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Sample records for opisthobranchia gastropoda mollusca

  1. Record of Phyllidiella zeylanica (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) after 42 years from Gujarat, India

    M. Matwal; Joshi, D.

    2011-01-01

    There are few studies available on Opisthobranch fauna of Gujarat coast. Field surveys were carried out along the Mithapur reef under the “Coral reef restoration programme” of Wildlife Trust of India funded by Tata chemicals and supported by Gujarat State Forest Department and Marine National Park authorities. A species of nudibranch Phyllidiella zeylanica (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) was recorded for Gujarat after 42 years. This species was last reported by Narayanan in 1968 at Pi...

  2. Especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda presentes en el litoral del norte peruano

    Katia Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia registradas para el norte del Perú. El trabajo se basa en la recopilación de la literatura cientí?ca disponible para el área de interés. Se presentan las 17 especies reportadas para dicha zona, clasi?cadas dentro del Grupo Informal Opisthobranchia en 6 clados, 12 familias y 14 géneros. A pesar del alto potencial de diversidad que se le otorga a la costa norte peruana, el número de especies registradas es bajo, debido principalmente al escaso número de exploraciones e investigaciones realizadas.

  3. Babosas terrestres (Mollusca, Gastropoda) de la Región de Murcia (SE España)

    Borredà, V.; Martínez–Ortí, A.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from Murcia (SE Spain) This study examines the few citations about terrestrial slugs from Murcia (SE Spain) and adds data from our own surveys. We provide a systematic checklist of the species of terrestrial slugs known from Murcia (SE Spain) and comment on the most significant species: Deroceras nitidum, Arion gilvus and A. lusitanicus s. l.

  4. Descriptions of three new species of Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from South China Sea

    Li, Baoquan; Zhang, Suping; Li, Xinzheng

    2005-03-01

    Three new species of Family Mitridae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the South China Sea are described in the present paper. They are Ziba aglais sp. nov. B. LI & S. ZHANg, Neocancilla daidaleosa sp. nov. B. LI & X. LI, and Mitra holkosa sp. nov. B. LI. Their systematic positions are also discussed.

  5. Phylogeny and evolution of the Heterobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Dinapoli, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Many questions regarding gastropod phylogeny have not yet been answered like the molecular confirmation of the Heterobranchia concept based on morphological studies from Haszprunar (1985a; 1988). This taxon contains the “Lower Heterobranchia” with several “primitive” or “basal” members) and the Euthyneura (with the Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata). Phylogenetic relationships of subgroups within the Heterobranchia have not been satisfactorily resolved and monophyly of some taxa within the Hetero...

  6. Redescrição dos tipos de Veronicellidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda) neotropicais: X. Os tipos de Diplosolenodes occidentalis (Guilding, 1825) no British Museum (Natural History), Londres

    José Willibaldo Thomé

    1984-01-01

    Diplosolenodes occidentalis (Guilding, 1825) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Veronicellidae) is redescribed upon the examination of types in the British Museum (Natural History). New characters of external and internal morphohgy are described. A leclotype, is selected.

  7. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    well as muscular system that represent the ground plan of the Mollusca or even the Trochozoa (e. g. presence of the prototrochal or velar muscle ring). On the one hand, A. stephanieae shows some features shared by all nudibranchs like the postmetamorphic condensation of the CNS, the possession of...

  8. Contribució a l’estudi dels mol·luscs terrestres (Mollusca, Gastropoda) del Parc de la Serralada Litoral (Barcelona)

    Bros, V.

    2013-01-01

    Contribution to the study of terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda) Serralada LitoralPark (Barcelona)The population of molluscs in Serralada Litoral Park (Barcelona, NE Iberian peninsula) was assessed, contributing to the conservation plan. A wildlife inventory was conducted based on fieldwork and literature. Gastropod communities in various natural environments and conchological species of interest for conservation are also described. Several environmental aspects that determine the dis...

  9. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia

    Klussmann-Kolb Annette

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the development of the nervous system and the musculature of invertebrates have become more sophisticated and numerous within the last decade and have proven to provide new insights into the evolutionary history of organisms. In order to provide new morphogenetic data on opisthobranch gastropods we investigated the neuromuscular development in the nudibranch Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 using immunocytochemistry as well as F-actin labelling in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM. Results The ontogenetic development of Aeolidiella stephanieae can be subdivided into 8 stages, each recognisable by characteristic morphological and behavioural features as well as specific characters of the nervous system and the muscular system, respectively. The larval nervous system of A. stephanieae includes an apical organ, developing central ganglia, and peripheral neurons associated with the velum, foot and posterior, visceral part of the larva. The first serotonergic and FMRFamidergic neural structures appear in the apical organ that exhibits an array of three sensory, flask-shaped and two non-sensory, round neurons, which altogether disappear prior to metamorphosis. The postmetamorphic central nervous system (CNS becomes concentrated, and the rhinophoral ganglia develop together with the anlage of the future rhinophores whereas oral tentacle ganglia are not found. The myogenesis in A. stephanieae begins with the larval retractor muscle followed by the accessory larval retractor muscle, the velar or prototroch muscles and the pedal retractors that all together degenerate during metamorphosis, and the adult muscle complex forms de novo. Conclusions Aeolidiella stephanieae comprises features of the larval and postmetamorphic nervous as well as muscular system that represent the ground plan of the Mollusca or even the Trochozoa (e. g. presence of the prototrochal or velar muscle ring. On the one hand, A. stephanieae shows some features shared by all nudibranchs like the postmetamorphic condensation of the CNS, the possession of rhinophoral ganglia and the lack of oral tentacle ganglia as well as the de novo formation of the adult muscle complex. On the other hand, the structure and arrangement of the serotonergic apical organ is similar to other caenogastropod and opisthobranch gastropods supporting their sister group relationship.

  10. Effects of cadmium exposure on embryogenesis of Stagnicola elodes (Mollusca, Gastropoda): potential consequences for parasite transmission.

    Pietrock, M; Meinelt, T; Marcogliese, D J

    2008-07-01

    Experiments on the toxicity of cadmium (Cd(2+)) to the embryonic development of Stagnicola elodes (Mollusca, Gastropoda), obligatory first intermediate host of numerous trematodes of pathogenic importance, were carried out as part of a study on the effects of metal pollution on host-parasite relationships. Freshly laid snail eggs were exposed to Cd concentrations of 0, 0.02, 0.2, and 2.0 mg Cd(2+)/L, and survival and embryogenesis were examined for 30 days. Mean survival time (+/- SD) of the control group was 23.1 (+/- 5.3) days compared with 10.1 (+/- 3.2) at 0.02 mg Cd(2+)/L, 3.9 (+/- 0.7) at 0.2 mg Cd(2+)/L, and 1.1 (+/- 0.08) at 2.0 mg Cd(2+)/L. Mortality patterns of all test groups differed significantly from each other, demonstrating that the percentage of surviving individuals at any given time was inversely related to Cd concentration. Concentration-dependent effects of Cd exposure on snail embryogenesis were noted. While embryos of the control group developed properly and started hatching on day 16, eggs exposed to 0.02 mg Cd(2+)/L exhibited a prolonged gastrula period and failed to hatch. Eggs in the 0.2 mg Cd(2+)/L group were blocked in the gastrula stage on day 5, whereas individuals exposed to 2.0 mg Cd(2+)/L died in the morula stage on the second day. Data showed that Cd severely affects S. elodes embryogenesis. By implication, Cd contamination at concentrations >or=0.02 mg Cd(2+)/L will thus decrease transmission success of various trematodes by decreasing intermediate host snail abundance. PMID:18166987

  11. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis.

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-07-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmission electron microscopy. Within the scope of the present study we investigated the myogenesis of premetamorphic, metamorphic, and juvenile developmental stages of the anaspidean opisthobranch Aplysia californica using fluorescence F-actin-labeling in conjunction with modern confocal laser scanning microscopy. We categorized muscles with respect to their differentiation and degeneration and found three true larval muscles that differentiate during the embryonic and veliger phase and degenerate during or slightly after metamorphosis. These are the larval retractor, the accessory larval retractor, and the metapodial retractor muscle. While the pedal retractor muscle, some transversal mantle fibers and major portions of the cephalopedal musculature are continued and elaborated during juvenile and adult life, the buccal musculature and the anterior retractor muscle constitute juvenile/adult muscles which differentiate during or after metamorphosis. The metapodial retractor muscle has never been reported for any other gastropod taxon. Our findings indicate that the late veliger larva of A. californica shares some common traits with veligers of other gastropods, such as a larval retractor muscle. However, the postmetamorphic stages exhibit only few congruencies with other gastropod taxa investigated to date, which is probably due to common larval but different adult life styles within gastropods. Accordingly, this study provides further evidence for morphological plasticity in gastropod myogenesis and stresses the importance of ontogenetic approaches to understand adult conditions and life history patterns. PMID:18157859

  12. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    . We categorized muscles with respect to their differentiation and degeneration and found three true larval muscles that differentiate during the embryonic and veliger phase and degenerate during or slightly after metamorphosis. These are the larval retractor, the accessory larval retractor, and the...... differentiate during or after metamorphosis. The metapodial retractor muscle has never been reported for any other gastropod taxon. Our findings indicate that the late veliger larva of A. californica shares some common traits with veligers of other gastropods, such as a larval retractor muscle. However, the...

  13. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmissi...

  14. Subulina octona (Bruguière, 1798) – a new greenhouse species for the Czech Republic (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Subulinidae)

    Lucie Ju?i?ková

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of land snail Subulina octona (Bruguière 1798) (Gastropoda: Subulinidae) is reported from the Czech Republic greenhouse for the first time. Molluscan communities of two new Bohemian greenhouses are characterized.

  15. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

    Abraham Breure

    2013-01-01

    The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Z. quagg...

  16. 18S ribosomal DNA sequences provide insight into the phylogeny of patellogastropod limpets (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Won

    2007-02-28

    To investigate the phylogeny of Patellogastropoda, the complete 18S rDNA sequences of nine patellogastropod limpets Cymbula canescens (Gmelin, 1791), Helcion dunkeri (Krauss, 1848), Patella rustica Linnaeus, 1758, Cellana toreuma (Reeve, 1855), Cellana nigrolineata (Reeve, 1854), Nacella magellanica Gmelin, 1791, Nipponacmea concinna (Lischke, 1870), Niveotectura pallida (Gould, 1859), and Lottia dorsuosa Gould, 1859 were determined. These sequences were then analyzed along with the published 18S rDNA sequences of 35 gastropods, one bivalve, and one chiton species. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. The results of our 18S rDNA sequence analysis strongly support the monophyly of Patellogastropoda and the existence of three subgroups. Of these, two subgroups, the Patelloidea and Acmaeoidea, are closely related, with branching patterns that can be summarized as [(Cymbula + Helcion) + Patella] and [(Nipponacmea + Lottia) + Niveotectura]. The remaining subgroup, Nacelloidea, emerges as basal and paraphyletic, while its genus Cellana is monophyletic. Our analysis also indicates that the Patellogastropoda have a sister relationship with the order Cocculiniformia within the Gastropoda. PMID:17464213

  17. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin.

    Breure, Abraham S H

    2013-01-01

    The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Zebra quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = Orthalicus bensoni (Reeve, 1849); Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789); Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus) dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848); Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909); Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus) reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821); Bulimus (Eurytus) corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus) stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus) psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007) and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives. PMID:23794831

  18. Original molluscan radula: comparisons among Aplacophora, Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, and the Cambrian fossil Wiwaxia corrugata.

    Scheltema, Amélie H; Kerth, Klaus; Kuzirian, Alan M

    2003-08-01

    As the original molluscan radula is not known from direct observation, we consider what the form of the original radula may have been from evidence provided by neomenioid Aplacophora (Solenogastres), Gastropoda, Polyplacophora, and the Cambrian fossil Wiwaxia corrugata (Matthews). Conclusions are based on direct observation of radula morphology and its accessory structures (salivary gland ducts, radular sac, anteroventral radular pocket) in 25 species and 16 genera of Aplacophora; radula morphogenesis in Aplacophora; earliest tooth formation in Gastropoda (14 species among Prosobranchia, Opisthobranchia, and Pulmonata); earliest tooth formation in four species of Polyplacophora; and the morphology of the feeding apparatus in W. corrugata. The existence of a true radula membrane and of membranoblasts and odontoblasts in neomenioids indicates that morphogenesis of the aplacophoran radula is homologous to that in other radulate Mollusca. We conclude from p redness of salivary gland ducts, a divided radular sac, and a pair of anteroventral pockets that the plesiomorphic state in neomenioids is bipartite, formed of denticulate bars that are distichous (two teeth per row) on a partially divided or fused radula membrane with the largest denticles lateral, as occurs in the genus Helicoradomenia. The tooth morphology in Helicoradomenia is similar to the feeding apparatus in W. corrugata. We show that distichy also occurs during early development in several species of gastropods and polyplacophorans. Through the rejection of the null hypothesis that the earliest radula was unipartite and had no radula membrane, we conclude that the original molluscan radula was similar to the radula found in Helicoradomena species. PMID:12833382

  19. Effects of thermal effluents on the population dynamics of Physa gyrina Say (Mollusca: Gastropoda) at Lake Wabamun, Alberta

    Effects of thermal effluents on the population dynamics of Physa gyrina Say (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) were studied at Lake Wabamun, Alberta, from May 1971 to August 1973. Thermal effluent increased the rate of development of eggs and the growth of P. gyrina, and allowed continuous reproductive activity throughout the year. These changes, and the increased period of growth of aquatic macrophytes, resulted in increased population densities of P. gyrina in the heated area during summer. Temperatures below 10 deg C or small amounts of vegetation appear to limit the population of P. gyrina in winter. (author)

  20. Los moluscos terrestres (Mollusca: Gastropoda de Costa Rica: clasificación, distribución y conservación

    Zaidett Barrientos Llosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los moluscos terrestres son un grupo muy poco estudiado a nivel mundial. Hay 183 especies reportadas para Costa Rica, 30% son endémicas y 7% posiblemente están extintas. Se espera que en el país haya alrededor de 400 especies, de más del 95% se desconoce su biología, ecología, distribución, genética y otros campos de estudio. En Costa Rica las familias con mayor número de especies son Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae y Subulinidae. No obstante, es posible que Euconulidae sea aun más diversa, pues habitan las zonas altas del país que es en donde menos trabajo se ha hecho. El estudio de regiones altas aumentará el porcentaje de endemismo. Los futuros trabajos malacológicos taxonómicos, biológicos y ecológicos deben considerar la poca movilidad de este grupo, su tendencia a formar especies nuevas en simpatría, la especificidad de requerimientos de microhábitat, el hermafroditismo, la alta tasa de evolución (10% por millón de años y la divergencia entre especies (2-30%. Para proteger adecuadamente la biodiversidad de la malacofauna costarricense, se requiere de estudios que determinen la distribución y abundancia de las especies y el efecto del uso de la tierra y del climático.Terrestrial mollusks (Mollusca: Gastropoda of Costa Rica: classification, distribution and conservation. Terrestrial mollusks are poorly known worldwide. The country has 183 reported species, 30% endemic and 7% are probably extinct. About 400 species are expected to inhabit the country. Biology, ecology, distribution, genetics and other areas of research are unknown for more than 95% of the species. The most diverse families are Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae and Subulinidae. However, the family that may have more species is Euconulidae. Euconulids inhabit the highlands, where less work has been done. The study of species of highlands will also rise the endemism rate. Future taxonomic, biological and ecological work should consider their low vagility, tendency to produce new taxa in sympatry, specific microhabitat requirements, hermaphroditism, high evolutionary rate (10% per million years, and divergence between species (2 to 30%. Urgent studies to protect the Costa Rican malacofauna include: distribution, abundance, effect of land use and climate changes on populations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1165-1175. Epub 2010 December 01.

  1. Annotated type catalogue of the Orthalicoidea (Mollusca, Gastropoda in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

    Abraham Breure

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 96 taxa classified within the superfamily Orthalicoidea and present in the Mollusca collection of the Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Orthalicus elegans Rolle, 1895; Bulimus maranhonensis Albers, 1854; Orthalicus nobilis Rolle, 1895; Orthalichus tricinctus Martens, 1893. Orthalicus sphinx tresmariae is introduced as new name for Zebra sphinx turrita Strebel, 1909, not Z. quagga turrita Strebel, 1909. The following synonyms are established: Zebra crosseifischeri Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus princeps fischeri Martens, 1893; Orthalicus isabellinus Martens, 1873 = O. bensoni (Reeve, 1849; Zebra zoniferus naesiotes Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus undatus (Bruguière, 1789; Porphyrobaphe (Myiorthalicus dennisoni pallida Strebel, 1909 = Hemibulimus dennisoni (Reeve, 1848; Zebra delphinus pumilio Strebel, 1909 = Orthalicus delphinus (Strebel, 1909; Orthalicus (Laeorthalicus reginaeformis Strebel, 1909 = Corona perversa (Swainson, 1821; Bulimus (Eurytus corticosus Sowerby III, 1895 = Plekocheilus (Eurytus stuebeli Martens, 1885. The taxon Bulimus (Eudioptus psidii Martens, 1877 is now placed within the family Sagdidae, tentatively in the genus Platysuccinea. Appendices are included with an index to all the types of Orthalicoidea extant (including those listed by Köhler 2007 and a partial list of letters present in the correspondence archives.

  2. The marine Mollusca of the Qatari waters, Arabian Gulf

    Al Khayat. J. L. [???? ??? ???? ??????

    1997-01-01

    The species composition of the mollusca community in the Qatari waters of the Arabian Gulf, is reported. Data were obtained from analysis of samples collected during 1996 - 1997. A total of 246 species were recorded, including 115 Gastropoda, 124 Bivalvia, 4 Scaphopoda and 3 Polyplacophora. This study provides the first comprehensive list of mollusca species occurring in the Qatari waters.

  3. Phylogeny and relationships of pleurotomariid gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda): an assessment based on partial 18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase I sequences.

    Harasewych, M G; Adamkewicz, S L; Blake, J A; Saudek, D; Spriggs, T; Bult, C J

    1997-03-01

    The phylogenetic position of the ancient family Pleurotomariidae within the Molluscan class Gastropoda, as well as the relationships of its Recent genera and species, were assessed using an iterative, two-gene (18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase I) approach to phylogeny reconstruction. In order to orient the Pleurotomariidae within Gastropoda, partial 18S rDNA sequences were determined for 7 pleurotomariid and 22 other gastropods that span the major groups within the class as well as for one cephalopod and two polyplacophorans, which serve as outgroups. Cladistic analyses of a sequence of approximately 450 base pairs (bp) near the 5' end of the 18S rDNA support the monophyly of the following higher gastropod taxa: Patellogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Neritopsina, Apogastropoda, and its subclades Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia. The 18S rDNA sequences and 579 bp of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) analyzed separately and together, indicate that Pleurotomariidae are included within Vetigastropoda but comprise a clade that is the sister group to the other families referred to this order. Monophyly of the Pleurotomariidae is also supported by the unique presence of seven separate inserts (ranging in length from 1 to 68 bp) within the V2 variable region of the 18S RNA. Relationships of the genera and species within Pleurotomariidae are fully resolved using "total molecular evidence" consisting of partial sequences of 18S rDNA and COI and including data on length variation within the inserts. PMID:9116867

  4. Morphometric study of a Brazilian strain of Carchesium polypinum (Ciliophora: Peritrichia attached to Pomacea figulina (Mollusca: Gastropoda, with notes on a high infestation

    Roberto Júnio P. Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During an ecological study of the epibiotic relationship between ciliate protists and Pomacea figulina (Spix, 1827 (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae, originating from an urban stream in southeast Brazil, a high infestation by the peritrich ciliate Carchesium polypinum (Linnaeus, 1758 Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia associated to the shell of one mollusc among 23 was observed. We provided a morphological and morphometric study of C. polypinum using observations of specimens in vivo, after protargol staining, and examined using scanning electron microscopy. The Brazilian-population of C. polypinum is characterized by: size of zooid in vivo 89 µm x 57 µm on average; colony regularly dichotomously branched with usually up to 40 zooids; macronucleus usually J-shaped; single contractile vacuole located in the upper third of body; myoneme not continuous throughout the colony; stalks contract despite the discontinuity of their individual myonemes; polykinety comprises three peniculi, each consisting of three kineties. The high infestation showed here could be related to the preference for eutrophic environments showed by C. polypinum and suggested that ciliate epibionts may be ecologically important in aquatic habitats.

  5. Morphometric study of a Brazilian strain of Carchesium polypinum (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) attached to Pomacea figulina (Mollusca: Gastropoda), with notes on a high infestation

    Roberto Júnio P., Dias; Adalgisa F., Cabral; Isabel C. V., Siqueira-Castro; Inácio D. da, Silva-Neto; Marta, D' Agosto.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During an ecological study of the epibiotic relationship between ciliate protists and Pomacea figulina (Spix, 1827) (Gastropoda, Ampullariidae), originating from an urban stream in southeast Brazil, a high infestation by the peritrich ciliate Carchesium polypinum (Linnaeus, 1758) Ehrenberg, 1830 (Ci [...] liophora, Peritrichia) associated to the shell of one mollusc among 23 was observed. We provided a morphological and morphometric study of C. polypinum using observations of specimens in vivo, after protargol staining, and examined using scanning electron microscopy. The Brazilian-population of C. polypinum is characterized by: size of zooid in vivo 89 µm x 57 µm on average; colony regularly dichotomously branched with usually up to 40 zooids; macronucleus usually J-shaped; single contractile vacuole located in the upper third of body; myoneme not continuous throughout the colony; stalks contract despite the discontinuity of their individual myonemes; polykinety comprises three peniculi, each consisting of three kineties. The high infestation showed here could be related to the preference for eutrophic environments showed by C. polypinum and suggested that ciliate epibionts may be ecologically important in aquatic habitats.

  6. Effects of thermal effluents on parasites and commensals of Physa gyrina Say (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and their interactions at Lake Wabamun, Alberta

    Sankurathri, C.S. (Dept. of the Environment, Nanaimo, British Columbia); Holmes, J.C.

    1976-10-01

    Effects of thermal effluents on the dynamics of larval helminth parasites and on populations of limnaei haetogaster limnaei limnaei and Chaetogaster limnaei vaghini (Annelida; Oligochaeta) harbored by Physa gyrina (Mollusca: Pulmonata) were studied at Lake Wabamun, Alberta. Thermal effluents provided the necessary conditions to maintain digenean parasite transmission throughout the year between definitive and intermediate hosts, and increased the prevalence of certain parasites, especially the metacercarial stages. At temperatures above 24/sup 0/C prevalences of C. l. limnaei and C. l. vaghini decreased in the lake, and at these temperatures in the laboratory C. l. limnaei abandoned the snails and perished. Under experimental conditions the number of Echinoparyphium recurvatum larvae penetrated Physa gyrina was inversely related to the number of C. l. limnaei present. It was also observed that these oligochaetes actively ingested digenean larvae. Elimination of C. l. limnaei caused by thermal effluents has augmented the metacercarial infections. An ecological model depicting the interactions of Physa gyrina--digeneans--Chaetogaster l. limnaei is presented. This is a complex system in which water temperature acts as a main regulating factor. The three main components of the system interact with each other and are influenced by various external factors, resulting in a dynamic ecological system.

  7. A PRELIMINARY RESEARCH ON MOLLUSCA SPECIES OF SOME FRESHWATERS OF S?NOP AND BAFRA

    ÖKTENER, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to investigate mollusc fauna of some freshwater ecosystems in Sinop and Bafra. The samples were obtained from littoral zones (0.5-1.5 m) by using handle dredge, spatula, handle oar. As a result of this study, 12 species belonging to Gastropoda and 6 species belonging to Bivalvia, totally 18 Mollusca species were determined.  Valvata pulchella  Studer,1820, Gyraulus parvus  (Say,1817) (Gastropoda), Unio mancus eucirrus Bourguignat,1860 (Bivalvia...

  8. MOLUSCOS TERRESTRES DE CHILE. SINONIMIA Y PROBLEMAS RELACIONADOS: 1. FAMILIAS VERONICELLIDAE, PIPILLIDAE Y ACHATINELLIDAE (GASTROPODA: PULMONATA LAND MOLLUSCA OF CHILE. SYNONYMIES AND RELATES PROBLEMS: 1. FFAMILIES VERONICELLIDAE, PIPILLIDAE Y ACHATINELLIDAE (GASTROPODA: PULMONATA

    José R. Stuardo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina el status taxonómico de las especies chilenas de las familias Veronicellidae, Pupillidae y Achatinellidae, como parte de una serie de análisis taxonómicos sobre los moluscos terrestres de Chile que se elabora como seguimiento a la sinopsis del grupo publicada con anterioridad (Stuardo & Vega 1985. Son pocos los trabajos trascendentes publicados después de la sinopsis. En la actualidad hay descritas dos especies de Veronicellidae, dos de Pupillidae y 21 especies de Achatinellidae. De éstas, el único registro de Chile para Heterovaginina limayana Lesson es cuestionable y la subespecie Pupoides (Ischnopupoides minimus costatus Biese, es considerada inválida. Se presenta una exhaustiva compilación de la sinonimia, junto a una discusión morfológica de los caracteres de la concha y de la distribución topotípica de cada una de las especies conocidas. Sin embargo, es ya necesario realizar estudios genéticos de especiación en los morfos del único veronicélido ampliamente distribuido en Chile central y sur, y en las especies de Orthurethra encontrados en Chile continental y sus islas oceánicas.The content of this paper, part of a series of taxonomic analysis of the land mollusca of Chile being written as a follow up to a synopsis published earlier (Stuardo & Vega 1985, examines the status of the Veronicellidae, Pupillidae and Achatinellidae. Only a few meaningful contributions have been published after the synopsis. So far, two species of Veronicellidae, two species of Pupillidae and 21 species of Achatinellidae have been recorded. Of these, Heterovaginina limayana Lesson with only one record from Chile continues being questioned and the subspecies Pupoides (Ischnopupoides minimus costatus Biese, is here considered invalid. A full synonymic compilation, with a discussion of morphological distinctive shell traits and topotypic geographical distributions is given for each of these species. However, much needed taxonomic work on the genetic of speciation becomes necessary for the understanding of the morphs of the only widely distributed veronicellid species in central and south Chile and the species of Orthurethra found in continental Chile and the Oceanic Islands

  9. FRESHWATER SNAILS (MOLLUSCA: GASTROPODA) OF NORTH AMERICA

    Freshwater gastropod mollusks are represented in North America (north of Mexico) by 15 families, 78 genera and, as treated in this manual, 499 species. They are grouped into two large subclasses, the gill-breathing, operculated Prosobranchia and the lung-breathing, non-operculate...

  10. Metabolism of 60Co in mollusca

    After mollusca were bred in 60Co-labeled sea water or were given 60Co-labeled feed for certain hours, their tissues including the liver were removed as experimental samples. 60Co metabolism was observed by the Sephadex gel filtration profile. A gel chromatogram of the liver in gastropoda showed a marked peak of 60Co on the high-molecular side. Although the peak was observed on both high- and low-molecular sides in pelecypoda, it was more marked on the high-molecular side than on the low-molecular side. In cephalopoda, the peak pattern was similar to that in the other mollusca, but the proportion of low-molecular components was comparatively large. The gel filtration profile of 60Co in various tissues of cephalopoda revealed the incorporation of 60Co into the high-molecular components in blood, three peaks in the kidneys, and the incorporation of 60Co into the low-molecular components in the branchial heart. The metabolism of 60Co was dependent upon the chemical form of Co in gastropoda, and organic 60Co was specifically observed in the high-molecular components. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Accumulation of cesium-137 by useful mollusca

    There are few data available on the radioactive contamination of marine mollusca, especially cephalopoda. Therefore, in this paper, data obtained on the radioactive contamination of cephalopoda were compared with those on pelecypoda and gastropoda. The uptake and elimination experiments were carried out by means of radioisotope tracer methods, and the concentration factors of 137Cs due to radioactive fallout were estimated. The contamination of cephalopoda was also compared with those of other marine organisms in terms of concentration factor. The activity ratios in the organs or tissues of octopus were in the range of 3.5 and 12.8 on the 14th day after the beginning of exposure and those of squid were in the range of 8.8 and 10.9 on the 6th day after the commencement of the experiment. The biological half time was 90 days for octopus from the observation over 75 days, while it was 31 days for clam from the results of 75 days' experiment. The concentration factors of 137Cs due to radioactive fallout were in the range of 3 and 23 for cephalopoda, 7 and 28 for pelecypoda and 24 and 30 for gastropoda, respectively. It was concluded that no difference in the concentration factors was clearly observable among the classes of mollusca, but the values were substantially similar to those of crustaceans and slightly lower than those of marine fish. (auth.)

  12. Foraminiferans as food for Cephalaspideans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with notes on secondary tests around calcareous foraminiferans

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    agglutinating foraminiferans surround themselves with a “secondary test”, a cyst or covering of foreign particles around the test. This structure has earlier been called a “reproductive cyst” or “feeding cyst” in some species. “Secondary tests” are primarily connected with feeding, but might also be a...

  13. Spawning aggregations and mass movements in subtidal Onchidoris bilamellata (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia)

    Claverie, T.; Kamenos, NA.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about spawning aggregations in subtidal populations of the nudibranch Onchidoris bilamellata. We provide photographic evidence of the spawning aggregations and associated spawning migrations or mass movements whose occurrence was debated.

  14. How well-known is the Cephalaspidean fauna (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in the Indo-Pacific region?

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    The gastropod group Cephalaspidea contains about 700 recent species worldwide. The status of the research on the group, indicated as the number of described species, in the tropical Indo-Pacific region is compared with other areas. The number ofspecies are 118 in the Indo-Pacific, 168 in Japan, a...

  15. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) in fjords and channels of southern Chile Patrones de distribución de larvas y asentamiento de Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789) (Gastropoda, Muricidae) en fiordos y canales del sur de Chile

    CARLOS MOLINET; ALEJANDRA ARÉVALO; MARÍA TERESA GONZÁLEZ; Carlos A. Moreno; JAVIER ARATA; EDWIN NIKLITSCHEK

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae) is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development...

  16. Imposex in endemic volutid from Northeast Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Imposex is characterized by the development of masculine sexual organs in neogastropod females. Almost 120 mollusk species are known to present imposex when exposed to organic tin compounds as tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT. These compounds are used as biocide agents in antifouling paints to prevent the incrustations on boats. Five gastropod species are known to present imposex in Brazil: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum and Olivancillaria vesica. This paper reports the first record of imposex observed in the endemic gastropod Voluta ebraea from Pacheco Beach, Northeast Brazil. Animals presenting imposex had regular female reproductive organs (capsule gland, oviduct and sperm-ingesting gland and an abnormal penis. As imposex occurs in mollusks exposed to organotin compounds typically found at harbors, marinas, shipyards and areas with high shipping activities, probably contamination of Pacheco Beach is a consequence of a shipyard activity located in the nearest areas.O imposex caracteriza-se pelo surgimento de estruturas sexuais masculinas, em fêmeas de gastrópodes. Cerca de 120 espécies de moluscos que exibem o fenômeno quando expostas a contaminação por compostos orgânicos de estanho tais como o Tributilestanho (TBT e o Trifenilestanho (TPT. Esses compostos são utilizados, sobretudo em embarcações, no intuito de evitar a bioincrustração que danifica as embarcações e eleva os custos das viagens marítimas. No Brasil se conhecem 5 espécies de moluscos gastrópodes que manifestam imposex, são elas: Stramonita haemastoma, Stramonita rustica, Leucozonia nassa, Cymathium parthenopeum e Olivancillaria vesica. No Nordeste, monitoramentos da contaminação por organoestânicos foram realizados utilizando o imposex em gastrópodes como biomarcador. O presente estudo tem por objetivo notificar a primeira ocorrência de imposex na espécie endêmica do Nordeste brasileiro, Voluta ebraea. De um total de 11 animais observados, duas fêmeas apresentaram imposex, provenientes da Praia do Pacheco no litoral do Ceará. Observou-se nesses indivíduos a presença de glândula de cápsulas, ovidutos e receptáculo seminal concomitantemente ao pênis o que caracteriza o imposex. Como o imposex só se manifesta em moluscos expostos a compostos organoestânicos tipicamente encontrados em portos, marinas, estaleiros e locais com grande fluxo de embarcações atribui-se a origem dessa contaminação provavelmente a um estaleiro localizado nas proximidades da área de coleta.

  17. Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae en Camagüey

    Raisa Vázquez Capote

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduccion: la fasciolosis es una enfermedad emergente en el mundo, tiene un comportamiento esporádico en Cuba y afecta seriamente al ganado vacuno. Objetivo: reportar la presencia y distribución de Pseudosuccinea columella en la provincia de Camagüey, Cuba. Metodos: se encuestaron 455 criaderos naturales o potenciales de moluscos dulceacuícolas de la provincia Camagüey, mediante un colador de bronce de 15 cm con 1 mm de paso de malla durante 30 min, removiendo el sustrato fangoso y la vegetación colindante, sin reposición de los ejemplares capturados. Resultados: se reporta la especie en 23 cuerpos de agua del total encuestado (5,05 %, que son 15 lagunas (65,21 %, 4 arroyos (17,39 %, 3 ríos (13,04 % y 1 micropresa (4,36 %. El municipio con mayor positividad resultó Camagüey con 16 en total (69,56 %. Pseudosuccinea columella se encontró relacionada únicamente con Physa acuta en 5 de los acuatorios positivos a la especie (21,73 %, siempre en bajas densidades. Conclusiones: la limitada distribución de Pseudosuccinea columella, disminuye su relevancia en comparación con Galba cubensis, considerada el más importante hospedero intermediario de Fasciola hepatica en Cuba. La acción de las diferentes variables abióticas, como probables factores limitantes o dispersivos de Pseudosuccinea columella en los diferentes acuatorios camagüeyanos, está siendo objeto de investigación.

  18. The Basommatophoran Pulmonate Species (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Turkey

    YILDIRIM, M. Zeki; GÜMÜŞ, Burçin Aşkım; KEBAPÇI, Ümit; KOCA, Seval BAHADIR

    2006-01-01

    To date, based on the studies of foreign and Turkish malacologists, 28 basommatophoran snail species belonging to 16 genera from 5 families (Physidae, Lymnaeidae, Planorbidae, Ancylidae, and Acroloxidae) have been found in freshwaters of Turkey. In Turkey, the genera Acroloxus (1 species), Galba (1), Stagnicola (1), Radix (2), Lymnaea (1), Physa (1), Physella (1), Planorbarius (1), Ferrissia (1), Planorbis (2), Anisus (4), Bathyomphalus (1), Gyraulus (8), Hippeutis (1), Ancylus (1) and Bu...

  19. Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile

    Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valparaı´so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepción, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

  20. Keeping Nerves: Central Nervous System of the Interstitial Acochlidiid Parhedyle cryptophthalma (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    Joerger, Katharina; Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette; Schrodel, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Unusually well-preserved fossils of a Halicyne-like cycloid crustacean frequently occur in the early Late Triassic lacustrine clay bed at Krasiejów in Opole Silesia, southern Poland. Its gill-like structures form a horseshoe-shaped pair of units composed of numerous calcified blades with reverse ...

  1. Keeping Nerves: Central Nervous System of the Interstitial Acochlidiid Parhedyle cryptophthalma (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia)

    Joerger, Katharina; Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette; Schrodel, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Unusually well-preserved fossils of a Halicyne-like cycloid crustacean frequently occur in the early Late Triassic lacustrine clay bed at Krasiejów in Opole Silesia, southern Poland. Its gill-like structures form a horseshoe-shaped pair of units composed of numerous calcified blades with reverse U....... nov. is proposed for it. More completely preserved specimens of cycloids from Vosges, France, and Madagascar show that the slit openings were located above radially arranged coxae of the walking appendages and a reduced abdomen. The disposition and arrangement of the cycloid gills suggest at least...... close analogy, and possibly homology, with the respiratory areas of the Branchiura, serving mostly as ion-exchange organs. It is proposed that they originated, in connection with the body size increase and adaptation to fresh-water environment, as radially arranged infoldings of the respiratory areas...

  2. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Mollusca-Bivalvia, data from 5 families (Margaritiferidae, Unionidae, Sphaeriidae, Cyrenidae, Dreissenidae) containing 55 species are included in this paper. European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species. PMID:26311403

  3. Prosobrânquios terrestres do Brasil: Cyclophoridae: Neocyclotus (N. agassizi (Bartsch & Morrison, 1942 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda Land prosobranchs of Brazil: Cyclophoridae: Neocyclotus (N. agassizi (Bartsch & Morrison, 1942 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda

    Arnaldo C. dos Santos Coelho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on specimens from Brazil (States of Pernambuco and Alagoas were carried out in order to relate data about morphology of hard and soft parts o Nocyclotus (N. agassizi (Bartsh & Morrison, 1942.

  4. From Polyplacophora to Cephalopoda: comparative analysis of nitric oxide signalling in mollusca.

    Moroz, L L; Gillette, R

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of putative nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing cells has been analysed using NADPH-d histochemistry in the CNS and peripheral tissues in more than 2D ecologically and systematically different molluscan genera representing 3 main classes of the phylum MOLLUSCA: Polyplacophora (Lepidopleurus, Lepidozona, Katharina), Gastropoda (Littorina, Lymnaea, Aplexa, Physa, Planorbarius, Planorbis, Helisoma, Biomphalaria, Helix, Limax, Cepaea, Bulla, Aplysia, Phyllaplysia, Philine, Pleurobranchea, Tritonia, Armina, Flabellina, Cadlina) and Cephalopoda (Octopus, Sepia, Rossia, Loligo). Several species were used for more detailed immunohistochemical, biochemical, biophysical and physiological studies to further assay of NOS activity and to analyse functional roles of nitric oxide (NO) in these animals. The main conclusions of our comparative analysis and literature survey can be summarised as following: (i) There is strong evidence for the presence of NO-dependent signalling pathways in different molluscan species. (ii) We hypothesise that a general tendency in the evolution of NADPH-d-reactive cells in Mollusca is a migration of nitrergic function from periphery to the CNS. Also, different isoforms of NOS appear to be present in any one species. (iii) One of the main functional targets of NO signalling is the feeding system. However, there are obvious differences between predators (many labelled central motoneurons) and herbivorous species (many labelled peripheral putative sensory cells) as well as between land/freshwater and marine animals. Nevertheless, in all species tested NO-activated feeding-like motor patterns in the buccal ganglia. Additional functional and cellular targets for NO in molluscs are also considered. We briefly review neuromodulatory mechanisms of NO action and we consider molluscs as useful model systems for investigations of the roles of NO. PMID:8853687

  5. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  6. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

    Santana Teles Horácio Manuel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  7. Anatomia e histologia do aparelho reprodutor masculino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the male reproductive system of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the testis is better evidentiated than the ovary. In the structure of the testis a great number of very small channels converges to a single one. The male copulatory organs result of transformations that take place in the inner surface on the palial membrane. Histologically, the testis of immature males shows seminiferous ducts with round egg-shaped forms. In their lumens we could notice masses of cells that will originate spermatozoids. The penis has a conjunctive muscular sheath that can be seen in van Gieson's coloured preparations.

  8. New data on opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the southwestern coast of Portugal

    Calado, G.; Malaquias, M. A. E.; Cavaia, C.; Cervera, J. Lucas; Megina, C.; Dayrat, B.; Camacho, Y.; Pola, Marta; Grande, Cristina

    2003-01-01

    [EN] The present papers reports the results obtained from different field samplings carried out on the southwestern Portuguese coast during July 2002, within the scope of three research projects on opisthobranch molluscs. Two areas were sampled, one around Sagres (37° 00′ N, 8° 57′ W) on the SW tip of the Portuguese mainland, the other near Sines (37° 57′ N, 8° 53′ W), 110 km north of the other site. Eighty-one species of opisthobranchs were identified, six of them new to the Portuguese fauna...

  9. Evolutionary position of Peruvian land snails (Orthalicidae among Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Jorge Ramirez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The genera Bostryx and Scutalus (Orthalicidae: Bulimulinae are endemics from South America. They are mainly distributed on the western slopes of the Peruvian Andes. The goal of the present work was to assess their evolutionary position among the stylommatophoran gastropods based on the 16S rRNA mitochondrial marker. Four sequences were obtained, and along with 28 sequences of other Stylommatophora retrieved from the GenBank, were aligned with ClustalX. The phylogenetic reconstruction was carried out using the methods of Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. The multiple sequence alignment had 371 sites, with indels. The two genera of the family Orthalicidae for the first time included in a molecular phylogeny (Bostryx and Scutalus, formed a monophyletic group along with another member of the superfamily Orthalicoidea (Placostylus, result that is comparable with that obtained with nuclear markers. Their evolutionary relationship with other land snails is also discussed.

  10. Neuromuscular development of Aeolidiella stephanieae Valdéz, 2005 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia)

    Kristof, Alen; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2010-01-01

    prior to metamorphosis. The postmetamorphic central nervous system (CNS) becomes concentrated, and the rhinophoral ganglia develop together with the anlage of the future rhinophores whereas oral tentacle ganglia are not found. The myogenesis in A. stephanieae begins with the larval retractor muscle...... followed by the accessory larval retractor muscle, the velar or prototroch muscles and the pedal retractors that all together degenerate during metamorphosis, and the adult muscle complex forms de novo. CONCLUSIONS: Aeolidiella stephanieae comprises features of the larval and postmetamorphic nervous as...

  11. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  12. Annotated type catalogue of the Bulimulidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Abraham Breure

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described of 404 taxa classified within the family Bulimulidae (superfamily Orthalicoidea and kept in the London museum. Lectotypes are designated for Bulimus aurifluus Pfeiffer, 1857; Otostomus bartletti H. Adams, 1867; Helix cactorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus caliginosus Reeve, 1849; Bulimus chemnitzioides Forbes, 1850; Bulimus cinereus Reeve, 1849; Helix cora d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus fallax Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus felix Pfeiffer, 1862; Bulimus fontainii d’Orbigny, 1838; Bulimus fourmiersi d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus (Mesembrinus gealei H. Adams, 1867; Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimus humboldtii Reeve, 1849; Helix hygrohylaea d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus jussieui Pfeiffer, 1846; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895; Helix lichnorum d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus lucidus da Costa, 1898; Bulimus luridus Pfeiffer, 1863; Bulimus meleagris Pfeiffer, 1853; Bulimus monachus Pfeiffer, 1857; Bulimus montagnei d’Orbigny, 1837; Helix montivaga d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus muliebris Reeve, 1849; Bulimus nigrofasciatus Pfeiffer in Philippi 1846; Bulimus nitelinus Reeve, 1849; Helix oreades d’Orbigny, 1835; Helix polymorpha d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus praetextus Reeve, 1849; Bulinus proteus Broderip, 1832; Bulimus rusticellus Morelet, 1860; Helix sporadica d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimus sulphureus Pfeiffer, 1857; Helix thamnoica var. marmorata d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus translucens Broderip in Broderip and Sowerby I 1832; Helix trichoda d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulinus ustulatus Sowerby I, 1833; Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847; Bulimus yungasensis d’Orbigny, 1837.The type status of the following taxa is changed to lectotype in accordance with Art. 74.6 ICZN: Bulimulus (Drymaeus caucaensis da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus exoticus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus (Drymaeus hidalgoi da Costa, 1898; Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus Preston, 1909; Bulimulus (Drymaeus inusitatus Fulton, 1900; Bulimulus latecolumellaris Preston, 1909; Bulimus (Otostomus napo Angas, 1878; Drymaeus notabilis da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus notatus da Costa, 1906; Bulimulus (Drymaeus nubilus Preston, 1903; Drymaeus obliquistriatus da Costa, 1901; Bulimus (Drymaeus ochrocheilus E.A. Smith, 1877; Bulimus (Drymaeus orthostoma E.A. Smith, 1877; Drymaeus expansus perenensis da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus pergracilis Rolle, 1904; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus prestoni da Costa, 1906; Drymaeus punctatus da Costa, 1907; Bulimus (Leptomerus sanctaeluciae E.A. Smith, 1889; Bulimulus (Drymaeus selli Preston, 1909; Drymaeus subventricosus da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus ( Drymaeus tigrinus da Costa, 1898; Drymaeus volsus Fulton, 1907; Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Bulimus zhorquinensis Angas, 1879; Bulimulus (Drymaeus ziczac da Costa, 1898.The following junior subjective synonyms are established: Bulimus antioquensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Bulimus baranguillanus Pfeiffer, 1853; Drymaeus bellus da Costa, 1906 = Drymaeus blandi Pilsbry, 1897; Bulimus hachensis Reeve 1850 = Bulimus gruneri Pfeiffer, 1846 = Bulimus columbianus Lea, 1838; Bulimus (Otostomus lamas Higgins 1868 = Bulimus trujillensis Philippi, 1867; Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis lascellianus E.A. Smith, 1895 = Bulimulus (Drymaeus binominis E.A. Smith, 1895; Drymaeus multispira da Costa, 1904 = Helix torallyi d’Orbigny, 1835; Bulimulus (Drymaeus plicatoliratus Da Costa, 1898 = Bulimus convexus Pfeiffer, 1855; Bulimus sugillatus Pfeiffer, 1857 = Bulimus rivasii d’Orbigny, 1837; Bulimus meridionalis Reeve 1848 [June] = Bulimus voithianus Pfeiffer, 1847.New combinations are: Bostryx montagnei (d’Orbigny, 1837; Bostryx obliquiportus (da Costa, 1901; Bulimulus heloicus (d’Orbigny, 1835; Drymaeus (Drymaeus lusorius (Pfeiffer, 1855; Drymaeus (Drymaeus trigonostomus (Jonas, 1844; Drymaeus (Drymaeus wintlei Finch, 1929; Drymaeus (Mesembrinus conicus da Costa, 1907; Kuschelenia (Kuschelenia culminea culminea (d’Orbigny, 1835; Kuschelenia (K. culmineus edwardsi (Morelet, 186

  13. Biological aspects of Omalonyx convexus (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae from the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Janine Oliveira Arruda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx convexus (Heynemann, 1868 is widely spread throughout the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The studied specimens presented in vivo, tegument and mantle coloring in variations between milky-white, orange and beige. The shell presented itself covered by the mantle in different extents; however, it was not completely covered on any of the specimens. The feeding diet is basically constituted by vegetal tissues, although non-vegetal food items were also found. The specimens were found in preserved and in polluted fresh water environments, as well as on natural and artificial substrates. The temperature throughout the day influences their placement on habitat substrates.

  14. Effect of 60 Co gamma radiation on Biomphalaria Glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) embryos: mortality, malformation and hatching

    A study was carried out on the radiosensitivity of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos submitted to doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy of 60 Co during the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages. Mortality, malformation and hatching were the parameters used to evaluate the damage induced by ionizing radiation. Estimated L D50 values (15 days) showed that the cleavage stage (4.3 Gy) was approximately four times more radiosensitive than the trochophore stage (17.0 Gy). Susceptibility to malformation induction was higher in the blastula, gastrula and young trochophore stages. Several types of morphogenetic malformations were observed, such as head malformations, exogastrulas, shell malformations, and embryos with everted stomodeum, with nonspecific malformations being the most frequent. The types of malformation induced by radiation probably are not radiation-specific and do not depend on the dose applied. The dose of 15 Gy was sufficient to greatly reduce the number of hatching snails regardless of the embryonic stage irradiated. We conclude that the effect of 60 Co gamma radiation on B. glabrata embryos presented a specific pattern. (author)

  15. Spatial distribution of vermetids (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Rocas Atoll, Equatorial South Atlantic

    Marcelo de Oliveira Soares

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Rocas Atoll is a biogenic reef located 266 km from the brazilian northeast coast. Its carbonate structure is formed by corals, calcareous algae, foraminifers and vermetids. Such studied vermetid species are indicators of the sea level and of intertidal or immediately subtidal paleoenvironments, being able to contribute to elucidate the geological history of the only atoll of the South Atlantic. Despite its importance as bioconstructors, there are few studies on the systematics and distribution of these mollusks in this oceanic reef system. Data was obtained on the species, density and distribution leeward and windward from the encrusting taphocoenosis. The species Dendropoma irregulare (d’Orbigny, 1842 and Petaloconchus varians (d’Orbigny, 1841 were recognized in different sectors of the reef system, mainly in the windward sector (0,26 ± 0,04 ind/cm2. In the wave-dominated side of the depositional system occur a lower bioaccumulation of the fossilized shells (0,11 ± 0,02 ind/cm2.

