were O-linked to the protein backbone. Secretion by sole and peripheric region was acidic, carboxylated and/or sulfated, whereas that of the sidewall was neutral. Glucosaminylated and 1,4-fucosylated residuals were predominant in the cell types along the year, 1,2-fucosylated residuals being observed only in the sidewall cells in June. Mannosylated and/or glycosylated residuals were observed in all cells mostly in November. Galactosylated/galactosaminylated residuals were present mostly in the sidewall cells and in the sole subepidermal mucocytes in June. Mannosylated and/or glycosylated residuals in November are probably linked to gonad maturation or to higher locomotion and foraging activity, whereas galactosaminylation in the sole cells and 1,2-fucosylation and glucosaminylation in the sidewall cells in June are linked to a prolonged stationary state, increasing water adsorption to counteract dehydration and/or to modulate microbial interactions. PMID:23683552

  18. Effects of growth and temperature acclimation on metabolic rate in the limpet, Cellana tramoserica (Gastropoda:Patellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, G.D.

    1978-06-01

    Seasonal patterns in metabolic rate, somatic and gonadal growth rates were determined for the mid-littoral limpet Cellana tramoserica by field sampling and laboratory studies at regular intervals over 13 months. A predictive model of the seasonal changes in metabolic rate expected due to changes in growth rate was constructed on the assumptions that (i) at a particular temperature (15, 20, 25/sup 0/C) the metabolic rate required for maintenance remained constant throughout the year; and (ii) the net efficiency of growth was 67%. The observed seasonal changes in metabolic rate closely fitted those predicted from changes in growth rate. Hence the concept of temperature acclimation is not necessary to explain the seasonal changes in metabolic rate of C. tramoserica. It is suggested that temperature acclimation of metabolic rate may in general be caused by temperature mediated changes in growth rate and not by a direct adaptation of metabolic rate to temperature.

  19. Re-characterization of the Red-lip Megalobulimus (Gastropoda: Strophocheilidae) from Peru with description of a new species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victor, Borda; Rina, Ramírez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Megalobulimus K. Miller, 1878 is a genus of land snails that includes the largest living snails in the Neotropics. The main goal of this paper was to review all species of Megalobulimus that have a red lip, and which are distributed in Peru. We carried out a detailed description of their shells and [...] soft parts, and conducted a multivariate analysis on their shells and geographic distribution. There are two species reported from Peru, Megalobulimus capillaceus (Pfeiffer, 1855) and Megalobulimus separabilis (Fulton, 1903). Megalobulimus capillaceus is known to occur in three regions - San Martín, Huánuco and Cusco - but the Cusco population is undoubtedly different from all remaining populations, and is recognized herein as a new species, Megalobulimus florezi sp. nov. This species has a more elongated shell, penis club-shaped, epiphallus longer, and free oviduct longer than M. capillaceus. By contrast, the male genitalia of M. separabilis is filiform and does not present an external diverticulum in the free oviduct.

  20. Developmental toxicity of metaldehyde in the embryos of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) co-exposed to the synergist piperonyl butoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Katrina C; Atfield, Andrew; Comber, Sean; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2016-02-01

    Metaldehyde is a widely used molluscicide in countries where damage to crops from slugs and snails is a major problem associated with warm and wet winters. In the UK it is estimated that over 8% of the area covered by arable crops is treated with formulated granular bait pellets containing metaldehyde as the main active ingredient. Metaldehyde is hydrophilic (log Kow=0.12), water soluble (200mg·L(-1) at 17°C) and has been detected in UK surface waters in the concentration range of typically 0.2-0.6?g·L(-1) (maximum 2.7?g·L(-1)) during 2008-2011. In the absence of chronic data on potential hazards to non-target freshwater molluscs, a laboratory study was conducted to investigate the impact of metaldehyde on embryo development in the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (RENILYS strain) and using zinc as a positive control. L. stagnalis embryos were exposed to metaldehyde under semi-static conditions at 20±1°C and hatching success and growth (measured as shell height and intraocular distance) examined after 21d. Exposure concentrations were verified using HPLC and gave 21d (hatching)NOEC and (hatching)LOEC mean measured values of 36 and 116mgMET·L(-1), respectively (equal to the 21d (shell height)NOEC and (shell height)LOEC values). For basic research purposes, a second group of L. stagnalis embryos was co-exposed to metaldehyde and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Co-exposure to the PBO (measured concentrations between 0.47-0.56mg·L(-1)) reduced hatching success from 100% to 47% and resulted in a 30% reduction in embryo growth (shell height) in snail embryos co-exposed to metaldehyde at 34-36mg·L(-1) over 21d. In conclusion, these data suggest mollusc embryos may have some metabolic detoxication capacity for metaldehyde and further work is warranted to explore this aspect in order to support the recent initiative to include molluscs in the OECD test guideline programme. PMID:26575636