  16. Dating and biogeographical patterns in the sea slug genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia).

    Hallas, Joshua M; Brian Simison, W; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies investigating vicariance and dispersal have been focused on correlating major geological events with instances of taxonomic expansion by incorporating the fossil record with molecular clock analyses. However, this approach becomes problematic for soft-bodied organisms that are poorly represented in the fossil record. Here, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships of the nudibranch genus Acanthodoris Gray, 1850 using three molecular markers (16S, COI, H3), and then test two alternative geologically calibrated molecular clock scenarios in BEAST and their effect on ancestral area reconstruction (AAR) estimates employed in LAGRANGE. The global temperate distribution of Acanthodoris spans multiple geological barriers, including the Bering Strait (∼5.32Mya) and the Baja Peninsula (∼5.5Mya), both of which are used in our dating estimates. The expansion of the Atlantic Ocean (∼95-105Mya) is also used to calibrate the relationship between A. falklandica Eliot, 1905 and A. planca Fahey and Valdés, 2005, which are distributed in southern Chile and South Africa respectively. Phylogenetic analyses recovered strong biogeographical signal and recovered two major clades representing northern and southern hemispheric distributions of Acanthodoris. When all three geological events are applied to the calibration analyses, the age for Acanthodoris is estimated to be mid-Cretaceous. When the expansion of the Atlantic Ocean is excluded from our analyses, however, Acanthodoris is estimated to be much younger, with a divergence time estimate during the Miocene. Regardless of divergence estimates, our AAR suggests that Acanthodoris may have origins in the Atlantic Ocean with the Atlantic acting as a dispersal point to the northeastern Pacific. These results suggest that Acanthodoris exhibits a rare instance of western trans-arctic expansion. This study also shows that northeast Pacific specimens of A. pilosa should be regarded as A. atrogriseata and that A. serpentinotus should be regarded as a synonym of A. pina. PMID:26752594

  17. A new species of hydrobiid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae from central Greece

    Canella Radea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new minute valvatiform species belonging to the genus Daphniola Radoman 1973, Daphniola eptalophos sp. n., from mountain Parnassos, Greece is described. The new species has a transparent valvatiform-planispiral shell, wide and open umbilicus, grey-black pigmented soft body and head and a black penis with a small colorless outgrowth on the left side near its base. A comparative table of shell dimensions and a key to the species known for this endemic genus for Greece are provided.

  18. A new Middle Miocene Niveria Jousseaume, 1884 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Trivioidea) from Hungary

    Fehse, Dirk

    2011-02-01

    A new species of Niveria from the Middle Miocene (Badenian) of the Paratethys of Borsodbóta, Hungary is described. This species is characterized by its callused dorsum and dorsal depression. Niveria jozefgregoi sp. nov. is discussed with comparative species from the Badenian of Hungary, the Pliocene of the Mediterranean region, Florida and Recent species from Madeira and the Islas Galápagos.

  19. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.

  20. Effects of crude oil on the behavior of Lymnaea peregra (Mollusca: gastropoda)

    The effects of oil polluted water (crude oil) on the behavior of L. pereqra were tested (4 l aquaria, static test, 96 h, no food added, surface slick not removed, water temp. +17 S deg C, S 4 o/oo, 3 parallel test/conc, 10 - 15 ind./aquaria). The activity of the snails was measured 3 times a day by counting the proportion of individuals crawling around within one minute. The activity of the snails was negatively affected in oil solutions of 0.1 to 1.0 vol-%. In the 1 vol-% oil solution the snails were paralysed after being exposed for 24 h and they were unable to crawl around for the next 24 h. The reproduction of the snails (egg laying) was negatively affected by oil. In the excrements of the snails small oil balls could be seen, more in the 0.1 vol-% solution than in the 1 vol-% solution. The mortality was two times higher in the 1 vol-% solution (40 %) than in the control (18 %)

  1. Rich and rare—First insights into species diversity and abundance of Antarctic abyssal Gastropoda (Mollusca)

    Schwabe, Enrico; Michael Bohn, Jens; Engl, Winfried; Linse, Katrin; Schrödl, Michael

    2007-08-01

    The abyssal depths of the polar oceans are thought to be low in diversity compared with the shallower polar shelves and temperate and tropical deep-sea basins. Our recent study on the gastropod fauna of the deep Southern Ocean gives evidence of the existence of a rich gastropod assemblage at abyssal depths. During the ANDEEP I and II expeditions to the southern Drake Passage, Northwestern Weddell Sea, and South Sandwich Trench, gastropods were collected by bottom and Agassiz trawls, epibenthic sledge, and multicorer, at 40 stations in depths between 127 and 5194 m. On the whole, 473 specimens, corresponding to 93 species of 36 families, were obtained. Of those, 414 specimens were caught below 750 m depth and refer to 84 (90%) benthic species of 32 (89%) families. Most families were represented by a single species only. The numerically dominant families were Skeneidae and Buccinidae (with 10 and 11 species, respectively), Eulimidae and Trochidae (with 9 species each), and Turridae (6 species). Thirty-Seven benthic deep-sea species (44%) were represented by a single specimen, and another 20 species (24%) were found at a single station, suggesting that more than two thirds of Antarctic deep-sea gastropod species are very rare or have a very scattered distribution. Of the 27 species occurring at two or more deep-sea stations, 14 were collected with different gear. Approximately half of the deep-water species are new to science or have been recently described. The present investigation increases the total number of recorded benthic Antarctic deep-sea gastropods (below 750 m) from 115 to 177. The previously known depth ranges have been extended, often considerably, for 31 species. The collected deep-sea gastropods comprise both eurybathic shelf species (29%) and apparently true deep-sea species (58%); some of the latter may belong to a so far unknown Antarctic abyssal fauna. Geographical ranges of the collected Antarctic benthic deep-sea gastropod species appear limited, and all these 84 species seem endemic to Antarctica south of the Polar Front. Comparing diversity and abundances based on epibenthic sledge samples, there is no clear relationship between Antarctic deep-sea gastropod abundance and species richness with depth. However, both Antarctic and adjacent deep-sea areas are still far from being adequately sampled to allow more comprehensive conclusions.

  2. Response of the Lymnaea peregra (Mollusca: gastropoda) to oil and dispersant

    The effects of oil polluted water (heavy fuel oil) and a dispersant (Finasol OSR 5) on the behavior of Lymnaea peregra were tested in 4 l aquaria (static test, 96 h, no food added, surface oil slick not removed, water temp. +20 and S 4.5 o/oo). The accumulation of oil in the tissues of the snails was also studied. The activity in oil polluted water low (10 %) compared with the control (30 %). The mortality was 10 % in the oil polluted water and 0 % in the control. In the test with the dispersant (0.01 vol-%), the activity of the snails was 10 % compared with 40 % in the control. The mortality increased from 0 - 20 %. Snails exposed to oil mixtures of 0.1 and 10 vol-% showed increased concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in their tissues (4 - 20 times higher than in the control)

  3. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  4. First occurrence of the Kentish Snail Monacha cantiana (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Hygromiidae) in the Czech Republic

    Alena Peltanová; Jaroslav ?. Hlavá?

    2010-01-01

    We document the first occurrence of the Kentish Snail Monacha cantiana (Montagu, 1803) from Prague, Czech Republic. During autumn 2009, an abundant population of M. cantiana was found at sites with suitable vegetation and microclimatic conditions, predominantly composed of grassy vegetation cover. It is expected that this species will continue to spread in the Czech Republic.

  5. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-03-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  6. Quantification of midkine gene expression in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to cadmium

    Stillitano, Francesca; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Vanucci, Silvana

    2007-10-01

    The release of cadmium into many coastal areas represents a threat to ecosystems and human health; cadmium is carcinogenic in mammals and in both marine invertebrates and vertebrates. The use of molluscs to assess the ecologic risk associated with contaminants is strongly recommended on account of their ecological role and on their highly conserved control and regulatory pathways that are often homologous to vertebrate systems. We previously identified a midkine family protein in the limpet Patella caerulea; the midkine is a recently discovered cytokines family with unequivocal informative value on repairing injury and neoplastic processes in mammals. Here we report on midkine ( mdk) and ?-tubulin ( ?-tub) gene expression patterns in P. caerulea exposed to cadmium. Limpets, collected on two occasions from a breakwater at a marina (Tyrrhenian Sea) were exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. RNA was extracted from the viscera of unexposed and exposed specimens. Real time TaqMan RT-PCR was performed to measure the relative mdk and ?-tub gene expression levels. A remarkable mdk over-expression was observed in all exposed animals with respect to unexposed ones; mdk over-expression was significantly higher in both treatments when compared with un-treatment (mean expression levels: 23- and 38-fold, for 0.5 and 1 mg l -1 Cd treatment, respectively; ANOVA, for both P < 0.01). The study also indicates that the mdk up-regulation was significantly Cd-concentration dependent ( P < 0.05). A significant up-regulation of the constitutive ?-tub gene was also observed in 1 mg l -1 Cd-treated animals (mean expression level: 4-fold; ANOVA, P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence paving the way for the use of the midkine as a promising new biomarker of effect in the environment risk assessment policy.

  7. Unraveling the evolutionary history of the Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) lineages in Greece.

    Psonis, Nikolaos; Vardinoyannis, Katerina; Mylonas, Moisis; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2015-10-01

    The land snails of the genus Chilostoma Fitzinger, 1833 that includes, in Greece, the (sub)genera Cattania, Josephinella and Thiessea, are highly diversified and present high levels of endemism. However, their evolutionary history is unknown and their taxonomy is complex and continuously revised. The aim of this study is to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the lineages of the genus Chilostoma distributed in Greece based on partial DNA sequences of two mitochondrial DNA (16S rRNA and COI) genes. Complete sequences of one nuclear gene (ITS1) representing the major mitochondrial lineages were also analyzed. The phylogenetic trees revealed three distinct major clades that correspond to the three (sub)genera. Several taxonomical incongruencies were made obvious, thus, raising questions about the "true" number of species in each clade, while rendering a taxonomic re-evaluation necessary. From a phylogeographic point of view, it seems that the three major phylogenetic clades were separated in the late Miocene. They started differentiating into distinct species during the Pliocene and Pleistocene through several vicariance and dispersal events. PMID:26049041

  8. Estudo morfométrico da concha de Lymnaea columella say, 1817 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Marlene T. Ueta

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas variações morfométricas de conchas de L. columella, provenientes de dez criadouros localizados nos seguintes municípios do Estado de São Paulo: - Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava e Taubaté. Foram analisados os diferentes tipos de ambientes onde as limneas são encontradas com maior freqüência, estabelecendo-se a época do ano com maior abundância em espécimes, que correspondeu aos meses de julho a outubro. As medidas nas conhas dos diferentes criadouros referiram-se ao comprimento e largura da concha, comprimento e largura da abertura, comprimento da espira e número de voltas. Foram estabelecidos os coeficientes de correlação e de regressão e realizadas análises de variância entre as medidas tomadas e os índices obtidos da relação entre largura/comprimento da concha. Estas conchas foram comparadas com as de L. columella, L. viator, L. cubensis da coleção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Para a maioria das medidas as conchas mostraram proporções constantes, embora apresentassem diferenças em relação ao desenvolvimento. A maior variação foi observada em relação ao comprimento da espira. As variações morfométricas das conchas foram relacionadas com alguns fatores externos como pH, alcalinidade, dureza e teor da água. Aparentemente apenas a dureza total da água influiu na consistência das conchas.Shells of Lymnaea columella from ten populations from the State of São Paulo were studied to determine morphometric variation. Samples were collected in the following municipalities: Campinas, Americana, Atibaia, Pirassununga, Caçapava and Taubaté. Five measurements were taken from each shell: length and width of the shell, length and width of the aperture and lenght of the spire. Two ratios were also established: width/lenght of the shell and length of the aperture /length of the shell. The numbers of whorls and the length of the shell were also determined. Statistical tests (correlation coeficients, regression, and analysis of variance were used to compare the different samples. Also, com parisons of L. columella shells collected by us were made with those of L. columella, L. viator and L. cubensis from collections deposited in the Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro. The results of these studies revealed that in most of the cases the snail populations of different areas were similar, showing constant proportions, but they diverged in their absolute dimensions. Data on aquatic environmental conditions (pH, alkalinity, hardness, and calcium concentration were also obtained. These Chemical factors were examined with respect to shell morphology. Our results revealed that only hardness of water was associated with the robustness of the shells.

  9. Anesthesia of Biomphalaria spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda: sodium pentobarbital is the drug of choice

    RL Martins-Sousa

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The anesthetic effect of some water-soluble anesthesic or narcotic drugs currently used in mice was tested in molluscs of the Biomphalaria genus. Sodium thiopental was very toxic to the snails resulting in high rates of mortality in all the treatment schedules tested. Cetamine base, at concentration of 0.25 mg/ml of water, resulted in partial snail anesthesia (40% of snails were anesthetized only after 20 h of exposition. The association of Cetamine base with Tiazine chloridrate did not improve the anesthesic effect, and higher concentrations of these drugs were toxic to the snails. Sodium pentobarbital at 0.4 mg/ml in water for 8 h was the best treatment schedule to anesthetize Biomphalaria snails. In this schedule, the snails were anesthetized without any toxic effect. The procedure provides a powerful tool for in vivo studies that demande a complete state of snail anesthesia.

  10. Anesthesia of Biomphalaria spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda): sodium pentobarbital is the drug of choice

    Martins-Sousa RL; Negrão-Corrêa D; FSM Bezerra; Coelho PMZ

    2001-01-01

    The anesthetic effect of some water-soluble anesthesic or narcotic drugs currently used in mice was tested in molluscs of the Biomphalaria genus. Sodium thiopental was very toxic to the snails resulting in high rates of mortality in all the treatment schedules tested. Cetamine base, at concentration of 0.25 mg/ml of water, resulted in partial snail anesthesia (40% of snails were anesthetized) only after 20 h of exposition. The association of Cetamine base with Tiazine chloridrate did not impr...

  11. The Vermetidae of the Gulf of Kachchh, western coast of India (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Joshi, Devanshi MukundRay; Mankodi, Pradeep C

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are often termed underwater wonderlands due to the presence of an incredible biodiversity including numerous invertebrates and vertebrates. Among the dense population of benthic and bottom-dwelling inhabitants of the reef, many significant species remain hidden or neglected by researchers. One such example is the vermetids, a unique group of marine gastropods. The present study attempts for the first time to assess the density and identify preferred reef substrates in the Gulf of Kachchh, state of Gujarat, on the western coast of India. A total of three species of the family Vermetidae were recorded during the study and their substrate preferences identified. PMID:26877684

  12. The Vermetidae of the Gulf of Kachchh, western coast of India (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Joshi, Devanshi MukundRay; Mankodi, Pradeep C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coral reefs are often termed underwater wonderlands due to the presence of an incredible biodiversity including numerous invertebrates and vertebrates. Among the dense population of benthic and bottom-dwelling inhabitants of the reef, many significant species remain hidden or neglected by researchers. One such example is the vermetids, a unique group of marine gastropods. The present study attempts for the first time to assess the density and identify preferred reef substrates in the Gulf of Kachchh, state of Gujarat, on the western coast of India. A total of three species of the family Vermetidae were recorded during the study and their substrate preferences identified. PMID:26877684

  13. Biology, diversity and evolution of "solarpowered" Nudibranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and their symbiosis with Zooxanthellae

    Burghardt, Ingo

    2006-01-01

    Die Biologie, Ökophysiologie, Evolution und Diversität "solarbetriebener" Nudibranchia und ihrer Symbiose mit Zooxanthellen wurde untersucht. Mit Hilfe eines Diving-PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulated Fluorometer) und histologischer Daten wurde die Effizienz der Symbiose bei 21 Arten der Nudibranchia untersucht. Intra- und interspezifische Unterschiede in der Symbiose von solarbetriebenen Nudibranchiern konnten nachgewiesen werden. Die Fähigkeit der Zooxanthellen-Retention und die Effi...

  14. European Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda), intermediate hosts of trematodiases, based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS-2 sequences.

    Bargues, M D; Vigo, M; Horak, P; Dvorak, J; Patzner, R A; Pointier, J P; Jackiewicz, M; Meier-Brook, C; Mas-Coma, S

    2001-12-01

    Freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae are of a great parasitological importance because of the very numerous helminth species they transmit, mainly trematodiases of large medical and veterinary impact. The present knowledge on the genetics of lymnaeids and on their parasite-host inter-relationships is far from being sufficient. The family is immersed in a systematic-taxonomic confusion. The necessity for a tool which enables species distinction and population characterization is evident. This paper aims to review the European Lymnaeidae basing on the second internal transcribed spacer ITS-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The ITS-2 sequences of 66 populations of 13 European and 1 North American lymnaeid species, including the five generic (or subgeneric) taxa Lymnaea sensu stricto, Stagnicola, Omphiscola, Radix and Galba, have been obtained. The ITS-2 proves to be a useful marker for resolving supraspecific, specific and population relationships in Lymnaeidae. Three different groupings according to their ITS-2 length could be distinguished: Radix and Galba may be considered the oldest taxa (370-406 bp lengths), and Lymnaea s. str., European Stagnicola and Omphiscola (468-491 bp lengths) the most recent, American Stagnicola and Hinkleyia being intermediate (434-450 bp lengths). This hypothesis agrees with the phylogeny of lymnaeids based on palaeontological data, chromosome numbers and radular dentition. ITS-2 sequences present a conserved central region flanked by two variable lateral regions corresponding to the 5' and 3' ends. The number of repeats of two microsatellites found in this conserved central region allows to differentiate Radix from all other lymnaeids. Phylogenetic trees showed four clades: (A) Lymnaea s. str., European Stagnicola and Omphiscola; (B) Radix species; (C) Galba truncatula; and (D) North American stagnicolines. ITS-2 results suggest that retaining Stagnicola as a subgenus of Lymnaea may be the most appropriate and that genus status for Omphiscola is justified. Radix shows a complexity suggesting different evolutionary lines, whereas G. truncatula appears to be very homogeneous. North American and European stagnicolines do not belong to the same supraspecific taxon; the genus Hinkleyia may be used for the American stagnicolines. Genetic distances and sequence differences allowed us to distinguish the upper limit to be expected within a single species and to how different sister species may be. S. palustris, S. fuscus and S. corvus proved to be valid species, but S. turricula may not be considered a species independent from S. palustris. Marked nucleotide divergences and genetic distances detected between different S. fuscus populations may be interpreted as a process of geographic differentiation developping in the present. Among Radix, six valid species could be distinguished: R. auricularia, R. ampla, R. peregra (=R. ovata;=R. balthica), R. labiata, R. lagotis and Radix sp. The information which the ITS-2 marker furnishes is of applied interest concerning the molluscan host specificity of the different trematode species. The phylogenetic trees inferred from the ITS-2 sequences are able to differentiate between lymnaeids transmitting and those non-transmitting fasciolids, as well as between those transmitting F. hepatica and those transmitting F. gigantica. The Fasciola specificity is linked to the two oldest genera which moreover cluster together in the phylogenetic trees, suggesting an origin of the Fasciola ancestors related to the origin of this branch. European Trichobilharzia species causing human dermatitis are transmitted only by lymnaeids of the Radix and Lymnaea s. str.-Stagnicola groups. Results suggest the convenience of reinvestigating compatibility differences after accurate lymnaeid species classification by ITS-2 sequencing. Similarly, ITS-2 sequencing would allow a step forward in the appropriate rearrangement of the actual systematic confusion among echinostomatids. PMID:12798024

  15. Radular myoglobin and protein variation within and among some littorinid species (Mollusca : Gastropoda)

    Medeiros, R.; Serpa, L.; C. BRITO; Wolf, H.; Jordaens, K.; Winnepenninck, B.; Backeljau, T.

    2002-01-01

    The radular muscles of several littorinid species, including Littorina littorea, L. saxatilis, L. obtusata, L. striata and Melaraphe neritoides, contain myoglobin (Mb), Here we report on the presence of radular Mb in eight other littorinids: L, compressa, L, arcana, L. fabalis, Nodilittorina punctata, N. trochoides, N. radiata, Littoraria undulata and Littoraria cingulifera. Using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and isoelectric focusing (IEF) we compared the Mb and soluble pr...

  16. Phylogenetic relationships among six vetigastropod subgroups (Mollusca, Gastropoda) based on 18S rDNA sequences.

    Yoon, Sook Hee; Kim, Won

    2005-04-30

    Complete 18S rDNA sequences were determined for 10 vetigastropods in order to investigate the phylogeny of Vetigastropoda, which is controversial. These sequences were analyzed together with published sequences for nine other vetigastropods and two nerites. With the two nerites as outgroups, the phylogeny was inferred by three analytical methods, neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony. The 18S rDNA sequence data support the monophyly of four vetigastropod superfamilies, the Pleurotomarioidea, the Fissurelloidea, the Haliotoidea, and the Trochoidea. The present results yield the new branching order: (Pleurotomarioidea (Fissurelloidea ((Scissurelloidea, Lepetodriloidea) (Haliotoidea, Trochoidea)))) within the vetigastropod clade. PMID:15879715

  17. The phylogenetic position of Neritimorpha based on the mitochondrial genome of Nerita melanotragus (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    Castro, Lyda R; Colgan, D J

    2010-11-01

    This is the first report of the mitochondrial gene order and almost-complete DNA sequence of a representative of the Neritimorpha, the highest-ranking gastropod clade lacking such data. Mitochondrial gene order in Nerita is largely plesiomorphic. Its only difference from the cephalopod Octopus vulgaris is a tRNA transposition shared by Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Genome arrangements were not informative enough to resolve the evolutionary relationships of Neritimorpha, Vetigastropoda and Caenogastropoda. The sister-group taxon of Neritimorpha varied in sequence-based analyses. Some suggested that Neritimorpha is the sister group of Caenogastropoda plus Heterobranchia and some that Neritimorpha and Caenogastropoda are sister groups. No analysis significantly supported the hypothesis that Vetigastroda is more closely related to Caenogastropoda than is Neritimorpha. PMID:20817109

  18. Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Gastropoda di Pantai Selatan Kabupaten Pamekasan, Madura

    Titis Rahmasari; Tarzan Purnomo; Reni Ambarwati

    2015-01-01

    Pesisir selatan Kabupaten Pamekasan memiliki beberapa pantai dengan profil yang berbeda-beda. Perbedaan profil pantai tersebut tampak pada substrat dasar perairan masing-masing, sehingga komunitas biota dasar perairan, misalnya Gastropoda yang terdapat di pantai-pantai tersebut juga berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi jenis-jenis, keanekaragaman, dan kelimpahan Gastropoda di pantai selatan Kabupaten Pamekasan Madura. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan metode transek dilakukan...

  19. Ciliary ultrastructure of polyplacophorans (Mollusca, Amphineura, Polyplacophora).

    Lundin, K; Schander, C

    2001-01-01

    This study is part of a series of papers aiming to investigate the phylogenetic significance of ciliary ultrastructure among molluscs and to test the hypothesis of a relationship between Xenoturbella and the molluscs. The ultrastructure of the ciliary apparatus on the gills of the polyplacophorans Leptochiton asellus and Tonicella rubra was studied. The gill cilia of the two species are similar in shape. The free part of the cilium is long with a slender distal part. There are two ciliary rootlets. One of them is short, broad and placed on the anterior face of the basal body. The other rootlet is conical and has a vertical orientation. Among the mollusca, two ciliary rootlets in the ciliary apparatus of multiciliate ectodermal cells have only been reported from the Chaetodermomorpha and Neomeniomorpha. This character state is likely plesiomorphic for the Mollusca and indicates a basal (nonderived) position of these taxa among the molluscs. No possible synapomorphic character with Xenoturbella bocki was found. PMID:11686414

  20. De weekdieren van de Nederlandse brakwatergebieden (Mollusca)

    Kuijper, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The molluscs of the brackish waters in the Netherlands (Mollusca) The Netherlands is a river delta rich in brackish waters. The organisms in these waters need to be adapted to extreme conditions, especially large fluctuations in chlorinity. However, several species occur optimally in this habitat. In this paper a review is presented of the molluscs living in brackish waters in the Netherlands. All available data from literature, collections, literature and databanks were compiled for this cau...

  1. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012)

    Nicolaidou, A.; Alongi, G; Aydogan, O.; Catra, M.; L. CAVAS; Cevik, C.; Dosi, A.; CIRCOSTA, V; Giakoumi, S.; F. GIMENEZ-CASALDUERO; Filiz, H.; A. IZQUIERDO-MUNOZ; KALOGIROU S.; Konstantinidis, E; V. KOUSTENI

    2012-01-01

    The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey), Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain), Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece), Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey), Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece), Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece), Ox...

  2. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012)

    Nicolaidou, A.; Alongi, G; Aydogan, Ö.; Catra, M.; Cavas, L.; Cevik, C.; A. DOSI; CIRCOSTA V.; Giakoumi, S.; Giménez-Casalduero, Francisca; Filiz, H.; Izquierdo Muñoz, Andrés; Kalogirou, S.; KONSTANTINIDIS E.; V. KOUSTENI

    2012-01-01

    The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori (Fish:Turkey), Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain), Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coast of Greece), Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta:Turkey), Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island, and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece), Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos, Greece),...

  3. Keanekaragaman dan Kelimpahan Gastropoda di Pantai Selatan Kabupaten Pamekasan, Madura

    Titis Rahmasari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pesisir selatan Kabupaten Pamekasan memiliki beberapa pantai dengan profil yang berbeda-beda. Perbedaan profil pantai tersebut tampak pada substrat dasar perairan masing-masing, sehingga komunitas biota dasar perairan, misalnya Gastropoda yang terdapat di pantai-pantai tersebut juga berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi jenis-jenis, keanekaragaman, dan kelimpahan Gastropoda di pantai selatan Kabupaten Pamekasan Madura. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan metode transek dilakukan di pantai selatan Pamekasan pada tiga stasiun penelitian, yaitu Pantai Bengkal, Pantai Talang Siring, dan Pantai Jumiang. Pada setiap pantai ditentukan tiga garis transek ke arah laut dan pada masing-masing garis transek dibagi menjadi tiga bagian, yaitu intertidal atas, intertidal tengah, dan intertidal bawah. Keanekaragaman Gastropoda dianalisis berdasarkan perhitungan indeks keanekaragaman dan kelimpahan relatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di pantai selatan Kabupaten Pamekasan Madura ditemukan 29 jenis Gastropoda yang terbagi ke dalam 14 famili. Indeks keanekaragaman jenis Gastropoda sebesar 3,0075, termasuk kategori keanekaragaman yang tinggi. Gastropoda yang paling melimpah adalah Nassarius distortus diikuti Littoraria scabra dan Nassarius leptospirus dengan kelimpahan relatif berturut-turut 11,21%; 9,09%; dan 8,03%.Southern shores of Pamekasan consists of beaches with different profiles. The difference can be found in the type of substrate which causes variation of invertebrate community living in this shores, i.e.gastropods. The study aimed to identify the species of gastropods as well as to describe the diversity and abundance of gastropods in the southern shores of Pamekasan Madura. Sampling was carried out on three research stations located at the southern shores of Pamekasan (Bengkal Beach, Talang Siring Beach, and Jumiang Beach. Three transect lines were placed at each research station and each transect line was divided into three sampling sites, namely upper intertidal, middle intertidal, and lower intertidal. The diversity of gastropods was analyzed using the diversity index and relative abundance. The results showed that 29 species of gastropods which belong to 14 families were found in the southern shores of Pamekasan. The diversity of gastropods in southern shores of Pamekasan was high (the diversity index was 3.0075. The most abundant species was Nassarius distortus, followed by Littoraria scabra and Nassarius leptospirus with relative abundance 11.21%; 9.09%; and 8.03%, respectively.

  4. Potentiality of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda as intermediate host of the Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971 Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda como hospedeiro intermediário potencial do Angiostrongylus costaricensis Morera & Céspedes 1971

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of Achatina fulica were experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis larvae, etiological agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis, showing that A. fulica is susceptible to the parasite. Achatina fulica may be a risk to urbanization of abdominal angiostrongyliasis presumably due to its high proliferation, continuous dispersion and remarkable adaptation in several Brazilian towns.Exemplares de Achatina fulica foram experimentalmente infectados com larvas de Angiostrongylus costaricensis, agente etiológico da angiostrongiliase abdominal, mostrando-se susceptíveis ao parasita. Achatina fulica pode representar um risco para a urbanização da angiostrongilíase abdominal devido a sua alta prolificidade contínua dispersão e notável adaptação a ambientes urbanos.

  5. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda in Brazil: intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis

    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.Achatina fulica, the intermediate snail host of angiostrongyliasis and also an agricultural pest, is being bred in Brazil for human consumption as "escargot". The snail has escaped from its artificial breeding sites and its dispersal in Itariri county, State of S. Paulo, is reported here for the first time. A. fulica is a transmitter of the rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematode which causes meningoencephalic angiostrongyliasis; the risks of human contamination are commented on.

  6. Os gêneros Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 e Leucozonia Gray, 1847 no nordeste brasileiro (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 in the northeastern Brazil (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae

    Helena Matthews-Cascon

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The genera Fasciolaria Lamarck, 1799 and Leucozonia Gray, 1847 are represented in Northeastern Brazil by three species. Fasciolaria aurantiaca Lamarck, 1816; Leucozonia ocellata (Gmelin, 1791 and Leucozonia nassa (Gmelin, 1791. The three species are described and illustrated. An identification key for all the above mentioned taxa is included, together with some ecological data. The anatomy and radula of Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa are described and illustrated. Polimorfism in Fasciolaria aurantiaca and Leucozonia nassa is discussed.

  7. La Familia Trochidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda en el norte de Chile: consideraciones ecológicas y taxonómicas The trochidae family (Mollusca : Gastropoda in northern Chile: taxonomic and ecological considerations

    DAVID VELIZ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la diversidad, y la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de los caracoles de la Familia Trochidae en el norte de Chile, mediante muestreos intermareales y submareales someros, realizados entre 1996 y 1999 entre Arica (18º S y Los Vilos (31º S, y de muestras de profundidad provenientes de la pesca de arrastre del camarón nylon, Heterocarpus reedi. En el norte de Chile, la Familia Trochidae está representada por cuatro géneros: Tegula y Diloma de distribución intermareal y submareal somero hasta los 20 m de profundidad, y Bathybembix y Calliostoma presentes en profundidades superiores a los 200 m. El género Tegula tiene seis especies (T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata y T. euryomphala distribuídas en sustratos rocosos intermareales y submarales someros. El género Diloma está representado por una especie, D. nigerrima, de distribución intermareal hasta pocos metros de profundidad. El género Calliostoma tiene dos especies C. chilena y C. delli, las que se distribuyen entre 200 y 750 m de profundidad. Finalmente, el género Bathybembix está representado por B. humboldti y B. macdonaldi distribuídas entre 200 y 1480 m de profundidad. Esta segregación batimétrica parece estar relacionada a las estrategias alimentarias de cada uno de los géneros de la familia Trochidae. Diloma y Tegula son herbívoros, las especies del género Bathybembix son alimentadoras de depósito y las de Calliostoma son carnívorasThis study reveals the diversity, and the bathimetric and latitudinal distribution of the snails of the Trochidae family members in northern Chile, throughout the analysis of all Trochidae gastropods entailed in intertidal and subtidal (from the `camarón naylon' fishery samples collected during 1996 and 1999 between Arica (ca 18º S and Los Vilos (ca 31º S. The Trochidae family in northern Chile have four genus: Tegula and Diloma that are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats, and Calliostoma and Bathybembix which occurr at dephts greather than 200 m. Tegula have 6 species: T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata, and T. euryomphala are distributed on intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats. Diloma is a monospecific genus, whereas D. nigerrima is an intertidal species. The genus Calliostoma have two species C. chilena and C. delli occurring between 200 and 750 m depth and the Bathybembix with two species, B. Humboldti and B. macdonaldi, distributed between 200 and 1480 m depth. The bathimetric distribution of Trochidae shows a strong correlation with food strategy: Diloma and Tegula are herbivores, while Bathybembix species are deposit feeders and Calliostoma are carnivores

  8. Population dynamics and reproductive biology of Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Salvador - Bahia / Dinâmica populacional e biologia reprodutiva de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) na cidade de Salvador - Bahia

    Eder Carvalho da, Silva; Elianne Pessoa, Omena.

    2014-09-02

    Full Text Available Os riscos com a introdução de espécies invasoras são enormes e incalculáveis. Constando como uma das 100 espécies de maior potencial invasor, Achatina fulica se destaca dos demais gastrópodes pulmonados terrestres, principalmente, pelo seu elevado potencial reprodutivo que acelera o processo de disp [...] ersão, aumentando os danos relacionados è saúde (transmissão de doenças), è economia (destruição de cultivos) e ao meio ambiente (perda da biodiversidade). Com o intuito de investigar as relações do caramujo africano com o ambiente, tentando relacionar atividade sexual com variáveis climáticas (temperatura, precipitação e umidade), foi realizado um estudo sobre aspectos da sua dinâmica populacional e biologia reprodutiva na cidade de Salvador. Os caramujos foram coletados manualmente, mensalmente. Dados morfométricos foram obtidos em campo e dissecações para estudo do sistema reprodutivo em laboratório. Para testar se havia uma maior atividade sexual em períodos úmidos foi realizada, inicialmente, uma Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA) com as variáveis climáticas, seguida de uma regressão entre a precipitação (variável ambiental com maior influencia) e a variável de interesse (atividade sexual). Os resultados mostraram que há um aparente ciclo anual para A. fulica, com um período de recrutamento abrangendo o final da estação chuvosa e a estação seca (agosto a dezembro de 2006 e fevereiro de 2007). O aumento do tamanho da concha (altura) e da atividade sexual foi observado durante a estação chuvosa, embora tenham sido encontrados caramujos em plena atividade sexual em todo o período de estudo. A curva de von Bertalanffy mostrou que o exemplar mais velho teria três anos e onze meses. A regressão entre a precipitação e a atividade sexual foi significativa (P = 0,002) mostrando que precipitações mais elevadas aumentam a atividade sexual. Além disso, observou-se que a espessura do perístoma aumenta è medida que o individuo atinge a maturidade sexual, porém esta relação não é precisa (havia indivíduos com estruturas sexuais não consistentes com o estagio reprodutivo dado pela espessura do perístoma) e deve ser ajustada para cada região estudada. Como a erradicação se torna impossível pelos níveis de invasão encontrados em Salvador, é recomendada, para controlar a população de caramujos africanos, a remoção continua de espécimes, especialmente nos períodos de chuva. Abstract in english The risks following introduction of invasive species are enormous and incalculable. Achatina fulica is considered one of the 100 species of greatest invasive potential, stands out among the land pulmonate snails, mostly for its high reproductive potential that accelerates the process of dispersion, [...] increasing the damages related to health (disease transmission), to economy (crops destruction) and to environment (biodiversity loss). In order to investigate the relationship of the African snail with the environment, trying to relate sexual activity with climatic variables (temperature, rainfall and humidity), a study was conducted on aspects of population dynamics and reproductive biology in Salvador city. The snails were collected by hand, monthly. Morphometric data were obtained in the field and dissections to analyze the reproductive system at laboratory. To test if there was a greater sexual activity in wet periods was performed first a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with climatic variables, followed by a regression between precipitation (the most influential environmental variable) and the variable of interest (sexual activity). The results showed that there is an apparent annual cycle for A. fulica, with a recruitment period covering the end of rainy season and the dry season (August to December 2006 and February 2007). Increase of shell size (height) and of sexual activity were observed during the rainy season, although snails were found in full sexual activity during the whole period of study. The von Bertalanffy curve showed that

  9. Characterization of the geographical distribution pattern of the family Limacinidae Gray, 1840 (Mollusca - Gastropoda) in the waters of Northeastern of Brazil / Caracterização do padrão de distribuição geográfica da família Limacinidae Gray, 1840 (Mollusca - Gastropoda) nas águas do Nordeste brasileiro

    Valdeni Soares de Oliveira, Koblitz; Maria Eduarda de L., Larrazábal.

    2014-04-23

    Full Text Available A distribuição geográfica da família Limacinidae na costa do Nordeste brasileiro, foi analisada levando em consideração os aspectos ecológicos mais relevantes, objetivando a ampliação do conhecimento sobre a família. O material foi coletado durante a IV Expedição Oceanográfica do Programa REVIZEE (A [...] valiação do Potencial Sustentável de Recursos Vivos da Zona Econômica Exclusiva), nos meses de setembro a dezembro de 2000. A área estudada está localizada entre 00°46’45”N a 13°53’45”S - 29°15’40”W a 39°49’42”W, onde foram realizados seis cruzeiros, totalizando 123 estações. As amostras foram coletadas em rede tipo bongo (malhas coletoras de 300 e 500 µm, com aros de 60 cm de diâmetro) acopladas com fluxômetro digital, em arrastos oblíquos na profundidade de 0 a 200 m. Foram considerados os organismos retidos na malha de 300 µm. A bordo, as amostras foram acondicionadas em recipientes plásticos, etiquetadas e fixadas em formaldeído a 4%, tamponado com tetraborato de sódio. Em laboratório, as amostras foram analisadas em placa do tipo “Bogorov”, sob estereomicroscópio binocular. Foram examinados 5655 indivíduos da família Limacinidae, assim distribuídos: 03 gêneros e 05 espécies. Os representantes da família Limacinidae ocorreram em altas temperaturas e salinidades, caracterizando-se, assim, como tropicais e euhalinos. Heliconoides inflatus sobressaiu em abundância e frequência. Limacina lesueurii mostrou-se uma espécie rara e pouco frequente. Limacina trochiformis e L. bulimoides foram pouco abundantes e pouco frequentes. Limacina lesueurii e L. bulimoides foram registradas como primeira ocorrência em águas neríticas, sendo este o primeiro registro de L. lesueurii para as águas do Nordeste brasileiro. Limacina trochiformis e L. bulimoides tiveram ampla distribuição, apesar de pouco frequentes e pouco abundantes. A distribuição de Thielea helicoides restringiu-se às águas oceânicas. Foi observada uma correlação entre Limacina bulimoides, Heliconoides inflatus, Thielea helicoides e L. lesueurii por coexistirem no mesmo nicho. Abstract in english The geographical distribution of the family Limacinidae in the Northeastern coast of Brazil was analyzed by taking into account the most relevant ecological aspects, aiming to increase the knowledge about the Family. The material was collected during the 4th Oceanographic Expedition of the REVIZEE p [...] rogram (Assessment of the Sustainable Potential of Living Resources in the Exclusive Economic Zone - Avaliação do Potencial Sustentável de Recursos Vivos da Zona Econômica Exclusiva), in the months from September to December 2000. The studied area is located between 00°46’45”N and 13°53’45”S and between 29°15’40”W and 39°49’42”W, where six trips were performed, totaling 123 stations. The samples were collected using a bongo net (300- and 500-µm mesh size and net mouths of 60 cm in diameter) coupled with a digital flowmeter in oblique hauls from a depth of 0 to 200 m. For this study, the organisms retained in the 300-µm mesh were considered. On board the ship, the samples were placed in plastic containers, labeled, and fixed in 4% formaldehyde buffered with sodium tetraborate. In the laboratory, the samples were analyzed on a “Bogorov” tray under a binocular stereomicroscope. A total of 5655 individuals of the family Limacinidae were examined and were distributed as follows: 3 genera and 5 species. Representatives of the family Limacinidae were observed at high temperatures and salinities and were thus characterized as tropical and euhaline. Heliconoides inflatus was the species with the greatest abundance and frequency. Limacina lesueurii proved to be a rare, infrequently observed species. Limacina trochiformis and L. bulimoides were not abundant or frequent. Limacina lesueurii and L. bulimoides were recorded in neritic waters for the first time; this was also the first record of L. lesueurii in the waters of Northeastern Brazil. Limacina trochiformis an

  10. La Familia Trochidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda) en el norte de Chile: consideraciones ecológicas y taxonómicas The trochidae family (Mollusca : Gastropoda) in northern Chile: taxonomic and ecological considerations

    DAVID VELIZ; JULIO A. VASQUEZ

    2000-01-01

    Este estudio describe la diversidad, y la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de los caracoles de la Familia Trochidae en el norte de Chile, mediante muestreos intermareales y submareales someros, realizados entre 1996 y 1999 entre Arica (18º S) y Los Vilos (31º S), y de muestras de profundidad provenientes de la pesca de arrastre del camarón nylon, Heterocarpus reedi. En el norte de Chile, la Familia Trochidae está representada por cuatro géneros: Tegula y Diloma de distribución intermare...

  11. Sistema reprodutor de Gundlachia concentrica (Orbigny) e Gundlachia moricandi (Orbigny), como subsídio para a taxonomia de Ancylidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) Reproductive system of Gundlachia concentrica (Orbigny) and Gundlachia moricandi (Orbigny), as subsidy for the taxonomy of Ancylidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Fernanda Pires Ohlweiler; Inga Ludmila Veitenheimer-Mendes

    1995-01-01

    The reproductive system of Gundlachia concentrica (Orbigny, 1835) and Gundlachia moricandi (Orbigny, 1837) are described. The following structures distinguished the specimens of those species: ovotestis, seminal vesicle, tubular prolongation of dorsoposterior region of uterus and duet of the copulation pouch.

  12. Prosobrânquios terrestres do Brasil: Cyclophoridae: Neocyclotus (N. ) agassizi (Bartsch & Morrison, 1942) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda) Land prosobranchs of Brazil: Cyclophoridae: Neocyclotus (N. ) agassizi (Bartsch & Morrison, 1942) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda)

    Arnaldo C.dos Santos Coelho; Norma Campos Salgado

    1989-01-01

    Studies on specimens from Brazil (States of Pernambuco and Alagoas) were carried out in order to relate data about morphology of hard and soft parts o Nocyclotus (N.) agassizi (Bartsh & Morrison, 1942).

  13. Anatomia e microanatomia do sistema reprodutor de Rectartemon (Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Streptaxidae: complexo fálico Anatomy and microanatomy of the reproductive system of Rectartemon (Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Streptaxidae: the phallus complex

    Mônica Picoral

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available It is described the anatomy and microanatomy of the phallus complex of Rectartemon depressus (Heynemann, 1868. The complex is composed by a phallus, a diverticle of the phallus and an epiphallus, where the deferens duct is thrown in: the retractor muscle is splitted in two parts, inserted into the region of the epiphallus through a smaller branch, and at the extremity of the diverticle, through a longer and thiner branch. The lumen of the phallus, epiphallus and diverticle have corrugations and thorns. On the phallus the thorns are arranged in a protuberance and disposed alternately in rows, ali with an aculeus form and with a chestnut collor point and a yellow basis.

  14. New insight in lymnaeid snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) as intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Digenea) in Ecuador

    Caron, Yannick; Celi-Erazo, Maritza; Hurtrez-Boussès, Sylvie; Lounnas, Manon; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington

    2015-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts are scarce in Ecuador. During 3 months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n=1482) in Pichincha province in two sites located in a highly endemic area. The snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS2 sequences) and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex PCR-based technique. If morphologic-based techniques wer...

  15. Première occurrence fossile du genre Pyramidelloides (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Eulimidae) découvert dans l'Éocène de l'Alabama

    Lozouet, Pierre; Dockery, David T.

    2001-09-01

    Pyramidelloides dolini n. sp., older strongly sculptured eulimid, is described from the Middle Eocene of southwestern Alabama (Gosport Sand). This new species probably had a planktotrophic larval stage similar to the recent Indo-West-Pacific species. Relationship with the species of the genus Palisadia is discussed. Geographic distributions of both the fossil and the recent species of the genera Pyramidelloides and Palisadia support finally a classic pattern in tropical marine biogeography: a discontinuous geographic range between Indo-Pacific and Caribbean provinces.

  16. Electrophoretic heterogeneity within and between flat periwinkles (Mollusca : Gastropoda) along an intertidal transect at Ria Ferrol, northwest Spain

    Olabarria, C.; Timmermans, J.M.; Backeljau, T.

    2002-01-01

    Using isoelectric focusing of esterases (EST), general proteins (GP) and myoglobin (Mb), we surveyed intra- and interspecific differentiation in flat periwinkles along a vertical intertidal transect in the Ensenada do Bano at Ria Ferrol, N.W. Spain. In this region, L. obtusata occurs in four algal belts, although it is rare in the lowest zone defined by Fucus serratus. L. fabalis is common in the F: serratus and F: vesiculosus belt, but is absent higher up on Ascophyllum nodosum and F: spiral...

  17. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan; Glenner, Henrik; Hoffmann, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the...... occurrence of the species in beds of European oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Limfjord, NW Jutland, Denmark. The morphology-based identification has been confirmed by genetic analysis. The species was probably introduced with oysters imported from France in the 1970s and 1980s. The invasion is still...... relatively localized but as the species has established a reproductive population, it may eventually spread to other parts of the fjord and in time pose a problem to the oyster fishery. The species’ invasion history is reviewed...

  18. Standardization of a Patella spp. (Mollusca, Gastropoda) embryo-larval bioassay and advantages of its use in marine ecotoxicology.

    Pérez, Sara; Fernández, Nuria; Ribeiro, Pedro A

    2016-05-01

    The use of three limpet species, Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, Patella depressa Pennant, 1777 and Patella ulyssiponensis Gmelin, 1791 as model organisms in marine ecotoxicology has been evaluated. Initial laboratory experiments were aimed to standardize a biological test with embryos and larvae of Patella spp, establishing the percentage of normal trochophore larvae as endpoint. Before conducting in vitro fertilization, oocytes must be maturated artificially by incubation in an alkaline solution; therefore, alkalinizing agent, pH and time of eggs alkalinization were evaluated. Moreover, time of sperm activation, optimum sperm and oocytes concentration during fertilization, gamete contact time, use of stirring during the fertilization, egg concentration and incubation temperature were examined. Minimum sample size per treatment was also estimated. Exposure of oocytes for 10min to FSW alkalinized with NH4OH at pH 9.0, the use of undiluted sperm pre-activated during 45min and a concentration of 200 oocytesmL(-1), a gamete-contact time of 180min and egg incubation at 18°C during 24h at a concentration of 80 eggsmL(-1) were the conditions allowing maximal embryo-larval development success. With an error of 0.05, a sampling size ≥320 allows a 95% confidence in the estimate. This Patella spp. acute bioassay fulfills a number of important a priori requirements to be used in ecotoxicological studies. Nevertheless, in vitro fertilization requires considerable handling, which may lead to failure in fecundation. Such difficulties are also addressed, in order to facilitate the routine use of this protocol by other laboratories. PMID:26845705

  19. Occurrence of Elysia grandifolia (Mollusca, Gastropoda), and its radionuclide content from Tarapur coastal waters, west coast of India

    Occurrence, morphological features, feeding habits, metal and radionuclide content of an opisthobranch sacoglossan Elysia grandifolia Kelaart have been reported. Mn was highest in E.grandifolia whereas Zn was most abundant in eggs. Radionuclide 131I was most abundant in tissues 1.4 Bq g-1 dry weight and in eggs 0.8 Bq g-1 dry weight. Radionuclide 60Co in eggs was, 1.0 Bq g-1 dry weight and in tissues, 0.08 Bq g-1 dry weight. Possibility of using the species and eggs as indicators for 131I and 60Co radionuclides in the marine environment is discussed. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs

  20. Annotated type catalogue of the Megaspiridae, Orthalicidae, and Simpulopsidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea in the Natural History Museum, London

    Abraham S.H. Breure

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The type status is described for 65 taxa of the Orthalicoidea, classified within the families Megaspiridae (14, Orthalicidae (30, and Simpulopsidae (20; one taxon is considered a nomen inquirendum. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Helix brephoides d’Orbigny, 1835; Simpulopsis cumingi Pfeiffer, 1861; Bulimulus (Protoglyptus dejectus Fulton, 1907; Bulimus iris Pfeiffer, 1853. The type status of Bulimus salteri Sowerby III, 1890, and Strophocheilus (Eurytus subirroratus da Costa, 1898 is now changed to lectotype according Art. 74.6 ICZN. The taxa Bulimus loxostomus Pfeiffer, 1853, Bulimus marmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855, Bulimus meobambensis Pfeiffer, 1855, and Orthalicus powissianus var. niveus Preston 1909 are now figured for the first time. The following taxa are now considered junior subjective synonyms: Bulimus marmatensis Pfeiffer, 1855 = Helix (Cochlogena citrinovitrea Moricand, 1836; Vermiculatus Breure, 1978 = Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882. New combinations are: Kuschelenia (Bocourtia Rochebrune, 1882; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia aequatoria (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia anthisanensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia aquila (Reeve, 1848; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia badia (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia bicolor (Sowerby I, 1835; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia caliginosa (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia coagulata (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia cotopaxiensis (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia filaris (Pfeiffer, 1853; Kara indentata (da Costa, 1901; Clathrorthalicus magnificus (Pfeiffer, 1848; Simpulopsis (Eudioptus marmartensis (Pfeiffer, 1855; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia nucina (Reeve, 1850; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia ochracea (Morelet, 1863; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia peaki (Breure, 1978; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia petiti (Pfeiffer, 1846; Clathrorthalicus phoebus (Pfeiffer, 1863; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia polymorpha (d’Orbigny, 1835; Scholvienia porphyria (Pfeiffer, 1847; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia purpurata (Reeve, 1849; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia quechuarum Crawford, 1939; Quechua salteri (Sowerby III, 1890; Kuschelenia (Bocourtia subfasciata Pfeiffer, 1853; Clathrorthalicus victor (Pfeiffer, 1854. In an addedum a lectotype is being designated for Bulimulus (Drymaeus interruptus var. pallidus Preston, 1909. An index is included to all taxa mentioned in this paper and the preceding ones in this series (Breure and Ablett 2011, 2012, 2014.

  1. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  2. Recent expansion and relic survival: Phylogeography of the land snail genus Helix (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from south to north Europe.

    Fiorentino, V; Manganelli, G; Giusti, F; Ketmaier, V

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the evolutionary history of Helix, despite the fact that it includes the largest land snails in the western Palaearctic, some of which (e.g. H. pomatia Linnaeus, 1758) are valuable human food. We compared two groups of Helix with apparently contrasting evolutionary histories: the widespread species H. pomatia and the group distributed along the Italian Apennine chain, a relatively unknown set of species with a restricted distribution over a range of altitudes. To reconstruct the evolutionary trajectories of these two groups, we analysed morphological (shell and genitalia) and molecular characters (mitochondrial and nuclear markers) in a total of 59 populations from northern and central Europe (H. pomatia) and along the Apennine chain (various species). We also reconstructed the phylogeny and the evolutionary history of the genus by combining our data with that currently available in the literature. We found that spatial changes did not merely imply fragmentation of populations, but also implied environmental changes (woodlands vs. grasslands) that may have triggered the observed phenotypic diversification. We also found that Anatolia is the ancestral range of Helix and is therefore an important area for the Palaearctic diversity. The results provide insights into the evolutionary history of species richness and more generally into the processes that may have shaped the distribution and diversification of these organisms across Europe and the peri-Mediterranean area. PMID:26926944

  3. Effect of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation on Biomphalaria Glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) embryos: mortality, malformation and hatching

    Okazaki, K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radiobiologia; Andrade Junior, H.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Inst. de Medicina Tropical; Kawano, T. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Biologia Celular

    1996-12-31

    A study was carried out on the radiosensitivity of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos submitted to doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy of {sup 60} Co during the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages. Mortality, malformation and hatching were the parameters used to evaluate the damage induced by ionizing radiation. Estimated L D{sub 50} values (15 days) showed that the cleavage stage (4.3 Gy) was approximately four times more radiosensitive than the trochophore stage (17.0 Gy). Susceptibility to malformation induction was higher in the blastula, gastrula and young trochophore stages. Several types of morphogenetic malformations were observed, such as head malformations, exogastrulas, shell malformations, and embryos with everted stomodeum, with nonspecific malformations being the most frequent. The types of malformation induced by radiation probably are not radiation-specific and do not depend on the dose applied. The dose of 15 Gy was sufficient to greatly reduce the number of hatching snails regardless of the embryonic stage irradiated. We conclude that the effect of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation on B. glabrata embryos presented a specific pattern. (author) 41 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Thais (Stramonita rustica (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Thaididae, a potential bioindicator of contamination by organotin northeast Brazil

    Ítalo Braga de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antifouling paints containing the biocide compound tributyltin (TBT has been shown as an inductor of imposex in neogastropods mollusks. Imposex is characterized by the development of male features in females, mainly the appearance of a no functional vas deferens and penis. Samples of Thais rustica were collected in eight sites in the metropolitan area of Natal city, Rio Grande do Norte state, northeast Brazil, and examined for occurrence of imposex, which was found in many females. The higher imposex levels were presented by samples from sites near city harbor.A utilização de tintas antiincrustrantes contendo o composto biocida tributilestanho (TBT tem induzido moluscos neogastrópodes ao imposex. O imposex é caracterizado pelo surgimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos, sobretudo, pênis e vaso deferente não funcionais em fêmeas desses moluscos. Foram coletadas amostras de Thais rústica em oito estações ao longo da costa da cidade de Natal no Rio Grande do Norte. Esses animais foram analisados quanto a presença e o grau de imposex que apresentavam. Os níveis mais elevados de imposex foram observados na estação mais próxima ao porto.

  5. The status of the genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847, with description of a new subfamily (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bulimulidae)

    Abraham Breure

    2012-01-01

    The status of the genus Bostryx is discussed and, based on morphological and molecular data, restricted to a group of species related to Bostryx solutus, for which the new subfamily name Bostrycinae is introduced.

  6. Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium

    A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l-1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability

  7. Histology and Cytochemistry of the Neurosecretory Cells (NSC of the Freshwater Snail Lymnaea luteola (Lamarck Mollusca: Gastropoda

    Vijaya Kumar Kanapala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four types of neurosecretory (NS cells are noticed in the cerebral, pleural, buccal and pedal ganglion of the freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola. According to the size and staining properties they are classified as A, B, C and D type cells. These are giant cells, medium cells, small cells and smallest cells. Type ‘A’ cells are largest of the all cells and measures about 0.0600-0.0800 mm in diameter. The B cells are smaller than ‘A’ cells and are ranges from 0.035-0.040 mm in diameter. The ‘C’ and ‘D’ cells are smaller than the ‘A’ and ‘B ‘cells and more or less oval in shape. The histochemical observations reveal that the neurosecretory material is rich in carbohydrates, disulphides, sulfhydryl group, protein bound amino groups, glycoprotein and lipids.

  8. New records of Omalonyx matheroni (Pontiez & Michaud, 1835 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Succineidae for the São Paulo and Paraná States.

    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Omalonyx matheroni is a succineid gastropod that lives on aquatic macrophytes and on emergent vegetation in the wetlands of inner deltas, lakes and dikes. Occurrences of this species were recorded in the municipalities of Ibitinga (SP and Paranaguá (PR, broadening its distribution southwards in South America. Until now this species had been recorded in Demerara (Guiana, Zanderij and Belwaarde (Suriname, Guiana Francesa, Peru, Limoncocha (Equador, Amazonas, Pará, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais (Brazil, as well as on the islands of Guadalupe and Trinidade.

  9. Genetic structure of Onchidium "struma" (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Eupulmonata) from the coastal area of China based on mtCO I.

    Zhou, Na; Shen, Heding; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Bianna; Zheng, Pei; Wang, Chengnuan

    2016-03-01

    The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Onchidium "struma" were investigated using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO I) gene sequences. A total of 240 individuals representing 10 collection sites from across a large portion of its known range were included in the analysis. Overall, 42 haplotypes were defined and 97 polymorphic sites were observed. The O. "struma" populations had high haplotype diversity (0.9280) and nucleotide diversity (0.0404). We inferred that the early maturity and extensive survival habitat led to high genetic diversity of O. "struma" populations in China. Bayesian analysis and SAMOVA analysis showed significant genetic differentiation among populations and all populations were divided into two groups, (HK and HN) versus (GY, DF, CX, CN, ND and XM). The Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between geographic distance and genetic distance (r?=?0.251; p?=?0.058). Restricted gene flow caused by a shorter term pelagic veliger stage and limited dispersal potential were inferred to result in genetic differentiation among populations based on nested analysis. HK population might be an invasive species by artificial transplantation. PMID:25103423

  10. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan; Glenner, Henrik; Hoffmann, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the o...

  11. Spatial diversity of rocky midlittoral macro-invertebrates associated with the endangered species Patella ferruginea (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Tunisian coastline

    Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Fguiri, Hosni; Diawara, Moctar; Ben Hassine, Oum Kalthoum

    2010-04-01

    The present study focuses on horizontal spatial variability of benthic macrofauna associated with Patella ferruginea. Thirty-six samples collected at 12 transects belonging to 4 midlittoral sites along the rocky Tunisian coastline, were examined. A total of 44 species belonging to 5 taxa were found. Multivariate analysis applied on gathered data did not show a horizontal spatial variability at small scale (between transects), but at large scale, between sites as well as sectors. Thus, three groups of communities were identified (GI: Korbous and El Haouaria; GIIa: Zembra Island and GIIb: Kelibia). The distribution of species abundance within these groups revealed that crustaceans were the most abundant taxon, due to the overwhelming dominance of Chthamalus stellatus. This substratum appeared to create favourable micro-habitats for the installation of molluscs including gastropods. Regarding the low diversity index ( H') and evenness ( J), they seemed to reflect a disturbance and a demographic unbalance within these communities. The heterogeneity of substrate surface, created by C. stellatus specimens appeared to be caused by various complex interactions established between the key components of these communities in particular suspension feeders, predators, herbivorous molluscs and macroalgae. Thus, the dynamic status of each of these communities is the result of these complex interactions.

  12. Radix dolgini: The integrative taxonomic approach supports the species status of a Siberian endemic snail (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae).

    Vinarski, Maxim V; Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Schniebs, Katrin; Gofarov, Mikhail Yu; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    The molecular techniques are the standard tool for the study of the taxonomic position and phylogenetic affinities of the lymnaeid genus Radix Montfort, 1810, and the majority of the European representatives of this taxon have been studied in this respect. However, a plethora of nominal species of Radix described from Northern Asia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) are still characterized only morphologically, raising some doubts concerning their validity. In this paper, we present the triple (morphological, molecular, and zoogeographical) evidence that there is at least one endemic species of Radix, Radix dolgini (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), widely distributed in Siberia and Western Mongolia. Phylogenetically, it is a sister species to the European R. labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) [=R. peregra auct.], and their common ancestor most probably lived in the Pliocene, nearly 3.25Myr ago. Our results assume the existence of an extended dispersal barrier for freshwater hydrobionts between Europe and Siberia in the Late Pliocene that may be important for biogeographical explanations. Three other nominal Siberian species of Radix: R. kurejkae (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), R. gundrizeri (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983), and R. ulaganica (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983) proved to be the junior synonyms of R. dolgini. PMID:26705968

  13. Relation between aquatic plants and gastropods (Mollusca, Gastropoda) in the region of Gentilly I (Quebec) nuclear generating station

    This study is based on a sampling of the gastropods present in the vegetation of the St. Lawrence riverside zone at Gentilly. A total of 536 plant specimens belonging to 20 species as well as 37 239 specimens grouping 10 different species of gastropods were sampled. A comparison of the plant species - mollusc data was carried out. The analysis of the results indicates that prosobranchs have no affinity whatsoever for any plant species in particular. The pulmonates, however, are found mainly on emergent plants. (author)

  14. Population genetic structure of Bellamya aeruginosa (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Viviparidae) in China: weak divergence across large geographic distances.

    Gu, Qian H; Husemann, Martin; Ding, Baoqing; Luo, Zhi; Xiong, Bang X

    2015-11-01

    Bellamya aeruginosa is a widely distributed Chinese freshwater snail that is heavily harvested, and its natural habitats are under severe threat due to fragmentation and loss. We were interested whether the large geographic distances between populations and habitat fragmentation have led to population differentiation and reduced genetic diversity in the species. To estimate the genetic diversity and population structure of B. aeruginosa, 277 individuals from 12 populations throughout its distribution range across China were sampled: two populations were sampled from the Yellow River system, eight populations from the Yangtze River system, and two populations from isolated plateau lakes. We used seven microsatellite loci and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I sequences to estimate population genetic parameters and test for demographic fluctuations. Our results showed that (1) the genetic diversity of B. aeruginosa was high for both markers in most of the studied populations and effective population sizes appear to be large, (2) only very low and mostly nonsignificant levels of genetic differentiation existed among the 12 populations, gene flow was generally high, and (3) relatively weak geographic structure was detected despite large geographic distances between populations. Further, no isolation by linear or stream distance was found among populations within the Yangtze River system and no signs of population bottlenecks were detected. Gene flow occurred even between far distant populations, possibly as a result of passive dispersal during flooding events, zoochoric dispersal, and/or anthropogenic translocations explaining the lack of stronger differentiation across large geographic distances. The high genetic diversity of B. aeruginosa and the weak population differentiation are likely the results of strong gene flow facilitated by passive dispersal and large population sizes suggesting that the species currently is not of conservation concern. PMID:26640670

  15. Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium

    Vanucci, Silvana [Department of Animal Biology and Marine Ecology, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 S Agata, Messina (Italy)]. E-mail: silvana.vanucci@unime.it; Minerdi, Daniela [Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 19, 50125 Florence (Italy); Kadomatsu, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nagoya Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mengoni, Alessio [Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 19, 50125 Florence (Italy); Bazzicalupo, Marco [Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 19, 50125 Florence (Italy)

    2005-11-30

    A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l{sup -1} Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability.

  16. Opisthobranchs from the western Indian Ocean, with descriptions of two new species and ten new records (Mollusca, Gastropoda

    Nathalie Yonow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seventy species of opisthobranchs are described in this work based on collections from the Persian Gulf, Socotra, Kenya, Zanzibar, Madagascar, La Réunion, Mauritius, the Seychelles, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka. Ten species are newly recorded from the western Indian Ocean and four species are recorded in the scientific literature for the first time since their original descriptions. Two species are described as new: Cyerce bourbonica sp. n. from La Réand Doriopsilla nigrocera sp. n. from the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. Chromodoris cavae is removed from its synonymy with C. tennentana and redescribed from specimens from La Réunion, while several new synonyms are proposed for some commonly occurring species. Risbecia bullockii is recorded for the second time from the Indian Ocean and assigned to its correct genus.

  17. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil.

    Maldonado Jr, Arnaldo; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Motta, Esther M; Fernandez, Mônica A; Pereira, Zilene M; Monteiro, Simone S; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2010-11-01

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized. PMID:21120369

  18. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Southeast and South Brazil

    Arnaldo Maldonado Júnior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville. The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  19. Do the changes in temperature and light affect the functional response of the benthic mud snail Heleobia australis (Mollusca: Gastropoda)?

    Magalhães, Thaisa R F; Neves, Raquel A F; Valentin, Jean L; Figueiredo, Gisela M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of temperature increase combined to conditions of light incidence on functional response of Heleobia australis. Experiments were conducted using nine to ten food concentrations for each treatment: 20°C without light; 30°C without light and, 30°C under low light intensity. For each experiment, the functional response type III (sigmoidal) was fitted and equation parameters were determined. Results suggest that, if the sediment temperature increases, H. australis will not have its ingestion rates affected negatively, whilst its feeding behavior seems to be negatively affected by light. Ingestion rates estimated for organic content in the Guanabara Bay were: 0.34 µgC ind-1h-1 at 20°C without light, 1.44 µgC ind-1h-1 at 30°C without light and 0.64 µgC ind-1h-1 at 30°C under light incidence. Higher ingestion rates were estimated at the high temperature, even under light incidence, and temperature seems to have outweighed the light effect. In contrast, if higher carbon content is considered, despite high temperature, the experiment conducted with light incidence showed lower ingestion rates than those from the experiment at 20°C without light. This study provides the first quantification of H. australis ingestion rates and the effects that changes in temperature and light have on its feeding behavior. PMID:25014915

  20. Marine Mollusca of isotope stages of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 3, Gastropoda (Vetigastropoda - Littorinimorpha)

    Three new species: Grandicrepidula hemispherica (Nukumaruan, S Hawke's Bay), Pelicaria Granttaylori (Mangapanian-early Nukumaruan, Wanganui-Hawke's Bay), Pelicaria arahura (Waipipian-early Mangapanian, Westland and Hawke's Bay). Drawings of marine species in Smith's (1874) three plates of New Zealand molluscan types are republished. Further Australian molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Sabia australis (Lamarck), Clanculus plebejus (Philippi), both early Nukumaruan. Further northern New Zealand molluscs in Wanganui Basin: Stephopoma roseum (Quoy and Gaimard), OIS 13, 9. Distinctive gastropods extinct at end Nukumaruan: Struthiolaria frazeri (Hutton), Taxonia suteri (Marwick). Taniella planisuturalis (Marwick) (Opoitian-Nukumaruan, southern NZ) and Trivia (Ellatrivia) zealandica (Kirk) (Nukumaruan, Hawke's Bay-Wanganui; Castlecliffian, North Canterbury) occur in Castlecliffian (OIS 15?) rocks at Whakatane. Cantharidella tessellate (A. Adams) and Risellopsis varia (Hutton), formerly Haweran, are recorded from Nukumaruan and Castlecliffian rocks, respectively. New fossil late Nukumaruan-early Castlecliffian records listed from Mikonui-1 offshore well, Westland, include Malluvium calcareum (Suter) and 10 other species. Other biostratigraphically useful gastropods: Calliostoma (Maurea) nukumaruense (Laws) (Mangapanian-OIS 17); Argobuccinum pustulosum (Lightfoot), Semicassis labiate (Perry) (both earliest in OIS 7). New synonymy: Zeacumantus perplexus (Marshall and Murdoch) =Z. lutulentus (Kiener); Pelicaria vermis (Martyn) =all named Nukumaruan-Recent forms (other than P. rugosa (Marwick) and P. granttaylori n. sp.); Trivia flora Marwick =T.zealandica Kirk. Taxonomy revised: Zelippistes benhami (Suter) (OIS 13 and 9 at Wanganui), distinguished from Lippistes and Separatista; Stiracolpus species, informally; Maoricrypta profunda (Hutton), Waipipian-early Castlecliffian (- OIS 19); M. radiata (Hutton) (=incurva Zittel,=hochetteriana Woods, =wilckensi Finlay), (Middle Miocene?) Tongaporutuan-Opoitian; Eunaticina cincta (Hutton), holotype illustrated. (author). 427 refs., 22 figs.

  1. On some Vetigastropoda (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from the Plio-Pleistocene of the Philippines with descriptions of three new species.

    Helwerda, Renate Ariane; Wesselingh, Frank Pieter; Williams, Suzanne T

    2014-01-01

    We studied representatives of seven vetigastropod families in an extremely well-preserved Plio-Pleistocene mollusc fauna found in relatively deep water sediments (c. 200-300 m paleodepth) from the north-western Philippines. The fauna is systematically described and its paleoenvironmental and paleobiogeographical character is explored. Twenty-six species of gastropods were studied, three of which are described as new: Halystina conoidea n. sp., Calliotropis arenosa n. sp. and Ethminolia wareni n. sp. Four new combinations are proposed: Pseudotalopia taiwanensis (Chen, 2006), Solariella segersi (Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006), Zetela tabakotanii (Poppe, Tagaro & Dekker, 2006) and Ilanga konos (Vilvens, 2009). Fourteen species are known living. Most extant species nowadays occur around the Philippines. Two of the species also occur in Neogene deposits from western Pacific islands. The new fauna offers insights into the character of relatively deep water Indo-West Pacific mollusc faunas prior to the onset of the late Quaternary ice ages. PMID:24869812

  2. Freshwater snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Commonwealth of Dominica with a discussion of their roles in the transmission of parasites

    We collected six species of freshwater snails from Dominica, including Biomphalaria kuhniana, Gundlachia radiata Helisoma (= Planorbella) trivolvis, Melanoides tuberculata, Neritina punctulata, and Physa marmorata. Our collections indicate that un-reported species such as Gundlachia radiata and Hel...

  3. Description of a new species of the genus Arganiella Giusti & Pezzoli, 1980 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Hydrobiidae) from the Iberian Peninsula

    Arconada, Beatriz; Ramos, M. Ángeles

    2007-01-01

    [EN] A new species of Arganiella Giusti & Pezzoli, 1980, up to now a monotypic genus, thought to be endemic to the Italian Central Apennines, is described from the Iberian Peninsula. This new species, named Arganiella tartessica, is located in southwestern Spain, provinces of Huelva and Badajoz. In this paper, a detailed description of its morphological characters is given and new data of nervous system and ciliated areas in the cephalic region are provided.

  4. MolluscaBase – announcing a World Register of all Molluscs

    Bank, Ruud A.; Bieler, Rüdiger; Bouchet, Philippe; Decock, Wim; Dekeyser, Stefanie; Kroh, Andreas; Marshall, Bruce; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Neubert,Eike; Rosenberg, Gary; Sartori, André F.; Schneider, Simon; Trias-Verbeek, Aina; Vandepitte, Leen; Vanhoorne, Bart

    2014-01-01

    The Mollusca, second largest phylum on Earth, lack a global listing of valid names or even precise figures for the number of Recent species. The launching of MolluscaBase is intended to fill this gap, expanding the contents of the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) to include all marine, freshwater and terrestrial molluscs, recent and fossil. The WoRMS database, hosted at the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ) at Oostende, had more than 1,000,000 unique visitors in 2013 and provides the t...

  5. DIVERSITAS DAN KERAPATAN MANGROVE, GASTROPODA DAN BIVALVIA DI ESTUARI PERANCAK, BALI

    Susiana; Ali, Syamsu Alam; Rukminasari, Nita

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  6. Patterns of larval distribution and settlement of Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae in fjords and channels of southern Chile Patrones de distribución de larvas y asentamiento de Concholepas concholepas (Bruguiere, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae en fiordos y canales del sur de Chile

    CARLOS MOLINET

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Concholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae is limited to the coasts of Chile and southern Peru. Almost all studies of this gastropod have been carried out in open coastal systems, rather than the fjords and channels of southern Chile, despite the fact that this area represents ca. 95 % of the total coastline in this country. Although there is a large volume of background literature on C. concholepas, almost nothing is published about early larval development under natural conditions, mostly because early veligers have rarely been found in nature. This study is the first attempt to determine the spatial and temporal abundance and size patterns of C. concholepas larvae in their natural environment throughout all of their developmental stages until they settle. Weekly plankton samples were obtained at the surface and at 8 m depth in four locations in southern Chile in combination with temperature and salinity records in each location. Settlement was quantified using artificial substrates in all locations. We have observed that C. concholepas larval development occurs throughout the entire year in Chilean inland seas, with early veliger larvae being released mostly from August to March, reaching the competent stage around June to August, and settling between July and August. Thus, larvae appear to have a long planktonic development that can last between 6 and 12 months. Differences in local hydrology could affect larval development of C. concholepas in this region. Further oceanographic and ecological investigation is necessary in order to answer the questions and hypotheses originated from this studyConcholepas concholepas (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae se distribuye entre las costas del sur de Perú y extremo sur de Chile. Prácticamente todos los estudios sobre este gastrópodo han sido realizados en costas expuestas, sin considerar los fiordos y canales del sur de Chile, a pesar de que estos representan aproximadamente el 95 % de la línea costera de este país. Aunque se ha publicado un importante volumen de literatura sobre C. concholepas, existen escasos antecedentes acerca de su desarrollo larval temprano en condiciones naturales, principalmente debido a que estos estadios han sido escasamente recolectados en la naturaleza. Este estudio es el primer intento por determinar los patrones de abundancia espacial y temporal de larvas de C. concholepas a través de su desarrollo hasta el asentamiento, en su ambiente natural. Para ello, fueron recolectadas muestras de plancton semanalmente en superficie y 8 m de profundidad en cuatro canales del sur de Chile. Temperatura y salinidad fueron registradas simultáneamente en cada sector. El asentamiento fue cuantificado usando un sustrato artificial en los cuatro sectores. En este estudio se observó que el desarrollo larval de C. concholepas ocurre durante todo el año en las aguas interiores del sur de Chile, observándose estados tempranos principalmente entre agosto y marzo, estados competentes entre junio y agosto, y asentamiento entre julio y agosto. Así, C. concholepas parece tener un largo periodo de desarrollo larval cuya duración fue estimada entre 6 a 12 meses en este estudio. Finalmente se sugiere que la hidrología local puede afectar el desarrollo larval de C. concholepas en esta región. Nuevas investigaciones oceanográficas y ecológicas son necesarias para responder las interrogantes e hipótesis surgidas de este estudio

  7. Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca, Bivalvia) - the new freshwater clam for Slovakia

    Specimens of the expansive Asian freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea O. F. Mueller, 1774 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Corbiculidae) were found on the following three localities of Danube river of Slovakia: Radvan nad Dunajom env. (DFS - 8276a), Komarno env. (DFS - 8274b), Gabcikovo env. (DFS - 8171a). The basic information about this species, key for determination and a photo of an adult individual are presented on the poster. (authors)

  8. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites(Al Basset, Lattakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus persicus and Spondylus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus persicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  9. A radioactivity study of mollusca distributed along the Syrian coast

    In the present work, radioactivity has been studied in several Mollusca collected from four selected sites (Al Basset, Latakia, Banise and Tartous) along the Syrian coast. Concentration Factors (CF) of radionuclides (Lead-210, Polonium-210, Uranium Isotopes, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137) in mussels and shells of Mollusca have been calculated in order to determine the species that could be used as Bioindicators for these isotopes. Statistical analysis of the results using the box plot method showed that the mussels of Spondylus gaederopus spinosus and Chama pacifica can be used as biomonitor for the studied radionuclides in addition to shell of Strombus decorus persicus and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus. While the mussels of Brachidonta variabilis and Spondylus gaederopus spinosus have shown good selectivity for Cd and Pb and Pinctada radiate for Zn and Thais haemostoma for Cu. In addition, the migrant Mullusca from the Red Sea, Strombus decoruspersicus, can be used as biomonitor for lead, Zn and Cu, Cd, while the shell of Thais haemostoma for lead. However, the importance of the results of the present study that are considered as a baseline data for radionuclides in Mullusca distributed along the Syria coast and it is the only study in the eastern Mediterranean basin, that defined the Mollusca species which could be use as biomonitors for radionuclides. (Authors)

  10. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012

    A. NICOLAIDOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey, Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain, Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece, Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey, Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece, Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece, Oxynotus centrina (Fish: Greece, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta , Stypopodium schimperi(Phaeophyta Siganus luridus and Stephanolepis diaspros (Fish Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Brachyura (Kyklades Archipelago,Greece, Cerithium scabridum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia: Anavissos: Greece and Cerithium renovatum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia:N. Κriti, Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusa: Rhodos Island, Greece, Abra tenuis (Mollusca Bivalvia: VouliagmeniLake, Greece Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Fish: Calabrian coast, Italy and Plocamopherus ocellatus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia:İskenderun Bay, Turkey.

  11. A new record of Deroceras laeve (O. F. Müller, 1774) from Pakistan (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae)

    Hlaváč, Jaroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2004), s. 181-182. ISSN 1506-7629 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : Deroceras laeve * Gastropoda * Pakistan * distribution Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Spatial and temporal structure of the trematode component community in Valvata macrostoma (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia)

    Faltýnková, Anna; Valtonen, E. T.; Karvonen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 14 (2008), s. 1691-1699. ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/07/P086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : community ecology * spatiotemporal dynamics * Trematoda * Gastropoda * Valvata macrostoma Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.071, year: 2008

  13. Fine structure of the creeping larva of Loxosomella murmanica: additional evidence for a clade of Kamptozoa (Entoprocta) and Mollusca

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    intercrossing. The present results and previous findings, in particular the chitinous, non-moulted cuticle, the sinus circulatory system, and a number of neural features shared by Kamptozoa and Mollusca, provide substantial evidence for a direct sister-group relationship between these phyla. In addition, the...... basal position of the Solenogastres (Neomeniomorpha) within the Mollusca is corroborated....

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of Scutopus ventrolineatus (Mollusca: Chaetodermomorpha) supports the Aculifera hypothesis

    Osca, David; Irisarri, Íker; Todt, Christiane; Grande, Cristina; Zardoya, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundWith more than 100000 living species, mollusks are the second most diverse metazoan phylum. The current taxonomic classification of mollusks recognizes eight classes (Neomeniomorpha, Chaetodermomorpha, Polyplacophora, Monoplacophora, Cephalopoda, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Scaphopoda) that exhibit very distinct body plans. In the past, phylogenetic relationships among mollusk classes have been contentious due to the lack of indisputable morphological synapomorphies. Fortunately, rece...

  15. Megafauna recovered from a cold hydrocarbon seep in the deep Alaskan Beaufort Sea, including a new species of Axinus (Thracidae: Bivalvia: Mollusca)

    Powell, C. L.; Valentich-Scott, P.; Lorenson, T. D.; Edwards, B. D.

    2011-12-01

    Several specimens of a new species of Axinus and a single well-worn gastropod columella provisionally assigned to the genus Neptunea (Buccinidae: Gastropoda: Mollusca) were recently recovered from at least two cores, the longest of which is 5.72 m long, from a large seafloor mound, informally named the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM). The CSM is located at 2,530 m water depth on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay and is a fluid explosion feature containing methane hydrate and methane-saturated sediments overlying a folded and faulted deep basin. Only two modern species of Axinus are currently known. Axinus grandis (Verrill & Smith, 1885) is a northern Atlantic species and the recently described species, A. cascadiensis Oliver and Holmes (2007), is only known from Baby Bare Seamount, Cascadia Basin, northeastern Pacific Ocean. Common fragments, single valves, and a single articulated specimen represent this new Axinus species. These shells were distributed over nearly the entire length of the primary core. All specimens show wear and (or) dissolution. The age of these specimens is unknown and no living representatives were encountered. The genus Axinus has a fossil record back to the early Eocene in England and the Paleocene and Eocene in Egypt. Biogeographically the genus appears to have originated in the Tethys Sea and became established in the Atlantic Ocean during the Eocene, spreading across the Arctic Ocean in the late Tertiary. With the opening of the Bering Strait in the latest Miocene or early Pliocene the genus Axinus migrated southwest into the northeast Pacific. Interestingly, hydrocarbon seep deposits are also present on the adjacent North Slope of Alaska in the Marsh Anticline at Carter Creek, Camden Bay. These rocks, the Nuwok beds, contain abundant Thracidae bivalve of the genus Thracia, but not Axinus, however the rocks also represent cold seep deposits. These rocks have been variously dated from Oligocene to Pliocene and the exact age remains uncertain. Neptunea are a predatory snails well represented in the earliest Miocene to Holocene of the northern Pacific Ocean and in the late Pliocene to Holocene of the northern Atlantic. The presence of Neptunea at CSM, if identified properly, gives a maximum age for these deposits of latest Miocene or early Pliocene, after the opening of the Bering Strait, although they could be as young as Holocene.

  16. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae Naididae (Annelida: Oligochaeta associados a Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve (Gastropoda, Ampullaridae

    Guilherme R. Gorni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The family Amplullaridae belongs to this class Gastropoda and is made up of freshwater organisms with a wide geographical distribution in tropical regions. Oligochaeta worms can be found in association with snails of this family, inhabiting the umbilicus of their shells. Due to the lack of information on the ecology of these worms, this work focused on investigating which kind of Oligochaeta species associate with the mollusk Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Samples were collected during winter and spring 2003 and summer 2004. From a total of 209 snails collected, the presence of Oligochaeta worms was observed in only 58 of them (27.75%. In these infected snails, 89 Oligochaeta worms were found, all belonging to the family Naididae. The species Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 and Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 were the most abundant (43.68%, 12.32% and 10.08%, respectively. Haemonais waldvogeli was found in all of the seasons studied, what demonstrates its affinity for this kind of substrate. The results indicate that several Naididae species find in the umbilicus of these snails's shells (which contains fine detritus a favorable habitat for establishing themselves.A família Ampullaridae, pertencente à classe Gastropoda, é caracterizada por organismos de água doce com ampla distribuição na região tropical. Vermes Oligochaeta associados a esses caracóis podem ser encontrados habitando o umbílico de suas conchas. Devido à carência de informação sobre a ecologia desses vermes, o presente trabalho centrou-se em um levantamento de espécies de Oligochaeta associadas ao molusco Pomacea bridgesii (Reeve, 1856. Em amostragens realizadas no inverno e na primavera de 2003 e no verão de 2004, foram observados 209 caracóis, sendo que somente em 58 deles foi detectada a presença de vermes Oligochaeta, correspondendo a uma incidência de 27,75%. Foram encontrados, no total, 89 oligoquetos, todos da família Naididae. As espécies Haemonais waldvogeli Bretscher, 1900, Dero (Dero nivea Aiyer, 1929 e Dero (Dero sawayai Marcus, 1943 apresentaram a maior abundância relativa (43,68%, 12,32% e 10,08%, respectivamente. Espécimes de Haemonais waldvogeli foram encontrados em todos os períodos sazonais, o que demonstra sua afinidade com este tipo de substrato. Os resultados indicam que várias espécies de Naididae encontram no umbílico da concha (que contém detrito fino um habitat favorável para seu estabelecimento.

  17. All the three ParaHox genes are present in Nuttallochiton mirandus (Mollusca: polyplacophora): evolutionary considerations.

    Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria A; Olmo, Ettore; Canapa, Adriana

    2006-03-15

    The ParaHox gene cluster contains three homeobox genes, Gsx, Xlox and Cdx and has been demonstrated to be an evolutionary sister of the Hox gene cluster. Among deuterostomes the three genes are found in the majority of taxa, whereas among protostomes they have so far been isolated only in the phylum Sipuncula. We report the partial sequences of all three ParaHox genes in the polyplacophoran Nuttallochiton mirandus, the first species of the phylum Mollusca where all ParaHox genes have been isolated. This finding has phylogenetic implications for the phylum Mollusca and for its relationships with the other lophotrochozoan taxa. PMID:16331637

  18. Vector ecology of human schistosomiasis in south India and description of a new species of the genus Ferrissia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Planorbidae

    Anbalagan Sankarappan

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: Our results showed the distribution, habitat preference and seasonality of limpets, and recommend the detection of Schistosoma from limpets as well as human samples by use of molecular tools.

  19. The Japanese oyster drill Ocinebrellus inornatus (Récluz, 1851) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Muricidae), introduced to the Limfjord, Denmark

    Lützen, Jørgen; Faasse, Marco; Gittenberger, Adriaan; Glenner, Henrik; Hoffmann, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The predatory neogastropod Ocinebrellus inornatus was first reported from Europe in W France in 1995 and has since been detected at other sites in NW and N France and The Netherlands. It is native to the North Pacific where it preys on the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Here we report on the...... occurrence of the species in beds of European oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Limfjord, NW Jutland, Denmark. The morphology-based identification has been confirmed by genetic analysis. The species was probably introduced with oysters imported from France in the 1970s and 1980s. The invasion is still...... relatively localized but as the species has established a reproductive population, it may eventually spread to other parts of the fjord and in time pose a problem to the oyster fishery. The species’ invasion history is reviewed....

  20. Pyramidellidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) collected during the Dutch CANCAP and MAURITANIA expeditions in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean (part 2)

    Aartsen, van, B.; Gittenberger, E.; Goud, J.

    2000-01-01

    The species of the Pyramidellidae collected during several expeditions in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean are listed, with locality data, depth ranges, and notes on nomenclature, systematics and distribution. The samples classified with the genera Eulimella (partly), Anisocycla, Syrnola, Chrysallida and Odostomella are dealt with in this paper. In total 70 species are reported from the research area, 24 of which are described as new to science. A lectotype of Obeliscus grac...

  1. Los moluscos terrestres (Mollusca: Gastropoda de Costa Rica: clasificación, distribución y conservación

    Zaidett Barrientos Llosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los moluscos terrestres son un grupo muy poco estudiado a nivel mundial. Hay 183 especies reportadas para Costa Rica, 30% son endémicas y 7% posiblemente están extintas. Se espera que en el país haya alrededor de 400 especies, de más del 95% se desconoce su biología, ecología, distribución, genética y otros campos de estudio. En Costa Rica las familias con mayor número de especies son Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae y Subulinidae. No obstante, es posible que Euconulidae sea aun más diversa, pues habitan las zonas altas del país que es en donde menos trabajo se ha hecho. El estudio de regiones altas aumentará el porcentaje de endemismo. Los futuros trabajos malacológicos taxonómicos, biológicos y ecológicos deben considerar la poca movilidad de este grupo, su tendencia a formar especies nuevas en simpatría, la especificidad de requerimientos de microhábitat, el hermafroditismo, la alta tasa de evolución (10% por millón de años y la divergencia entre especies (2-30%. Para proteger adecuadamente la biodiversidad de la malacofauna costarricense, se requiere de estudios que determinen la distribución y abundancia de las especies y el efecto del uso de la tierra y del climático.

  2. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae

    Pradeep Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol and Carum carvi (limonene on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene. These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  3. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae)

    Pradeep Kumar; Vinay Kumar Singh; D.K. Singh

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol) and Carum carvi (limonene) on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and...

  4. Description of two new species of Rissoella Gray, 1847 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) from Venezuela, with a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus.

    Caballer, Manuel; Ortea, Jesus; Narciso, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Rissoella Gray, 1847 are described from Venezuela, one from the National Park Morrocoy, Rissoella morrocoyensissp. n. and the other from the Wildlife Refuge Isla de Aves, Rissoella venezolanicolasp. n.Rissoella morrocoyensissp. n. has a deep umbilicus (partly closed), preumbilical cord, black head, hypobranchial gland marked by a pale yellow boomerang-shaped ribbon and it lives on the leaves of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum Banks & König, 1805. Rissoella venezolanicolasp. n. has an angled preumbilical cord which extends to the columella delimiting a trapezoid, a hypobranchial gland marked by a yellow quaver-shaped ribbon and protoconch with fuchsia highlights. It lives on the brown alga Dictyota spp. The records of Rissoella in the Caribbean are revised and illustrations, a comparative table and a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus are provided. PMID:21976997

  5. Description of two new species of Rissoella Gray, 1847 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia from Venezuela, with a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus

    Manuel Caballer Gutierrez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Rissoella Gray, 1847 are described from Venezuela, one from the National Park Morrocoy, Rissoella morrocoyensis sp. n. and the other from the Wildlife Refuge Isla de Aves, Rissoella venezolanicola sp. n. R. morrocoyensis sp. n. has a deep umbilicus (partly closed, preumbilical cord, black head, hypobranchial gland marked by a pale yellow boomerang-shaped ribbon and it lives on the leaves of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum Banks & König, 1805. R. venezolanicola sp. n. has an angled preumbilical cord which extends to the columella delimiting a trapezoid, a hypobranchial gland marked by a yellow quaver-shaped ribbon and protoconch with fuchsia highlights. It lives on the brown alga Dictyota spp. The records of Rissoella in the Caribbean are revised and illustrations, a comparative table and a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus are provided.

  6. Vertigo moulinsiana (Dupuy 1849) (Mollusca : Gastropoda : Pulmonata) dans le marais des Bourbes à Olonne-sur-Mer en Vendée

    Goyaud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This note relates the discovery of on species of land snails of the Vendée kind in "marais des Bourbes" (Olonne-sur-Mer) on the Vendée coast. This is the second time Vertigo moulinsiana, a rare species in Vendée, has been found.

  7. Effect of pollution on some freshwater species. I. histochemical and biochemical features of lead pollution on some organs of Viviparus viviparus L. (Mollusca Gastropoda)

    Benedetti, I.; Benedetti, L.; Bolognani, L.; Bolognani Fantin, A.M.; Marini, M.; Ottaviani, E.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental lead pollution was studied in some organs (foot, mantle and digestive gland) of Viviparus viviparus L. The amount of lead contained after 48h, 96 h and one week of pollution were established using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. On the basis of physicochemical determination, it turns out that lead is mainly concentrated in the mantle. The biochemical tests (cholesterol, sulpholipids and phospholipids) were aimed at evaluating the lipids involved in the membranes. The histochemical research was carried out chiefly to evaluate the modifications of polysaccharides and proteins. Some hydrolytic enzymes (Na+ and K+ dependent ATPase) and some ooreductive enzymes (NADH+ and NADPH+ dependent diaphorases, D-lactate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase) were also tested. The digestive gland is the most severely damaged organ as proved by histomorphological and biochemical analyses.

  8. Registro de Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda no Brasil: caramujo hospedeiro intermediário da angiostrongilíase

    Horácio Manuel Santana Teles

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de Achatina fulica é assinalada em Itariri, SP, Brasil. Essa espécie de caramujo terrestre foi importada para cultivo, visando à comercialização para consumo humano como "escargot". O encontro de exemplares em vida livre mostra a dispersão de A. fulica e, conseqüentemente, o risco de transmissão de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, nematóide parasita do homem e de outros vertebrados. Além disso, o caramujo é uma praga importante da agricultura.

  9. Nueva especie de Planorbidae (Gastropoda: Basommatophora en la Patagonia chilena: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. First record of Planorbidae (Mollusca: Basommatophora in Chilean Patagonia: Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov.

    Carmen Fuentealba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile la familia Planorbidae está representada por el género Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, compuesta por siete especies distribuidas desde Isluga hasta el río Puelo. De estas especies, solo B.peregrina, ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, y Biomphalaria aymara de Isluga, han sido reconocidas sobre la base de la morfología del sistema reproductor y la rádula, caracteres que fueron utilizados en el presente estudio para diferenciar a Biomphalaria cristiani como nueva especie del grupo y primer registro de la familia en la Patagonia chilena, ampliando su actual rango de distribución. Los caracteres que permiten la diagnosis de B. cristiani son el saco vaginal vestigial truncado, ausencia del desarrollo de los músculos suspensores del pene, vaina del pene corta en relación al prepucio, oviducto largo en relación al espermioducto y vaso deferente más delgado y largo que la vaina del pene, de tamano similar al prepucio. La localidad tipo de Biomphalaria cristiani sp. nov. es Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S, 72°27'40.65"W, región de Aysén.The family Planorbidae in Chile is represented by the genus Biomphalaria Preston, 1910, consisting of seven species distributed from Isluga to Puelo River. Of these species, only Biomphalaria peregrina widely distributed in the neotropical and Biomphalaria aymara from Isluga are recognized based on the morphology of the reproductive system and radula, characters that were used in the following study to differentiate Biomphalaria cristiani as a new species of this group and first record of the family in Chilean Patagonia, extending its current distribution range. The characters for the diagnosis of B. cristiani are: truncated vestigial vaginal pouch, lack of development of the penis retractor muscles, penis sheath shorter than the prepuce, oviduct longer than the spermiduct and vas deferens thinner and longer than the penis sheath, similar size to the prepuce. The type locality of B. cristiani nov. sp. is Laguna Cisnes (47°7'10.02"S; 72°27'40.65"W, Aysén region.

  10. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  11. A new species of Aeneator Finlay, 1926 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Buccinidae) from northern Chile, with comments on the genus and a key to the Chilean species

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Aeneator Finlay, 1926 is described from off the coast of Caldera (27°S), northern Chile. Aeneator martae sp. n. has a small, broad, stout, angulated shell with more prominent axial ribs and a more obviously keeled periphery than all previously named Chilean species. Comparisons are provided with all other South American named species of Aeneator.

  12. A new species of Tambja (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) from the Mediterranean Sea: description of the first species of the genus from the Balearic Islands and Malta

    Domínguez, M.; Pola, M.; Ramón, M.

    2015-06-01

    A new species of polycerid nudibranchs of the genus Tambja is described from Mallorca Island (Spain) and Malta. So far, only two species of Tambja had been recorded in the Mediterranean Sea with a distribution limited to southern Spain. With Tambja mediterranea sp. nov., the distribution of the genus in the Mediterranean Sea is extended, and the new species represents the first occurrence of Tambja at the Balearic Islands and Malta. Externally, the new species is mainly characterized by having ground orange-red colour, dorsum covered with rounded whitish tubercles, rhinophores red with whitish tips and three gill branches with orange-reddish rachis and whitish branches. In the present paper, external and internal features of T. mediterranea are described and compared with other species of the genus, especially with its most similar species, T. limaciformis. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian and maximum likelihood) based on mitochondrial sequences (COI) show that T. mediterranea sp. nov. is sister to T. divae and that both species cluster together with T. limaciformis and T. amakusana with the maximum support.

  13. Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca : Gastropoda by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica

    Bargues M.D.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica is the vector-borne disease presenting the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution known. F. hepatica shows a great adaptation power to new environmental conditions which is the consequence of its own capacities together with the adaptation and colonization abilities of its specific vector hosts, freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae. Several lymnaeid species only considered as secondary contributors to the liver fluke transmission have, however, played a very important role in the geographic expansion of this disease. Many of them belong to the so-called "stagnicoline" type group. Stagnicolines have, therefore, a very important applied interest in the Holarctic region, to which they are geographically restricted. The present knowledge on the genetics of stagnicolines and on their parasite-host interrelationships is, however, far from being sufficient. The present paper analyses the relationships between Palaearctic and Nearctic stagnicoline species on the base of the new light furnished by the results obtained in nuclear rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and corresponding phylogenetic studies of the lymnaeid taxa Lymnaea (Stagnicola occulta, L. (S. palustris palustris (topotype specimens and L.(S. p. turricula from Europe. Natural infections with F. hepatica have been reported in all of them. Surprisingly, ITS-2 length and G C content of L. occulta were similar and perfectly fitted within the respective ranges known in North American stagnicolines. Nucleotide differences and genetic distances were higher between L. occulta and the other European stagnicolines than between L. occulta and the North American ones. The ITS-2 sequence of L. p. turricula from Poland differed from the other genotypes known from turricula in Europe. The phylogenetic trees using the maximum-parsimony, distance and maximum-likelihood methods confirmed (i the inclusion of L. occulta in the branch of North American stagnicolines, (iii the link between the North American stagnicolines-L. occulta group with Galba truncatula, and (iii the location of the L. p. turricula genotype from Poland closer to L. p. palustris than to other European L. p. turricula genotypes. The Palaearctic species occulta is included in the genus Catascopia, together with the Nearctic species catascopium, emarginata and elodes. The results suggest a potential of transmission capacity for C. occulta higher than that of other European stagnicolines or Omphiscola glabra. The relatively low genetic distances between C. occulta and G. truncatula and the clustering of both species in the same clade suggest that C.occulta may be potentially considered as the second lymnaeid intermediate host species of F. hepatica in importance in eastern and northern Europe, and probably also western and central Asia, after G. truncatula. L. p. turricula may be considered as a potential secondary vector of F. hepatica, at a level similar tot that of L.p. palustris.

  14. Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca: Gastropoda) by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica.

    Bargues, M D; Horák, P; Patzner, R A; Pointier, J P; Jackiewicz, M; Meier-Brook, C; Mas-Coma, S

    2003-09-01

    Fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica is the vector-borne disease presenting the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution known. F. hepatica shows a great adaptation power to new environmental conditions which is the consequence of its own capacities together with the adaptation and colonization abilities of its specific vector hosts, freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae. Several lymnaeid species only considered as secondary contributors to the liver fluke transmission have, however, played a very important role in the geographic expansion of this disease. Many of them belong to the so-called "stagnicoline" type group. Stagnicolines have, therefore, a very important applied interest in the Holarctic region, to which they are geographically restricted. The present knowledge on the genetics of stagnicolines and on their parasite-host interrelationships is, however, far from being sufficient. The present paper analyses the relationships between Palaearctic and Nearctic stagnicoline species on the base of the new light furnished by the results obtained in nuclear rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and corresponding phylogenetic studies of the lymnaeid taxa Lymnaea (Stagnicola) occulta, L. (S.) palustris palustris (topotype specimens) and L. (S.) p. turricula from Europe. Natural infections with F. hepatica have been reported in all of them. Surprisingly, ITS-2 length and GC content of L. occulta were similar and perfectly fitted within the respective ranges known in North American stagnicolines. Nucleotide differences and genetic distances were higher between L. occulta and the other European stagnicolines than between L. occulta and the North American ones. The ITS-2 sequence of L. p. turricula from Poland differed from the other genotypes known from turricula in Europe. The phylogenetic trees using the maximum-parsimony, distance and maximum-likelihood methods confirmed (i) the inclusion of L. occulta in the branch of North American stagnicolines, (ii) the link between the North American stagnicolines-L. occulta group with Galba truncatula, and (iii) the location of the L. p. turricula genotype from Poland closer to L. p. palustris than to other European L. p. turricula genotypes. The Palaearctic species occulta is included in the genus Catascopia, together with the Nearctic species catascopium, emarginata and elodes. The results suggest a potential of transmission capacity for C. occulta higher than that of other European stagnicolines or Omphiscola glabra. The relatively low genetic distances between C. occulta and G. truncatula and the clustering of both species in the same clade suggest that C. occulta may be potentially considered as the second lymnaeid intermediate host species of F. hepatica in importance in eastern and northern Europe, and probably also western and central Asia, after G. truncatula. L. p. turricula may be considered as a potential secondary vector of F. hepatica, at a level similar to that of L. p. palustris. PMID:14535164

  15. Insights into the relationships of Palearctic and Nearctic lymnaeids (Mollusca : Gastropoda) by rDNA ITS-2 sequencing and phylogeny of stagnicoline intermediate host species of Fasciola hepatica

    Bargues M.D.; Horák P.; Patzner R.A.; Pointier J.P.; Jackiewicz M.; Meier-Brook C.; Mas-Coma S.

    2003-01-01

    Fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica is the vector-borne disease presenting the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution known. F. hepatica shows a great adaptation power to new environmental conditions which is the consequence of its own capacities together with the adaptation and colonization abilities of its specific vector hosts, freshwater snails of the family Lymnaeidae. Several lymnaeid species only considered as secondary contributors to the liver fluke transmission ...

  16. Relationships of the Triassic Eucycloidea Koken, 1897 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) to modern genera such as Pagodatrochus, Calliotropis and Euchelus, based on morphology of the early shell

    Bandel K

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to document the relationship that may exist between Triassic species of Eucycloscala, Ampezzotrochus, Sabrinella, Microcheilus, Eunemopsis and Pseudoclanculus and living species of genera such as Pagodatrochus, Turcica, Calliotropis, Danilia, and Euchelus. Their shell has a nacreous inner layer and ornament of axial ribs on the early teleoconch. This ornament distinguishes from living and fossil Vetigastropoda with Trochus, and Turbo-like shells. Eucycloscalidae, cont...

  17. Relationships of the Triassic Eucycloidea Koken, 1897 (Mollusca, Gastropoda to modern genera such as Pagodatrochus, Calliotropis and Euchelus, based on morphology of the early shell

    Bandel K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to document the relationship that may exist between Triassic species of Eucycloscala, Ampezzotrochus, Sabrinella, Microcheilus, Eunemopsis and Pseudoclanculus and living species of genera such as Pagodatrochus, Turcica, Calliotropis, Danilia, and Euchelus. Their shell has a nacreous inner layer and ornament of axial ribs on the early teleoconch. This ornament distinguishes from living and fossil Vetigastropoda with Trochus, and Turbo-like shells. Eucycloscalidae, containing the Triassic genera Eucycloscala and Ampezzotrochus, can be distinguished from Eunemopsis and Pseudoclanculus and the Eunemopsidae fam. nov. by folds on the inner lip and Sabrinellidae fam. nov. with Sabrinella and Microcheilus by the varix of the aperture of the last whorl. Lanascala with Lanascalidae belongs here. Neoeunema gen. nov. represents a Triassic member of Eucyclidae, which contains numerous Jurassic genera and species. Pseudoturcicidae fam. nov. differs by the ornament of the early teleoconch. The Chilodontidae form a characteristic Cretaceous group with teeth on the inner side of their outer lip. Three families of modern genera can be distinguished by the arrangement of teeth in the radula: four pairs in Pagodatrochidae fam. nov. and Turcicidae fam. nov., and three pairs in Calliotropidae, documented with Euchelus. The Seguenzioidea represents a related group having a distinctive radula with two lateral pairs of teeth and a variety of shell shapes and ornament. The early teleoconch of Seguenziidae (with slit in the aperture and Ancistrobasidae fam. nov. (without such a slit resembles that of the Eucycloscalidae, but has a strong spiral rib in addition to the axial ribs. The new species Microcheilus maxwelli sp. nov., Eucycloidea madagascariensis sp. nov., new genera Pseudoturcica and Heterodiscohelix, and new families Sabrinellidae fam. nov., Euemopsidae fam. nov., Pseudoturcidae fam. nov., Pagodatrochidae fam. nov. Turcicidae fam. nov., and Ancistrobasidae fam. nov. are introduced. The fossil record confirms existence of two independent branches of Vetigastropoda since more than 220 Ma, and within one of these branches parallel to the Eucycloidea the Seguenzioidea since Mesozoic times.

  18. Large scale population structure and gene flow in the planktonic developing periwinkle, Littorina striata, in Macaronesia (Mollusca : Gastropoda)

    Wolf, H.; Verhagen, R.; Backeljau, T.

    2002-01-01

    Allozymes were used to investigate the genetic structure of 42 populations of the planktonic developing, Macaronesian periwinkle Littorina striata, throughout its entire geographic range (Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands). This periwinkle is presumed to have a high dispersal and gene flow potential, because it has a planktonic development. It is therefore expected to show little population genetic differentiation. Indeed, based on Wright’s hierarchical F-statistics, no s...

  19. Congruence between allozyme and RAPD data in assessing macrogeographical genetic variation in the periwinkle Littorina striata (Mollusca, Gastropoda)

    Wolf, H.; Backeljau, T.; Verhagen, R.

    2002-01-01

    The population genetic structure of the Macaronesian planktonic-developing periwinkle Littorina striata was analysed, using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). Two primers, yielding six polymorphic loci, were surveyed to infer the population genetic structure of five geographically separated populations (i.e. 10-2000km). Biased and unbiased allele frequency and heterozygosity levels were estimated and were found to be highly similar. As in previous allozyme studies, our results ...

  20. Amundsen Sea Mollusca from the BIOPEARL II expedition

    Camille Moreau

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the epibenthic sledge (EBS samples collected during the cruise BIOPEARL II / JR179 RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2008. A total of 35 epibenthic sledge deployments have been performed at five locations in the Amundsen Sea at Pine Island Bay (PIB and the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE at depths ranging from 476 to 3501m. This presents a unique and important collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment as the Amundsen Sea remains one of the least known regions in Antarctica. Indeed the work presented in this dataset is based on the first benthic samples collected with an EBS in the Amundsen Sea. However we assume that the data represented are an underestimation of the real fauna present in the Amundsen Sea. In total 9261 specimens belonging to 6 classes 55 families and 97 morphospecies were collected. The pecies richness per station varied between 6 and 43. Gastropoda were most species rich 50 species followed by Bivalvia (37, Aplacophora (5, Scaphopoda (3 and one from each of Polyplacophora and Monoplacophora.

  1. Amundsen Sea Mollusca from the BIOPEARL II expedition.

    Moreau, Camille; Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw; Barnes, David; Kaiser, Stefanie; Glover, Adrian; Sands, Chester; Strugnell, Jan; Enderlein, Peter; Geissler, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the epibenthic sledge (EBS) samples collected during the cruise BIOPEARL II / JR179 RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2008. A total of 35 epibenthic sledge deployments have been performed at five locations in the Amundsen Sea at Pine Island Bay (PIB) and the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) at depths ranging from 476 to 3501m. This presents a unique and important collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment as the Amundsen Sea remains one of the least known regions in Antarctica. Indeed the work presented in this dataset is based on the first benthic samples collected with an EBS in the Amundsen Sea. However we assume that the data represented are an underestimation of the real fauna present in the Amundsen Sea. In total 9261 specimens belonging to 6 classes 55 families and 97 morphospecies were collected. The species richness per station varied between 6 and 43. Gastropoda were most species rich 50 species followed by Bivalvia (37), Aplacophora (5), Scaphopoda (3) and one from each of Polyplacophora and Monoplacophora. PMID:23794869

  2. Numerous giant mollusca contagiosa and kaposi?s sarcomas with HIV disease

    Singh Ravi; Singh Sanjay; Pandey S

    1996-01-01

    A 50-year old man with a history of multiple contacts with commercial sex workers and two episodes of blood transfusions in Bombay, presented with giant mollusca contagiosa, Kaposi?s sarcomas and refractory pulmonary tuberculosis. Patient was confirmed to be infected with HIV by ELISA and Western blot method.

  3. Disseminated eruptive giant mollusca contagiosa in an adult psoriasis patient during efalizumab therapy

    Weisenseel, Peter; Kuznetsov, Alexander Vasilevic; Flaig, Michael J.; Prinz, Jörg Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a common viral skin infection in children with atopic diathesis and not rare in HIV patients. We report a 45-year-old psoriasis patient who developed eruptive mollusca contagiosa during an antipsoriatic treatment with efalizumab. Copyright (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. New genus and species of polyplacophora (Mollusca) from the East China Sea

    Xu, Fengshan

    1990-12-01

    The present paper dealing with two new species and one new genus of the Polyplacophora, is the first of a series of reports of systematic study on the deep sea mollusca collected by the research vessels JINXING and KEXUE I of the Academia Sinica, Institute of Oceanology, during 1978 and 1981 from the continental margin to the bathyal zone of the East China Sea.

  5. Quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora de El Salvador, América Central

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available En El Salvador se habían registrado los poliplacóforos Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832; Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910; Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909; Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832 y Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893. Recolectamos quitones en aguas someras de El Salvador en julio del 2002, agragando a la lista a Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857; Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832; Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832; Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865; Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867; Acanthochitona ferreirai (Lyons, 1988 y Acanthochitona hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832. Ampliamos la distribución documentada de I. dispar hacia el norte y describimos brevemente una especie innominada de Lepidochitona.Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from El Salvador, Central America. Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832; Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910; Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909; Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832 and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893. Of these, I. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857; Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832; Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832; Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865; Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867; A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988 and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832. The known geographic distribution of I. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 171-176. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  6. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca chemosynthetic symbionts

    Girguis Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

  7. A honeycomb composite of mollusca shell matrix and calcium alginate.

    You, Hua-Jian; Li, Jin; Zhou, Chan; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-03-01

    A honeycomb composite is useful to carry cells for application in bone, cartilage, skin, and soft tissue regenerative therapies. To fabricate a composite, and expand the application of mollusca shells as well as improve preparing methods of calcium alginate in tissue engineering research, Anodonta woodiana shell powder was mixed with sodium alginate at varying mass ratios to obtain a gel mixture. The mixture was frozen and treated with dilute hydrochloric acid to generate a shell matrix/calcium alginate composite. Calcium carbonate served as the control. The composite was transplanted subcutaneously into rats. At 7, 14, 42, and 70 days after transplantation, frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, followed by DAPI, β-actin, and collagen type-I immunofluorescence staining, and observed using laser confocal microscopy. The composite featured a honeycomb structure. The control and composite samples displayed significantly different mechanical properties. The water absorption rate of the composite and control group were respectively 205-496% and 417-586%. The composite (mass ratio of 5:5) showed good biological safety over a 70-day period; the subcutaneous structure of the samples was maintained and the degradation rate was lower than that of the control samples. Freezing the gel mixture afforded control over chemical reaction rates. Given these results, the composite is a promising honeycomb scaffold for tissue engineering. PMID:26700239

  8. Bathymetric distribution patterns of Southern Ocean macrofaunal taxa: Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Isopoda and Polychaeta

    Brandt, Angelika; Linse, Katrin; Schüller, Myriam

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the depth distributions of four major Southern Ocean macrobenthic epi- and infaunal taxa, the Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Isopoda, and Polychaeta, from subtidal to abyssal depth. All literature data up to summer 2008, as well as the unpublished data from the most recent ANDEEP I-III (Antarctic benthic deep-sea biodiversity: colonisation history and recent community patterns) expeditions to the Southern Ocean deep sea are included in the analysis. Benthic invertebrates in the Southern Ocean are known for their wide bathymetric ranges. We analysed the distributions of four of the most abundant and species-rich taxa from intertidal to abyssal (5200 m) depths in depth zones of 100 m. The depth distributions of three macrofaunal classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Polychaeta) and one order (Isopoda) showed distinct differences. In the case of bivalves, gastropods and polychaetes, the number of species per depth zone decreased from the shelf to the slope at around 1000 m depth and then showed stable low numbers. The isopods showed the opposite trend; they were less species rich in the upper 1000 m but increased in species numbers from the slope to bathyal and abyssal depths. Depth ranges of families of the studied taxa (Bivalvia: 31 families, Gastropoda: 60, Isopoda: 32, and Polychaeta: 46 families) were compiled and illustrated. At present vast areas of the deep sea in the Southern Ocean remain unexplored and species accumulation curves showed that only a fraction of the species have been discovered to date. We anticipate that further investigations will greatly increase the number of species known in the Southern Ocean deep sea.

  9. Ecological studies on intertidal dog whelks (Gastropoda: Nassariidae) off Northern Minahasa, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Puturuhu, Louise

    2004-01-01

    General features of dog whelks (Gastropoda: Nassariidae) communities of tropical tidal flats are defined from Northern Minahasa, Sulawesi Indonesia, based on surveys from August 2000 to July 2001 at Arakan, Mokupa and Likupang. Six species are founded at Arakan, while five and four species are founded at Mokupa and Likupang respectively. A zonation of nassariids communities is described. Total average densities ranged between 8 ind m-² in the middle zone of Arakan and < 1 ind m-² in the low...

  10. Utilization of shells of the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda by the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 (Decapoda, Anomura in the São Vicente Estuary, São Paulo, Brazil Utilización de conchas de caracoles terrestres Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda por el cangrejo ermitaño Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 (Decapoda, Anomura en el estuario de São Vicente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Bruno S. Sant'Anna

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Hermit crabs depend on mollusc shells for housing. In this study, an unusual resource is reported for a hermit crab that usually inhabits marine gastropod shells. During a field study conducted from May 2001 to April 2003 in an estuarine area in São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil, 21 individuals of Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 were found inhabiting the shells of the terrestrial gastropod Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. A. fulica occurs in nearshore grass patches, where occasional contact with sea water kills them, and their shells then become available to the hermit crabsEl cangrejo ermitaño depende de conchas de moluscos para hacer de ella su casa. Este estudio ha descubierto una manera inusual de como vive este cangrejo, que generalmente habita la concha de gastrópodos marinos. El estudio fue realizado en la estación marítima de São Vicente, provincia de São Paulo, de mayo de 2001 hasta abril de 2003. Durante ese periodo, un total de 21 cangrejos Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 fueron encontrados viviendo en las conchas del caracol terrestre Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. A. fulica ocurre en áreas de césped cercanos a la costa, donde el contacto ocasional con el agua de mar provoca su muerte y sus conchas quedan disponibles para el cangrejo ermitaño

  11. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae) / Formulações de iscas de moluscicidas e seus efeitos sobre as alterações bioquímicas no ovoteste do caramujo Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca;Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae)

    Pradeep, Kumar; Vinay Kumar, Singh; D.K., Singh.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito subletal das iscas usadas para alimentação contendo componentes moluscicidas de Ferula asafoetida (ácido ferúlico, umbeliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol) e Carum carvi (limonene) nas alterações bioquímicas do ovoteste do caramujo Lymnaea acuminata. A formulação das iscas [...] usadas para alimentar L. acuminata foi estudada em aquários de vidros transparentes de diâmetro de 30 cm. As iscas foram preparadas por combinações diferentes binárias de aminoácidos (valina, ácido aspártico, lisina e alanina 10 mM) em 100 mL de solução de agar a 2% + doses subletais (20% e 60% durante 24 horas LC50) de diferentes moluscicidas (ácido ferúlico, umbeliferone, eugenol e limonene). Estas iscas causaram redução significante máxima em aminoácidos livres, proteínas, níveis de DNA e RNA isto é 41,37%, 23,56%, 48,36% e 14,29% de controle no ovoteste do caramujo, respectivamente. Discontinuação da alimentação depois do tratamento de 60% de 96 horas de LC50 do moluscicida contendo a isca para as subsequentes 72 horas causou significante recuperação dos níveis de aminoácidos livres, proteína, DNA e RNA no ovoteste da L. acuminata. Abstract in english The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol) and Carum carvi (limonene) on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations fee [...] ding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM) in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50) doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene). These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  12. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 larvae (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infecting Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda in the Amazon region Ocorrência de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae infectando o Achatina (Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda na região amazônica

    Sanny Maria de Andrade-Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Achatina fulica or "giant African snail" is an exotic species, considered to be one of the world's hundred most invasive species, causing serious environmental damages. In the present study we report, for the first time, the occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infecting A.fulica in the Amazon region. This nematode is described parasitizing mainly the pulmonary system of felines, which causes "aelurostrongilose", also known as feline cardio-pulmonary strongyloidosis. New morphometric data of third stage larvae are presented herein. The present study demonstrated that 40% of all the snails were infected by A. abstrusus. Achatina fulica specimens were collected from three different areas in Manaus namely: rural; east and west areas. The east area presents the highest prevalence of 80%. The large number of A.fulica found in inhabited areas increases the chances of emergent zoonoses, which highlights the need of further studies so as to better control this disease.Achatina fulica ou "caramujo africano" é uma espécie exótica, considerada uma das cem piores espécies invasoras do mundo, causando sérios danos ambientais. No presente estudo foi registrado, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência do Aelurostrongylus abstrusus infectando o A.fulica na região amazônica. Esse nematóide é descrito parasitando principalmente o sistema pulmonar de felinos, causando a "aelurostrongilose", também conhecida como estrongiloidose cardio-pulmonar felina. Novos dados morfométricos de larvas de terceiro estágio são apresentados. Dos 45 caramujos coletados, 40% estavam infectados por larvas de A. abstrusus. Especimens de Achatina fulica foram coletados em três áreas da cidade de Manaus: rural, leste e oeste. A zona leste apresentou a maior prevalência de 80%. O grande número de A.fulica encontrado em áreas habitadas aumenta as chances de ocorrência de zoonoses emergentes e destaca a necessidade de mais estudos para o melhor controle da doença.

  13. CHILEAN MARINE MOLLUSCA OF NORTHERN PATAGONIA COLLECTED DURING THE CIMAR-10 FJORDS CRUISE MOLUSCOS MARINOS CHILENOS DEL NORTE DE LA PATAGONIA RECOLECTADOS DURANTE EL CRUCERO DE FIORDOS CIMAR-10

    Javiera Cárdenas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The tip of the South American cone is one of the most interesting Subantarctic areas, both biogeographically and ecologically. Nonetheless, knowledge of the area's biodiversity, in particular that of the subtidal marine habitats, remains poor. Therefore, in 2004, a biodiversity research project was carried out as a part of the cruise Cimar-10 Fjords, organized and supported by the Chilean National Oceanographic Committee (CONA. The results of the subtidal marine mollusk surveys are presented herein. The samples were collected aboard the Agor 60 "Vidal Gormaz" in winter 2004. The study area covered the northern Chilean Patagonia from Seno de Relocanví (41°31'S to Boca del Guafo (43°49'S, on the continental shelf from 22 to 353 m depth. The Mollusca were collected at 23 sampling sites using an Agassiz trawl. In total, 67 species were recorded: 4% Polyplacophora (Leptochitonidae, Ischnochitonidae, 58% Gastropoda (Lepetidae, Fissurellidae, Trochidae, Turbinidae, Calyptraeidae, Capulidae, Naticidae, Ranellidae, Cerithiopsidae, Epitoniidae, Muricidae, Buccinidae, Columbellidae, Nassariidae, Volutidae, Cancellariidae, Turridae, Pyramidellidae, Acteonidae, Chilinidae, 36% Bivalvia (Nuculidae, Yoldiidae, Malletiidae, Tindariidae, Limopsidae, Phylobryidae, Mytilidae, Pectinidae, Propeamussidae, Lucinidae, Thyasiridae, Neoleptonidae, Carditidae, Condylocardiidae, Veneridae, Tellinidae, Lyonsiidae, Pandoridae, Cuspidariidae, and 1% Scaphopoda (Rhabdidae. Our results show a high proportion of southern (Magellanic subtidal species; 45 species (67% are strictly Magellanic or Antarctic and another 16 (24% were widespread species, with distributions extending to the south of our study area. Only six species (9% were strictly Peruvian.El extremo sur de Sudamérica representa una de las áreas subantárticas más interesantes desde un punto de vista ecológico y biogeográñco. A pesar de ello, el conocimiento que se tiene sobre la biodiversidad del área, y en particular de los habitats marinos submareales, es relativamente pobre. En el año 2004 se realizó un proyecto de investigación sobre biodiversidad como parte del crucero Fiordos Cimar-10, organizado y financiado por el Comité Oceanógrafico Nacional de Chile (CONA. En este artículo se describen los resultados obtenidos sobre de los moluscos submareales. Las muestras fueron obtenidas en el invierno del 2004, a bordo del buque Agor 60 "Vidal Gormaz". El área de estudio se localizó en el extremo norte de la Patagonia chilena, desde el Seno de Relocanví (41 °31' S hasta la Boca del Guafo (43°49'S, en la plataforma continental comprendida entre 22 y 353 m de profundidad. Los moluscos fueron recolectados en 23 estaciones de muestreo empleando una rastra Agassiz. Se registró un total de 67 especies, consistentes en 4% Polyplacophora (Leptochitonidae, Ischnochitonidae, 58% Gastropoda (Lepetidae, Fissurellidae, Trochidae, Turbinidae, Calyptraeidae, Capulidae, Naticidae, Ranellidae, Cerithiopsidae, Epitoniidae, Muricidae, Buccinidae, Columbellidae, Nassariidae, Volutidae, Cancellariidae, Turridae, Pyramidellidae, Acteonidae, Chilinidae, 36% Bivalvia (Nuculidae, Yoldiidae, Malletiidae, Tindariidae, Limopsidae, Phylobryidae, Mytilidae, Pectinidae, Propeamussidae, Lucinidae, Thyasiridae, Neoleptonidae, Carditidae, Condylocardiidae, Veneridae, Tellinidae, Lyonsiidae, Pandoridae, Cuspidariidae y 1% Scaphopoda (Rhabdidae. Nuestros resultados muestran que las especies submareales presentan una elevada proporción con carácter austral (magallámco. Del total de 67 taxa registrados, 45 especies son estrictamente magallámcas o antarticas (67% y 16 presentan una amplia área de distribución que se extiende al sur del área de estudio (24%. Sólo seis de las especies (9% son estrictamente de la provincia biogeográfica peruana.

  14. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata

    Petr Sima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment provides a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. This has resulted in an increased rate of pharmaceutical agents being discovered in marine animals, particularly invertebrates. Our objective is to summarize the most promising compounds which have the best potential and may lead to use in clinical practice, show their biological activities and highlight the compounds currently being tested in clinical trials. In this paper, we focused on Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata.

  15. Biogeographic and species richness patterns of Gastropoda on the southwestern Atlantic Biogeografia de gastrópodes no Atlântico Sul ocidental

    Floeter, S. R.; SOARES-GOMES A.

    1999-01-01

    Patterns of richness and biogeography of Gastropoda molluscs were determined based on lists of species from five sites along the southwestern Atlantic. The analysis of the distribution patterns of these sites confirmed the existence of a broader transition zone between southern Espírito Santo State (21°S) and Rio Grande do Sul State (32°S). This zone is very heterogeneous, presenting a low endemism rate and a significant number of species common to the near provinces, and does not show enough...

  16. Ecological niche modeling, cytogenetics and phylogeography of the genera Geomalacus and Letourneuxia (Gastropoda, Pulmonata) from the Iberian-Moroccan region

    Silva, Cláudia Sofia Patrão Beliz Rosa e

    2013-01-01

    First described more that 150 years ago, the systematics of the genera Geomalacus and Letourneuxia (Arionidae, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) is still challenging. The taxonomic classification of arionid species is based on extremely labile characters such as body size or color that depends both on diet and environment, as well as age. Moreover, there is little information on the genetic diversity and population structure of the Iberian slugs that could provide extra clues to disent...

  17. Biogeographic and species richness patterns of Gastropoda on the southwestern Atlantic

    FLOETER S. R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of richness and biogeography of Gastropoda molluscs were determined based on lists of species from five sites along the southwestern Atlantic. The analysis of the distribution patterns of these sites confirmed the existence of a broader transition zone between southern Espírito Santo State (21°S and Rio Grande do Sul State (32°S. This zone is very heterogeneous, presenting a low endemism rate and a significant number of species common to the near provinces, and does not show enough consistency to be considered as an independent biogeographic province as proposed by Palacio (1980. Observing the distribution of species along the southwestern Atlantic we find an increase in the proportion of species with greatest latitudinal ranges (occurring from the tropics to Patagonia from lowest to highest latitudes, following Rappoport's rule.

  18. Systematic revision of the Chlamydinae (Pectinidae, Bivalvia, Mollusca) of the European Cretaceous part 4: Merklinia

    Dhondt, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is the fourth of a series dealing with the systematic revision of the European Cretaceous Chlamdydinae (Pectinidae, Bivalvia, Mollusca). Two European and one Tethyan species of the genus Merklinia Sobetzki, 1960 (M. aspera (Lamarck, 1819), M. variabilis (Von Hagenow, 1842), M. perornata (Cottreau, 1922)) are described.

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii supports its association with Annelida rather than Mollusca

    Boore, Jeffrey L.; Staton, Joseph

    2001-09-01

    We have determined the sequence of about half (7470 nts) of the mitochondrial genome of the sipunculid Phascolopsis gouldii, the first representative of this phylum to be so studied. All of the 19 identified genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand. The arrangement of these genes is remarkably similar to that of the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. Comparison of both the inferred amino acid sequences and the gene arrangements of a variety of diverse metazoan taxa reveals that the phylum Sipuncula is more closely related to Annelida than to Mollusca. This requires reinterpretation of the homology of several embryological features and of patterns of animal body plan evolution.

  20. Comunidad de moluscos asociados al mejillón verde Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia y sus relaciones tróficas en la costa norte de la Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Sioliz Villafranca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Perna viridis es un bivalvo procedente del Indo-Pacífico que habita en la zona intermareal y ha invadido varios ecosistemas de la costa norte del estado Sucre, Venezuela. Con la finalidad de realizar un estudio sobre las comunidades de moluscos asociadas a esta especie y sus relaciones tróficas, se llevaron a cabo muestreos bimensuales entre octubre/97 y agosto/98, en un banco natural de mejillones a dos metros de profundidad en la costa norte de la península de Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W. Los organismos fueron recolectados delimitando el área con una cuadrícula de 0.25 m². Se identificaron los organismos hasta la categoría de especies utilizando claves específicas para moluscos y bibliográficamente se les determinó categoría trófica.Se capturó un total de 1 235 individuos de P. viridis y asociados a la especie 3 163 especímenes pertenecientes al phylum Mollusca, contenidos en tres clases: Bivalvia,Gastropoda y Polyplacophora. Éstas estuvieron representadas por 50 especies correspondientes a 10 órdenes, 24 familias; para los gasterópodos se contabilizaron 25 especies, para los bivalvos 22 y tres para los poliplacóforos. Del total de las especies, 40% fueron filtradoras, 26% carnívoras, 24% herbívoras y el 10% restante presentó dos categorías.De las filtradoras las más representativas fueron: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae y Ostrea equestris; en el grupo de los carnívoros dominaron tres especies de la familia Columbellidae:Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa y Nitidella ocellata y para el grupo de los herbívoros destacaron dos especies de la familia Fisurellidae: Diodora cayenensis y D. minuta. Se registraron dos especies filtradoras-detritívoras, y tres especies herbívoras-filtradoras representantes del género C repidula. El alto porcentaje de filtradores sería un indicativo de que dentro de este sistema probablemente hay una mayor disponibilidad de fracciones alimenticias para este grupo.Mollusc communities associated with the green mussel Perna viridis (Mollusca: Bivalvia and their trophic relations on the north coast of Araya Peninsula, Sucre State, Venezuela. Perna viridis (Linné, 1758 is an Indo-Pacific bivalve of the intertidal zone that has invaded several ecosystems of the north coast of the Sucre State,Venezuela. Bimonthly samplings were carried out between October 1997 and August 1998 to study the mollusc communities associated with this species and their trophic relationships.Studies were conducted on a naturally-occuring bank of mussels two meters deep on the north coast of the peninsula of Araya (10°40’N -48°63’W. Sample organisms were collected withing areas defined by a quadrat of 0.25 m², and were identified to the species level using taxonomic keys that also included bibliographic identification of trophic level. A total of 1 235 individuals of P. viridis were collected, along with 3 163 specimens of associated species belonging to the phylum Mollusca, including bivalves, gastropods and polyplacophora.The associated mollusc organisms represented 50 species corresponding to 10 orders and 24 families, including 25 gastropod species, 22 bivalves and three polyplacophorans. With regard to trophic level 40% of the 50 species were suspensivores, 26% carnivores, 24% herbivores and the residual 10% represented two categories (suspensivore-detritivore, herbivore-suspensivore. Of the suspensivores the most common were: Perna perna, Musculus lateralis, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Ostrea equestris. The carnivore group was dominated by the three species of the Family Columbellidae, Mitrella lunata, Anachis obesa and Nitidella ocellata.The group of herbivores was dominated by two members of the family Fisurellidae, Diodora cayenensis and D. minuta.Two species of suspensivore-detritívore and three species of herbivore-suspensivore were also found in the genus Crepidula. The high percentage of suspensivores was thought indicative, inside this ecosystem, that there is probably a higher degree of nutritious fractions available to this group. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 135-144. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.

  1. Cargols terrestres (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora del Parc Natural de la Muntanya de Montserrat (Barcelona, NE península ibèrica

    Bros, V.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Land snails (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora in the Natural Park of Montserrat (Barcelona, NE Iberian peninsula The inventory of 73 land snails in the Natural Park of Montserrat was updated following the review of 130 publications. Planned field study was also conducted in areas of different habitats on the Montserrat mountain to provide a preliminary description of the communities of land snails in the study area. A total of 342 samples of land snails were studied and 50 species were identified. The most frequent were Pomatias elegans, Helicigona lapicida, Pseudotachea splendida, Abida polyodon and Otala punctata. In this region of the prelittoral Catalan mountain range, the level of endemism was high for Abida secale bofilli, Montserratina bofilliana and Xerocrassa montserratensis.The results of the field work extend the faunistic catalogue of the Natural Park of Montserrat to include references to Hygromia cinctella, Microxeromagna lowei, Paralaoma servilis and Punctum pygmaeum in the area. Finally, investigation and conservation programmes are suggested for the endemic species Xerocrassa montserratensis, protected by the Plan for Areas of Natural Interest (PEIN approved by Decree 328/1992.

  2. With a little help from DNA barcoding: investigating the diversity of Gastropoda from the Portuguese coast

    Borges, Luísa M. S.; Hollatz, Claudia; Lobo, Jorge; Cunha, Ana M.; Vilela, Ana P.; Calado, Gonçalo; Coelho, Rita; Costa, Ana C.; Ferreira, Maria S. G.; Costa, Maria H.; Costa, Filipe O.

    2016-01-01

    The Gastropoda is one of the best studied classes of marine invertebrates. Yet, most species have been delimited based on morphology only. The application of DNA barcodes has shown to be greatly useful to help delimiting species. Therefore, sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 108 specimens of 34 morpho-species were used to investigate the molecular diversity within the gastropods from the Portuguese coast. To the above dataset, we added available COI-5P sequences of taxonomically close species, in a total of 58 morpho-species examined. There was a good match between ours and sequences from independent studies, in public repositories. We found 32 concordant (91.4%) out of the 35 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) generated from our sequences. The application of a ranking system to the barcodes yield over 70% with top taxonomic congruence, while 14.2% of the species barcodes had insufficient data. In the majority of the cases, there was a good concordance between morphological identification and DNA barcodes. Nonetheless, the discordance between morphological and molecular data is a reminder that even the comparatively well-known European marine gastropods can benefit from being probed using the DNA barcode approach. Discordant cases should be reviewed with more integrative studies. PMID:26876495

  3. With a little help from DNA barcoding: investigating the diversity of Gastropoda from the Portuguese coast.

    Borges, Luísa M S; Hollatz, Claudia; Lobo, Jorge; Cunha, Ana M; Vilela, Ana P; Calado, Gonçalo; Coelho, Rita; Costa, Ana C; Ferreira, Maria S G; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O

    2016-01-01

    The Gastropoda is one of the best studied classes of marine invertebrates. Yet, most species have been delimited based on morphology only. The application of DNA barcodes has shown to be greatly useful to help delimiting species. Therefore, sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 108 specimens of 34 morpho-species were used to investigate the molecular diversity within the gastropods from the Portuguese coast. To the above dataset, we added available COI-5P sequences of taxonomically close species, in a total of 58 morpho-species examined. There was a good match between ours and sequences from independent studies, in public repositories. We found 32 concordant (91.4%) out of the 35 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) generated from our sequences. The application of a ranking system to the barcodes yield over 70% with top taxonomic congruence, while 14.2% of the species barcodes had insufficient data. In the majority of the cases, there was a good concordance between morphological identification and DNA barcodes. Nonetheless, the discordance between morphological and molecular data is a reminder that even the comparatively well-known European marine gastropods can benefit from being probed using the DNA barcode approach. Discordant cases should be reviewed with more integrative studies. PMID:26876495

  4. [Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica].

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia

    2011-03-01

    Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845); Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840); Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886); S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845); Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin 1791); Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893). This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889). PMID:21516641

  5. Izolované populace praménky Bythinella austriaca (Frauenfeld, 1857 (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae v okolí Prahy Isolated populations of Bythinella austriaca (Frauenfeld, 1857 (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae in Prague surroundings (Czech Republic

    Luboš Beran

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper completes the knowledge of an occurrence of Bythinella austriaca (Frauenfeld, 1857 (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae in surroundings of Prague – capital of the Czech Republic. However, this species is not rare in the eastern part of the Czech Republic, sites on north-western otskirts of Prague are isolated far from the main distribution area. Altogether, 63 sites potentially suitable for B. austriaca were investigated in this area, and occurrence of this species was confirmed in 11 of them. B. austriaca was found in springs, rivulets and small brooks, more numerous populations were found in springs. Historical occurrence data in this area were compared with results of research done in 2003, 2006 and 2010. Actual situation of this species in Prague surroundings is problematic and survival of some populations is not guaranteed.

  6. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples.

    Ghiglione, Claudio; Alvaro, Maria Chiara; Griffiths, Huw J; Linse, Katrin; Schiaparelli, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP) on board the R/V "Italica" in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500μm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data). Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species), 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species), 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species), 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species), 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species) and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species). This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA), Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project "BAMBi" (PNRA 2010/A1.10). PMID:24146597

  7. Ross Sea Mollusca from the Latitudinal Gradient Program: R/V Italica 2004 Rauschert dredge samples

    Claudio Ghiglione

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the molluscs in this dataset is based on the Rauschert dredge samples collected during the Latitudinal Gradient Program (LGP on board the R/V “Italica” in the Ross Sea (Antarctica in the austral summer 2004. A total of 18 epibenthic dredge deployments/samplings have been performed at four different locations at depths ranging from 84 to 515m by using a Rauschert dredge with a mesh size of 500µm. In total 8,359 specimens have been collected belonging to a total of 161 species. Considering this dataset in terms of occurrences, it corresponds to 505 discrete distributional records (incidence data. Of these, in order of abundance, 5,965 specimens were Gastropoda (accounting for 113 species, 1,323 were Bivalvia (accounting for 36 species, 949 were Aplacophora (accounting for 7 species, 74 specimens were Scaphopoda (3 species, 38 were Monoplacophora (1 species and, finally, 10 specimens were Polyplacophora (1 species. This data set represents the first large-scale survey of benthic micro-molluscs for the area and provides important information about the distribution of several species, which have been seldom or never recorded before in the Ross Sea. All vouchers are permanently stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa, enabling future comparison and crosschecking. This material is also currently under study, from a molecular point of view, by the barcoding project “BAMBi” (PNRA 2010/A1.10.

  8. The Histopathology of the Infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes by Lasidium Larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia

    Silva-Souza Ângela Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae. The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 µm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host.

  9. The histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    Silva-Souza, Angela Teresa; Eiras, Jorge C

    2002-04-01

    It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae) and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae). The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 microm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host. PMID:12048579

  10. Comunidades de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora de la Bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México

    Cedar I García Ríos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A las ocho especies de poliplacóforos registradas en Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México, o cerca de ella, agregamos a Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata y Acanthochitona arragonites. El análisis de las comunidades estudiadas usando técnicas de ordenación sugiere que podría relacionarse la exposición al oleaje con la riqueza y la diversidad de especies. La comunidad recolectada en condiciones intermedias de exposición al oleaje presentó mayor número de especies y mayor diversidad de acuerdo con el índice de Shannon.Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora at Bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness and higher diversity (Shannon’s index. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 177-182. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  11. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

  12. Influência do jejum severo sobre o conteúdo de proteínas totais e de amônio na hemolinfa de Bradybaena similaris (Fèrussac) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae) Influence of the starvation on the total proteins and ammonia contents in the hemolymph of Bradybaena similaris (Fèrussac) (Gastropoda)

    Claudia R.S. de Lira; Edna M. Gomes; Generoso M. Chagas; Jairo Pinheiro

    2000-01-01

    The total protein and ammonia contents in the hemolymph of Bradybaena similaris (Fèrussac, 1821) during the starvation were determined from August, 1996 to March, 1998. The results revealed a significant variation in the total protein content throughout the period of starvation analized, there being a negative relation between the total protein content and the time of starvation. But the same result was not observed in the ammonia content. After 30 days of starvation there was a reduction of ...

  13. Polyplacophora (Mollusca from reef ecosystems and associations with macroalgae on the Coast of Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil

    Monica Dorigo Correia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian marine molluscs, especially Gastropoda and Bivalvia, are relatively well studied. However, information on the class Polyplacophora is more scarce, particularly on reef-dwelling forms. This study aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze aspects of polyplacophorans from reef ecosystems and their associations with macroalgae on the coast of Maceió (state of Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. The study area included five coral reefs at Ipioca, Ponta do Prego, Ponta do Meirim, Riacho Doce and Ponta Verde, as well as two sandstone reefs, located in Guaxuma and Sereia. The samples were obtained by snorkelling along the intertidal and subtidal reef zones to a depth of up to five meters during low tides, between 2009 and 2011. In addition, the chitons associated with three macroalgae of the Ponta Verde coral reef were studied based on collections made over 12 years (from the summer of 1998 to the winter of 2009. Three replicates with an area of 25 cm2 were collected from each of the following species of macroalgal phytals: Amphiroa fragilissima (Rhodophyta, Caulerpa racemosa (Chlorophyta and Dictyota cervicornis (Phaeophyta. A total of 715 individuals (110 juveniles and 605 adults were identified, including Acanthochitona terezae Guerra, 1983, Ischnochiton striolatus (Gray, 1828 and Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby II, 1840. Acanthochitona terezae was found for the first time in the area. Ischnochiton striolatus was the most abundant species in the reef ecosystem and in association with macroalgae. The greatest number of individuals of all three polyplacophorans identified (adults and juveniles was found on the phytal A. fragilissima.

  14. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.Diversity and microstructure of quitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora from the Caribbean of Costa Rica. The polyplacophorans of the coral reef on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica have been insufficiently studied. The examination of coral rubble accumulated in the shallow sublitoral waters on four collection stations in Provincia Limón revealed a higher diversity of chitons than was documented. From the country eight species were previously known: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams 1845; Acanthopleura granulate (Gmelin 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus 1758 and Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry 1893. This study added five more species that are reported here for the first time: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954 and Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 129-136. Epub 2011 March 01.

  15. pH-dependent stability of EGX, a multi-functional cellulase from mollusca, Ampullaria crossean.

    Li, Wen-Ying; Wang, Ji; Li, Yan-Hong; Ding, Ming; Xu, Gen-Jun; Liu, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Fu-Kun

    2004-09-01

    The cellulase activity and stability of EGX, a multi-functional cellulase previously purified from the mollusca Ampullaria crossean, was systematically studied under different pH. The pH induced con-formation and stability change of EGX have been investigated by using the intrinsic fluorescence, ANS fluorescence and CD spectrum. It has been found that the conformation and activity of this cellulase were strongly dependent on the pH. EGX was stable for both the enzyme activity and the conformation from pH 5.6 to pH 7.4. As shown by intrinsic and ANS fluorescence, no red shift of emission maximum occurred and a negligible intensity change was observed at pH 5.6-7.4. The activity of EGX remained about 80% in pH 5.6-7.4 and obviously decreased out of side the pH range. Urea-induced changes in EGX at pH 5.4 and pH 8.0 were measured by intrinsic fluorescence and CD spectrum. At pH 5.4, a significantly red shift of emission maximum occurred when the concentration of urea was 5 M compared to the concentration was 3 M at pH 8.0. The alpha-helix at pH 5.4 was 40.51% in the absence of urea and 31.04% in the presence of 4 M urea. At pH 8.0 the alpha-helix was 7.23% in the presence of 4 M urea. The data indicated that EGX was much susceptible to urea-induced unfolding at pH 8.0 and much stable at pH 5.4. The greater pH dependent stability of EGX may allow the enzyme to adequately catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials under natural or industrial extreme conditions. PMID:15346197

  16. Nacre and false nacre (foliated aragonite) in extant monoplacophorans (=Tryblidiida: Mollusca)

    Checa, Antonio G.; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín; González-Segura, Alicia; Sánchez-Navas, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Extant monoplacophorans (Tryblidiida, Mollusca) have traditionally been reported as having an internal nacreous layer, thus representing the ancestral molluscan condition. The examination of this layer in three species of Neopilinidae ( Rokopella euglypta, Veleropilina zografi, and Micropilina arntzi) reveals that only V. zografi secretes an internal layer of true nacre, which occupies only part of the internal shell surface. The rest of the internal surface of V. zografi and the whole internal surfaces of the other two species examined are covered by a material consisting of lath-like, instead of brick-like, crystals, which are arranged into lamellae. In all cases examined, the crystallographic c-axis in this lamellar material is perpendicular to the surface of laths and the a-axis is parallel to their long dimension. The differences between taxa relate to the frequency of twins, which is much higher in Micropilina. In general, the material is well ordered, particularly towards the margin, where lamellae pile up at a small step size, which is most likely due to processes of crystal competition. Given its morphological resemblance to the foliated calcite of bivalves, we propose the name foliated aragonite for this previously undescribed biomaterial secreted by monoplacophorans. We conclude that the foliated aragonite probably lacks preformed interlamellar membranes and is therefore not a variant of nacre. A review of the existing literature reveals that previous reports of nacre in the group were instead of the aragonitic foliated layer and that our report of nacre in V. zografi is the first undisputed evidence of nacre in monoplacophorans. From the evolutionary viewpoint, the foliated aragonite could easily have been derived from nacre. Assuming that nacre represents the ancestral condition, as in other molluscan classes, it has been replaced by foliated aragonite along the tryblidiidan lineage, although the fossil record does not presently provide evidence as to when this replacement took place.

  17. Unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania

    Masteller, E.C.; Maleski, K.R.; Schloesser, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine species composition and relative abundance of unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania 1990-1992. This information was compared with data from the only other extensive survey of unionids in the bay conducted in 1909-1911 (Ortmann 1919) to assess changes over the 80 years preceding the present study. A total of 1,540 individuals representing 18 species were collected in 1990-1992. Five relatively common species (between 7 and 42% of total individuals), six uncommon species (2 and 6%), and seven rare species (<1%) were found. The rare species were Anodontoides ferussacianus, Lasmigona costata, Ligumia recta, Ptychobranchus fasciolaris, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa, Strophitus undaulatus, and Truncilla donaciformis. Five of the species found in Presque Isle Bay (Leptodea fragilis, Ligumia nasuta, Potamilus alatus, Quadrula quadrula, and Truncilla donaciformis) are listed as critically imperiled and one species (Truncilla truncata) as extirpated in the State of Pennsylvania by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. Comparisons between unionid populations in 1909-1911 and 1990-1992 indicate few substantial changes occurred during the past 80 years. A total of 22 species were found; 21 in 1909-1911 and 18 in 1990-1992. Seventeen species were found in both studies, an additional four in 1909-1911 and one in 1990-1992. The relative abundance of 11 of the 17 species found in both studies remained stable (i.e., common or uncommon) over the past 80 years. Only four species listed as uncommon in 1909-1911 were listed as rare in 1990-1992. However, the invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is considered a threat to the continued existence of the entire Unionidae fauna in Presque Isle Bay, a unique habitat of the Great Lakes.

  18. The Complete Sequence of the Mitochondrial Genome of the Chamberednautilus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Background: Mitochondria contain small genomes that arephysically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as amodel system for understanding the processes of genome evolution.Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported formore than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased towardvertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yetuncharacterized. Results: The mitochondrial genome of a cephalopodmollusk, the Chambered Nautilus, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5 percentA+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. Itcontains the 37 genes that are typical for animal mtDNAs, with 15 on oneDNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can bederived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca:Polyplacophora) by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes andtranspositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in thedistribution of nucleotides between the two strands. There are an unusualnumber of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known;however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew,suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication.One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-likesequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand,but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at thebeginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of theproduct of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure.Conclusions: Nautilus sp. mtDNA contains an expected gene content thathas experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split betweencephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number ofnon-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often aregenerated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. Thisappears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrialtRNAs restores what would otherwise bean incompletestructure.

  19. Populational status of the endangered mollusc Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda, Patellidae on Algerian islands (SW Mediterranean

    F. Espinosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Populational status of the endangered mollusc Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 (Gastropoda, Patellidae on Algerian islands (SW MediterraneanPatella ferruginea is the most endangered endemic marine inverte¬brate on the Western Mediterranean coasts according to the European Council Directive 92/43/EEC. A total of 1,017 individuals were recorded in the present study along western Algerian islands, with mean densities ranging from 0.8 to 35.3 ind/m per linear transect and averages of 4.8 ind/m per linear transect for Western Habibas Island and 22 ind/m for Plane Island, making these islands a hot spot for the species in the Medi¬terranean. The expected total number of specimens in Habibas would therefore be 50,400. The mean size of P. ferruginea on the Habibas Islands (4.45 cm was significantly (p < 0.001 greater than on Plane Island (2.78 cm. Recruitment was high in Plane Island and the northern sector of the western Habibas Islands. Lar¬ge adults had very conical shells. The fact that Habibas Islands is now a marine reserve could explain these differences in populations. Conservation of these populations should be a priority in order to avoid extinction of the species.

  20. Tolerance to air exposure of the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca) as a prerequisite to survival in overland translocations

    Alvaro Alonso; Pilar Castro-Díez

    2012-01-01

    Spreading throughout a new ecosystem is the last step of an exotic species to become invasive. In the case of invasive aquatic molluscs, tolerance to air exposure is one of the main mechanisms allowing overland translocation and spreading. The mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca) is native to New Zealand but it has spread worldwide, invading ecosystems in Europe, Australia, America and Asia. The aim of our study is to assess mudsnail tolerance to air exposure, which may c...

  1. Packaging and Delivery of Chemical Weapons: A Defensive Trojan Horse Stratagem in Chromodorid Nudibranchs

    Carbone, Marianna; Gavagnin, Margherita; Haber, Markus; Guo, Yue-Wei; Fontana, Angelo; Manzo, Emiliano; Genta-Jouve, Gregory; Tsoukatou, Maria; Rudman, William B.; Cimino, Guido; Ghiselin, Michael T.; Mollo, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Background Storage of secondary metabolites with a putative defensive role occurs in the so-called mantle dermal formations (MDFs) that are located in the more exposed parts of the body of most and very likely all members of an entire family of marine mollusks, the chromodorid nudibranchs (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). Given that these structures usually lack a duct system, the mechanism for exudation of their contents remains unclear, as does their adaptive significance. One possible explana...

  2. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not the main goal of this paper, the taxa Scaphopoda and Bivalvia are supported by 8 and by 7 synapomorphies respectively. The taxon Protobranchia resulted paraphyletic. Both scaphopod orders resulted monophyletic. The obtained cladogram is: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.Este estudo analisa a morfologia e anatomia detalhadas de 4 espécies de Scaphopoda e 5 espécies de bivalves protobrânquios. Ambas as classes são tradicionalmente agrupadas no táxon Diasoma, o qual vem sendo questionado por diferentes metodologias, tais como molecular e de desenvolvimento. Este estudo é desenvolvido sob uma metodologia filogenética, a qual a maior preocupação é fornecer um procedimento inteligível e testável. As espécies de Scaphopoda analisadas provieram da costa brasileira e pertencem à família Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] e Gadilidae [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. Estas espécies representam os ramos principais da classe Scaphopoda. Dos bivalves protobrânquios, representantes das famílias Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, da Flórida; S. notialis, n. sp. do S.E. Brasil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri, da Flórida] e Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, do sul do Brasil] são incluídos. Estas espécies representam os principais ramos dos bivalves basais. As descrições anatômicas de S. occidentalis e de P. carpentieri estão sendo publicadas em outro artigo, as das demais espécies estão incluídas neste, o qual também inclui um completo tratamento taxonômico. Além dessas espécies, representantes de outros táxons são operacionalmente incluídos como parte do ingroup (então os índices são compartilhados com eles, um procedimento visando testar a monofilia morfológica de Diasoma. Esses táxons são 2 bivalves lamelibrânquios [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; ambos publicados em artigos a parte]; Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda e (11 Nautilus, Cephalopoda basal, baseados em táxons basais. Os outgroups efetivos são (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora e (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. A análise filogenética baseada na morfologia revelou que o táxon Diasoma é suportado por 14 sinapomorfias, sendo separada de Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Embora não sendo o principal enfoque do presente artigo, os táxons Scaphopoda e Bivalvia são suportados por 8 e por 7 sinapomorfias respectivamente. O táxon Protobranchia resultou parafilético. O cladograma obtido é: ((((Coccodentalium carduus - Paradentalium disparile (Polyschides noronhensis - Gadila brasiliensis ((Solemya occidentalis - S. notialis (Propeleda carpenteri (Ennucula puelcha (Barbatia cancellaria - Serratina capsoides (Propilidium curumim - Nautilus pompilius - Lolliguncula brevis.

  3. Introducción al estudio de los gasterópodos (Mollusca de la laguna de Montcortès (Pallars Sobirà, Cataluña, NE de la península ibérica

    V. Bros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the study of gastropods (Mollusca on the Montcortés lake (Pallars Sobirà, Catlonia, NE of the Iberian peninsulaThe check-list of 50 species of terrestrial gastro­pod and freshwater molluscs in the Montcortès lake (Catalonia, Spain and its environs, pertaining to 24 different families, is shown. Thirty-three species are cited for the first time in the area of study. The unpublished data on their distribution and ecological requirements are contributed. The preliminary results indicate us that the communities of molluscs that accompany to the helofitic vegetation and the higrofits well are formed with elements of high faunistic and ecological interest. Simultaneously, some recommendations for the protection of the malacological fauna of the lake are commented.

  4. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Nautilus macromphalus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda

    Boore Jeffrey L

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria contain small genomes that are physically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as a model system for understanding the processes of genome evolution. Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased toward vertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yet uncharacterized. Results The mitochondrial genome of the bellybutton nautilus, Nautilus macromphalus, a cephalopod mollusk, is 16,258 nts in length and 59.5% A+T, both values that are typical of animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains the 37 genes that are almost universally found in animal mtDNAs, with 15 on one DNA strand and 22 on the other. The arrangement of these genes can be derived from that of the distantly related Katharina tunicata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora by a switch in position of two large blocks of genes and transpositions of four tRNA genes. There is strong skew in the distribution of nucleotides between the two strands, and analysis of this yields insight into modes of transcription and replication. There is an unusual number of non-coding regions and their function, if any, is not known; however, several of these demark abrupt shifts in nucleotide skew, and there are several identical sequence elements at these junctions, suggesting that they may play roles in transcription and/or replication. One of the non-coding regions contains multiple repeats of a tRNA-like sequence. Some of the tRNA genes appear to overlap on the same strand, but this could be resolved if the polycistron were cleaved at the beginning of the downstream gene, followed by polyadenylation of the product of the upstream gene to form a fully paired structure. Conclusion Nautilus macromphalus mtDNA contains an expected gene content that has experienced few rearrangements since the evolutionary split between cephalopods and polyplacophorans. It contains an unusual number of non-coding regions, especially considering that these otherwise often are generated by the same processes that produce gene rearrangements. The skew in nucleotide composition between the two strands is strong and associated with the direction of transcription in various parts of the genomes, but a comparison with K. tunicata implies that mutational bias during replication also plays a role. This appears to be yet another case where polyadenylation of mitochondrial tRNAs restores what would otherwise be an incomplete structure.

  5. Verspreiding van Burnupia capensis (Walker, 1912 en Burnupia stenochorias (Melvill & Ponsonby, 1903 (Gastropoda: Ancylidae in Suid-Afrika

    Kenné de Kock

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Die voorkoms van verteenwoordigers van die Ancylidae in Suid-Afrika is reeds in 1848 gerapporteer. Die eerste omvattende studie van hierdie familie in Suid-Afrika is egter eers in 1923 gepubliseer. Alhoewel verskeie bydraes sedertdien gepubliseer is, is verskeie outeurs van mening dat bestaande kennis oor die Ancylidae steeds gebrekkig is en dat hersiening nie net op spesievlak nie maar ook op genus-vlak nodig is. Tans is daar 14 Burnupia spesies op rekord in die databasis van die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling (NVWSV. Hierdie bydrae handel oor die geografi ese verspreiding en habitats van B. capensis en B. stenochorias die twee Ancylidae spesies waarvan die meeste versamelpunte in die databasis van die NVWSV op rekord is en wat ook die mees wydverspreide geografi ese verspreiding van hierdie familie vertoon. Alhoewel beide spesies in die meerderheid van die verskeidenheid van waterliggame wat in die databasis vermeld word, aangetref is, is die grootste getal monsters van albei in standhoudende riviere en spruite en op ’n klipperige substraat versamel. Albei spesies is nie gerapporteer uit die droër streke van Suid-Afrika nie waarskynlik as gevolg van ’n beperkte vermoë om desikkasie te kan oorleef in gebiede waar standhoudende habitats ’n uitsondering is. Resultate dui daarop dat hoogte bo seevlak en aard van die substraat ’n belangrike rol gespeel het in die daarstelling van hul gedokumenteerde geografi ese verspreiding soos weerspieël deur die rekords in die NVWSV. Min is oor die bewaringstatus van die Ancylidae van Suid-Afrika bekend, maar die karige inligting wat wel tot ons beskikking is, dui op rede tot kommer. Om sinvolle uitsprake oor die bewaringstatus en spesiediversiteit van die Mollusca van Suid-Afrika te kan maak, word aanbeveel dat van die versamelpunte op rekord weer besoek behoort te word waarna die resultate met die bestaande rekords in die databasis van die NVWSV vergelyk kan word.

  6. Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Borredà, V.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Descripción de un nuevo limácido de Menorca (Islas Baleares: Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus sp. n. (Gastropoda, Pulmonata We describe a new endemic limacid slug, Gigantomilax (Vitrinoides benjaminus n. sp. and we compare it with the nearest species, particularly with Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis, another Balearic endemism. Characteristic features of this new species include its small size, translucid and smooth body, and totally grey dorsum with no bands or spots. The reproductive system shows a well developed vas deferens surrounded by the distal part of prostatic gland, a thin penial retractor muscle, swollen prostate and small distal genitalia. The recent redescription of Limax majoricensis by Wiktor et al. (2007 is discussed and we consider that these authors refer to G. benjaminus n. sp., and so we dessign the neotype of Gigantomilax (V. majoricensis.

  7. Divergencia intraespecífica y código de barras de ADN en Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae

    Pedro Romero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El DNA barcoding es un análisis que se basa en la comparación de distancias genéticas para identificar especies utilizando principalmente un segmento del gen Citocromo C Oxidasa I (COI. Los retos para la identificación surgen al estudiar grupos que presentan gran diversidad genética como los moluscos. Por ello, los objetivos de nuestra investigación fueron estimar la divergencia intraespecífica en el molusco terrestre amazónico Systrophia helicycloides (Gastropoda, Scolodontidae y evaluar la utilización de los códigos de barras de ADN en la identificación molecular de esta especie. Las secuencias de nucleótidos fueron comparadas con las bases de datos Genbank y BOLD (Barcode of Life Data Systems. Se realizó un análisis de distancia genética mediante Neighbour Joining. Systrophia helicycloides presentó dos grupos de haplotipos con distancias genéticas intraespecíficas mayores a 4%. También se observó una superposición entre las distancias intraespecíficas y las interespecíficas. La gran divergencia intraespecífica puede estar relacionada a la rápida variación del genoma mitocondrial, la distribución poblacional de los moluscos la cual permite el aislamiento y diferenciación genética, y la presencia de polimorfismos ancestrales. Los perfiles COI enviados a la base de datos BOLD son los primeros registros para esta especie y permitieron diferenciar a Systrophia helicycloides de otras especies. Estos perfiles corroboran la gran variación que ocurre en el genoma mitocondrial de moluscos terrestres por lo que la asignación de especies en este grupo precisa de la combinación entre los valores de divergencia genética, la evaluación de sitios informativos y los estudios de taxonomía convencional.

  8. The influence of fish cage culture on δ13C and δ15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ13C and δ15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ13C and δ15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ13C and δ15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  9. Thermal dependency of shell growth, microstructure, and stable isotopes in laboratory-reared Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Isono, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Irie, Takahiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Mori, Chiharu; Sato, Mizuho; Sato, Kei; Sasaki, Takenori

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally examined the growth, microstructure, and chemistry of shells of the bloody clam, Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia), reared at five temperatures (13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) with a constant pCO2 condition (˜450 ?atm). In this species, the exterior side of the shell is characterized by a composite prismatic structure; on the interior side, it has a crossed lamellar structure on the interior surface. We previously found a negative correlation between temperature and the relative thickness of the composite prismatic structure in field-collected specimens. In the reared specimens, the relationship curve between temperature and the growth increment of the composite prismatic structure was humped shaped, with a maximum at 17°C, which was compatible with the results obtained in the field-collected specimens. In contrast, the thickness of the crossed lamellar structure was constant over the temperature range tested. These results suggest that the composite prismatic structure principally accounts for the thermal dependency of shell growth, and this inference was supported by the finding that shell growth rates were significantly correlated with the thickness of the composite prismatic structure. We also found a negative relationship between the rearing temperature and ?18O of the shell margin, in close quantitative agreement with previous reports. The findings presented here will contribute to the improved age determination of fossil and recent clams based on seasonal microstructural records.

  10. A new species of Acteon (Opisthobranchia: Acteonidae from Northeast Brazil

    Carlo Magenta Cunha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Acteon Montfort 1810, Acteon mirim sp. nov., from Canopus Bank, state of Ceará, Brazil is described based on shell morphology. The new species is compared with other species of the genus reported from Brazil. It differs from other Brazilian species in having a whitish color with dark orange-brown spiral bands and a shell surface covered with small spiral grooves, regularly rectangular.

  11. Identification of Genes Related to Learning and Memory in the Brain Transcriptome of the Mollusc, "Hermissenda Crassicornis"

    Tamvacakis, Arianna N.; Senatore, Adriano; Katz, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The sea slug "Hermissenda crassicornis" (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) has been studied extensively in associative learning paradigms. However, lack of genetic information previously hindered molecular-level investigations. Here, the "Hermissenda" brain transcriptome was sequenced and assembled de novo, producing 165,743…

  12. Neostusakia, a new name for preoccupied Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Berytidae)

    A case of homonymy in the heteropteran family Berytidae is addressed. The genus Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera) is preoccupied by Stusakia Frýda, 1998 (Mollusca: Gastropoda). As a consequence, the replacement name Neostusakia, new name, is proposed. In addition, the only two included s...

  13. An integrative taxonomic investigation of the diversity of digenean parasites infecting the intertidal snail Austrolittorina unifasciata Gray, 1826 (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in Australia.

    O'Dwyer, Katie; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2015-06-01

    We investigated for the first time the digenean parasites of Austrolittorina unifasciata Gray (Gastropoda: Littorinidae), a periwinkle snail inhabiting the rocky shores of Australia. Here we present detailed morphological descriptions and molecular data (sequences for the mitochondrial cox1 and the nuclear 28S rRNA gene) for the cercariae and intramolluscan stages of the digenean parasites found. Five species, one each of the families Notocotylidae Lühe, 1909, Gorgocephalidae Manter, 1966 and Philophthalmidae Looss, 1899, and two of the family Renicolidae Dollfus, 1939, were recorded and characterised molecularly. Phylogenetic analyses at the superfamily level provided evidence for the familial and generic affiliation of the species and their relationships with congeners. This study is the first to provide data on the life cycle of a species of the family Gorgocephalidae, a parasite of kyphosid fish for which only adult stages had, thus far, been described. The relatively high prevalence of this species allowed mapping of the cox1 haplotype distribution of Gorgocephalus sp. Aus along the southern coast of New South Wales. PMID:25866083

  14. TOXICITY TESTS WITH EMBRYOS OF MUSSEL Perna perna: EVALUATION OF SPAWNING AND SENSIBILITY TESTES DE TOXICIDADE COM EMBRIÕES DE Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) (MOLLUSCA: MYTILIDAE): AVALIAÇÕES DE INDUÇÃO E SENSIBILIDADE

    R. W. REIS Fo.; C. RESGALLA Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of this paper was to set up guidelines to standartize the procedure of developing embrio-larval toxicity tests using the native Brazilian mussel Perna perna (Mollusca: Mytilidae). In vitro spawning tests were carried out using adult organisms in order to obtain healthy gametes. Embryos development response caused by variation of temperature, salinity and incubation time was investigated in order to determine the end point and ideal parameter settings to develop toxicity assays. ...

  15. Fast evolving 18S rRNA sequences from Solenogastres (Mollusca resist standard PCR amplification and give new insights into mollusk substitution rate heterogeneity

    Mikkelsen Nina T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 18S rRNA gene is one of the most important molecular markers, used in diverse applications such as molecular phylogenetic analyses and biodiversity screening. The Mollusca is the second largest phylum within the animal kingdom and mollusks show an outstanding high diversity in body plans and ecological adaptations. Although an enormous amount of 18S data is available for higher mollusks, data on some early branching lineages are still limited. Despite of some partial success in obtaining these data from Solenogastres, by some regarded to be the most "basal" mollusks, this taxon still remained problematic due to contamination with food organisms and general amplification difficulties. Results We report here the first authentic 18S genes of three Solenogastres species (Mollusca, each possessing a unique sequence composition with regions conspicuously rich in guanine and cytosine. For these GC-rich regions we calculated strong secondary structures. The observed high intra-molecular forces hamper standard amplification and appear to increase formation of chimerical sequences caused by contaminating foreign DNAs from potential prey organisms. In our analyses, contamination was avoided by using RNA as a template. Indication for contamination of previously published Solenogastres sequences is presented. Detailed phylogenetic analyses were conducted using RNA specific models that account for compensatory substitutions in stem regions. Conclusions The extreme morphological diversity of mollusks is mirrored in the molecular 18S data and shows elevated substitution rates mainly in three higher taxa: true limpets (Patellogastropoda, Cephalopoda and Solenogastres. Our phylogenetic tree based on 123 species, including representatives of all mollusk classes, shows limited resolution at the class level but illustrates the pitfalls of artificial groupings formed due to shared biased sequence composition.

  16. A preliminary study of iron isotope fractionation in marine invertebrates (chitons, Mollusca) in near-shore environments

    Emmanuel, S.; Schuessler, J. A.; Vinther, J.; Matthews, A.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2014-10-01

    Chitons (Mollusca) are marine invertebrates that produce radulae (teeth or rasping tongues) containing high concentrations of biomineralized magnetite and other iron-bearing minerals. As Fe isotope signatures are influenced by redox processes and biological fractionation, Fe isotopes in chiton radulae might be expected to provide an effective tracer of ambient oceanic conditions and biogeochemical cycling. Here, in a pilot study to measure Fe isotopes in marine invertebrates, we examine Fe isotopes in modern marine chiton radulae collected from different locations in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to assess the range of isotopic values, and to test whether or not the isotopic signatures reflect seawater values. Values of ?56Fe (relative to IRMM-014) in chiton teeth range from -1.90 to 0.00 ‰ (±0.05‰ (2?) uncertainty in ?56Fe), probably reflecting a combination of geographical control and biological fractionation processes. Comparison with published local surface seawater Fe isotope data shows a consistent negative offset of chiton teeth Fe isotope compositions relative to seawater. Strikingly, two different species from the same locality in the North Pacific (Puget Sound, Washington, USA) have distinct isotopic signatures. Tonicella lineata, which feeds on red algae in the sublittoral zone, has a mean ?56Fe of -0.65 ± 0.26‰ (2?, 3 specimens), while Mopalia muscosa, which feeds on both green and red algae in the eulittoral zone, shows lighter isotopic values with a mean ?56Fe of -1.47 ± 0.98‰ (2?, 5 specimens). Three possible pathways are proposed to account for the different isotopic signatures: (i) physiologically controlled processes within the chitons that lead to species-dependent fractionation; (ii) diet-controlled variability due to different Fe isotope fractionation in the red and green algal food sources; and (iii) environmentally controlled fractionation that causes variation in the isotopic signatures of bioavailable Fe in the different tidal regions. Our preliminary results suggest that while chitons are not simple recorders of the ambient seawater Fe isotopic signature, Fe isotopes provide valuable information concerning Fe biogeochemical cycling in near-shore environments, and may potentially be used to probe sources of Fe recorded in different organisms.

  17. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    Sevigny, Joseph L; Kirouac, Lauren E; Thomas, William Kelley; Ramsdell, Jordan S; Lawlor, Kayla E; Sharifi, Osman; Grewal, Simarvir; Baysdorfer, Christopher; Curr, Kenneth; Naimie, Amanda A; Okamoto, Kazufusa; Murray, James A; Newcomb, James M

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra), two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa). In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha, Caenogastropoda, and Heterobranchia) were all monophyletic, and thus appear to be better classifications for this diverse group. PMID:25996944

  18. Mollusks (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) of the Multiple-Use Reserve Martín García Island, Río de la Plata River: biodiversity and ecology.

    César, I I; Martín, S M; Rumi, A; Tassara, M

    2012-02-01

    The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five were along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Twenty-seven mollusk species were found, Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila , B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense and Limnoperna fortunei. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggests that the species distribution is related to the physico-chemical condition of water. Axis two of the ordination diagram displayed the approximately 95.6% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, water temperature and pH showed the highest fluctuations during the sampling period. The species richness (S) showed relationships mainly with water temperature and conductivity. The biodiversity of the gastropods and bivalves from Martín García Island amounts to up to 26 species. Among the Gastropoda, the Planorbidae family made the most sizeable contribution. The Lithogliphidae P. agapetus (26.28%) and P. buschii (9.50%) showed the highest relative frequencies of occurrence within the littoral environments, while the Planorbidae D. cimex (23.83%) and D. kermatoides (11.59%) likewise did so in the inland ponds. PMID:22437392

  19. Natural infection of Deroceras laeve (Mollusca: gastropoda with metastrongylid larvae in a transmission focus of abdominal angiostrongyliasis Infecção natural de Deroceras laeve com larvas de metastrongilídeos em um foco de transmissão da angiostrongilíase abdominal

    Rafael Lucyk MAURER

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode parasitic of rodents. Man may become infected by ingestion of the third stage larvae produced within the intermediate hosts, usually slugs from the family Veronicellidae. An epidemiological study carried out in a locality in southern Brazil (western Santa Catarina State where these slugs are a crop pest and an important vector for A. costaricensis has documented for the first time the natural infection of Deroceras laeve with metastrongylid larvae. This small limacid slug is frequently found amid the folds of vegetable leaves and may be inadvertently ingested. Therefore D. laeve may have an important role in transmission of A. costaricensis to man.Angiostrongylus costaricensis é um nematódeo parasita de roedores. O homem pode se infectar pela ingestão da larva de terceiro estágio produzida nos hospedeiros intermediários, geralmente lesmas da família Veronicellidae. Em estudo epidemiológico em curso numa localidade no sul do Brasil (oeste do Estado de Santa Catarina onde aquelas lesmas constituem praga agrícola e importantes vetores do A. costaricensis, documentou-se pela primeira vez a infecção natural de Deroceras laeve com larvas de metastrongilídeos. Este pequeno limacídeo é freqüentemente encontrado entre as dobras de folhas de verduras e pode ser ingerido inadvertidamente. É possível que tenha um papel importante na transmissão de A. costaricensis para o homem.

  20. Natural infection of Deroceras laeve (Mollusca: gastropoda) with metastrongylid larvae in a transmission focus of abdominal angiostrongyliasis Infecção natural de Deroceras laeve com larvas de metastrongilídeos em um foco de transmissão da angiostrongilíase abdominal

    Rafael Lucyk MAURER; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; José Willibaldo THOMÉ; Luís Antônio CHIARADIA; Hiroko SUGAYA; Yoshimura, Kentaro

    2002-01-01

    Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a nematode parasitic of rodents. Man may become infected by ingestion of the third stage larvae produced within the intermediate hosts, usually slugs from the family Veronicellidae. An epidemiological study carried out in a locality in southern Brazil (western Santa Catarina State) where these slugs are a crop pest and an important vector for A. costaricensis has documented for the first time the natural infection of Deroceras laeve with metastrongylid larvae....

  1. The influence of fish cage culture on δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: eva@nupelia.uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  2. Mollusks (Gastropoda and Bivalvia of the Multiple-Use Reserve Martín García Island, Río de la Plata River: biodiversity and ecology Moluscos (Gastropoda e Bivalvia da Reserva Natural de Usos Múltiplos Ilha Martín García, Rio de La Plata: biodiversidade e ecologia

    II César

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Island of Martin Garcia is located in the Upper Río de la Plata, to the south of mouth the Uruguay River. The aim of the present study was to analyse the biodiversity of the island freshwater mollusks and their relationships to environmental variables. Twelve sampling sites were selected, five were along the littoral section of the island and seven were Inland ponds. Seven major environmental variables were measured: water and air temperature, percentage of oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and pH. Twenty-seven mollusk species were found, Antillorbis nordestensis, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila , B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense and Limnoperna fortunei. UPGMA clustering of species based on their occurrence in different ecological conditions revealed two main species groups. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggests that the species distribution is related to the physico-chemical condition of water. Axis two of the ordination diagram displayed the approximately 95.6% of the correlation between species and environmental variables. Dissolved oxygen, conductivity, water temperature and pH showed the highest fluctuations during the sampling period. The species richness (S showed relationships mainly with water temperature and conductivity. The biodiversity of the gastropods and bivalves from Martín García Island amounts to up to 26 species. Among the Gastropoda, the Planorbidae family made the most sizeable contribution. The Lithogliphidae P. agapetus (26.28% and P. buschii (9.50% showed the highest relative frequencies of occurrence within the littoral environments, while the Planorbidae D. cimex (23.83% and D. kermatoides (11.59% likewise did so in the inland ponds.A Ilha de Martín García está localizada na parte alta do Rio de la Plata, ao sul da desembocadura do Rio Uruguay. Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar a biodiversidade dos moluscos de água doce da ilha e sua relação com variáveis ambientais. Doze pontos de amostragem foram selecionados: cinco foram ao longo da seção litoral da ilha e sete em lagunas interiores. Sete variáveis ambientais foram medidas: temperatura da água e do ar, porcentagem de saturação de oxigênio, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica, sólidos totais dissolvidos e pH. Vinte e seis espécies de moluscos foram encontrados: Antillorbis nordestensis, Drepanotrema kermatoides, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Biomphalaria tenagophila tenagophila, B. t. guaibensis, B. straminea, B. peregrina, Chilina fluminea, C. rushii, C. megastoma, Uncancylus concentricus, Hebetancylus moricandi, Stenophysa marmorata, Heleobia piscium, H. parchappii, Potamolithus agapetus, P. buschii, P. lapidum, Pomacea canaliculata, P. megastoma, Asolene platae, Corbicula fluminea, Eupera platensis, Pisidium sterkianum, P. taraguyense e Limnoperna fortunei. A análise de agrupamento das espécies com base em sua ocorrência em diferentes condições ecológicas revelou dois grupos principais de espécies. A Análise de Correspondência Canônica sugere que a distribuição das espécies é relacionada com a condição físico-química da água. No eixo dois do diagrama de ordenação apresentado, há cerca de 96% de correlação entre as espécies e as variáveis ambientais. O oxigênio dissolvido, a condutividade, a temperatura da água e pH apresentaram as maiores oscilações durante o período de amostragem. A riqueza de espécies (S apresentou relações principalmente com a temperatura da água e a condutividade. A biodiversidade de gastrópodes e bivalves da Ilha Martín García é de 26 espécies. Entre os Gastropoda, a família Pl

  3. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

    Rafael Araujo; Yde de Jong

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 spec...

  4. Cirripedios en la dieta del molusco herbívoro Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827 (Mollusca, Placophora presente en el intermareal rocoso de Iquique, norte de Chile Barnacles in the diet of the molluscan grazer Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827 (Mollusca, Placophora present on the intertidal rocky shore of Iquique, northern Chile

    Moisés A Aguilera

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Se entrega información preliminar cuantitativa, sobre la presencia de cirripedios en estados de larvas cypris y estados post-metamórficos en la dieta del molusco Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827 (Mollusca, Placophora recolectado en Iquique, Chile. En diciembre de 2000, se observó la presencia de larvas cypris y post-metamórfico con una importante abundancia relativa porcentual (N = 30, 54,1 y 39,9%, respectivamente y con una frecuencia de ocurrencia del 100% en el total de estómagos. Además, se registró una alta frecuencia de larvas cypris (F% = 67 en la porción final del intestino, de éstas 15 presentaron signos de actividad vital (movimiento de apéndices en el 45% del total de estómagos analizados. La ingesta de cirripedios en estados cypris y post-metamórficos, fue observada también con una alta frecuencia durante cinco meses de estudio (N = 10, 96% ± 6,5 y 78% ± 23,6Preliminary quantitative information is given on the presence of barnacle cyprids and post-metamorphic stages in the diet of the molluscan grazer Chiton granosus Frembly 1827 (Mollusca: Placophora sampled at Iquique, Chile. In December 2000, we observed the presence of barnacle cyprids and post-metamorphic stages at a high relative percentage of abundance (N = 30, 54,1% and 39,9%, respectively and they were frequent in all of the individuals analyzed. Moreover, a high frequency of ocurrence of cyprid larvae (F% = 67 was recorded in the distal portion of the intestine; of these larvae, 15 were observed with signs of vital activity (appendage movement in 45% of all the stomachs analyzed. Ingestion of barnacle cyprids and post-metamorphic stages was observed at a high frequency throughout the five months of the study (N = 10, 96% ± 6,5 and 78% ± 23,6

  5. Diversidad genética de dos poblaciones del caracol Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae en Yucatán, México, con microsatélite

    Roberto Zamora-Bustillos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El caracol rosado S. gigas, es una especie de gran importancia pesquera en la región del Caribe que incluye la Península de Yucatán, en la cual, se analizó la diversidad y estructura genética de dos poblaciones (Arrecife Alacranes y Banco Chinchorro mediante el uso de cinco marcadores moleculares del tipo microsatélites. Los resultados indican que las dos poblaciones analizadas se encuentran en el mismo rango de diversidad genética (He de 0.613 a 0.692. En ambas poblaciones también se observó una desviación significativa al equilibrio H-WE, la cual fue atribuida a factores como la endogamia a consecuencia de una sobre-explotación pesquera. Sin embargo otra explicación posible es que se deba a una mezcla de individuos de dos o más poblaciones, y la existencia de alelos nulos. Los niveles de estructura genética indican la existencia de una sola población homogénea en la península de Yucatán (F ST de 0.003, p=0.49 y el flujo genético fue significativo (2.3 individuos entre las dos poblaciones. Los resultados de este estudio aceptan la hipótesis de que las poblaciones S. gigas forman parte de una sola población panmíctica en la Península de Yucatán, por lo tanto, el recurso pesquero debe regularse de igual manera en ambas regiones.Genetic diversity in two populations of the snail Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae from Yucatan, Mexico, using microsatellite. The pink conch Strombus gigas is an important fisheries resource in the Caribbean region, including the Yucatán Peninsula. We analyzed the genetic diversity and genetic structure of two populations (Alacranes Reef and Chinchorro Bank with the use of five microsatellite molecular markers. The results indicate that the two populations are in the same rank of genetic diversity (He, from 0.613 to 0.692. Significant deviation from H-WE was observed in the both populations due to deficit to heterozygotes, this was attributed to inbreeding as a consequence of over- fishing; nevertheless, other possible causes considered are mixing of individuals from two or more populations, and the existence of null alleles. Levels of genetic differentiation indicated the existence of a single homogenous population in the Yucatan Peninsula (F ST de 0.003, p=0.49, which fits with highest levels of gene flow is significant (2.3 individuals between both populations. Results from this study support the hypothesis that S. gigas is part of a single panmictic population in the Yucatan Peninsula; therefore, this fishery resource should be regulated the same way for both areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1127-1134. Epub 2011 September 01.

  6. Molluscicidal activity of various solvent extracts from Solanum nigrum var. villosum L. aerial parts against Galba truncatula

    Hammami, H.; Mezghani-Jarraya, R.; M. Damak; Ayadi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Molluscicidal activity of Solanum nigrum var. villosum (morelle velue) extracts and their fractions were tested against the mollusca gastropoda Galba truncatula intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica. The results indicated that the hydro-methanol (MeOH-H2O) immature fruit extract possess the highest molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 3.96 mg/L) against Galba truncatula compared with other tested compounds. After acido-basic treatment, the methanolic extract fraction isolated from the immature fru...

  7. Effects of CO-60 gamma radiation on the embryonary development of Biomphalaria Glabrata (Say, 1818)

    Some aspects of the effects of the ionizing radiation on the embryo and on the genetical material of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) are presented. The embryos weresubmitted at various stages of development to doses of 5,10,15,20 and 25 Gy of Co-60 gamma radiation. As a criteia of evaluation of the embryos radiosensitivity, four biological parameters were used: mortality, malformation, hatching and chromossomal aberrations. (M.A.C.)

  8. The influence of trematodes on the macroalgae consumption by the common periwinkle Littorina littorea

    Clausen, Karin T.; Larsen, Martin H.; Iversen, Nina K; Mouritsen, Kim Nørgaard

    2008-01-01

    Trematodes are ubiquitous elements of coastal ecosystems that commonly modify the phenotype of their invertebrate hosts, often with ramifications to higher levels of ecological organization. In this context, trematode infections have been suggested to reduce the consumption of the herbivorous gastropod Littorina littorea (L.) (Mollusca: Gastropoda), in turn affecting the composition of the macroalgal community on which the snail grazes. Here, we examine the effect of two species of trematodes...

  9. Tolerance to air exposure of the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca as a prerequisite to survival in overland translocations

    Alvaro Alonso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spreading throughout a new ecosystem is the last step of an exotic species to become invasive. In the case of invasive aquatic molluscs, tolerance to air exposure is one of the main mechanisms allowing overland translocation and spreading. The mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae, Mollusca is native to New Zealand but it has spread worldwide, invading ecosystems in Europe, Australia, America and Asia. The aim of our study is to assess mudsnail tolerance to air exposure, which may contribute to the successful overland translocation of this species. We conducted a laboratory experiment with four levels of air exposure (9, 18, 24 and 36 hours in a controlled climatic chamber. Snails were placed for 60 seconds in a laboratory paper filter to remove surface snail water. Then they were placed back in empty vessels during the four periods of air exposure, except the control group, which was immediately returned to water. At the end of each period of air exposure all vessels were filled with water and the cumulative mortality was monitored after 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours of rehydration. The calculated Lethal Times (i.e. the time of air exposure (in hours necessary to cause the death of 50% (LT50 or 99% (LT99 of the population and their 95% confidence limits at 24, 96, 168 and 264 hours were 28.1 (25.2–31.9, 26.9 (24.2–30.1, 25.9 (23.4–28.9 and 25.9 (23.4–28.9 hours, respectively for LT50, and 49.6 (42.7–63.3, 45.6 (39.9–56.5, 43.2 (38.0–53.0 and 43.2 (38.0–53.0 hours, respectively for LT99. Therefore an air exposure time over 43 hours caused the death of all studied individuals during all monitoring periods. Extending the monitoring period beyond 24 hours did not significantly change lethal times. Therefore, we recommend exposing fishing tools or boats at open air during at least 53 hours as a low cost measure to control mudsnail spread in early stages of invasion.

  10. Marine mollusca of oxygen isotope stages of the last 2 million years in New Zealand. Part 1, Revised generic positions and recognition of warm-water and cool-water migrants

    Warm-water molluscs were transported to Wanganui Basin from the northeastern North Island during Pleistocene time as planktotrophic larvae. This is not possible at present, so their occurrence in Wanganui Basin correlates with breaches of the Auckland isthmus during high sea levels. The end of Nukumaruan time is clearly defined by the extinction of 29 genera of molluscs (most only locally) during this stage, including 15 at the end. The extinction likely was caused by the initial closure of the Auckland isthmus. Migrants to Wanganui from the northeastern North Island indicate that breaches of the isthmus during interglacials commenced in oxygen isotope stage (OIS) 25, just before the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT). Appearances of taxa from Australia at Wanganui during OIS 17-9 therefore indicate that warm-water taxa were transported to New Zealand during interglacial maxima after the MPT. The migrants provide the first molluscan biostratigraphy at the OIS scale. The Castlecliffian/Nukumaruan boundary, at the base of Ototoka tephra at Ototoka Beach, Wanganui, falls within OIS 57, with an age of c. 1.63 Ma. It is also dated at 1.63 Ma by the position with respect to the geomagnetic polarity time-scale of three chemically indistinguishable tephra in ODP core 1123. This paper presents the first results of a reassessment of the taxonomy and time ranges of the fossil marine molluscan fauna that occupied New Zealand during the last 2 m.y. (latest Pliocene-Holocene). Time ranges are compiled in oxygen isotope stages rather than in the traditional 'local' (or regional) stages in use in New Zealand. This should provide precision in time ranges of the order of 40,000-100,000 yr, rather than the 0.34-1.3 m.y. duration of New Zealand local stages of the latest Neogene (Nukumaruan, Castlecliffian, and Haweran Stages). The reassessment is aimed also, though, at providing evidence from Mollusca of climate change over this period. Much useful information on paleoclimates can be derived from Mollusca by comparison with the living tropical to warm-temperate fauna of the nearby Southwest Pacific and, in particular, of southeastern Australia. This project has shown that a number of supposedly restricted New Zealand taxa actually are much more widespread genera or species that extended their ranges to New Zealand either during part of Pliocene time or during warm interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. The more obvious of these are recorded and discussed here, particularly where they result in new generic assignments, or are species newly recognised as being in common with Australia and the tropical Pacific. (author). 591 refs; 26 figs

  11. Occurrence of the alien nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858 (Opisthobranchia, Tethydidae, in the Maltese Islands

    J.A. BORG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The alien dendronotacean nudibranch Melibe viridis (Kelaart, 1858, a tropical Indo-Pacific species that seems to have been introduced by shipping into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal, and which has established populations in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Montenegro, Croatia, NW Sicily, southern peninsular Italy and Djerba Island in the Gulf of Gabes, is recorded for the first time from Malta. A thriving population was observed on a soft sediment bottom at a depth of 18-20 m off the western coast of the island of Comino (Maltese Islands. It is suggested that this species was introduced into Malta due to a natural range expansion of surrounding populations.

  12. Perfil de lípidos y ácidos grasos de Perna viridis, mejillón verde (Mollusca: Bivalvia en el oriente venezolano y la costa oeste de Trinidad

    Tamar Koftayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos totales fueron extraídos, identificados y cuantificados por gravimetría, mediante TLC/FID (sistema Iatroscan. Los ácidos grasos de los lípidos totales, fosfolípidos y triacilgliceroles fueron identificados y cuantificados por cromatografía de gases. Las mayores concentraciones de lípidos totales se presentaron en las muestras de Los Cedros, La Brea y Chaguaramas con valores de 7.92, 7.74 y 7.53%; respectivamente y los valores mínimos en las de La Restinga (6.08%. En la composición lípidica, las muestras de Chacopata presentaron la menor concentración de fosfolípidos (48.86% y los máximos valores de colesterol (38.87% y triacilgliceroles (12.26%, y las muestras de La Esmeralda y Río Caribe exhibieron concentraciones máximas de fosfolípidos (88.71-84.93%, respectivamente y mínimas de colesterol (6.50-4.42%. En los lípidos totales, los ácidos grasos saturados se encontraron entre 15.04 y 65.55%, con máximos en muestras de La Esmeralda y mínimos en Chacopata y los poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 7.80 y 37.18%, con máximos valores en la Brea y mínimos en la Esmeralda. En los fosfolípidos, la concentración de ácidos grasos saturados estuvo entre 38.81 y 48.68% para las muestras de Chaguaramas y Chacopata, respectivamente; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados se encontraron entre no detectado y 34.51%, con altas concentraciones en muestras de Los Cedros (27.97% y Chaguaramas (34.51%. En los triacilgliceroles, la composición de ácidos grasos saturados variaron entre 14.27 y 53.80%, con baja concentración en Chacopata y alta concentración en La Restinga; los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados estuvieron entre 4.66 y 35.55%, con valores menores en las muestras de Chacopata (4.66% y mayores en Chaguaramas. El consumo frecuente de Perna viridis es recomendable, debido a su alto contenido de fosfolípidos y ácidos grasos insaturados.Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, Green Mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West coast of Trinidad. The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system. Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%. Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86% and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87% and triacylglycerols (12.26%; besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42% concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97% and Chaguaramas (34.51% samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low concentrations for Chacopata and high concentration

  13. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

    Rafael Araujo

    2015-07-01

    European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha. Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  14. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples were cleaned, crushed, homogenized and dried by lyophilization for further analysis by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted of irradiating aliquots of the samples obtained in powder form in polyethylene envelopes in the nuclear research reactor IEA - R1 of IPEN / CNEN - SP together with synthetic standards of elements. The irradiation time in the reactor was 8 to 10 s under the thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The concentrations of the elements were calculated using the comparative method. The INAA procedure was validated with respect to accuracy and precision, through the analysis of certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST SRM 2876 Mussel Tissue. The results of these certified reference materials indicated good quality of results with respect to precision and accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis weight) of the elements obtained in mussels collected in Santos and Praia da Cocanha for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg-1 for Br; 45658 {+-} 1811 to 109166 {+-} 824 mg kg{sup -1} for Cl; 7043 {+-} 856 to 12506 {+-} 675 mg kg{sup -1} for K; 2774 {+-} 211 to 5691 {+-} 717 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg; 7.01 {+-} 0.30 to 29.74 {+-} 3.32 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and 0.77 {+-} 0.02 to 3.43 {+-} 0.28 mg kg{sup -1} for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of the concentrations of these elements were studied and the values compared to the literature. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the species of Perna perna mussels, can be used as biomonitors of marine contamination. (author)

  15. Life cycle and structure of the fish digenean Brachyphallus crenatus (Hemiuridae).

    Køie, M

    1992-04-01

    Cystophorous cercariae from Retusa obtusa (Montagu) (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Retusidae) develop into adults of Brachyphallus crenatus (Rudolphi, 1802) Odhner, 1905 (Hemiuridae). The free-swimming cercariae were ingested by laboratory-reared Acartia tonsa Dana, and the cercarial body was injected into the hemocoel of the copepod. Two-week-old metacercariae held at 15 C were infective to stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus. The cercariae of B. crenatus are very similar to the cercariae of Hemiurus luehei Odhner, 1905, and Lecithocladium excisum (Rudolphi, 1819) Lühe, 1901 (Hemiuridae), which develop in closely related opisthobranch snails. Scanning electron microscopy of metacercariae and adults of B. crenatus revealed the annular plications of most of the external surface to be scalelike. The area surrounding the genital pore and the presomatic pit was densely plicated. PMID:1556648

  16. Details of gastropod phylogeny inferred from 18S rRNA sequences.

    Winnepenninckx, B; Steiner, G; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1998-02-01

    Some generally accepted viewpoints on the phylogenetic relationships within the molluscan class Gastropoda are reassessed by comparing complete 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. The previously suggested basal position of Archaeogastropoda, including Neritimorpha and Vetigastropoda, in the gastropod clade is confirmed. The present study also provides new molecular evidence for the monophyly of both Caenogastropoda and Euthyneura (Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia), making Prosobranchia paraphyletic. The relationships within Caenogastropoda and Euthyneura data turn out to be very unstable on the basis of the present 18S rRNA sequences. The present 18S rRNA data question, but are insufficient to decide on, muricacean (Neogastropoda), neotaenioglossan, pulmonate, or stylommatophoran monophyly. The analyses also focus on two systellommatophoran families, namely, Veronicellidae and Onchidiidae. It is suggested that Systellommatophora are not a monophyletic unit but, due to the lack of stability in the euthyneuran clade, their affinity to either Opisthobranchia or Pulmonata could not be determined. PMID:9479694

  17. Intragenomic sequence variation at the ITS1 - ITS2 region and at the 18S and 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA genes of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae: mollusca)

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis was conducted on two populations of the invasive non-native New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), one from a freshwater ecosystem in Devil's Lake (Oregon, USA) and the other from an ecosystem of higher salinity in the Columbia River estuary (Hammond Harbor, Oregon, USA). To elucidate potential genetic differences between the two populations, three segments of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the ITS1-ITS2 regions and the 18S and 28S rDNA genes were cloned and sequenced. Variant sequences within each individual were found in all three rDNA segments. Folding models were utilized for secondary structure analysis and results indicated that there were many sequences which contained structure-altering polymorphisms, which suggests they could be nonfunctional pseudogenes. In addition, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used for hierarchical analysis of genetic variance to estimate variation within and among populations and within individuals. AMOVA revealed significant variation in the ITS region between the populations and among clones within individuals, while in the 5.8S rDNA significant variation was revealed among individuals within the two populations. High levels of intragenomic variation were found in the ITS regions, which are known to be highly variable in many organisms. More interestingly, intragenomic variation was also found in the 18S and 28S rDNA, which has rarely been observed in animals and is so far unreported in Mollusca. We postulate that in these P. antipodarum populations the effects of concerted evolution are diminished due to the fact that not all of the rDNA genes in their polyploid genome should be essential for sustaining cellular function. This could lead to a lessening of selection pressures, allowing mutations to accumulate in some copies, changing them into variant sequences.

  18. Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) embryo

    Ultrastructural studies of Biomphalaria glabrata embryos (MOllusca: Gastropoda), and important snail vector of schistosomiasis has not been explored. In the present work it was evaluated a suitable electron microscopical technique for embryos processing. Promising results was obtained with double fixation in 1% glutaraldehyde plus 1% osmium tetroxide in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4), preliminary staining overnight in 1% uranyl acetate and embedding in EPON or Polylite under vacuum. It was used embryos at young trochophore stage wich is characterized by active organogenesis. Some ultrastructural aspects of B. glabrata embryos cells are presented. (author)

  19. Salida de campo a la finca de Bárbara (Valladolid) el 17 de agosto de 1952

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a la finca de Bárbara (seguramente, en las cercanías de Valladolid capital) el 17 de agosto de 1952, de la que se realizaron observaciones sobre el caracol Helix sp. (Gastropoda, Mollusca), el roedor "Pytimis" (llamado así por el autor, siendo posiblemente el actual género Midrotus), los siguientes reptiles: Natrix maura (Culebra viperina, llamada Tropidonotus viperinus por el autor) y Rhinechis scalaris (Culebra de escalera, llamada Elaphe scalaris por el autor) y las siguie...

  20. Identification of genes related to learning and memory in the brain transcriptome of the mollusc, Hermissenda crassicornis.

    Tamvacakis, Arianna N; Senatore, Adriano; Katz, Paul S

    2015-12-01

    The sea slug Hermissenda crassicornis (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) has been studied extensively in associative learning paradigms. However, lack of genetic information previously hindered molecular-level investigations. Here, the Hermissenda brain transcriptome was sequenced and assembled de novo, producing 165,743 total transcripts. Orthologs of 95 genes implicated in learning were identified. These included genes for a serotonin receptor and a GABA-B receptor subunit that had not been previously described in molluscs, as well as an adenylyl cyclase gene not previously described in gastropods. This study illustrates the Hermissenda transcriptome's potential as an important genetic tool in future learning and memory research. PMID:26572652

  1. Investigation of molluscan phylogeny on the basis of 18S rRNA sequences.

    Winnepenninckx, B; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R

    1996-12-01

    The 18S rRNA sequences of 12 molluscs, representing the extant classes Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Polyplacophora, Scaphopoda, and Caudofoveata, were determined and compared with selected known 18S rRNA sequences of Metazoa, including other Mollusca. These data do not provide support for a close relationship between Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria) and Mollusca, but rather suggest that the latter group belongs to a clade of eutrochozoan coelomates. The 18S rRNA data fail to recover molluscan, bivalve, or gastropod monophyly. However, the branching pattern of the eutrochozoan phyla and classes is unstable, probably due to the explosive Cambrian radiation during which these groups arose. Similarly, the 18S rRNA data do not provide a reliable signal for the molluscan interclass relationships. Nevertheless, we obtained strong preliminary support for phylogenetic inferences at more restricted taxonomic levels, such as the monophyly of Polyplacophora, Caenogastropoda, Euthyneura, Heterodonta, and Arcoida. PMID:8952075

  2. Plesiophysa dolichomastix sp. n. (Gastropoda: Planorbidae

    W Lobato Paraense

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of planorbid mollusc, Plesiophysa dolichomastix (Greek dolichos = long, mastix = flagellum, collected from Lagoa da Pedra, municipality of Santa Rosa, state of Goiás, Brazil (15°01'S, 47°13'W is described. It is indistinguishable by the shell characters from the five congeneric species described so far: P. striata (Orbigny, 1841, P. granulata ("Shuttleworth" Sowerby, 1873, P. guadeloupensis ("Fischer" Mazé, 1883, P. ornata (Haas, 1938 and P. hubendicki Richards & Ferguson, 1962. It differs from the anatomically studied species in the following characters: about 50 ovotestis diverticula, against 12 in granulata, 100 in ornata, unstated in hubendicki; and length of flagella - about as long as the penial complex -, against about 1/3 to 1/6 in the other three.

  3. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples were cleaned, crushed, homogenized and dried by lyophilization for further analysis by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted of irradiating aliquots of the samples obtained in powder form in polyethylene envelopes in the nuclear research reactor IEA - R1 of IPEN / CNEN - SP together with synthetic standards of elements. The irradiation time in the reactor was 8 to 10 s under the thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The concentrations of the elements were calculated using the comparative method. The INAA procedure was validated with respect to accuracy and precision, through the analysis of certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue and NIST SRM 2876 Mussel Tissue. The results of these certified reference materials indicated good quality of results with respect to precision and accuracy. The ranges of concentrations (dry basis weight) of the elements obtained in mussels collected in Santos and Praia da Cocanha for the four seasons of the year were: 173.80 to 358.99 mg kg-1 for Br; 45658 ± 1811 to 109166 ± 824 mg kg-1 for Cl; 7043 ± 856 to 12506 ± 675 mg kg-1 for K; 2774 ± 211 to 5691 ± 717 mg kg-1 for Mg; 7.01 ± 0.30 to 29.74 ± 3.32 mg kg-1 for Mn and 0.77 ± 0.02 to 3.43 ± 0.28 mg kg-1 for V. The seasonal and spatial variations of the concentrations of these elements were studied and the values compared to the literature. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the species of Perna perna mussels, can be used as biomonitors of marine contamination. (author)

  4. Mating behaviour in the sea slug Elysia timida (Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa: hypodermic injection, sperm transfer and balanced reciprocity

    Anthes Nils

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In simultaneous hermaphrodites with copulation and internal fertilization it is often unclear whether reciprocal sperm exchange results from the unconditional willingness of both partners to donate and receive sperm, or whether it follows from a more controlled process such as conditional reciprocal sperm exchange, i.e. sperm trading. While in some sea slugs mating is assumed to be based on sperm trading, it seems to be unconditional in others. Here, we describe the unusual mating behaviour of Elysia timida, a small sacoglossan, focussing on indications for conditional reciprocity. Results E. timida shows an as yet unique combination of a long series of hypodermic transfers followed by a short phase with standard insemination into a female genital aperture. Hypodermic transfer takes place in the form of repeated small injections into the dorsal surface of the partner, interrupted by synchronised circling movements. In the final mating phase sperm is transferred into the female genital aperture in a short period. In both phases the two mating individuals show a high degree of transfer symmetry and synchrony. While total duration and number of transfers were balanced within pairs, they varied significantly between pairs. Furthermore, looking at individual hypodermic transfers within pairs, reciprocal transfers lasted longer than unilateral transfers. Final sperm transfers were always reciprocal except for two cases which also diverted from the usual pattern in ways that were suggestive of a conflict over reciprocity. Conclusion Our results suggest that individual mating decisions in E. timida depend on what the partner does, indicating conditional reciprocity. If hypodermic transfers also involve the transfer of sperm (which remains to be confirmed, this system represents an up to now unique transition stage between hypodermic and standard insemination, both of which are widespread in this group of sea slugs, but never have been observed to co-occur within the same species.

  5. Investigation of molluscan phylogeny using large-subunit and small-subunit nuclear rRNA sequences.

    Passamaneck, Yale J; Schander, Christoffer; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2004-07-01

    The Mollusca represent one of the most morphologically diverse animal phyla, prompting a variety of hypotheses on relationships between the major lineages within the phylum based upon morphological, developmental, and paleontological data. Analyses of small-ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequence have provided limited resolution of higher-level relationships within the Mollusca. Recent analyses suggest large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequences are useful in resolving deep-level metazoan relationships, particularly when combined with SSU sequence. To this end, LSU (approximately 3.5 kb in length) and SSU (approximately 2 kb) sequences were collected for 33 taxa representing the major lineages within the Mollusca to improve resolution of intraphyletic relationships. Although the LSU and combined LSU+SSU datasets appear to hold potential for resolving branching order within the recognized molluscan classes, low bootstrap support was found for relationships between the major lineages within the Mollusca. LSU+SSU sequences also showed significant levels of rate heterogeneity between molluscan lineages. The Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, and Cephalopoda were each recovered as monophyletic clades with the LSU+SSU dataset. While the Bivalvia were not recovered as monophyletic clade in analyses of the SSU, LSU, or LSU+SSU, the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test showed that likelihood scores for these results did not differ significantly from topologies where the Bivalvia were monophyletic. Analyses of LSU sequences strongly contradict the widely accepted Diasoma hypotheses that bivalves and scaphopods are closely related to one another. The data are consistent with recent morphological and SSU analyses suggesting scaphopods are more closely related to gastropods and cephalopods than to bivalves. The dataset also presents the first published DNA sequences from a neomeniomorph aplacophoran, a group considered critical to our understanding of the origin and early radiation of the Mollusca. PMID:15186794

  6. Partial 28S rDNA sequences and the antiquity of hydrothermal vent endemic gastropods.

    McArthur, A G; Koop, B F

    1999-11-01

    A molecular phylogenetic investigation of the hypothesized antiquity of the hydrothermal vent endemic Neomphalina (Mollusca; Gastropoda) is reported. Sequences of two domains of the gene encoding for 28S ribosomal RNA were acquired for 3 outgroup and 32 gastropod genera. Use of the likelihood ratio test indicated complex substitution patterns for these domains and taxa, corresponding to a general time-reversible model with among-site rate variation. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using this model under maximum likelihood criteria. The data lacked resolution of gastropod radiations of the Paleozoic and all three of the outgroup sequences were randomized relative to the ingroup. Acceleration of evolutionary rates had additionally randomized the sequences of the Patellogastropoda relative to the other Gastropoda. The data resolved radiations of the Mesozoic and supported monophyly of the sampled Neritopsina, Vetigastropoda, Neomphalina, Caenogastropoda (including Campanile and the Architaenioglossa), and Heterobranchia (Valvata + Euthyneura), although several results were not significantly different from nonmonophyletic alternatives. Mesozoic origins of the hydrothermal vent endemic Neomphalina are preliminarily supported and implications for the hydrothermal vent refugia hypothesis discussed. Issues related to phylogenetic resolution of the Gastropoda are additionally discussed. PMID:10603255

  7. Fisiologia osmorregulatória em Mollusca

    Veiga, Marcos Paulo Trindade da

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Os moluscos apresentam importante papel ecológico e econômico. A maior parte da produção nacional é dos bivalves Perna perna e Crassostrea gigas. Os quais estão sujeitos à predação do gastrópodo Stramonita brasiliensis. Estes animais estão sujeitos a variações ambientais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas comportamentais e fisiológicas dos moluscos diante de variações de fatores abióticos. No capítulo 1 foram caracterizadas as respostas fisiológicas de P. perna e C. g...

  8. [Microbiologic depuration of Anadara tuberculosa (Mollusca: Arcidae)].

    Wong, E; Antillón, F; Glenn, E; González, M I

    1997-12-01

    In Costa Rica the mollusk Anadara tuberculosa represents a risk for human health due to the contamination of the growing waters and the fact that its is consumed raw. The families depending on the income obtained through commercialization of these animals have a low education and economic status. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop and evaluate simple methods of depuration that could be easily used by these families to make these mollusks safe for consumption. Bottles containing 11 of saline solution (25g/l) were prepared in duplicates to test the bactericidal effect of acetic acid. The solution in each bottle was adjusted to ph 4.5, 5.0 or 5.5 or held at ph of 7.0 or 8.0 for the controls. The solution in each bottle was then inoculated with approximately 1 X 104 cfu/ml of coliforms. Counts of coliforms were determined for each bottle 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours after inoculation. For the depuration studies, specimens with diameters ranging from 4.0 to 4.5 cm were collected from a harvester at the estuary of Puntarenas, Gulf of Nicoya. Fifty specimens each were depurated in separate tanks containing 25 1 of oxygenated saline solution adjusted with acetic acid to an initial ph of 4.5 (treatment) or non adjusted ph of 8.0 (control). Counts of Enterobacteriaceae were determined, in duplicates, every 12 hr for 48 hr. An additional fifty animals were depurated using the defined method and tested to determine if they met international standards of microbiological quality for aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Escherichia coli count and presence of Salmonella. A sensory evaluation using a triangle test was performed to compare a typical dish prepared with depurated or non-depurated animals. A significant coliform reduction was determined in a saline solution (25 g/l) at a pH range of 4.5 to 5.5. This reduction, during 8 hr, was higher in the acid treatments compared to the controls. During depuration, the elimination of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria was faster when acetic was used (initial ph = 4.5) than when it was not. This elimination was more important the first 24 hr, time defined as adequate for the application of the method. The method has the advantage of transforming the bivalve in a product that is safe for human consumption, since it guarantees that the international standards of microbiological quality, for raw and depurated mollusks, are reached. On the other hand, the sensory qualities of a typical dish prepared with depurated animals are not affected by the method, which can be easily implemented and applied by the people that work in the extraction of this mollusk. PMID:9698943

  9. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships.

    Kocot, Kevin M; Cannon, Johanna T; Todt, Christiane; Citarella, Mathew R; Kohn, Andrea B; Meyer, Achim; Santos, Scott R; Schander, Christoffer; Moroz, Leonid L; Lieb, Bernhard; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2011-09-22

    Evolutionary relationships among the eight major lineages of Mollusca have remained unresolved despite their diversity and importance. Previous investigations of molluscan phylogeny, based primarily on nuclear ribosomal gene sequences or morphological data, have been unsuccessful at elucidating these relationships. Recently, phylogenomic studies using dozens to hundreds of genes have greatly improved our understanding of deep animal relationships. However, limited genomic resources spanning molluscan diversity has prevented use of a phylogenomic approach. Here we use transcriptome and genome data from all major lineages (except Monoplacophora) and recover a well-supported topology for Mollusca. Our results strongly support the Aculifera hypothesis placing Polyplacophora (chitons) in a clade with a monophyletic Aplacophora (worm-like molluscs). Additionally, within Conchifera, a sister-taxon relationship between Gastropoda and Bivalvia is supported. This grouping has received little consideration and contains most (>95%) molluscan species. Thus we propose the node-based name Pleistomollusca. In light of these results, we examined the evolution of morphological characters and found support for advanced cephalization and shells as possibly having multiple origins within Mollusca. PMID:21892190

  10. Foods of Spectacled Eiders Somateria fischeri in the Bering Sea, Alaska

    Petersen, M.R.; Piatt, J.F.; Trust, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    The winter diet of Spectacled Eiders living in marine habitats is known only from two individuals described by Cottam (1939). Here we examine marine diets from 36 stomachs collected near St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea, Alaska, during May-June in 1987 and 1992. All Spectacled Eiders ate Mollusca, including Gastropoda (snails; frequency of occurrence 20.0%; sole taxon 0.0%) and Bivalvia (bivalves; 80.0%; 48.0%), and Crustacea (barnacles, amphipods and crabs; 30.6%; 0.0%). One bird ate a cod. The predominant species group eaten was Macoma Clams (72.0%; 36.0%). Prey species of Spectacled Eiders occur predominantly in waters 25-60 m deep in the Bering Sea. To obtain these prey, especially the bivalves, on the winter area Spectacled Eiders must forage in waters exceeding 40 m. We speculate that Spectacled Eiders regularly forage at depths of 45-70 m throughout winter.

  11. Diet of Lipophrys pholis (L.) (Teleostei, Blenniidae) in Cantabrian coastal waters (Spain)

    Mazé, Raquel A.; Domínguez, Josefa; Pérez-Cardenal, David

    1999-07-01

    Between February and December 1988, a total of 261 specimens of Lipophrys pholis were caught in eleven intertidal pools on the western coast of Asturias. This blenniid species mainly feeds on different groups of invertebrates, although algal remains also appear. Mollusca is the most highly represented taxon with the largest number of prey being Gastropoda, followed by Bivalvia and, to a lesser degree, Polyplacophora. Crustacea is well represented by Cirripedia. Isopoda also stands out and Amphipoda, Tanaidacea and Decapoda appear sporadically. Temporal diet analysis throughout the year shows no great differences. Likewise, a great similarity was observed among the feeding of L. pholis specimens collected in pools at a different tidal level, of variable size and with different algal cover. Changes in diet are appreciable as size increases, especially from a length of 6 cm on.

  12. Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools.

    Smith, Stephen A; Wilson, Nerida G; Goetz, Freya E; Feehery, Caitlin; Andrade, Sónia C S; Rouse, Greg W; Giribet, Gonzalo; Dunn, Casey W

    2011-12-15

    Molluscs (snails, octopuses, clams and their relatives) have a great disparity of body plans and, among the animals, only arthropods surpass them in species number. This diversity has made Mollusca one of the best-studied groups of animals, yet their evolutionary relationships remain poorly resolved. Open questions have important implications for the origin of Mollusca and for morphological evolution within the group. These questions include whether the shell-less, vermiform aplacophoran molluscs diverged before the origin of the shelled molluscs (Conchifera) or lost their shells secondarily. Monoplacophorans were not included in molecular studies until recently, when it was proposed that they constitute a clade named Serialia together with Polyplacophora (chitons), reflecting the serial repetition of body organs in both groups. Attempts to understand the early evolution of molluscs become even more complex when considering the large diversity of Cambrian fossils. These can have multiple dorsal shell plates and sclerites or can be shell-less but with a typical molluscan radula and serially repeated gills. To better resolve the relationships among molluscs, we generated transcriptome data for 15 species that, in combination with existing data, represent for the first time all major molluscan groups. We analysed multiple data sets containing up to 216,402 sites and 1,185 gene regions using multiple models and methods. Our results support the clade Aculifera, containing the three molluscan groups with spicules but without true shells, and they support the monophyly of Conchifera. Monoplacophora is not the sister group to other Conchifera but to Cephalopoda. Strong support is found for a clade that comprises Scaphopoda (tusk shells), Gastropoda and Bivalvia, with most analyses placing Scaphopoda and Gastropoda as sister groups. This well-resolved tree will constitute a framework for further studies of mollusc evolution, development and anatomy. PMID:22031330

  13. Two new species of Terebra (Gastropoda, Conoidea) from Colombia

    Simone, Luiz Ricardo L.; Adriana Gracia C.

    2006-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Terebra are described conchologically to the Atlantic coast of Colombia. The species are Terebra colombiensis and T. sterigmoides. They are differentiable mainly because of their sculpture, protoconch and spire angle. They are part of a group of Western Atlantic terebrids informally called "T. doellojuradoi complex" and differ from the Brazilian species in having well-developed pair of folds at columella. This character approaches the species described here to the...

  14. Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae: first record for Venezuela

    JP Pointier

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 was collected in Mucubaji, Merida State, Venezuela, from a permanent pond located at a very high altitude (3760 m. Identification of the collected specimens was made by comparison with the original description of the shell by Jousseaume and the description of the renal organ and reproductive system of topotypic specimens by Paraense.

  15. Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae): first record for Venezuela

    JP Pointier; Noya, O; M Amarista; Théron, A.

    2004-01-01

    Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887 was collected in Mucubaji, Merida State, Venezuela, from a permanent pond located at a very high altitude (3760 m). Identification of the collected specimens was made by comparison with the original description of the shell by Jousseaume and the description of the renal organ and reproductive system of topotypic specimens by Paraense.

  16. The phylogeography of Indoplanorbis exustus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Asia

    Diaz Jose L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The freshwater snail Indoplanorbis exustus is found across India, Southeast Asia, central Asia (Afghanistan, Arabia and Africa. Indoplanorbis is of economic importance in that it is responsible for the transmission of several species of the genus Schistosoma which infect cattle and cause reduced livestock productivity. The snail is also of medical importance as a source of cercarial dermatitis among rural workers, particularly in India. In spite of its long history and wide geographical range, it is thought that Indoplanorbis includes only a single species. The aims of the present study were to date the radiation of Indoplanorbis across Asia so that the factors involved in its dispersal in the region could be tested, to reveal potential historical biogeographical events shaping the phylogeny of the snail, and to look for signs that I. exustus might be polyphyletic. Results The results indicated a radiation beginning in the late Miocene with a divergence of an ancestral bulinine lineage into Assam and peninsular India clades. A Southeast Asian clade diverged from the peninsular India clade late-Pliocene; this clade then radiated at a much more rapid pace to colonize all of the sampled range of Indoplanorbis in the mid-Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogenetic depth of divergences between the Indian clades and Southeast Asian clades, together with habitat and parasitological differences suggest that I. exustus may comprise more than one species. The timescale estimated for the radiation suggests that the dispersal to Arabia and to Southeast Asia was facilitated by palaeogeographical events and climate change, and did not require human involvement. Further samples from Afghanistan, Africa and western India are required to refine the phylogeographical hypothesis and to include the African Recent dispersal.

  17. Reproduction of Omalonyx matheroni (Gastropoda: Succineidae under laboratory conditions

    Lângia Montresor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The life histories of succineids have received relatively little attention. To evaluate life history characteristics of Omalonyx matheroni, we studied a Brazilian population (Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Feliciano Miguel Abdala, in Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil under laboratory conditions. The aims of the present study were (1 to describe in detail an appropriate rearing method; (2 to investigate the effects of different temperature and photoperiod conditions; and (3 to assess the effects of self and cross-fertilization on the reproductive biology of these mollusks. We studied the oviposition site, the time to sexual maturity and the influences of photoperiod and temperature on reproductive parameters of O. matheroni reared under laboratory conditions. We tested three combinations of temperature and photoperiod, designated A, B and C (A: 25ºC, 24 hours of light; B: environmental conditions of temperature and photoperiod, characterized as follows: average máximum temperature=27.1ºC, average minimum temperature=18.3ºC, average day length=12.06 hours; and C: 25ºC, zero hours of light and two rearing densities (I: isolated and G: grouped on reproductive parameters (number of eggs per egg mass, number of unviable eggs per mass, egg mass incubation period, and duration of the hatching period. A total of 186 individuals and 565 egg masses were studied. Data were analyzed by Student’s t-test, two-way ANOVA and Chi-Square test. Eight generations were produced (March/2004-March/2006, from 35 field specimens, 91% of 3 197 eggs hatched. The time to sexual maturity was approximately three months for individuals reared in groups or in isolation (Student’s t-test: t=1.41, df=31, p=0.16; however, they differed significantly in weight (Student’s t-test: t=3.6, df=31, p<0.001. Regarding the influences of temperatura and photoperiod on reproductive parameters, under natural environmental conditions, individuals produced a greater number of eggs per mass (ANOVA: F2,573=84.15, p<0.001, with a longer incubation period (ANOVA: F2;559=170.05, p<0.001. The extreme photoperiod conditions of 24 hours of light or zero hours of light likely imposed stress and could be related to the significant reductions in the number of eggs per mass, and egg incubation period as well as the increased synchrony in egg hatching. No correlations were observed between the number of unviable eggs per mass and the temperature, photoperiod (ANOVA: F2,573=0.87, p=0.92 or rearing density (ANOVA: F1,573=0.21, p=0.64. Individuals reared in isolation under natural conditions produced more eggs per mass and did not presented any disadvantage with respect to the variables analyzed as compared to the animals reared in groups. These results indicate that O. matheroni can successfully reproduce by selfing. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2: 553-566. Epub 2012 June 01.

  18. Sôbre Auris bilabiata melanostoma (Moricand, 1836 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Bulimulidae

    Pedro Jurberg

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor redescreve Auris bilabiata melanostoma (Moricand, utilizando exemplares vivos colecionados no Estado do Rio. Além do estudo da genitália, câmara paleal e rádula, analisa variações das conchas de várias proveniências. Chama a atenção para a necessidade de estudos comparativos das partes moles para uma conclusão definitiva, sôbre a validade das duas subespécies (bilabiata s. st. e melanostoma.In the present paper, Auris bilabiata melanostoma (Moricand, 1836, is described based on alive specimens from Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Genital organs, pallial chamber and radula are described, as well as variations of the shells from several localities. The author emphasizes the importance of the study of soft parts to come to a definitive conclusion about the validity of the two sub-species (bilabiata s.st. and melanostoma.

  19. The phylogeny and systematics of the Nassariidae revisited (Gastropoda, Buccinoidea).

    Galindo, Lee Ann; Puillandre, Nicolas; Utge, José; Lozouet, Pierre; Bouchet, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Nassariidae are a group of scavenging, predominantly marine, snails that are diversified on soft bottoms as well as on rocky shores, and are the subject of numerous research papers in ecology, ecotoxicology or paleontology. A weak and/or apparently continuous variation in shell characters has resulted in an intimidating taxonomy, with complex synonymy lists. Over 1320 extant nominal species have been described, of which 442 are currently regarded as valid. Above species level, the state of the art is equally hazy, with four subfamilies and twelve genera currently accepted, and many other names in the graveyard of synonymy. A molecular analysis based on three mitochondrial (COI, 16S, 12S) and two nuclear (28S, H3) markers was conducted. Our dataset includes 218 putative nassariid species, comprising 9 of the 12 valid genera, and 25 nominal genera represented by their type species. The monophyly of the Nassariidae as classically construed is not confirmed. Species of Antillophos, Engoniophos, Phos, Nassaria, Tomlinia and Anentome (formerly considered Buccinidae) are included inside the Nassariidae clade. Within the Nassariinae, the tree unexpectedly demonstrates that species from the Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific form different clades which represent several independent diversification events. Through an integrative approach, the reconstruction of ancestral states was addressed for eight characters supposedly informative for taxonomy. Using numerous fossil calibration points, Nassariidae appear to have originated 120 MYA ago in Atlantic temperate waters during the Lower Cretaceous. Our results have a profound impact on nassariid taxonomy, especially with regard to the validity of subfamily- and genus-level names. PMID:27012605

  20. Two new species of Terebra (Gastropoda, Conoidea from Colombia

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Terebra are described conchologically to the Atlantic coast of Colombia. The species are Terebra colombiensis and T. sterigmoides. They are differentiable mainly because of their sculpture, protoconch and spire angle. They are part of a group of Western Atlantic terebrids informally called "T. doellojuradoi complex" and differ from the Brazilian species in having well-developed pair of folds at columella. This character approaches the species described here to the Argentinean T. doellojuradoi.Duas novas espécies do gênero Terebra são descritas conquiliologicamente para a costa atlântica da Colômbia. As espécies são Terebra colombiensis e T. sterigmoides. Elas são diferenciáveis principalmente com base na escultura, protoconcha e ângulo da espira. Elas pertencem a um grupo de terebrídeos do Atlântico oeste informalmente chamado de "complexo T. doellojuradoi" e diferem das espécies brasileiras por ter um par de pregas bem desenvolvidas na columela. Este caráter aproxima as espécies descritas neste da argentina T. doellojuradoi.

  1. New species of Cyclodontina from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae

    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small forest fragment in the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia state, Brazil. Bahia is known for a high diversity of land snails and Bom Jesus da Lapa is an interesting locality, since it is close to the interface between two major Brazilian biomes: Cerrado and Caatinga. The new species is described as Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its brown shell, conical spire, convex whorls, a sculpture comprised of strong ribs, and an aperture with four barriers: a median parietal tooth, a median palatal tooth, a median basal tooth and a strong columellar lamella. This discovery is also a reminder of how little the Brazilian continental molluscan fauna is known and of the urgency in studying and preserving the rich (though usually overlooked fauna of the Caatinga.

  2. Hemócitos de Bradybaena similaris e Megalobulimus abbreviatus (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora

    Roberta A. Rohr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os hemócitos atuam no sistema de defesa contra organismos invasores e partículas estranhas, auxiliando o reconhecimento do que é próprio do corpo dos grastrópodes e o que não é. São escassas as informações e estudos sobre os hemócitos em espécies de moluscos saudáveis (sem infecções, principalmente em Bradybaena similaris (Fèrussac, 1821 and Megalobulimus abbreviatus (Bequaert, 1948. Portanto, este trabalho tem como objetivos a caracterização e quantificação dos hemócitos presentes na hemolinfa destas duas espécies. Neste trabalho, foram identificados três tipos celulares na hemolinfa de ambas espécies: as células redondas, hialinócitos e granulócitos. Os três tipos de hemócitos foram medidos e foi calculada a média do diâmetro total e do núcleo para cada um deles. Para B. similaris, o diâmetro médio das células redondas foi de 10,7 µm, dos hialinócitos foi de 20 µm e dos granulócitos de 25,4 µm. Para M. abbreviatus, o diâmetro médio foi de 11,7 µm para as células redondas, de 21,5 µm para os hialinócitos e de 30,5 µm para os granulócitos. Embora os hialinócitos possuam médias parecidas entre B. similaris e M. abbreviatus, foram detectadas diferenças significativas do diâmetro celular total e diâmetro do núcleo (p<0,0001 dessas células entre as espécies estudadas. A densidade média de células por ml, sem distinção de tipo celular foi de 197.813 células/ml para M. abbreviatus, e de 416.333 células/ml para B. similaris. Diferentemente de outros gastrópodes, os hemócitos mais frequentes em M. abbreviatus e em B. similaris foram os hialinócitos.

  3. Hemócitos de Bradybaena similaris e Megalobulimus abbreviatus (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora)

    Roberta A. Rohr; SUZANA B AMATO

    2014-01-01

    Os hemócitos atuam no sistema de defesa contra organismos invasores e partículas estranhas, auxiliando o reconhecimento do que é próprio do corpo dos grastrópodes e o que não é. São escassas as informações e estudos sobre os hemócitos em espécies de moluscos saudáveis (sem infecções), principalmente em Bradybaena similaris (Fèrussac, 1821) and Megalobulimus abbreviatus (Bequaert, 1948). Portanto, este trabalho tem como objetivos a caracterização e quantificação dos hemócitos presentes na hemo...

  4. La Familia Calyptraeidae en el Perú (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda)

    Carlos Paredes; Franz Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se realiza una revisión taxonómica de la familia Calyptraeidae Lamarck, 1809, en la costa Peruana. Se confirma la presencia de 17 especies de las 19 reportadas por diversos autores. Crepidula arenata (Broderip, 1834) es sinónimo de C. excavata (Broderip, 1834). Se da información sobre la distribución geográfica y algunas relaciones ecológicas.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Babylonia borneensis (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda: Buccinidae).

    Sung, Chia-Hsuan; Tseng, Chen-Te; Wang, Liang-Jong; Li, Yu-Chi; Lu, Jenn-Kan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Babylonia borneensis is reported for the first time in this study. The length of genome was 15 556 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. The nucleotide composition of the mitogenome showed AT-rich feature, with the AT content of 68.2%. Comparison of the identity of the B. borneensis mitogenome with B. areolata, B. lani and B. lutosa was 87.5%, 87.4% and 86.9%, respectively. The construction of phylogenetic tree showed high bootstrap support value. Babylonia borneensis grouped together with other Babylons and the lineages of Buccinidae was strongly supported. In this study, our results could provide a further understanding in the phylogenetic relationships of the Neogastropoda. PMID:27158871

  6. La familia Acmaeidae (Gastropoda, Archaeogastropoda en el Perú

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan siete especies de la familia Acmaeidae de la zona litoral rocosa del Departamento de Lima: Scurria viridula (Lamarck, S. parasitica (Orbigny, S. variabilis (Sowerby, S. zebrina (Lesson, Collisella orbignyi (Dall, C. ceciliana (Orbigny y C. araucana (Orbigny. Se amplía el límite norte de la distribución geográfica de las dos últimas especies y asimismo para S. zebrina y S. parasitica. Se informa sobre la zonación vertical de las especies, su dominancia relativa y otras observaciones ecológicas. De la revisión de la literatura y los resultados del presente estudio se concluye que, conjuntamente con Scurria scurra (Lesson, 1830, son ocho las especies de Acmaeidae presentes en la Provincia Peruana.

  7. Ultrastructural studies of oogenesis in Bolinus brandaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    Amor, María José; Ramón, Montserrat; Durfort, Mercè

    2004-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies of oogenesis in Bolinus brandaris are described. Although the initial phase of oogenesis is common to most animal species, vitellogenesis can be considered a species-specific characteristic. In the vitellogenesis of B.brandaris, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticula play a relevant role in the formation of myelinised membranous systems. Nuclear envelope, Golgi body and the oocyte plasma membrane invaginations are three possible origins for annulate lamellae. The latter...

  8. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata en el litoral peruano

    Carlos Paredes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835 y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842, Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835, Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852 y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en las playas de canto rodado en los límites de la Provincia Peruana. Cuatro especies tropicales se registran por primera vez para el mar peruano: E. stagnale, M. olivaceus, D. graminea y M. acuta.

  9. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata) en el litoral peruano

    Carlos Paredes; Aldo Indacochea; Franz Cardoso; Kelly Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835) y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842), Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835), Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852) y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en la...

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rapana venosa (Gastropoda, Muricidae).

    Sun, Xiujun; Yang, Aiguo

    2016-03-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the veined rapa whelk, Rapana venosa, was determined using genome walking techniques in this study. The total length of the mt genome sequence of R. venosa was 15,271?bp, which is comparable to the reported Muricidae mitogenomes to date. It contained 13 protein-coding genes, 21 transfer RNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. A bias towards a higher representation of nucleotides A and T (69%) was detected in the mt genome of R. venosa. A small number of non-coding nucleotides (302?bp) was detected, and the largest non-coding region was 74?bp in length. PMID:25162934

  11. Embryonic Developmental Ecology of Freshwater Snail Lymnaea acuminata (Lymnaeidae: Gastropoda

    Md. Moniruzzaman Sarker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The egg type of Lymnaea acuminata was determined as iso-lecithal and the cleavage is spirally holoblastic type. The development of L. acuminata was observed in details. Uncleaved zygote just after laying was found to contain a relatively yolk-free zone, the animal pole and the yolk-rich region, the vegetal pole. No polar bodies were present in eggs examined immediately after they had been laid. The first polar lobe and polar body were extruded out from the zygote within 15-25 min. These were reabsorbed after 12-15 min. The formation of the second polar lobe was followed within the next 48 min. The first cleavage division occurred about 115-130 min after the formation and re-absorption of the second polar lobe, retaining for 7-10 min. The 2-celled embryos underwent the second equal division of cleavage the within next hour and the embryos reached the 4-cell stage. At the end of the 5th h, the 4-celled embryos underwent the third cleavage and the cleavage was horizontal (i.e., equatorial. At the end of the 9th h, the embryos at the 8-celled stage reached the 16-celled stage by the 4th cleavage. The 4th spirally cleaved embryos usually underwent fifth and sixth cleavages within 24-26 and 27-29 h of incubation, respectively. After 2-3 days of incubation, the developing embryos attained the trochophore stage. At the beginning of the 4th day of incubation, embryos became slightly elongated, curved foot muscle and shell gland were developed through the extension of velum and the embryos turned into the early veliger. At the beginning of the seventh day, the miniature snail possessed all the structures found in a newly hatched individual. Interaction between water physico-chemical parameters and some breeding parameters have been observed.

  12. New species of Cyclodontina from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae)

    Salvador, Rodrigo B.; Luiz R. L. Simone

    2014-01-01

    A new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small forest fragment in the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia state, Brazil. Bahia is known for a high diversity of land snails and Bom Jesus da Lapa is an interesting locality, since it is close to the interface between two major Brazilian biomes: Cerrado and Caatinga. The new species is described as Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its brown shell, conical spire, convex whorls, a sculpture comprised of ...

  13. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the cone snails (Gastropoda, Conoidea).

    Puillandre, N; Bouchet, P; Duda, T F; Kauferstein, S; Kohn, A J; Olivera, B M; Watkins, M; Meyer, C

    2014-09-01

    We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Clade; the others are divided between the Small Major Clade (?12%), the Conus californicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (?3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper. PMID:24878223

  14. On the Monacha species of Lebanon (Gastropoda, Hygromiidae

    Eike Neubert

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, all seven hitherto known species of the hygromiid genus Monacha from Lebanon are briefly characterised and illustrated, and distribution maps are supplied (Monacha (Monacha syriaca (Ehrenberg, 1831, Monacha (Monacha nummus (Ehrenberg, 1831, Monacha (Monacha obstructa (L. Pfeiffer, 1842, Monacha (Monacha crispulata (Mousson, 1861, Monacha (Monacha solitudinis (Bourguignat, 1852, Monacha (Monacha bari Forcart 1981, and Monacha (Monacha cf. compingtae (Pallary, 1929. One species, M. (M. bari Forcart, 1981, is recorded for the country for the first time, and its relationship to M. (M. compingtae (Pallary, 1929 is discussed. Based on recently collected specimens, the genital organs of a long time ignored species, Helix solitudinis Bourguignat, 1852 could be investigated. It is here re-described as a Monacha species endemic for Lebanon.

  15. On the Monacha species of Lebanon (Gastropoda, Hygromiidae).

    Neubert, Eike; Bariche, Michel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, all seven hitherto known species of the hygromiid genus Monacha from Lebanon are briefly characterised and illustrated, and distribution maps are supplied (Monacha (Monacha) syriaca (Ehrenberg, 1831), Monacha (Monacha) nummus (Ehrenberg, 1831), Monacha (Monacha) obstructa (L. Pfeiffer, 1842), Monacha (Monacha) crispulata (Mousson, 1861), Monacha (Monacha) solitudinis (Bourguignat, 1852), Monacha (Monacha) bari Forcart 1981, and Monacha (Monacha) cf. compingtae (Pallary, 1929)). One species, Monacha (Monacha) bari Forcart, 1981, is recorded for the country for the first time, and its relationship to Monacha (Monacha) compingtae (Pallary, 1929) is discussed. Based on recently collected specimens, the genital organs of a long time ignored species, Helix solitudinis Bourguignat, 1852 could be investigated. It is here re-described as a Monacha species endemic for Lebanon. PMID:23825440

  16. What remains after 2 months of starvation? Analysis of sequestered algae in a photosynthetic slug, Plakobranchus ocellatus (Sacoglossa, Opisthobranchia), by barcoding.

    Christa, Gregor; Wescott, Lily; Schäberle, Till F; König, Gabriele M; Wägele, Heike

    2013-02-01

    The sacoglossan sea slug, Plakobranchus ocellatus, is a so-called long-term retention form that incorporates chloroplasts for several months and thus is able to starve while maintaining photosynthetic activity. Little is known regarding the taxonomy and food sources of this sacoglossan, but it is suggested that P. ocellatus is a species complex and feeds on a broad variety of Ulvophyceae. In particular, we analysed specimens from the Philippines and starved them under various light conditions (high light, low light and darkness) and identified the species of algal food sources depending on starvation time and light treatment by means of DNA-barcoding using for the first time the combination of two algal chloroplast markers, rbcL and tufA. Comparison of available CO1 and 16S sequences of specimens from various localities indicate a species complex with likely four distinct clades, but food analyses do not indicate an ecological separation of the investigated clades into differing foraging strategies. The combined results from both algal markers suggest that, in general, P. ocellatus has a broad food spectrum, including members of the genera Halimeda, Caulerpa, Udotea, Acetabularia and further unidentified algae, with an emphasis on H. macroloba. Independent of the duration of starvation and light exposure, this algal species and a further unidentified Halimeda species seem to be the main food source of P. ocellatus from the Philippines. It is shown here that at least two (or possibly three) barcode markers are required to cover the entire food spectrum in future analyses of Sacoglossa. PMID:23108662

  17. Benthic Macro-Fauna Composition and Abundance in Sombreiro River, Niger Delta, Nigeria

    E.N. Ezekiel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The benthic macro-fauna composition and abundance in sombreiro was studied for a period of two years (August 2007 - July2009. A total of twenty-eight species belonging to fourteen (14 families, six (6 classes and three (3 phyla were recorded in Sombreiro River. The phylum Annelida dominated with two classes (Oligochaeta and Polychaeta. Oligochaeta was represented by two families (Naididae and Lumbricidae and seven species having 25% by composition. Polychaeta was represented by seven families (Nereidae, Nepthyidae, Capitellidae, Eucinidae, Glyceridae, Arenicolidae and Syllidae and thirteen species having 46.4% by composition. The Phylum arthropoda was represented by two classes (Crustacea and inseita. Two families (Gammaridae and Penaidae having two species consisting of 7.2% were recorded, for the class crustacea. The class insecta was represented by one family (Chironomidae with one species consisting of 3.6%. The phylum Mollusca was represented by two classes (Gastropoda and Bivalvia. Gastropoda had two species with 7.2% composition and Bivalvia has three species with10.7% composition. Oligochaeta was the highest and constituted 62.0%. The others were Polychaeta (23.9%, Insecta (6.7%, Gastropoda (3.9%, Bivalvia (2.2% and Crustacea (1.3%. The mean diversity(S ranged between 11 species. Mean abundance of individuals (N was 985. Mean Margalef index (d value was 1.339. The mean value for Shannon-Wienner (H was 0.956. Mean Pielou’s index of relative density or evenness index (E was 0.986. Mean SimpsIn’s Dominance index (C was 0.623.

  18. New species of Cyclodontina from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae) / Nova espécie de Cyclodontina da Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Odontostomidae)

    Rodrigo B., Salvador; Luiz R. L., Simone.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de gastrópode pulmonado foi coletada recentemente em um pequeno fragmento de mata em Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia, Brasil. O estado da Bahia é conhecido por sua alta diversidade de moluscos terrestres e Bom Jesus da Lapa é uma localidade particularmente interessante, pois localiza-se na [...] interface entre os biomas Cerrado e Caatinga. A nova espécie é descrita como Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. e pode ser facilmente identificada por sua concha de cor marrom, espira cônica, voltas convexas, escultura composta por fortes costelas e uma abertura com quatro barreiras: um dente parietal, um dente palatal, um dente basal e uma forte lamela columelar. A presente descoberta atua como um lembrete de quão pouco é conhecida a malacofauna continental brasileira e também da urgência em estudar e preservar a rica (mas comumente negligenciada) fauna da Caatinga. Abstract in english A new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small forest fragment in the city of Bom Jesus da Lapa, Bahia state, Brazil. Bahia is known for a high diversity of land snails and Bom Jesus da Lapa is an interesting locality, since it is close to the interface between two major Brazilia [...] n biomes: Cerrado and Caatinga. The new species is described as Cyclodontina tapuia sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its brown shell, conical spire, convex whorls, a sculpture comprised of strong ribs, and an aperture with four barriers: a median parietal tooth, a median palatal tooth, a median basal tooth and a strong columellar lamella. This discovery is also a reminder of how little the Brazilian continental molluscan fauna is known and of the urgency in studying and preserving the rich (though usually overlooked) fauna of the Caatinga.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA sequence and gene organization in the [corrected] Australian blacklip [corrected] abalone Haliotis rubra (leach).

    Maynard, Ben T; Kerr, Lyndal J; McKiernan, Joanne M; Jansen, Eliza S; Hanna, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA of the blacklip abalone Haliotis rubra (Gastropoda: Mollusca) was cloned and 16,907 base pairs were sequenced. The sequence represents an estimated 99.85% of the mitochondrial genome, and contains 2 ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA, and 13 protein-coding genes found in other metazoan mtDNA. An AT tandem repeat and a possible C-rich domain within the putative control region could not be fully sequenced. The H. rubra mtDNA gene order is novel for mollusks, separated from the black chiton Katharina tunicata by the individual translocations of 3 tRNAs. Compared with other mtDNA regions, sequences from the ATP8, NAD2, NAD4L, NAD6, and 12S rRNA genes, as well as the control region, are the most variable among representatives from Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Rhynchonelliformea, with similar mtDNA arrangements to H. rubra. These sequences are being evaluated as genetic markers within commercially important Haliotis species, and some applications and considerations for their use are discussed. PMID:16206015

  20. Mollusca of six low-alkalinity lakes in Ontario

    Rooke, J.B.; Mackie, G.L.

    1984-05-01

    The mollusk populations were examined in a small number of low-alkalinity lakes sampled at six different depths during three seasons. By taking many samples at each visit and returning many times throughout the year it was hoped that a better understanding would be gained of molluscan occurrence in low-alkalinity lakes that are currently experiencing acidic precipitation. There appeared to be no consistent difference in the number of species present in these lakes, across a limited range of alkalinity (0.24-3.17 mg/l). It is possible that mollusks are more dense in lower alkalinity lakes, due primarily to large numbers of Pisidium casertanum and P. ferrugineum found there. Significant differences between mollusk densities in two intermediate alkalinity lakes indicate that factors other than alkalinity may have affected mollusk distributions. The Unionid clam, Elliptio complanta, was found in two lakes with mean alkalinities of 0.41 mg/l. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Morphological and molecular diversity of Unionidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia from Portugal

    Reis, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater mussels from the family Unionidae are known to exhibit a high level of ecological phenotypic plasticity that is reflected in their shell shape. This variation has caused uncertainty on systematics and taxonomy of the group. Several naiad populations from nine river basins from Portugal were analyzed genetically, using two mitochondrial gene fragments (16SrRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I and morphologically, using ANOVA analyses of shell dimmensions. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were used to revise the systematics and to infer an evolutionary hypothesis for the family at the western-most Atlantic Iberian Peninsula. Genetic and morphological data were in agreement and supported the occurrence of 5 species in the region: Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Potomida littoralis, Unio tumidiformis and Unio delphinus. The differentiation of all these species, except A. cygnea, is thought to have taken place during the isolation of the Iberian Peninsula and formation of the current river basins in the Tertiary. The possibility of A. cygnea being a relatively recent introduction is discussed. Basic morphometric measures of the shell proved to be useful to separate Unio species, but also seem to be strongly affected by environmental conditions. The high intra-specific morphologic variation was partially related to the species’ high level of phenotypic plasticity, but seems to have an important role in evolutionary processes.Las náyades de la familia Unionidae tienen gran plasticidad fenotípica, lo que se refleja en la forma de su concha. Esta variabilidad morfológica ha sido causa de gran confusión en la taxonomía y sistemática del grupo. Se han estudiado, genética y morfológicamente, numerosas poblaciones de náyades provenientes de nueve cuencas hidrográficas portuguesas. Para ello se han analizando dos fragmentos de genes mitocondriales (ARNr 16S y Citocromo Oxidasa I así como diferentes variables morfológicas de la concha. Se han realizado además análisis filogenéticos para conocer la sistemática de la familia e inferir una hipótesis evolutiva de su distribución en el oeste de la península Ibérica. Los datos genéticos y morfológicos sugieren la existencia de cinco especies: Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Potomida littoralis, Unio tumidiformis y Unio delphinus. La diferenciación de estas especies, con la excepción de A. cygnea, ha ocurrido durante el aislamiento de la península Ibérica y posterior formación de las actuales cuencas hidrográficas en el Terciario. Se discute la posibilidad de que la presencia de A. cygnea se deba a una introducción reciente. Los datos morfométricos analizados pueden ser útiles para separar las especies del género Unio, pero son también dependientes de las condiciones ambientales. La elevada variabilidad morfológica dentro de cada especie está relacionada con su plasticidad fenotípica, pero tiene a su vez un importante papel en el proceso evolutivo.

  2. Characterization of the adhesive areas in Sepia tuberculata (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    von Byern, Janek; Scott, Robyn; Griffiths, Charles; Micossi, Andrea; Grunwald, Ingo; Cyran, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Adhesion in cephalopods is either mechanical, involving a reduced-pressure system of the arm and tentacle suckers, or is chemically mediated by special adhesive gland structures (as proposed for Euprymna, Idiosepius, and Nautilus). Four species of Sepia (S. typica, S. papillata, S. pulchra, and S. tuberculata) possess grooved structures on the ventral mantle surface and on the fourth arm pair, which are used to attach mechanically to the substratum. Because these areas are often partly covered with sand or debris, it has been hypothesized that chemical substances were involved in this attachment process. This study provides a histochemical and ultrastructural description of the glandular epithelium in the adhesive area of Sepia tuberculata. Two specific glandular cells (Type 1 and Type 2) are present in the epithelium, which differ clearly in their granule size and cellular structure. The aggregation of both cell types and their simultaneous secretion suggest that the secretions of both cell types work synergistically providing a two-component adhesive system which supports the primarily mechanical sucker adhesion by making the arm surface sticky. PMID:21688295

  3. Yochelcionella (Mollusca, Helcionelloida) from the lower Cambrian of North America

    Atkins C J; Peel J S

    2008-01-01

    Five named species of the helcionelloid mollusc genus Yochelcionella Runnegar & Pojeta, 1974 are recognized from the lower Cambrian (Cambrian Series 2) of North America: Yochelcionella erecta (Walcott, 1891), Y. americana Runnegar &Pojeta, 1980, Y. chinensis Pei, 1985, Y. greenlandica Atkins & Peel, 2004 and Y. gracilis Atkins & Peel, 2004, linking lower Cambrian o...

  4. First molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Polycerinae (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Polyceridae)

    Palomar, Gemma; Pola, Marta; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2014-03-01

    The subfamily Polycerinae includes four genera with around 46 species described to date. This subfamily is characterized by a limaciform body, which may have simple tentacular processes on the margin of the oral veil. Phylogenetic relationships between the genera of the subfamily Polycerinae (Polyceridae) have not yet been studied, and therefore, the only available information is based on morphological descriptions. The present study reports the first phylogenetic analysis of Polycerinae based on the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rRNA) using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our results showed that Polycerinae is monophyletic, but the relationships within the subfamily as well as within Polycera remain unresolved. A key finding of this study is that there are clearly two sympatric species of Polycera present in South Africa: Polycera capensis Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 also found in Australia and an undescribed Polycera sp. On the other hand, the studied specimens of the genus Gymnodoris were clustered within Polycerinae, reopening the problem of the systematic position of this genus. Additional genes and species of Polycerinae and Gymnodoris would provide more information and probably fully resolve this situation.

  5. Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Peru (Mollusca: Basommatophora

    Paraense W Lobato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of several trips to Peru I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Biomphalaria andecola (Orbigny, 1835, B. helophila (Orbigny, 1835, B. pucaraensis (Preston, 1909, Drepanotrema limayanum (Lesson, 1830, D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835, and Lymnaea viatrix Orbigny, 1835, besides B. tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835, Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817, H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879, Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1801, and seemingly P. peruviana Gray, 1828. B. pucaraensis is considered a junior synonym of B. peregrina (Orbigny, 1835.

  6. Novas ocorrências de gastrópodes e bivalves marinhos no Brasil (Mollusca

    Absalão Ricardo Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastropods Costaclis egregia (Dall, 1889, Thaleia nisonis (Dall, 1889, Tjaernoeia michaeli Engl, 2001 and the bivalves Bathyarca sp., Myonera aff. ruginosa (Jeffreys, 1882 are recorded for the first time in Brazilian waters. This paper presents a brief description of these species and also include ilustrations.

  7. Planorbidae, Lymnaeidae and Physidae of Peru (Mollusca: Basommatophora)

    W Lobato Paraense

    2003-01-01

    In the course of several trips to Peru I had the opportunity of collecting topotypic specimens of Biomphalaria andecola (Orbigny, 1835), B. helophila (Orbigny, 1835), B. pucaraensis (Preston, 1909), Drepanotrema limayanum (Lesson, 1830), D. kermatoides (Orbigny, 1835), and Lymnaea viatrix Orbigny, 1835, besides B. tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835), Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817), H. duryi (Wetherby, 1879), Physa acuta Draparnaud, 1801, and seemingly P. peruviana Gray, 1828. B. pucaraensis is consid...

  8. Biodiversity and biogeography of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic mollusca

    Linse, Katrin; Griffiths, Huw J.; Barnes, David K. A.; Clarke, Andrew

    2006-04-01

    For many decades molluscan data have been critical to the establishment of the concept of a global-scale increase in species richness from the poles to the equator. Low polar diversity is key to this latitudinal cline in diversity. Here we investigate richness patterns in the two largest classes of molluscs at both local and regional scales throughout the Southern Ocean. We show that biodiversity is very patchy in the Southern Ocean (at the 1000-km scale) and test the validity of historical biogeographic sub-regions and provinces. We used multivariate analysis of biodiversity patterns at species, genus and family levels to define richness hotspots within the Southern Ocean and transition areas. This process identified the following distinct sub-regions in the Southern Ocean: Antarctic Peninsula, Weddell Sea, East Antarctic—Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctic—Enderby Land, East Antarctic—Wilkes Land, Ross Sea, and the independent Scotia arc and sub Antarctic islands. Patterns of endemism were very different between the bivalves and gastropods. On the basis of distributional ranges and radiation centres of evolutionarily successful families and genera we define three biogeographic provinces in the Southern Ocean: (1) the continental high Antarctic province excluding the Antarctic Peninsula, (2) the Scotia Sea province including the Antarctic Peninsula, and (3) the sub Antarctic province comprising the islands in the vicinity of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  9. Intramantle Inking: A Stress Behavior in Octopus bimaculoides (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Bennett, Heather; Toll, Ronald B

    2011-01-01

    Several Pacific 2-spot octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) shipped from California and held in a recirculating seawater system at Illinois College exhibited an unusual postshipping stress behavior not previously documented in the literature. Ink, normally ejected into the surrounding seawater, was uncharacteristically retained in the mantle cavity. We describe the resulting behaviors, discuss successful resuscitation efforts, and briefly consider the possible role(s) that ink may have played in ...

  10. Neuronal development in larval chiton Ischnochiton hakodadensis (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Voronezhskaya, Elena E; Tyurin, Sergei A; Nezlin, Leonid P

    2002-02-25

    Chitons are the most primitive molluscs and, thus, a matter of considerable interest for understanding both basic principles of molluscan neurogenesis and phylogeny. The development of the nervous system in trochophores of the chiton Ischnochiton hakodadensis from hatching to metamorphosis is described in detail by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and antibodies raised against serotonin, FMRFamide, and acetylated alpha tubulin. The earliest nervous elements detected were peripheral neurons located in the frontal hemisphere of posthatching trochophores and projecting into the apical organ. Among them, two pairs of unique large lateral cells appear to pioneer the pathways of developing adult nervous system. Chitons possess an apical organ that contains the largest number of neurons among all molluscan larvae investigated so far. Besides, many pretrochal neurons are situated outside the apical organ. The prototroch is not innervated by larval neurons. The first neurons of the developing adult central nervous system (CNS) appear later in the cerebral ganglion and pedal cords. None of the neurons of the larval nervous system are retained in the adult CNS. They cease to express their transmitter content and disintegrate after settlement. Although the adult CNS of chitons resembles that of polychaetes, their general scenario of neuronal development resembles that of advanced molluscs and differs from annelids. Thus, our data demonstrate the conservative pattern of molluscan neurogenesis and suggest independent origin of molluscan and annelid trochophores. PMID:11835180

  11. Upper Cambrian chitons (Mollusca, polyplacophora) from Missouri, USA

    Pojeta, J., Jr.; Vendrasco, M.J.; Darrough, G.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous new specimens reveal a greater presence of chitons in Upper Cambrian rocks than previously suspected. Evidence is presented showing that the chiton esthete sensory system is present in all chiton species in this study at the very beginning of the known polyplacophoran fossil record. The stratigraphic occurrences and paleobiogeography of Late Cambrian chitons are documented. The 14 previously-named families of Cambrian and Ordovician chitons are reviewed and analyzed. Aulochitonidae n. fam. is defined, based on Aulochiton n. gen.; A. sannerae n. sp. is also defined. The long misunderstood family Preacanthochitonidae and its type genus Preacanthochiton Bergenhayn, 1960, are placed in synonymy with Mattheviidae and Chelodes Davidson & King, 1874, respectively; Eochelodes Marek, 1962, also is placed in synonymy with Chelodes, and Elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is placed in synonymy with Hemithecella Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. At the species level, H. elongata Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, and Elongata perplexa Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, are placed in synonymy with H. eminensis Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995. The Ordovician species H. abrupta Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995, is transferred to the genus Chelodes as C. abrupta (Stinchcomb & Darrough, 1995). The Ordovician species Preacanthochiton baueri Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Helminthochiton as H. ? baueri (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). The Ordovician species H. marginatus Hoare & Pojeta, 2006, is transferred to the genus Litochiton as L. marginatus (Hoare & Pojeta, 2006). Matthevia walcotti Runnegar, Pojeta, Taylor, & Collins, 1979, is treated as a synonym of Hemithecella expansa Ulrich & Bridge, 1941. In addition, other multivalved Cambrian mollusks are discussed; within this group, Dycheiidae n. fam. is defined, as well as Paradycheia dorisae n. gen. and n. sp. Cladistic analysis indicates a close relationship among the genera here assigned to the Mattheviidae, and between Echinochiton Pojeta, Eernisse, Hoare, & Henderson, 2003, and mattheviids. The results suggest treating these taxa as stem-lineage chitons, and do not support the hypothesis that they are aplacophorans.

  12. Cleavage pattern and mesentoblast formation in Acanthochiton crinitus (Polyplacophora, Mollusca).

    van den Biggelaar, J A

    1996-03-15

    In characteristic spiralian embryos the mesentoblast is the stem cell of the mesodermal bands. It is a derivative of the dorsal quadrant. At least in gastropod molluscs, the ancestral form for the specification of the dorsal quadrant out of four initially equal quadrants is by centralization of one of the four macromeres after the separation of the presumptive ecto- and entoblast cells. Then this macromere is induced by the animal micromeres to produce the mesentoblast. In this paper it is shown that in the embryo of the polyplacophoran Acanthochiton crinitus, specification of the dorsal quadrant and formation of the mesentoblast exactly follow the same pattern. After deletion of the first quartet of micromeres none of the macromeres is centralized, no mesentoblast is formed, and the embryo remains radially symmetrical. Apparently, the mechanism for the specification of the dorsal quadrant and the formation of the mesentoblast has been conserved during the evolution of the main molluscan taxa. It has been discussed whether this mechanism might be a plesiomorphous property, characteristic of less derived spiralian phyla. PMID:8631512

  13. [Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from El Salvador, Central America].

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia; Barraza, José E; Rivera, Ana M; Hasbún, Carlos R

    2007-03-01

    Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832); Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910); Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909); Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832) and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893). Of these, L. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857); Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832); Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832); Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865); Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867); A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988) and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832). The known geographic distribution of 1. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described. PMID:18457124

  14. Chemotactic behavior of the sperm of chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Miller, R L

    1977-11-01

    Observations of sperm behavior in the vicinity of gradients of egg-water or alcohol extracts of whole freshly-spawned eggs of several chitons reveal what appear to be directed movements of sperm up the gradient, resulting in the aggregation of motile sperm at the gradient source. Plots of the tracks of the sperm approaching the gradient source show that the cells increase the time during which they move toward the source and decrease the time spent moving away. Although this resembles the kinesis behavior shown by bacteria in a gradient, the path directions are markedly non-random. The reorientation behavior of thigmotactic sperm involves enlargement of the normal circular path diameter in the direction of the source and an alternation of tight loops and wide circular arcs, with the latter made in the direction of the source. The form of the path of attracted chiton sperm is like that observed during chemotaxis of the sperm of the hydroid Tubularia and the tunicate Ciona and resembles the behavior of Ciona sperm in that there is no increase in velocity as the cells move up the gradient. However, unlike the cnidarian and urochordate cases, the attracting substances extracted from chiton eggs do not act species-specifically. PMID:925668

  15. Protandric hermaphroditism in the bivalve Arca noae (Mollusca: Arcidae

    G. BELLO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the histological analysis of Arca noae samples from the south-western Adriatic Sea, five hermaphroditic specimens were found out of 168 sexed individuals (3.0%. The hermaphrodite gonads showed the co-occurrence of male and female germ cells within the same acini, i.e. both spermatozoa in the lumen and oogonia lining its wall. Oogonia increased in size through winter, thus suggesting that the direction of sex change is from male to female. Both the biometrical analyses and theoretical considerations strongly suggest that A. noae is an obligate protandric species.

  16. Sublethal foot-predation on Donacidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Salas, Carmen; Tirado, Cristina; Manjón-Cabeza, Maria Eugenia

    2001-08-01

    The incidence of foot nipping was studied on the Donax spp. of the littoral of Málaga (Southern Spain, 2875 specimens collected from February 1990 to January 1991) and of Ré island (French Atlantic coast, 262 specimens of Donax vittatus (Da Costa, 1778) collected in May 1996). In Málaga, Donax trunculus L., 1758 was the species most regularly nipped (18% of individuals), with peaks in summer (25% in August and 48% in September) and winter (34% in December). In Ré island, 27% of the specimens showed a nipped foot. Logistic regression shows that in D. trunculus length is the variable that most influences the probability of foot nipping, followed by weight and chlorophyll a. However, the difference in length between damaged and undamaged individuals was not significant (U-Mann-Whitney test). The size class frequency and the values of Ivlev's index show that the small size classes were avoided, while for the other size classes predation remained balanced throughout the year. Therefore, the avoidance of the small size classes makes length the most influential variable. The logistic regression indicated a coefficient B=-0.03 for weight. This implies a slightly negative influence on the probability of foot nipping. However, without the data of September, there is a positive correlation ( r=0.76, psex of an animal on the probability of foot nipping. Only in February was a significantly higher percentage ( pfoot nipping amounts to more than 20% in most of the size classes. There was an increase from the small sizes to the largest ones, in which it reaches 37%, with a positive correlation ( r=0.84; pfoot nipping are crabs. Crab species usually found together with the donacids were Portumnus latipes (Pennant, 1777) Liocarcinus vernalis (Risso, 1816) and Atelecyclus undecimdentatus (Herbst, 1783). In aquarium experiments, they demonstrated an ability to nip the foot of clams. Portumnus latipes was the most active foot nipper, but left alive all the damaged clams. Therefore, we conclude that crabs are the most likely foot-nipping predators in the field.

  17. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  18. Novas ocorrências de gastrópodes e bivalves marinhos no Brasil (Mollusca) New records of marine gastropods and bivalves from Brazil (Mollusca)

    Ricardo Silva Absalão; Carlos Henrique Soares Caetano; Alexandre Dias Pimenta

    2003-01-01

    The gastropods Costaclis egregia (Dall, 1889), Thaleia nisonis (Dall, 1889), Tjaernoeia michaeli Engl, 2001 and the bivalves Bathyarca sp., Myonera aff. ruginosa (Jeffreys, 1882) are recorded for the first time in Brazilian waters. This paper presents a brief description of these species and also include ilustrations.

  19. Hermaphroditism in Marine Mussel Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, (Mollusca: Mytilidae Hermafroditismo en el Chorito Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, (Mollusca: Mytilidae

    Diana Montenegro Villalobos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine bivalves are essentially gonochoric species. However, some occasional hermaphrodites specimens can be found. A histological description of two (among 179 hermaphrodites of the marine mussel Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 that were collected in San Jorge Bay (24S is given. The low proportion of hermaphrodites suggests that P. purpuratus hermaphroditism could be an accidental phenomenon; nevertheless other causes are also discussed in the present study.Los bivalvos marinos son principalmente especies gonocoricas. Sin embargo, ocasionales especímenes hermafroditas pueden encontrarse. Una descripción histológica de dos (de 179 especímenes hermafroditas del chorito Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 es registrada, los que fueron colectados en la bahía de San Jorge (24S. La baja proporción de hermafroditas de Perumytilus purpuratus sugiere que podría ser un fenómeno accidental, aun así otras posibles causas son discutidas en el presente estudio.

  20. Hermafroditismo Funcional de la Gónada de Fissurella crassa (Mollusca: Fissurellidae Functional Hermaphrodite Gonad in Fissurella crassa (Mollusca: Fissurellidae

    Alberto Olivares Paz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La costa del Pacífico sudoriental es el hábitat de las 13 especies de lapas descritas del subgénero Fissurella Brugière. En estas especies no existe dimorfismo sexual, los animales son dioicos, el sexo se reconoce explorando directa o indirectamente las gónadas y no tienen procesos de reversión sexual. La presencia de un organismo de Fissurella crassa con gónada formada por porciones de ovario y otras de testículo con capacidad para generar óvulos y espermatozoides, evidencia la potencialidad que los organismos de Fissurella poseen para desarrollar el hermafroditismo funcional. Sin embargo, el presente hallazgo no permite inferir si el agente desencadenante del desarrollo sincrónico funcional de la gónada hermafrodita es un factor endógeno y/o asociado a algún evento exógeno medio ambiental.The coast of the Southeastern Pacific is the habitat for 13 species of described keyhole limpets of the subgenus Fissurella Brugière. In these species sexual dimorphism does not exist, the animals are dioicos, the sex is recognized exploring directly or indirectly the gonads and they do not have processes of sexual reversion. The presence of an organism Fissurella crassa with portions of ovary and testicle with ability to generate ova and sperms, demonstrates the potential that Fissurella's organisms possess to develop functional hermaphroditism. Nevertheless, the present find does not allow to infer if the trigger agent of the synchronous functional development of the hermaphrodite gonad is a factor endogenous and / or associated with any exogenous environmental event.

  1. Hermafroditismo Funcional de la Gónada de Fissurella crassa (Mollusca: Fissurellidae) Functional Hermaphrodite Gonad in Fissurella crassa (Mollusca: Fissurellidae)

    Alberto Olivares Paz; David Jofré Madariaga; Carlos Alvarez Mazú; Eduardo Bustos-Obregón

    2009-01-01

    La costa del Pacífico sudoriental es el hábitat de las 13 especies de lapas descritas del subgénero Fissurella Brugière. En estas especies no existe dimorfismo sexual, los animales son dioicos, el sexo se reconoce explorando directa o indirectamente las gónadas y no tienen procesos de reversión sexual. La presencia de un organismo de Fissurella crassa con gónada formada por porciones de ovario y otras de testículo con capacidad para generar óvulos y espermatozoides, evidencia la potencialidad...

  2. Gastropod arginine kinases from Cellana grata and Aplysia kurodai. Isolation and cDNA-derived amino acid sequences.

    Suzuki, T; Inoue, N; Higashi, T; Mizobuchi, R; Sugimura, N; Yokouchi, K; Furukohri, T

    2000-12-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) was isolated from the radular muscle of the gastropod molluscs Cellana grata (subclass Prosobranchia) and Aplysia kurodai (subclass Opisthobranchia), respectively, by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-75 gel filtration and DEAE-ion exchange chromatography. The denatured relative molecular mass values were estimated to be 40 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The isolated enzyme from Aplysia gave a Km value of 0.6 mM for arginine and a Vmax value of 13 micromole Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1) for the forward reaction. These values are comparable to other molluscan AKs. The cDNAs encoding Cellana and Aplysia AKs were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the nucleotide sequences of 1,608 and 1,239 bp, respectively, were determined. The open reading frame for Cellana AK is 1044 nucleotides in length and encodes a protein with 347 amino acid residues, and that for A. kurodai is 1077 nucleotides and 354 residues. The cDNA-derived amino acid sequences were validated by chemical sequencing of internal lysyl endopeptidase peptides. The amino acid sequences of Cellana and Aplysia AKs showed the highest percent identity (66-73%) with those of the abalone Nordotis and turbanshell Battilus belonging to the same class Gastropoda. These AK sequences still have a strong homology (63-71%) with that of the chiton Liolophura (class Polyplacophora), which is believed to be one of the most primitive molluscs. On the other hand, these AK sequences are less homologous (55-57%) with that of the clam Pseudocardium (class Bivalvia), suggesting that the biological position of the class Polyplacophora should be reconsidered. PMID:11281267

  3. Sessile and sedentary macrofauna from the Pirapama Shipwreck, Pernambuco, Brazil / Macrofauna séssil e sedentária do Naufrágio Pirapama, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Simone Maria de Albuquerque, Lira; Cristiane Maria Rocha, Farrapeira; Fernanda Maria Duarte, Amaral; Carla Alecrim Colaço, Ramos.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Naufrágios são classificados como ambientes recifais artificiais, estruturas imersas em ecossistemas aquáticos (principalmente marinhos) que fornecem abrigo, substratos consolidados, áreas de crescimento, alimentação e de berçário. Este estudo objetivou pesquisar a biodiversidade bentônica animal do [...] Naufrágio Pirapama, localizado a 23 m de profundidade e a seis milhas do Porto de Recife. Entre 2001 e 2007 mergulhos autônomos foram realizados para coletar, observar e fotografar as espécies. No laboratório, o material foi posteriormente classificado e identificado. Um total de 76 táxons foi registrado para a fauna séssil e sedentária, pertencentes aos seguintes filos: Porifera (Demospongiae e Calcarea), Cnidaria (Hydrozoa e Anthozoa), Mollusca (Bivalvia e Gastropoda), Annelida (Polychaeta), Arthropoda (Cirripedia), Bryozoa (Gymnolaemata), Echinodermata (Asteroidea e Echinoidea), e Chordata (Ascidiacea). A maior quantidade de espécies foi de Porifera e Bryozoa, com 13 espécies listadas para cada um. Onze novas ocorrências foram registradas para o Estado de Pernambuco, o hidróide Halopteris polymorpha e dez espécies de briozoários, uma deles sendo o primeiro registro para o Brasil (Scrupocellaria curacaoensis). A biodiversidade do Pirapama foi considerada típica quando comparada com a de outros naufrágios que foram estudados no mundo. Abstract in english Shipwrecks are considered artificial reef environments - structures immersed in aquatic environments (especially marine ones) that provide fauna with shelter, hard substrates, food and nursery areas. This study aimed to survey the benthic animal biodiversity of the Pirapama shipwreck, located 23 m d [...] eep and six miles off Recife harbor. From 2001 to 2007, species were observed, photographed and collected through scuba diving. The material was later sorted and identified in the laboratory. A total of 76 sessile and sedentary animal taxa were recorded belonging to the following phyla: Porifera (Demospongiae and Calcarea), Cnidaria (Hydrozoa and Anthozoa), Mollusca (Bivalvia and Gastropoda), Annelida (Polychaeta), Arthropoda (Cirripedia), Bryozoa (Gymnolaemata), Echinodermata (Asteroidea and Echinoidea), and Chordata (Ascidiacea). The greatest richness was for Porifera and Bryozoa - 13 listed species for each. Eleven new occurrences were recorded for the state of Pernambuco, the hydroid Halopteris polymorpha and ten bryozoan species, one of them being the first record for Brazil (Scrupocellaria curacaoensis). The Pirapama's biodiversity was considered typical when compared to other shipwrecks that have been studied around the world.

  4. Duas novas espécies de Simpulopsis (Gastropoda, Bulimulidae) para o Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Two new species of Simpulopsis (Gastropoda, Bulimulidae) from Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Letícia F. da Silva; José W Thomé

    2006-01-01

    Simpulopsis promatensis e S. gomesae, duas novas espécies para São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, são descritas. São apresentadas a conquiliologia, conquiliometria e morfologia das partes moles, incluindo mandíbula, rádula, sistemas reprodutor e palial.Simpulopsis promatensis and S. gomesae, two new species from São Francisco de Paula, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil are described. Conchology, conchiliometry and soft-part morphology, including jaw, radula, reproductive and pal...

  5. A review of the Veronicellidae from Mexico (Gastropoda: Soleolifera) Revisión de los Veronicellidae de México (Gastropoda: Soleolifera)

    Edna Naranjo-García; José Willibaldo Thomé; José Castillejo

    2007-01-01

    Information is presented regarding the species of the Family Veronicellidae in Mexico. Data were gathered from specimens deposited in the Colección Nacional de Moluscos (Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), from field trips, and from the literature. These slugs are distributed mainly in the central and southern regions of Mexico, although there are a few records from the northern part of the country. Five species in three genera have been recorded, namely: Leidyula...

  6. A review of the Veronicellidae from Mexico (Gastropoda: Soleolifera Revisión de los Veronicellidae de México (Gastropoda: Soleolifera

    Edna Naranjo-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Information is presented regarding the species of the Family Veronicellidae in Mexico. Data were gathered from specimens deposited in the Colección Nacional de Moluscos (Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, from field trips, and from the literature. These slugs are distributed mainly in the central and southern regions of Mexico, although there are a few records from the northern part of the country. Five species in three genera have been recorded, namely: Leidyula floridana, L. moreleti, Phyllocaulis gayi, Sarasinula dubia and S. plebeia. The occurrence of Leidyula floridana and Phyllocaulis gayi in Mexico needs confirmation. The Los Tuxtlas region, southern Veracruz, is a hotspot where veronicellid slugs have become a pest and farmers have stopped growing beans, switching to other crops as a measure to contain the pest.Se sintetiza la información conocida de los Veronicellidae de México. Los datos provienen de ejemplares depositados en la Colección Nacional de Moluscos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, de salidas complementarias de trabajo al campo y recopilación de la literatura. Estas babosas se distribuyen principalmente en el centro y sur de México, aunque existen algunos registros en el norte del país. Se han registrado 3 géneros y 5 especies: Leidyula floridana, L. moreleti, Phyllocaulis gayi, Sarasinula dubia, y S. plebeia. Los registros en México de L. floridana y P. gayi deben confirmarse. En la región de Los Tuxtlas, al sur del estado de Veracruz, se localizó un foco donde las babosas Veronicellidae son plaga, los agricultores dejaron de sembrar frijol y cambiaron a otros cultivos para evitar la plaga.

  7. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

    Rodrigo B. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  8. Molluscicidal activity of various solvent extracts from Solanum nigrum var. villosum L. aerial parts against Galba truncatula.

    Hammami, H; Mezghani-Jarraya, R; Damak, M; Ayadi, A

    2011-02-01

    Molluscicidal activity of Solanum nigrum var. villosum (morelle velue) extracts and their fractions were tested against the mollusca gastropoda Galba truncatula intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica. The results indicated that the hydro-methanol (MeOH-H2O) immature fruit extract possess the highest molluscicidal activity (LC50 = 3.96 mg/L) against Galba truncatula compared with other tested compounds. After acido-basic treatment, the methanolic extract fraction isolated from the immature fruits and the richest in alkaloids was the most toxic (LC50 = 1.65 mg/L). The fractions richest in saponosides obtained from the hydromethanolic and methanolic extracts of immature fruits showed interesting molluscicidal activities (LC50 = 6.15 mg/L and LC50 = 7.91 mg/L, respectively). The observed molluscicide activity could be attributed to the presence of alkaloids or saponosides. So, the immature fruits of Solanum nigrum var. villosum could be substrates of choice for molluscicide activity. In addition, total alkaloids and saponosides present in this plant deserve further investigations in order to identify the active principles and demonstrate their activities on mollusks in their natural habitat. According to the World Health Organization's guidelines on screening for plant molluscicides, use of these fractions may add to the arsenal of methods to control snail transmitting fasciolosis in tropical and Third World countries where fasciolosis is a common disease. PMID:21395207

  9. Ostracoda (Crustacea) association and a new species (Dolerocypris anatolia nov. sp.) from the Pliocene-Pleistocene Af?in-Elbistan (Kahraman Mara?) Coal Basin of Turkey

    Tuno?lu, Cemal; Besbelli, Berk; Ertekin, ?brahim Kadri

    2012-04-01

    The Af?in-Elbistan Coal Basin, which is one of the largest and most important Pliocene-Pleistocene lignite basins of Turkey, is located in Eastern Anatolia. The basin was formed between two normal faults having NE-SW direction and these faults controlled both the sedimentation and the subsidence. The coal horizon of over 50 meters in thickness indicates the balance between the sedimentation and subsidence rates, and was preserved during peat deposition. Coals were generated in this extensive and shallow freshwater lake and evolved from the Pliocene to Pleistocene. Typical faunal and floral assemblages of this ancient Af?in-Elbistan freshwater lake are Ostracoda, Mollusca (Gastropoda and Pelecypoda), spore-pollen and Characeae (gyrogonites). Eleven Cypridoidea species were identified from the investigation area. Eight of them are already known (Candona neglecta Sars, Candona iliensis Mandelstam, Candona aff. candida (Müller), Pseudocandona compressa (Koch), Cyclocypris ovum (Jurine), Ilyocypris gibba (Ramdohr), Cypris pubera Müller, Heterocypris salina (Brady)), whereas three belong to open nomenclature — Candona sp. and Eucypris sp.; Dolerocypris anatolia nov. sp. is proposed as a new species. Dolerocypris Kaufmann is one of the largest genera among the freshwater Ostracoda. It has a very wide geographical distribution. Representatives of this genus are actively swimming species found in shallow zones of freshwater lakes and reported from small grassy water bodies with megascopic plants. Dolerocypris anatolia nov. sp. is recorded from core samples of the Pliocene-Pleistocene Af?in-Elbistan Coal Basin for the first time.

  10. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha thelecoryphe, Geotrochus oedobasis, Geotrochus spilokeiria, Geotrochus scolops, Geotrochus kitteli, Geotrochus subscalaris, and Geotrochus meristorhachis (Trochomorphidae). PMID:26692803

  11. Wetland macroinvertebrates of Prentiss Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan: diversity and functional group composition

    Merritt, R.W.; Benbow, M.E.; Hudson, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Great Lakes support many fish and waterbirds that depend directly or indirectly on coastal wetlands during some portion of their life cycle. It is known that macroinvertebrates make up an important part of wetland food webs and ecosystem function; however, our understanding of species distribution within and among wetlands has only recently received attention. We investigated the macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh (Prentiss Bay) in the Les Chenaux Island Area of Northern Lake Huron, Michigan. Macroinvertebrate taxa diversity and functional feeding group composition were compared between two habitats. A shallow depositional habitat with higher vegetation diversity and little wave action was compared to a deeper erosional habitat with fewer plant species and more wave action. A total of 83 taxa were collected over the summer of 1996, representing two phyla (Arthropoda and Mollusca) and five classes (Arachnida, Bivalvia, Malacostraca, Gastropoda and Insecta). A total of 79 genera were identified, with 92% being insects (39 families composed of at least 73 genera). Of the total, 42 insect genera were common to both habitats,while relatively fewer were collected exclusively from the erosional compared the depositional habitat. When habitats were pooled, predators comprised about 50% of the functional group taxa, while gathering collectors and shredders each were about 20%. Filtering collectors and scrapers each represented functional groups were lower. These data suggest that vegetation diversity, depth and wave action affect taxa composition and functional group organization of the Prentiss Bay marsh.

  12. Evolution of phosphagen kinase V. cDNA-derived amino acid sequences of two molluscan arginine kinases from the chiton Liolophura japonica and the turbanshell Battilus cornutus.

    Suzuki, T; Ban, T; Furukohri, T

    1997-06-20

    The cDNAs of arginine kinases from the chiton Liolophura japonica (Polyplacophora) and the turbanshell Battilus cornutus (Gastropoda) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the complete nucleotide sequences of 1669 and 1624 bp, respectively, were determined. The open reading frame for Liolophura arginine kinase is 1050 nucleotides in length and encodes a protein with 349 amino acid residues, and that for Battilus is 1077 nucleotides and 358 residues. The validity of the cDNA-derived amino acid sequence was supported by chemical sequencing of internal tryptic peptides. The molecular masses were calculated to be 39,057 and 39,795 Da, respectively. The amino acid sequence of Liolophura arginine kinase showed 65-68% identity with those of Battilus and Nordotis (abalone) arginine kinases, and the homology between Battilus and Nordotis was 79%. Molluscan arginine kinases also show lower, but significant homology (38-43%) with rabbit creatine kinase. The sequences of arginine kinases could be used as a molecular clock to elucidate the phylogeny of Mollusca, one of the most diverse animal phyla. PMID:9217008

  13. A neurophylogenetic approach provides new insight to the evolution of Scaphopoda.

    Sumner-Rooney, Lauren H; Schrödl, Michael; Lodde-Bensch, Eva; Lindberg, David R; Heß, Martin; Brennan, Gerard P; Sigwart, Julia D

    2015-01-01

    The position of scaphopods in molluscan phylogeny remains singularly contentious, with several sister relationships supported by morphological and phylogenomic data: Scaphopoda + Bivalvia (Diasoma), Scaphopoda + Cephalopoda (Variopoda), and Scaphopoda + Gastropoda. Nervous system architecture has contributed significant insights to reconstructing phylogeny in the Mollusca and other invertebrate groups, but a modern neurophylogenetic approach has not been applied to molluscs, hampered by a lack of clearly defined homologous characters that can be unequivocally compared across the radical body plan disparity among the living clades. We present the first three-dimensional reconstruction of the anterior nervous system of a scaphopod, Rhabdus rectius, using histological tomography. We also describe a new putative sensory organ, a paired and pigmented sensory mantle slit. This structure is restricted to our study species and not a general feature of scaphopods, but it forms an integral part of the description of the nervous system in R. rectius. It also highlights the potential utility of neuro-anatomical characters for multiple levels of phylogenetic inference beyond this study. This potential has not previously been exploited for the thorny problem of molluscan phylogeny. The neuroanatomy of scaphopods demonstrates a highly derived architecture that shares a number of key characters with the cephalopod nervous system, and supports a Scaphopoda + Cephalopoda grouping. PMID:26487042

  14. The First Record of a Marriage Cone, Conus sponsalis (Conidae: Gastropoda) from Korea

    Joong-Ki Park; Sang-Hwa Lee

    2014-01-01

    The Conus Linnaeus, 1758 is a large genus of marine gastropod mollusks belonging to the family Conidae. The Conus species are mostly distributed in the tropical waters of the world, and they are especially abundant in the Indo-West Pacific region. To date, more than 600 species, most of which are predatory species, have been named worldwide in this genus and only six species have been recorded in the Korean waters. Conus sponsalis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792 was collected from Jeju I...

  15. The First Record of a Marriage Cone, Conus sponsalis (Conidae: Gastropoda from Korea

    Joong-Ki Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Conus Linnaeus, 1758 is a large genus of marine gastropod mollusks belonging to the family Conidae. The Conus species are mostly distributed in the tropical waters of the world, and they are especially abundant in the Indo-West Pacific region. To date, more than 600 species, most of which are predatory species, have been named worldwide in this genus and only six species have been recorded in the Korean waters. Conus sponsalis Hwass in Bruguiere, 1792 was collected from Jeju Island and identified as a new Korean record. In this study, we report a description of the shell morphology of the species.

  16. A new species of Nassarius (Gastropoda, Nassariidae from Canopus Bank, off Northeast Brazil

    Daniel Abbate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nassarius levis sp. nov. is described from Canopus Bank, off Ceará, Northeast Brazil, based on shell morphology. It differs from other Brazilian species of the genus in having a more elongate shell, with a weakly developed parietal shield and a notably smooth surface. This last trait has not yet been described among the Western Atlantic Nassarius, but it is common to other congeners from the Eastern Atlantic, such as Nassarius elatus (Gould, 1845 and the Indo-Pacific, such as Nassarius excellens (Kuroda & Habe, 1961.

  17. Diversity of Edible Mollusc (Gastropoda and Bivalvia) at Selected Divison of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Hadi Hamli; Mohd Hanafi Idris; Abu Hena Mustafa Kamal; Wong Sing King

    2012-01-01

    Diversity of edible mollusc was studied at eight divisions of Sarawak from August 2010 to May 2011. At each division, diversity and number of species were collected from road site selling out lets and local wet markets. Total number of mollusc was comprised of 29 species namely  Solen regularies, S. lamarckii,  Pharella acutidens, Anadara granosa, Pholas orientalis, Gluconome virens, Circe scripta, Anodonta woodina, Paphia undulata, Amusium pleuronectes, Meretrix meretrix, M. lyrata, Polymeso...

  18. Diversity of Edible Mollusc (Gastropoda and Bivalvia at Selected Divison of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Hadi Hamli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of edible mollusc was studied at eight divisions of Sarawak from August 2010 to May 2011. At each division, diversity and number of species were collected from road site selling out lets and local wet markets. Total number of mollusc was comprised of 29 species namely  Solen regularies, S. lamarckii,  Pharella acutidens, Anadara granosa, Pholas orientalis, Gluconome virens, Circe scripta, Anodonta woodina, Paphia undulata, Amusium pleuronectes, Meretrix meretrix, M. lyrata, Polymesoda bengalensis, P. erosa and P. expansa  for bivalve and  Cerithidea rizophorarum, C. obtusa, Telescopium telescopium, Clithon retropictus, Nerita articulate, N. chamaeleon, N. albicilla, Ellobium aurisjuda, Trochus radiates, Planaxis sulcatus, Monodonta labio, Turbo crasus, Thais aculate  and Melo melo  for gastropod. The species number of bivalve was recorded highest (15 species in mollusc group from Sarawak. Mollusc diversity was found highest (14 species in Bintulu and lowest (1 species in the division of Sarikei. From this study, there is a wide chance of research to further explore both on the possibility of commercial value and ecosystem conservation.

  19. Composición de ácidos grasos de los caracoles marinos Phyllonotus pomum y Chicoreus brevifrons (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Haydelba D’Armas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el contenido de ácidos grasos en los lípidos totales de los caracoles Phyllonotus pomum y Chicoreus brevifrons, recolectados en tres diferentes épocas del año en Punta Arena, estado Sucre, Venezuela. Las concentraciones lipídicas oscilaron entre 0.87 y 1.85%, correspondiendo el valor mínimo y el máximo a C. brevifrons colectado en lluvia y sequía, respectivamente. La esterificación de los ácidos grasos presentes en estos lípidos seguida de la cromatografía de gases permitió la caracterización y cuantificación de los ácidos grasos. En los lípidos totales de las dos especies, en todas las épocas, se observaron elevadas concentraciones de ácidos grasos insaturados (57.21-70.05% seguido de los saturados (20.33-31.94%. Entre los ácidos grasos insaturados, predominaron los de tipo poliinsaturados, exceptuándose el extracto lipídico de P. pomum en época de transición donde las grasas monoinsaturadas fueron las mayoritarias (38.95%. Los ácidos grasos que prevalecieron fueron: C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:1, C22:1 ?- 11, C22:1 ?-9, C18:3 ?-3, C20:5 ?-3 y el C22:6 ?-3, siendo este ?ltimo el predominante entre los ?cidos grasos poliinsaturados, presentando porcentajes de distribuci?n comprendidos entre 4.62 y 33.11%. Debido a las altas concentraciones de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados encontradas en ambos caracoles, se recomienda su consumo para la alimentación de los seres humanos.

  20. A new species of Cerithium (Gastropoda: Cerithiidae) from the South China Sea

    Sun, Qimeng; Zhang, Suping

    2014-09-01

    Specimens of a new species of Cerithiidae, Cerithium mangrovum n. sp., were collected during two surveys along the coasts of Hainan and Guangdong Province, China. Usually associated with potamidid snails, this species often occurs in large populations between the mid-high tidal zones in a range of habitats, including mangroves, grass beds, silt, mud, and coral reefs. C. mangrovum n. sp. has a slender and tapering shell and the straight-sided whorl bears three aligned beaded spiral cords. The thick outer lip has a wide posterior sinus. It morphologically resembles C. coralium Kiener, 1841. The shell of C. coralium is usually larger and wider and the spiral cords are not as beaded as in C. mangrovum n. sp. Its radula has a rachidian tooth with a shallow, wide, median basal projection while the rachidian tooth of C. mangrovum n. sp. has a moderately long, median basal projection.

  1. A new species of Lataxiena Jousseaume, 1883 (Gastropoda: Muricidae) from the East and South China Seas

    Zhang, Suping; Zhang, Shuqian

    2015-03-01

    A new muricid gastropod species, Lataxiena lutescena sp. nov., is described and illustrated. The new species was recognized during reidentification of the Muricidae collection in the Marine Biological Museum, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao. The specimens of the new species were collected from the East and South China Seas off Fujian, Guangdong, and Hainan Provinces. Lataxiena lutescena sp. nov. is similar to Lataxiena blosvillei (Deshayes, 1832) in general shape, but can be distinguished from the latter by the shell sculpture and radular characteristics. Lataxiena lutescena sp. nov. also resembles Lataxiena bombayana (Melvill, 1893), but differs from that species in the shell shape and anal notches and in lacking short spines on the shell.

  2. Perotrochus caledonicus (Gastropoda: Pleurotomariidae revisited: descriptions of new species from the South-West Pacific

    Patrick Anseeuw

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphological (shell and molecular examination of a large suite of specimens of pleurotomariids from around New Caledonia and the Coral Sea reveals the existence of four species in the complex of Perotrochus caledonicus: Perotrochus deforgesi Métivier, 1990 and P. pseudogranulosus sp. nov. live allopatrically on the plateaus and guyots of the Coral Sea; Perotrochus caledonicus Bouchet & Métivier, 1982 and Perotrochus wareni sp. nov. live sympatrically - but essentially not syntopically - on the slopes of New Caledonia, Norfolk Ridge and the Loyalty Ridge. All species live in the 300–500 m interval, and together form a significant component of the mollusc fauna living on hard bottoms in the SW Pacific, with individual dredge hauls containing up to 25 specimens of Perotrochus.

  3. The Model Organism Hermissenda crassicornis (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) Is a Species Complex

    Lindsay, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Hermissenda crassicornis is a model organism used in various fields of research including neurology, ecology, pharmacology, and toxicology. In order to investigate the systematics of this species and the presence of cryptic species in H. crassicornis, we conducted a comprehensive molecular and morphological analysis of this species covering its entire range across the North Pacific Ocean. We determined that H. crassicornis constitutes a species complex of three distinct species. The name Hermissensa crassicornis is retained for the northeast Pacific species, occurring from Alaska to Northern California. The name H. opalescens is reinstated for a species occurring from the Sea of Cortez to Northern California. Finally, the name H. emurai is maintained for the northwestern species, found in Japan and in the Russian Far East. These three species have consistent morphological and color pattern differences that can be used for identification in the field. PMID:27105319

  4. Not so sluggish : The success of the Felimare picta complex (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) crossing Atlantic biogeographic barriers

    Almada, Frederico; Levy, André; Robalo, Joana Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The molecular phylogeny of the Atlanto-Mediterranean species of the genus Felimare, particularly those attributed to the species F. picta, was inferred using two mitochondrial markers (16S and COI). A recent revision of the Chromodorididae clarified the taxonomic relationships at the family level redefining the genus Felimare. However, conflicting taxonomic classifications have been proposed for a restrict group of taxa with overlapping morphological characteristics and geographical distribut...

  5. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mudflat snails (Gastropoda: Euthyneura: Amphiboloidea) supports an Australasian centre of origin.

    Golding, Rosemary E

    2012-04-01

    Amphiboloidea is a small but widespread group of snails found exclusively, and often abundantly, in mudflat and associated salt marsh or mangrove habitat. This study uses molecular data from three loci (COI, 16S and 28S) to infer phylogenetic relationships in Amphiboloidea and examine its position in Euthyneura. All but two of the named extant species of Amphiboloidea and additional undescribed taxa from across Southeast Asia and the Arabian Gulf were sampled. In contrast to the current morphology-based classification dividing Amphiboloidea into three families, analysis of molecular data supports revision of the classification to comprise two families. Maningrididae is a monotypic family basal to Amphibolidae, which is revised to comprise three subfamilies: Amphibolinae, Phallomedusinae and Salinatorinae. Sequence divergence between Asian populations of Naranjia is relatively large and possibly indicative of species complexes divergent across the Strait of Malacca. Salinatorrosacea and Salinator burmana do not cluster with other Salinator species, and require generic reassignment. In addition, sequences were obtained from an undescribed species of Lactiforis from the Malay Peninsula. Reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a plesiomorphic distribution and centre of origin in Australasia, with two genera subsequently diversifying throughout Asia. Increasing the sampling density of amphiboloid taxa in a phylogenetic analysis of Euthyneura did not resolve the identity of the sister taxon to Amphibolidae, but confirmed its inclusion in Pulmonata/Panpulmonata. PMID:22210412

  6. Mapping of Buccal Neurons Innervating the Feeding Apparatus of Eobania vermiculata (Gastropoda, pulmonata

    Amina Essawy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paired buccal ganglia of Eobania vermiculata were investigated by light and electron microscopical methods, and a surface map of the ganglia was constructed. Mostly eight paired plus an unpaired buccal nerves were observed in dissected animals. Four giant neurons with a diameter more than 100 ?m were identified in the lateral region of each ganglion. Besides the giant neurons, middle - ( 30-60?m as well as small- ( <30?m sized neurons were localized. Possible axonal projections of buccal neurons in the pharyngeal nerves innervating the buccal musculature were determined with the aid of retrograde infusion of cobalt lysine. Large amounts of neuro secretory granules in most neurons were also present. In the neuropile of the ganglion, synapses were found in large numbers which are of axo-axonic type. The map produced herein provides an important first step towards the neural circuitry controlling feeding behavior in Eobania vermiculata.

  7. Radix natalensis (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae, a potential intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica in Egypt

    Dar Y.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infections of Egyptian Radix natalensis with French miracidia of Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine if this snail might act as an intermediate host in the life cycle of this digenean in Egypt. Single exposures of R. natalensis to miracidia (2/snail and two successive exposures (a total of 4 miracidia/snail were performed using lymnaeids measuring 1 to 6 mm in height. Live larval forms of F. hepatica were noted in single- and double-exposed snails. In double exposures, a significant increase of snail survival on day 28 post-exposure (at 24 °C and an decrease in prevalence were noted when the height of snails at exposure was increasing. Cercariae of F. hepatica were shed by these snails (90.7/snail during a mean patent period of 24.3 days. All snails have released these cercariae during 2-13 waves of shedding. According to these results, R. natalensis can be considered a potential intermediate host of F. hepatica in Egypt.

  8. New distribution record for the rare limpet Acroloxus coloradensis (Henderson) (Gastropoda: Acroloxidae) from Montana

    Hossack, Blake R.; Robert L. Newell

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Capshell, Acroloxus coloradensis (Henderson, 1930), the only North American member of the basommatophoran family Acroloxidae, is broadly distributed across southern Canada and south into the Rocky Mountains in the USA (Turgeon et al., 1998; Lee and Ackerman, 2000). Despite its wide geographic range, A. coloradensis has been documented from < 30 locations, mostly in British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec (Lee and Ackerman, 2000; Anderson, 2005). Relict populations of A. coloradensis in the USA have been documented from only 6 sites in Colorado and 2 sites in Glacier National Park (Glacier NP), Montana (Anderson, 2005; Ellis et al., 2004). In Glacier NP, A. coloradensis was first reported from Lost Lake (Figure 1; Russell and Brunson, 1967). A second population in the park was discovered in Trout Lake in 2001 (Ellis et al., 2004). In both lakes, A. coloradensis was found primarily under rocks and other cover objects.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Chinese land snail Mastigeulota kiangsinensis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Bradybaenidae).

    Deng, Pu-Juan; Wang, Wen-Min; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Wu, Xiao-Ping; Xie, Guang-Long; Ouyang, Shan

    2016-03-01

    Mastigeulota kiangsinensis is an endemic and widespread land snail in China. The complete mitochondrial genome of M. kiangsinensis was first determined using long PCR reactions and primer walking method (accession number KM083123). The genome has a length of 14,029?bp, containing 37 typical mitochondrial genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). The base composition of the whole heavy strand is A 29.48%, T 37.92%, C 14.38% and G 18.22%. Gene order of M. kiangsinensis is identical to Euhadra herklotsi, but gene rearrangements are found compared with other mitochondrial genomes described in Stylommatophora. tRNA(Thr) is located in COIII, which has not been found in other helicoids so far. This new complete mitochondrial genome can be the basic data for further studies on mitogenome comparison, molecular taxonomy and phylogenetic analysis in land snails and Molluscs at large. PMID:25185698

  10. Ecomorphological Analyses of Marine Mollusks' Shell Thickness of Rapana venosa (VALENCIENNES, 1846 (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Igor P. Bondarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shell thickness of Rapana venosa was investigated from ecologically different places of the Azov – Black Sea basin. In the formation of the shell thickness there are two major trends: thickening with age, and inversely proportional to the size of the thickening of even-aged individuals of the same population. Shell thickness formation was analyzed in connection with biotic and abiotic environmental factors of influence. R. venosa ontogeny is not conducive to the rapid succession newly acquired characters in local populations. The formation of a thick shell is mainly the individual response of bions to the environment. Individuals’ of the same type reaction is the cause of formation of specific conchological characters of separate populations or parts thereof. Mechanical impacts (e.g. damage by breaking predators and storm waves hitting on rocks have no significant effect on the increasing of thickness of shells. Comparative analysis of the thickness of the shell of R. venosa from areas with different salinity shows that the direct relationship between these parameters is absent. R. venosa is capable of forming its own salinity medium in the mantle cavity, which is different from the external environment. The main factor influencing the formation of a thick-walled shell is the amplitude of the temperature fluctuations in the locality. Shell thickness of R. venosa was considered as ecomorphological character in comparison with the same feature of shell-bearing mollusks from the World Ocean at different latitude zones. It is shown that high temperature gradient is one of the most important factors of forming a thick shell. The greatest show this intertidal species and ecomorphs of temperate and high latitudes, where the temperature gradients are most expressed.

  11. Freshwater snail Pomacea bridgesii (Gastropoda: Ampullariidae, life history traits and aquaculture potential

    Ana R. A. Coelho

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the reproductive biology, life cycle and feeding habits of Pomacea bridgesiihave been undertaken to assess its potential as a cultured species for the ornamental trade. The speciesis dioecious and, under optimal culture conditions of temperature and food supply, it can breed all yearround. The total developmental period at 23±1ºC varied from 15 to 24 days after oviposition. Hatchingcan last for up to 20 hours in the same egg cluster. Hatching success was very high (mean94.56±0.62% and no significant differences were observed in hatching rates between different clutchsizes. Development is direct and juveniles hatch at shell length (SL = 2.4±0.25 mm. Maturity is reached192±1.5 days after hatching and at SL = 32.80±2.03 mm. Two feeding experiments were undertaken toassess the impact of food type on juvenile survival during the first 8 days post-hatching and subsequentgrowth until 90 days post-hatching. Compatibility between other fish and plants fresh-water aquariumspecies were performed. A combination of environmental tolerance, moderately amphibious behavior,fast growth, short development and hatching at an advanced stage, compatibility with other aquariumspecies (fishes or other invertebrates, and simple low cost diet, make P. bridgesii highly suitable forintensive culture for the ornamental trade.

  12. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    Boshoff, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.boshoff@ua.ac.be [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Royal Museum for Central Africa (JEMU), Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Backeljau, Thierry [University of Antwerp, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (JEMU), Vautierstraat 29, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Kliniekstraat 25, B-1070 Brussels (Belgium); Tack, Filip [Ghent University, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 265, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vandecasteele, Bart [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Burg van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); De Jonge, Maarten; Bervoets, Lieven [University of Antwerp, Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the digestive gland and foot respectively). Our study emphasizes that background metal levels should be taken into account when using invertebrates as bioindicators of metal contamination and that bioindicators may show substantial differences in accumulation patterns even if they have a highly comparable ecology. - Highlights: ? Concentrations of accumulated metals differ among localities and between the snail species in the foot. ? Organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. ? Total metal concentrations and soil physicochemical properties alone are not enough to explain organ bioaccumulation.

  13. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).

    Boshoff, Magdalena; Jordaens, Kurt; Backeljau, Thierry; Lettens, Suzanna; Tack, Filip; Vandecasteele, Bart; De Jonge, Maarten; Bervoets, Lieven

    2013-04-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland>foot>albumen gland=spermoviduct=ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the digestive gland and foot respectively). Our study emphasizes that background metal levels should be taken into account when using invertebrates as bioindicators of metal contamination and that bioindicators may show substantial differences in accumulation patterns even if they have a highly comparable ecology. PMID:23465428

  14. Organ- and species-specific accumulation of metals in two land snail species (Gastropoda, Pulmonata)

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of terrestrial gastropods as bioindicators there is a need for studies that simultaneously compare (1) concentrations of metals in reference and polluted plots, (2) species within the same polluted habitat, (3) metal accumulation patterns in different organs and (4) metal accumulation patterns in relation to soil physicochemical properties. This study aims to assess metal accumulation patterns in two land snail species. Instead of analyzing an organism as a whole, investigating the partitioning of metals in different organs can provide information on the actual toxicological relevant fractions. Therefore, concentrations of Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn were examined in five different organs of Cepaea nemoralis, as well as in the foot and the body of Succinea putris. Snails were sampled at four polluted dredged sediment disposal localities and three adjacent less polluted reference plots situated along waterways in Flanders, Belgium. Due to the small size and problematic dissection of S. putris only the concentrations in the foot of both species could be compared. For this reason only, C. nemoralis can be described as a better bioindicator species that allows a far more detailed analysis of organ metal accumulation. This study showed that organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. Furthermore, pH, soil fractionation (clay %, silt %, sand %) and organic matter, correlate with metal accumulation in organs. However, most often the soil metal concentrations did not correlate with the concentrations found in snail organs. Metal concentrations in organs of both species (1) differed among polluted plots but rarely between polluted and reference plots within a locality, (2) were organ-specific (digestive gland > foot > albumen gland = spermoviduct = ovotestis), (3) were species-specific and (4) depended on the metal type (high Cd and Cu concentrations were observed in the digestive gland and foot respectively). Our study emphasizes that background metal levels should be taken into account when using invertebrates as bioindicators of metal contamination and that bioindicators may show substantial differences in accumulation patterns even if they have a highly comparable ecology. - Highlights: ? Concentrations of accumulated metals differ among localities and between the snail species in the foot. ? Organs other than the digestive gland may be involved in the immobilization and detoxification of metals. ? Total metal concentrations and soil physicochemical properties alone are not enough to explain organ bioaccumulation

  15. Behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae: I. Morphophysiology of the Mantle Cavity

    Jurberg Pedro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Using longitudinal and transverse anatomical sections, we observed that the three cristae of the mantle of Biomphalaria glabrata (renal, rectal and dorsolateral cristae divide the mantle cavity into three chambers which we designated air or pulmonary chamber, water inflow chamber and water outflow chamber. Using videotape filming, we observed the inflow and outflow of air and water into and from the mantle cavity and we related their probable functions such as flotation, oxygen reservoir and transport, excreta circulation and elimination, water skeleton, and modification of specific weight. To determine whether the air bubble may function as a physical gill in this species we submitted three groups of snails to different systems in which water contained the same level of dissolved oxygen whereas the gas phases were atmospheric air, pure nitrogen or pure oxygen. We observed the following parameters: time of permanence on the surface, time of immersion, and frequency at which the snails reached the surface. These results did not demonstrate a physical gill function; morphological analysis of the mantle cavity indicates this possibility

  16. Behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) - 1. Morphophysiology of the mantle cavity.

    Jurberg, P; Cunha, R A; Rodrigues, M L

    1997-01-01

    Using longitudinal and transverse anatomical sections, we observed that the three cristae of the mantle of Biomphalaria glabrata (renal, rectal and dorsolateral cristae) divide the mantle cavity into three chambers which we designated air or pulmonary chamber, water inflow chamber and water outflow chamber. Using videotape filming, we observed the inflow and outflow of air and water into and from the mantle cavity and we related their probable functions such as flotation, oxygen reservoir and transport, excreta circulation and elimination, water skeleton, and modification of specific weight. To determine whether the air bubble may function as a physical gill in this species we submitted three groups of snails to different systems in which water contained the same level of dissolved oxygen whereas the gas phases were atmospheric air, pure nitrogen or pure oxygen. We observed the following parameters: timer of permanence on the surface, time of immersion, and frequency at which the snails reached the surface. These results did not demonstrate a physical gill function; morphological analysis of the mantle cavity indicates this possibility. PMID:24159674

  17. Behavior of Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae): I. Morphophysiology of the Mantle Cavity

    Jurberg Pedro; Cunha Rodolfo A; Rodrigues Marcelo Luis

    1997-01-01

    Using longitudinal and transverse anatomical sections, we observed that the three cristae of the mantle of Biomphalaria glabrata (renal, rectal and dorsolateral cristae) divide the mantle cavity into three chambers which we designated air or pulmonary chamber, water inflow chamber and water outflow chamber. Using videotape filming, we observed the inflow and outflow of air and water into and from the mantle cavity and we related their probable functions such as flotation, oxygen reservoir and...

  18. MUDWHELKS (GASTROPODA: POTAMIDIDAE FROM MANGROVES OF UJUNG KULON NATIONAL PARK, BANTEN

    NOVA MUJIONO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of Potamididae snail from the mangrove ecosystem in Ujung Kulon National Park was conducted, regarding to its diversity, shell characters and habitat characters. This study was carried out in 2008 during drought and rainy season. At the eight stations observed, seven species and four genera of Potamididae snail were identified. Compared with previous study, this study added new information from obtaining one genus (Cerithidea of three species (Cerithidea weyersi, C. quadrata and Cerithideopsilla alata

  19. Update on the distribution and phylogenetics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) populations in Guangdong Province, China.

    Attwood, Stephen W; Huo, Guan-Nan; Qiu, Jian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    In 1973 planorbid snails then identified as Biomphalaria straminea were discovered in Hong Kong, China. It was assumed that these snails had been introduced to Hong Kong via the import of tropical fish by air from South America. In 2012 Biomphalaria were found for the first time in Guangdong Province, China. In view of the renewed interest in these invasive snails, a morphological and DNA-sequence based phylogenetic study was undertaken for seven populations of Biomphalaria snails collected in Guangdong. Morphologically and phylogenetically, five of the populations clustered more closely with Biomphalaria kuhniana than with B. straminea. Levels of genetic diversity among the populations were about half those of autochthonous populations in Brazil, the phylogenetic relationships did not correlate with a radiation from any one international port in China, and different lineages appeared associated with different ports. Consequently in explaining the current distribution of the snails, multiple colonization events, each establishing a new local snail population near to maritime international container ports, were considered more likely than the spread of snails from Hong Kong to China. The displacement of B. straminea by B. kuhniana in Guangdong is considered as an explanation for the habitat changes observed among the snails between Hong Kong in the 1980s and the present. The conclusions of the study are that any risk of Schistosoma mansoni transmission in China is more likely to come from parasite importation in the intramolluscan stage, than from transmission by migrant workers from South America or Africa. In addition, although likely to be rare, sporadic outbreaks of imported schistosomiasis (caused by invading infected snails) could be a threat to public health in the vicinity of International container ports (not only in Guangdong Province). Further work is called for to investigate further the presence of B. kuhniana and its potential interactions with B. straminea (the former is thought to be incompatible with S. mansoni), and the responses of Chinese Biomphalaria to potential competitors such as Thiaridae. The current expansion of container ports in Brazil and Venezuela, and the increase in trade with China, is likely to accentuate any current risk of imported schistosomiasis, and surveillance around ports in China, together with further research, are necessary. PMID:24811366

  20. Record of imposex in Cronia konkanensis (Gastropoda, Muricidae) from Indian waters

    VishwaKiran, Y.; Anil, A.C.

    that concentrations as low as 1 ng Sn/l induce imposex in Nucella lapillus and sterilization of females is initiated at around 4 ng Sn/l (Gibbs et al., 1988). This has led to the decline in the population of dog-whelks in and around the coast of the UK (Bryan et al... examining the occurrence of imposex in gastropods. In the light of this, and the expanding maritime activities along the Indian coast, the need arises for an evaluation of such environmental perturbations. In this eC128ort, the neogastropod species Cronia...

  1. Morphological variation, biogeography and local extinction of the northern New Zealand landsnail Placostylus hongii (Gastropoda : Bulimulidae)

    Placostylus hongii (Lesson) is recorded from sites between Whangaroa and Whangarei on the mainland Northland coast, and from the Poor Knights, Chicken, Mokohinau and Great Barrier islands offshore. There is considerable variation in shell morphology between the various populations, commonly with marked morphological divergence at a local scale but with overlapping variation overall across all populations of the taxon. Patterns of morphological variation show no clear geographic trends and are at least in part related to local environmental factors. Correlations are identified between shell shape and substratum type, and between shell size and vegetation type. Placostylus hongii has a very restricted stratigraphic distribution in mainland Northland, with most if not all of the few known fossil populations post-dating Polynesian settlement at c. 900-700 years BP. We suggest that P. hongii populations on the Poor Knights and possibly also those on the Mokohinau islands are endemic, whereas the mainland populations and those on Great Barier and the Chicken islands have originated from anthropic redistribution of snails in prehistoric time. A high proportion of the mainland P. hongii populations and some offshore island populations became extinct in the last few hundred years as a result of predation by introduced mammals and the modification and destruction of shrubland and forest habitat. (author). 54 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  2. Systematics of the family Plectopylidae in Vietnam with additional information on Chinese taxa (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora

    Barna Páll-Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese species from the family Plectopylidae are revised based on the type specimens of all known taxa, more than 600 historical non-type museum lots, and almost 200 newly-collected samples. Altogether more than 7000 specimens were investigated. The revision has revealed that species diversity of the Vietnamese Plectopylidae was previously overestimated. Overall, thirteen species names (anterides Gude, 1909, bavayi Gude, 1901, congesta Gude, 1898, fallax Gude, 1909, gouldingi Gude, 1909, hirsuta Möllendorff, 1901, jovia Mabille, 1887, moellendorffi Gude, 1901, persimilis Gude, 1901, pilsbryana Gude, 1901, soror Gude, 1908, tenuis Gude, 1901, verecunda Gude, 1909 were synonymised with other species. In addition to these, Gudeodiscus hemmeni sp. n. and G. messageri raheemi ssp. n. are described from north-western Vietnam. Sixteen species and two subspecies are recognized from Vietnam. The reproductive anatomy of eight taxa is described. Based on anatomical information, Halongella gen. n. is erected to include Plectopylis schlumbergeri and P. fruhstorferi. Additionally, the genus Gudeodiscus is subdivided into two subgenera (Gudeodiscus and Veludiscus subgen. n. on the basis of the morphology of the reproductive anatomy and the radula. The Chinese G. phlyarius werneri Páll-Gergely, 2013 is moved to synonymy of G. phlyarius. A spermatophore was found in the organ situated next to the gametolytic sac in one specimen. This suggests that this organ in the Plectopylidae is a diverticulum. Statistically significant evidence is presented for the presence of calcareous hook-like granules inside the penis being associated with the absence of embryos in the uterus in four genera. This suggests that these probably play a role in mating periods before disappearing when embryos develop. Sicradiscus mansuyi is reported from China for the first time.

  3. Pupilloidea of Pakistan (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): Truncatellininae, Vertigininae, Gastrocoptinae, Pupillinae (in part)

    Pokryszko, B. M.; Auffenberg, K.; Hlaváč, Jaroslav; Naggs, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2009), s. 423-458. ISSN 0003-4541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : terrestrial snails * pupilloids * Pakistan * new species * Columella * Truncatellina * Boysia * Vertigo * Gastrocopta * Boysidia * Pupilla Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.542, year: 2009

  4. Growth Ecology of Pila globosa (Swainson (Gastropoda: Pilidae in Simulated Habitat

    Md. Sarwar Jahan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth ecology of Pila globosa was studied in the simulated habitat with reference to its natural food habit. Growth rate and obesity index value for the snail population reared on natural aquatic food plants were higher than those, reared on cultivated food, Puni (Basela rubra. For natural food, the minimum and maximum mortality rates at age intervals of 224-238 days and 0-14 days were calculated as 0.00% and 16.00% while, on supplied cultivated vegetable food, (B. rubra at 252-266 days and 0-14 days age intervals, were obtained as 0.00% and 18.00% respectively. The life table was constructed on 266 days study of snails, reared on both types of food plants. The findings indicate the possibility of snail culture on large scale, in simulated habitats provided with physico-chemical parameters, like water temperature, pH, turbidity and dissolve oxygen of water, strictly maintained.

  5. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Intidhar Abbes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and S. tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of S. tunetana with S. cariosa from Lebanon showed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of S. baetica and S. otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria.

  6. A New Record of Cymatium encausticum (Ranellidae: Tonnoidea: Gastropoda from Korea

    Junhee Lee1

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cymatium Roding, 1798 is a small- to large-sized marine gastropod genus. Three species has been reported thus far for Cymatium in the Korean waters. In general, Cymatium encausticum (Reeve, 1844 is known to occur in tropical seawaters including the Philippine Islands along with its congeners C. gutturnium, C. springsteeni, and C. exile. A single individual of the species was collected from Jejudo Island by SCUBA diving and morphological features were observed using a stereomicroscope. This is the first study to report the occurrence of Cymatium encausticum (Reeve, 1844 from the Korean waters, providing a detailed description of the species with the illustration for the shell morphology.

  7. The first record of Anisus vorticulus (Troschel, 1834 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Croatia?

    Luboš Beran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A threatened planorbid gastropod Anisus vorticulus (Troschel, 1834, listed in the EU Habitat Directive, was found in the Krka National Park in Croatia in August 2009. This find is the first known record at least in the western part of Croatia belonging to the Adriatic Sea drainage area.

  8. Limnaea peregrina Clessin, 1882, Synonym of Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae

    W Lobato Paraense

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A description is given of the shell, radula, renal region, reproductive system and egg capsules of topotypic specimens of limnaea peregrina Clessin, 1882. This investigation intends contributing to define the specific identity of that nominal species. A close anatomical comparison with Lymnaea columella Say, 1817 from Michigan, USA, shows that both forms are indistinguishable, giving support to previous inferences from some authors. Data on egg hatching are presented.

  9. New Pelagic Gastropoda Species Encountered on the Turkish Coast of the Levant Sea

    ÇEV?K, Cem; Kideys, Ahmet; TOKLU, Benin; Ergüden, Deniz; SARIHAN, Ercan

    2006-01-01

    In this work, 9 species of pelagic gastropods were studied during bottom trawling and net sampling for zooplankton of Akkuyu in Erdemli and in ?skenderun Bay (the northeastern Mediterranean). Among those, Pterotrachea hippocampus Phlippi, 1836, Cavolinia tridentate (Forsskal, 1775), Limacina (Munthea) trochiformis (D'Orbigny, 1836), and Corolla spectabilis (Dall, 1871) were first records for Turkish mollusk fauna, and the remaining, Atlanta peronii Lesuer, 1817, Firoloida desmarestia Les...

  10. First record of Calma gobioophaga Calado and Urgorri, 2002 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia in the Mediterranean Sea

    J. PRKIC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the nudibranch genus Calma were observed under stones at two Croatian localities while feeding on gobiid eggs. Some ambiguous morphological features compared with the original descriptions of the known species of the genus, C. glaucoides and C. gobioophaga, hampered an easy identification. Genetic data (COI and 16S sequences confirmed the distinction between the two species of the genus Calma, and allowed to unambiguously identify the Croatian specimens as Calma gobioophaga. This is the first record of this species for the Mediterranean and extends remarkably its distribution range. Finally, the eggs fed by the Croatian specimens have been taxonomically identified by using the 12S rDNA marker as Gobius cobitis.

  11. Four marine digenean parasites of Austrolittorina spp. (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) in New Zealand: morphological and molecular data

    O'Dwyer, K.; Blasco-Costa, I.; Poulin, R.; Faltýnková, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 2 (2014), s. 133-152. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematode parasites * life cycles * intertidal ecosystems * phylogenetics analysis * SW Iceland * Notocotylidae * history * snail Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014

  12. El género echinolittorina habe, 1956 (gastropoda: littorinidae) de los ecosistemas rocosos de la costa pacífica colombiana

    ÁLVARO GIRALDO-CARDONA; FANNY LORENA GONZÁLEZ-ZAPATA; LUZ ÁNGELA LÓPEZ DE MESA-AGUDELO; EDGARDO LONDOÑO-CRUZ; JAIME R. CANTERA-K.

    2014-01-01

    Se analizaron taxonómicamente por medio de caracteres de la concha 233 especímenes del género Echinolittorina (familia Littorinidae) recolectados en ecosistemas rocosos del Pacífico colombiano. Los especímenes revisados se encuentran depositados en la Colección de Referencia de Biología Marina de la Universidad del Valle (CRBMUV) y provienen de localidades en los departamentos de Valle del Cauca (Bahía Málaga, Bahía de Buenaventura), Cauca (Isla Gorgona, Guapi) y Nariño (Mulatos, Parque Nacio...

  13. Sexual Maturity and Sex Determination in Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda: Strombidae

    Zaidi Che Cob

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Merambong Shoal, Johor Straits, Malaysia. Strombus canarium was the most abundant herbivorous mollusc within the study site, highly prized as seafood and contributes to the economics of the locals. Ontogenetic development of sex characters and sexual maturity were determined via logistic curve analysis, using shell-length and/or lip thickness as predictors. The minimum shell-length at which sex characters appeared was at 30 mm in males and 32 mm in females and both sexes can definitely be determined at more than 41 mm shell-length. The SX50 (probability of individuals can be sexed is 0.5 was at 38.33 ± 0.41 mm for male and at 37.15 ± 0.31 mm for female. The SL50 (length at which the probability of individuals are matured is 0.5 was at 54.14 ± 0.86 mm shell-lengths for males and at 58.51 ± 1.02 mm shell-lengths for females. The LIP50 (lip thickness at which the probability of individuals are matured is 0.5 values on the other hand was about 0.69 ± 0.0003 and 0.80 ± 0.014 mm for males and females respectively. The findings indicate that sexual dimorphisms occurred at very early stage in S. canarium life history.

  14. Population ecology and fishery of Cittarium pica (Gastropoda: Trochidae on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica

    Stefanie Schmidt

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The West Indian Topshell Cittarium pica is artisanally collected on rocky shores along the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica. There are neither data on the state of its exploitation nor exist any regulation of the fishery. From October 2000 to March 2001, the population dynamics of this species were studied at an unexploited and two exploited sites to determine the present impact of the fishery on the resource. Average population density with 14 ind./m² about three times higher at the unexploited than at the exploited sites. Length-frequeney histograms showed a strong shift towards smaller specimens at the exploited sites, which is also reflected in significantly higher rates of total mortality (Z = 4.05 and 4.47 when compared to the unexploited site (Z = 1.47. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated as k = 0.19-0.28 (yr-1 and L∞= 104 mm. No significant differences were found among sites. From these values a range of the growth performance index Φ was computed ( Φ = 3.31-3.48 which lies at the lower end of the values reported for other tropical marine gastropods. The size at first maturity for both sexes combined was estimated as 29.20 ± 1.14 mm. Exploitation rates >0.6 for both exploited sites and a large fraction of small specimens (El caracol Cittarium pica (West Indian Top Shell es recolectado en forma artesanal en zonas rocosas de la costa Caribe de Costa Rica. A la fecha no hay datos sobre esta extracción ni existe regulación de su pesquería. La dinámica poblacional de esta especie fue evaluada, desde octubre del 2000 hasta marzo del 2001, en dos sitios en los cuales la especies es recolectada (Playa Negra y Cahuita, y en un sitio protegido de la actividad pesquera (Isla Uvita. La densidad promedio de la población fue 14 ind/m², cerca de tres veces más alta en el sitio protegido que en los dos no protegidos. Los histogramas de frecuencia de tallas mostraron un fuerte sesgo hacia los ejemplares más pequeños en los sitios no protegidos, lo que se refleja también en tasas de mortalidad total significativamente más altas (Z = 4.05 y 4.47 cuando se les compara con el sitio protegido (Z = 1.47. Los parámetros de crecimiento según von Bertalanffy fueron estirnados en k = 0.19 - 0.28 / año y L∞= 104 mm. No se encontró diferencias significativas entre los sitios. A partir de estos valores el índice Φ (performance index Φ estuvo en un αmbito de 3.31 a 3.48, el cual se encuentra entre los valores bajos informados para otros gastrópodos tropicales. La edad a la primera madurez sexual para ambos sexos combinados fue estimada en 29.20 ± 1.14 mm. Las tasas de explotación fueron mayores a 0.6 para los sitios no protegidos y un alto componente de ejemplares pequeños (menos de 30 mm en las recolectas, sugieren una sobre explotación de los adultos y sobrepesca en el reclutamiento. Con base en la estimación de la captura máxima sostenible (maximum sustainable yield, se recomienda algunas medidas reguladores de la pesquería como el control de un tamaño mínimo de desernbarque de 40 mm y la veda de la pesquería durante los rneses de reproducción (de julio a noviembre.

  15. A contribution to distribution of genus Stagnicola and Catascopia (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae in the Czech Republic

    Luboš Beran

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a contribution to the distribution of genus Stagnicola Jeffreys, 1830 and Catascopia Meier-Brook & Bargues, 2002 in the Czech Republic. Occurrence of four species has been confirmed in the Czech Republic so far. Two species – Stagnicola corvus (Gmelin, 1791 and S. palustris (O.F. Müller, 1774 (including S. turricula (Held, 1836, are widespread and common especially in lowlands along bigger rivers (Labe, Ohře, Morava, Dyje, Odra. Occurrence of S. fuscus (Pfeiffer, 1821 is restricted to the territory of the north-western part of Bohemia and Catascopia occulta (Jackiewicz, 1959 is a rare species with only two known sites.

  16. A contribution to distribution of genus Stagnicola and Catascopia (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in the Czech Republic

    Luboš Beran

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings a contribution to the distribution of genus Stagnicola Jeffreys, 1830 and Catascopia Meier-Brook & Bargues, 2002 in the Czech Republic. Occurrence of four species has been confirmed in the Czech Republic so far. Two species – Stagnicola corvus (Gmelin, 1791) and S. palustris (O.F. Müller, 1774) (including S. turricula (Held, 1836)), are widespread and common especially in lowlands along bigger rivers (Labe, Ohře, Morava, Dyje, Odra). Occurrence of S. fuscus (Pfeiffer, 1821) ...

  17. A new species of Leiostracus from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicidae

    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small Atlantic Rainforest fragment near the city of Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil, an area known for a high diversity of land snails. It is described herein as Leiostracus fetidus sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its color pattern of irregular brown to black axial stripes on a white to yellow background, a reddish axial band "separating" the white peristome from the rest of the shell and a broad brown spiral band surrounding the umbilical region. Other diagnostic features include a relatively small size, a proto columellar fold and two very weak folds delimiting the basal region of the aperture. This discovery is a reminder of how little this fauna is known and also an alarm for proper conservation of these forest fragments.

  18. A new species of Leiostracus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicoidea) from Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Salvador, Rodrigo B.; Daniel C. Cavallari

    2014-01-01

    A remarkable new species of pulmonate land snail was found in the collection of the Senckenberg Forschungninstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt (Frankfurt am Main, Germany) and is described here as Leiostracus faerie sp. nov. It can be easily identified by its small and translucent shell with fine axial light brown bands and its protoconch sculpture. It was collected in the Rio Doce ("Doce River") region in Espírito Santo, Brazil, an area known for a high diversity and endemicity of land snails....

  19. A new species of Leiostracus from Bahia, Brazil (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicidae)

    Salvador, Rodrigo B.; Daniel C. Cavallari

    2014-01-01

    A remarkable new species of pulmonate snail was recently collected in a small Atlantic Rainforest fragment near the city of Canavieiras, state of Bahia, Brazil, an area known for a high diversity of land snails. It is described herein as Leiostracus fetidus sp. nov. and can be easily identified by its color pattern of irregular brown to black axial stripes on a white to yellow background, a reddish axial band "separating" the white peristome from the rest of the shell and a broad brown spiral...

  20. The Pyramidellidae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia of Norway and adjacent waters. A taxonomic review

    Tore Høisæter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This monograph gives a taxonomic treatment of all 54 ‘species’ of Pyramidellidae reported from Norwegian and adjacent waters. Two species, Parthenina wikanderi n.sp.and Eulimella frielei n.sp., are described as new and three are ‘resurrected’ from synonymy. Nine previously described species are reported as new records for Norway, while three species are removed from the Norwegian fauna list. All species are illustrated with LM photographs (and, in a few cases, SEM photographs, and drawings of soft parts and operculae when available. An attempt is made to upgrade the generic taxonomy of the species included.

  1. A new species of Leiostracus (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Orthalicoidea from Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Rodrigo B. Salvador

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable new species of pulmonate land snail was found in the collection of the Senckenberg Forschungninstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt (Frankfurt am Main, Germany and is described here as Leiostracus faerie sp. nov. It can be easily identified by its small and translucent shell with fine axial light brown bands and its protoconch sculpture. It was collected in the Rio Doce ("Doce River" region in Espírito Santo, Brazil, an area known for a high diversity and endemicity of land snails. This discovery shows how little this fauna is known and reinforces the importance of museum collections in the study of biodiversity and conservation.

  2. Burnaia Miller, 2001 (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Nudibranchia): a facelinid genus with an Aeolidiidae's outward appearance

    Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M.; Cervera, Juan Lucas

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, several morphological and molecular analyses have been undertaken to study the phylogenetic systematics of Aeolidiidae members. The monospecific genus Burnaia could not be included in the previous analysis, due to the lack of material. This study includes two specimens of Burnaia helicochorda from Australia and places them in their systematic position using two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes (COI and 16S, and H3, respectively). A description of its anatomy is also included with colour pictures of the animal and scanning electron micrographs of radula and jaws. Based on our results, B. helicochorda does not belong to Aeolidiidae since it appears nested among some facelinids.

  3. Not so sluggish: the success of the Felimare picta complex (Gastropoda, Nudibranchia) crossing Atlantic biogeographic barriers

    Levy, André

    2016-01-01

    The molecular phylogeny of the Atlanto-Mediterranean species of the genus Felimare, particularly those attributed to the species F. picta, was inferred using two mitochondrial markers (16S and COI). A recent revision of the Chromodorididae clarified the taxonomic relationships at the family level redefining the genus Felimare. However, conflicting taxonomic classifications have been proposed for a restrict group of taxa with overlapping morphological characteristics and geographical distributions designated here as the Felimare picta complex. Three major groups were identified: one Mediterranean and amphi-Atlantic group; a western Atlantic group and a tropical eastern Atlantic group. F. picta forms a paraphyletic group since some subspecies are more closely related with taxa traditionaly classified as independent species (e.g. F. zebra) than with other subspecies with allopatric distributions (e.g. F. picta picta and F. picta tema). Usually, nudibranchs have adhesive demersal eggs, short planktonic larval phases and low mobility as adults unless rafting on floating materials occurs. Surprisingly however, the phylogeny of the F. picta complex suggests that they successfully cross main Atlantic biogeographic barriers including the mid-Atlantic barrier. This ability to cross different biogeographic barriers may be related to F. picta’s distinct life history and ecological traits. Compared to other Chromodorididae F. picta has larger eggs and planktotrophic larvae which could be related to a longer planktonic phase. PMID:26823995

  4. Recent High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Studies on Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda)

    Bernard Fried; Aditya Reddy

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the recent high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) literature on the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on certain analytes in the medically important freshwater snail, Biomphalaria glabrata. The analytes studied were lipids, lipophilic pigments, amino acids, and carbohydrates. As determined by HPTLC, various factors, such as larval parasitism, estivation, temperature changes, and others, alter the metabolism of the snail and cause significant changes in the...

  5. Molecular phylogeny of the Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Panpulmonata) supports independent terrestrial invasions.

    Romero, Pedro E; Pfenninger, Markus; Kano, Yasunori; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2016-04-01

    Gastropods of the family Ellobiidae are an interesting group in which to study transitions from intertidal to terrestrial realms. However, the phylogenetic relationships within this family still lack resolution. We present a phylogenetic hypothesis of the Ellobiidae based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylograms. We used nuclear (18S, 28S, H3) and mitochondrial (16S, 12S, COI) data, increasing the numbers of markers and data, and making this the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of the family to date. Our results support phylogenetic hypotheses derived from morphological data, and provide a supported framework to evaluate the internal relationships within Ellobiidae. The resulting phylogenetic trees support the previous hypothesis that the Ellobiidae are monophyletic only if the Trimusculinae (Otina, Smeagol and Trimusculus) are considered part of this family. In addition, we found that the Carychiinae, Ellobiinae and Pythiinae are reciprocally monophyletic and closely related, with the Carychiinae as sister group to Ellobiinae. Relationships within Melampodinae and Pedipedinae and their phylogenetic positions remain unresolved. Land invasion by the Ellobiidae occurred independently in Carychiinae and Pythia during different geological times (Mesozoic and Cenozoic, respectively). Diversification in the family does not appear to be related to past climate and biotic changes, neither the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary nor the lowering of the sea level in the Oligocene. PMID:26724408

  6. Seguenziidae (Gastropoda: Vetigastropoda) from SE Brazil collected by the Marion Dufresne (MD55) expedition .

    Salvador, Rodrigo B; Cavallari, Daniel C; Simone, Luiz R L

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with the vetigastropods of the family Seguenziidae collected by the Marion Dufresne (MD55) expedition in SE Brazil, reporting the occurrence of eight species. The following species have their geographical range extended: Ancistrobasis costulata, Carenzia carinata, Carenzia trispinosa, Hadroconus altus, Seguenzia elegans and Seguenzia formosa. Two new species, Halystina umberlee sp. nov. and Seguenzia triteia sp. nov., are described. PMID:25544464

  7. Periwinkle (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) habitat selection and its impact upon microalgal populations

    APOLINÁRIO M.; Coutinho, R.; BAETA-NEVES M. H.

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines habitat selection and grazing pressure of the periwinkle Nodilittorina lineolata (Gmelin, 1791) on the rocky shore of Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil (lat. 23°S, long. 43°W). Transfer experiments suggest that periwinkles actively select the mid intertidal, where the cirripede Chthamalus bisinuatus Pilsbry is the dominant sessile invertebrate. We also conducted a caging experiment in the middle intertidal, manipulating grazers and light, to assess the impact of grazing u...

  8. Contribuição ao conhecimento dos Bulimulidae: cochlorina aurisleporis (Bruguiére, 1792 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Pedro D. Lanzieri

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Autoren bearbeiten in der vorliegenden Arbeit die bulimuliden Pulmonaten Cochlorina aurisleporis (Bruguiére, 1792, wobei sie insbesondere auf die anatomischen und histologischen Verhaeltnisse des Geschlechtsapparates eingehen und Schale, Kiefer und Lunge mit in die Betrachtung einbeziehen, um die Charaktere der Art anatomisch zu festigen.

  9. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  10. Periwinkle (Gastropoda: Littorinidae habitat selection and its impact upon microalgal populations

    APOLINÁRIO M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines habitat selection and grazing pressure of the periwinkle Nodilittorina lineolata (Gmelin, 1791 on the rocky shore of Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil (lat. 23°S, long. 43°W. Transfer experiments suggest that periwinkles actively select the mid intertidal, where the cirripede Chthamalus bisinuatus Pilsbry is the dominant sessile invertebrate. We also conducted a caging experiment in the middle intertidal, manipulating grazers and light, to assess the impact of grazing upon microalgal density. Grazing pressure significantly reduced microalgal abundance at the mid-intertidal level, suggesting that food availability plays an important role in the habitat selection of periwinkles on the studied shore.

  11. Ocorrência do bivalve exótico Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, no Brasil Occurrence of exotic bivalve Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad (Mollusca, Bivalvia, in Brazil

    José R. B. de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O molusco Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831, natural da América do Norte, foi localizado no litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, em 2004, trazido provavelmente por água de lastro de navios. Na região, sua distribuição atualmente abrange zonas estuarinas adjacentes ao Porto do Recife. Os organismos foram encontrados restritos à região entre-marés, formando agregados densos com até 176.800 ind./m².The mussel Mytilopsis leucophaeta (Conrad, 1831 is native to North America. It was found at Pernambuco Coast, northeastern Brazil, in 2004, probably brought by ships' ballast water. The distribution of this species has been now spread to estuarial area near Recife Harbour. They showed a clumped distribution with a maximum of 176,800 ind./m² only in the intertidal zone.

  12. Microscopic Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System in Echinolittorina peruviana (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) Anatomía Microscópica del Sistema Reproductor Masculino de Echinolittorina peruviana (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda)

    Viviana M Castillo; Donald I Brown

    2008-01-01

    Echinolittorina peruviana (Lamarck, 1822), a gonochoric representative of the Littorinidae on the SE Pacific coast, has a male reproductive system adapted for internal fertilization. We describe this system at both macro- and microscopic levéis, particularly the compartmentalized organization of the gonad, and the morphology of the penis. The male reproductive system has a variegated conical gonad-digestive gland complex. The gonad presents three compartments, 1) gametogenic acinar among the ...

  13. The interference of methods in the collection of teredinids (Mollusca, Bivalvia in mangrove habitats Interferência de métodos na coleta de teredinídios (Mollusca, Bivalvia em habitats de manguezais

    Rosa M. V. Leonel

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the estuary of the Mamanguape River (Paraíba, Brazil, a new collection technique was developed and applied with virgin poles of mangrove trees Avicennia schaueriana (Verbenaceae, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae, and Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae, taking into account wood preference, water salinity and depth influence during teredinid larval settlement. Sets of poles were vertically fixed in the riverbed at three sites along a decreasing salinity gradient, where they stayed for four months. The poles were collected and divided into upper, median, and lower segments, in agreement with different immersion regimes. An increase of 239% was obtained in the number of individuals when compared to a previous study in the same area using a different methodology. The species Teredo bartschi (Clapp, 1923, Nausitora fusticula (Jeffreys, 1860 and Bankia fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931 were registered in both studies, and the species Psiloteredo healdi (Bartsch, 1931 is here registered for the first time as occurring in that estuary. The species Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920, previously registered on tree branches of the mangrove habitat, was not found in the present work. Bankia fimbriatula, the most abundant species, did not show preference for any substratum but occurred significantly on the lower segment of the poles. N. fusticula, second in abundance, preferred to settle on poles of A. schaueriana and on any of the three segments. Aiming to assess the habitat variations, a more accurate study on teredinids diversity in mangrove ecosystems should be performed through a concomitant analysis from tree branches of the mangrove habitat, as well as from poles of mangrove trees or panels made of pine wood or mangrove trees wood. These collection devices should be maintained along a decreasing salinity gradient exposed to different tide levels.Contemplando a preferência pelo tipo de madeira, a influência da profundidade e da salinidade durante assentamento larval de teredinídeos, uma nova técnica de coleta foi aplicada e desenvolvida no estuário do rio Mamanguape (Paraíba, Brasil, utilizando varas virgens de três espécies de árvores do manguezal: Avicennia schaueriana (Verbenaceae, Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa (Combretaceae. Em três estações demarcadas ao longo do gradiente decrescente de salinidade, conjuntos de varas foram verticalmente fixados nas margens do rio. Após quatro meses, as varas eram coletadas e divididas em três segmentos (superior, médio e inferior, de acordo com os regimes de imersão a que foram submetidas. Comparativamente aos dados obtidos por um estudo anterior na mesma área, com outras metodologias de coleta, foi obtido um aumento de 239% no número de indivíduos coletados com a nova técnica. Embora as espécies Teredo bartschi (Clapp, 1923, Nausitora fusticula (Jeffreys, 1860 e Bankia fimbriatula Moll & Roch, 1931 tenham ocorrido nos dois estudos, o teredinídeo Psiloteredo healdi (Bartsch, 1931 tem sua presença registrada pela primeira vez neste estuário. Tendo sido previamente registrada em ramos de árvores do manguezal, Neoteredo reynei (Bartsch, 1920 não foi coletada no presente trabalho. Sendo a espécie mais abundante, B. fimbriatula não mostrou preferência de assentamento em nenhum dos substratos, ocorrendo significativamente associada ao segmento inferior das varas. Como segunda espécie mais abundante, N. fusticula mostrou preferência significativa de assentamento em A. schaueriana, ocorrendo indistintamente nos três segmentos das varas. Visando contemplar as variações do habitat e obter maior precisão de resultados, é recomendável que em estudos sobre a diversidade de teredinídeos, sejam incluídas análises concomitantes de troncos e ramos das árvores, com o uso de varas de árvores do manguezal ou de coletores artificiais feitos com pinho ou madeira de árvores do manguezal. Os coletores devem ser mantidos ao longo do gradiente de salinidade e expostos aos diferentes níveis das marés.

  14. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species for Cuba and Venezuela is discussed and some considerations about Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000 species complex are given.

  15. Distribucion arborea de los gastropodos cerithidea montagnei (mollusca potamidae y littorina Spp. (Mollusca, Littorinidae en el manglar de Mata de Limón, Costa Rica

    Édgar Suarez B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En el manglar de Mata de Limón, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, se estudió la distribución y preferencia por el susbtrato arbóreo de gastrópodos C. montagnei y Littorina spp. en cuatro especies de mangle, según la cantidad de moluscos observados en cada árbol y la cantidad de árboles con presencia o ausencia de ellos, en el período de setiembre de 1982 a junio de 1983. El orden de preferencia mostrado por ambos grupos de moluscos fue: 1 Rhizophora mangle, 2 Avicennia germinans, 3Pelliciera rhizophorae y 4 Laguncularia racemosa. Se discuten las posibles razones de esta preferencia. Cerithidea montagnei presentó una mayor distribución horizontal, así como una mayor abundancia respecto de Littorina spp.

  16. Distribucion arborea de los gastropodos cerithidea montagnei (mollusca potamidae) y littorina Spp. (Mollusca, Littorinidae) en el manglar de Mata de Limón, Costa Rica

    Édgar Suarez B; Álvaro Castaing R

    2016-01-01

    En el manglar de Mata de Limón, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, se estudió la distribución y preferencia por el susbtrato arbóreo de gastrópodos C. montagnei y Littorina spp. en cuatro especies de mangle, según la cantidad de moluscos observados en cada árbol y la cantidad de árboles con presencia o ausencia de ellos, en el período de setiembre de 1982 a junio de 1983. El orden de preferencia mostrado por ambos grupos de moluscos fue: 1) Rhizophora mangle, 2) Avicennia germinans, 3)Pelliciera rhizoph...

  17. Gloquídio de Diplodon martensi (lhering) (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) e seu ciclo parasitário The glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering) (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae) and its parasitic cycle

    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    1999-01-01

    Conchological and anatomical studies of the glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering, 1893) were performed on samples collected in a small river, tributary from the Caí River, that belong to the Jacuí River sub-basin in south-eastern Brazil. The parasitic development of the glochidium was observed in laboratory on a small cichlid fish Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel, 1870).

  18. Cholinesterase activities as potential biomarkers: characterization in two freshwater snails, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Mollusca, Hydrobiidae, Smith 1889) and Valvata piscinalis (Mollusca, Valvatidae, Müller 1774)

    Gagnaire, B.; Geffard, O.; Xuereb, B.; Margoum, C.; Garric, J.

    2008-01-01

    Anticholinesterase insecticides constitute a major portion of modern synthetic pesticides and the assessment of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition is widely used as a specific biomarker for evaluating the exposure of non-target organisms to these pollutants. However, most studies on this biomarker were developed on vertebrates and among invertebrates, gastropod mollusks are rarely used. However, gastropods are important members of aquatic habitats and therefore present a high ecological relevanc...

  19. Squid catches (Mollusca: Cephalopoda by industrialfishing landed in Santos: comparison after 4 decades. Captura de lulas (Mollusca: Cephalopoda pela pesca industrial desembarcada em Santos: Comparação após 4 décadas.

    M. A. Gasalla

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the temporal variation of fishery resources’ landed catch is essential to monitor changes and alterations inthe fisheries and related aquatic ecosystems. Thus, analyzing catches after 4 decades represents a comparisonbetween an initial industrial fishing off Southeastern Brazil and a present exploitation phase, considered as decline, andis particularly uncommon due to the atypical data availability. Through the analysis of 1959 and 1999 Santos landing data,this study aims to identify: (a fleets and gears where squids occurred, with related proportions, (b differences in thesquid’s fishery between the two periods, and (c squids fishing grounds used by the industrial fleets in both periods.Squids were caught by pink-shrimp bottom-trawlers, but also occurred in the sea-bob shrimp fleet, pair-bottom trawlersand purse-seiners, especially in 1959. Differences between both periods can be clearly seen. In 1959, squid fishingareas were more restricted and in lower depths, and in 1999, the areas were broader and deeper. The decrease offishing boats, and the significant increase of squids catch volume can be verified, where its relative abundance (kg/towwas 400 times greater in 1999, showing a great availability increase of those resources in the later period or differenceson exploitation technology between periods. The existence of both “bottom-up” control mechanism (oceanographicvariation-recruitment-fishery production within the fishery ecosystem, and “top-down” control (fishermen-fisheries-structure of marine communities should be taken into account in the interpretation on the squids abundance variation. Analysis of the temporal variation of fishery resources’ landed catch is essential to monitor changes and alterations inthe fisheries and related aquatic ecosystems. Thus, analyzing catches after 4 decades represents a comparisonbetween an initial industrial fishing off Southeastern Brazil and a present exploitation phase, considered as decline, andis particularly uncommon due to the atypical data availability. Through the analysis of 1959 and 1999 Santos landing data,this study aims to identify: (a fleets and gears where squids occurred, with related proportions, (b differences in thesquid’s fishery between the two periods, and (c squids fishing grounds used by the industrial fleets in both periods.Squids were caught by pink-shrimp bottom-trawlers, but also occurred in the sea-bob shrimp fleet, pair-bottom trawlersand purse-seiners, especially in 1959. Differences between both periods can be clearly seen. In 1959, squid fishingareas were more restricted and in lower depths, and in 1999, the areas were broader and deeper. The decrease offishing boats, and the significant increase of squids catch volume can be verified, where its relative abundance (kg/towwas 400 times greater in 1999, showing a great availability increase of those resources in the later period or differenceson exploitation technology between periods. The existence of both “bottom-up” control mechanism (oceanographicvariation-recruitment-fishery production within the fishery ecosystem, and “top-down” control (fishermen-fisheries-structure of marine communities should be taken into account in the interpretation on the squids abundance variation.

  20. Gloquídio de Diplodon martensi (lhering (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae e seu ciclo parasitário The glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hyriidae and its parasitic cycle

    Maria Cristina Dreher Mansur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Conchological and anatomical studies of the glochidium of Diplodon martensi (lhering, 1893 were performed on samples collected in a small river, tributary from the Caí River, that belong to the Jacuí River sub-basin in south-eastern Brazil. The parasitic development of the glochidium was observed in laboratory on a small cichlid fish Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel, 1870.

  1. M?kkýši (Mollusca) hrad? jako ekologického fenoménu (?eská republika) Molluscs (Mollusca) of castles as an ecological phenomenon (Czech Republic)

    Lucie Ju?i?ková

    2005-01-01

    Molluscan communities were studied at 123 castles in the Czech Republic. Altogether 70 % of the land snails of the Czech Republic were found at these sites. A complete literature review on castle-related molluscan fauna was performed for the Czech Republic. Castes represent significant refuges for many species, as indicated by the high species diversity and the presence of rare (21 % of Red List species) and geographically isolated species (26 % of all species). Castles present a characterist...

  2. Observations on the morphology of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Ampullariidae) Observações sobre a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Mollusca, Ampullaridae)

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the morpholgy of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) collected at its type locality. The shell is globose, moderately heavy, horn-colored with brown spiral bands; apex subelevated; 4 - 5 rounded whorls increasing in diameter rather rapidly, separated by deep suture. Aperture large and ovoid; outer lip sharp; umbilicus narrow and deep; operculum concentric, corneous. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.74 - 0.83 (mean 0.78); spire length/shell length = 0.10 - 0.18 (mean 0.13); ...

  3. Observations on the morphology of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Mollusca, Ampullariidae Observações sobre a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Mollusca, Ampullaridae

    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morpholgy of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 collected at its type locality. The shell is globose, moderately heavy, horn-colored with brown spiral bands; apex subelevated; 4 - 5 rounded whorls increasing in diameter rather rapidly, separated by deep suture. Aperture large and ovoid; outer lip sharp; umbilicus narrow and deep; operculum concentric, corneous. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.74 - 0.83 (mean 0.78; spire length/shell length = 0.10 - 0.18 (mean 0.13; aperture length/shell length = 0.70 - 0.77 (mean 0.73. The animal is longisiphonate. Renal organ brownish with marked invagination at its right edge. Ureter elongated with its long axis transverse to the main axis of the kidney. The radula is taenioglossate (2.1.1.1.2 and has on average 35 transverse rows of teeth. The form and arrangement of the radula teeth are nearly the same as in other Ampullariidae. The testis is cream-colored and lies in the first three whorls of the spire. Spermiduct uniformly narrow, running to the base of the spire. Seminal vesicle whitish, slightly pressed dorsoventrally. Prostate cylindric and thick, similar in color to the testis. Penis whiplike, with a closed circular spermiduct. Penis pouch ovoid completely envelping the penis. Penis sheath elongated, broad prosimally, tapering distally. Its inner surface shows a longitudinal channel along its proximal half and two glands, one on the middle and the other apical. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules situated on the surface of the digestive gland. Oviduct slender running along the columellar axis toward the base of the spire. Seminal receptalble tubiform, thick-walled and rounded proximally. Albumen gland large, pink, enclosing the receptacle and the spiral capsule gland. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Neste trabalho e estudada a morfologia de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 baseada em material coletado na localidade-tipo. Concha com espessura moderada, globosa, castanha, com faixas espirais castanhas-escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros arredondados crescendo rapidamente em diâmetro, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande oval; lábio externo simples; umbigo pequeno e profundo; opérculo concêntrico, córneo. Razão: largura da concha/comprimento da concha = 0.74 - 0.83 (média 0.78; comprimento da espira/comprimento da concha = 0.10 - 0.18 (média 0.13; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha = 0.70 - 0.77 (média 0.73. Animal com sifão bem desenvolvido. A rádula é tenioglossa (2.1.1.1.2 e tem em média 35 fileiras transversais de dentes. A forma e a disposição dos dentes radulares são semelhantes ao padrão dos ampularídeos. Rim de cor castanha apresentando uma invaginação acentuada na parede direita. Ureter alongado e transversal ao eixo principal do rim. Testículo constituído por uma massa cor creme, ocupando as três primeiras voltas da espira. Espermiduto estreito e uniforme, correndo para a base da espira. Vesícula seminal esbranquiçada levemente achatada dorso-ventralmente. Próstata cilíndrica e compacta com coloração semelhante à do testículo. Pênis em forma de chicote com canal espermático fechado e de contorno circular. Bolsa do pênis ovalada, envolvendo-o completamente. Bainha do pênis alongada tendo sua largura diminuída gradualmente da base para a extremidade; sua superfície interna apresenta um canal mediano em sua metade proximal e duas glândulas, uma mediana e outra apical. Ovário constituído por túbulos ramificados branco-amarelados situados superficilamente sobre a glândula digestiva. Oviduto estreito correndo pelo eixo columelar até a base da espira. Receptáculo seminal tubular com parede espessa e extremidade proximal alargada. Glândula de albume volumosa e rosada envolvendo o receptáculo seminal e a glândula da casca em espiral. Vestígio do aparelho copulador masculino (pênis e sua bainha presente em todas as fêmeas examinadas.

  4. Verspreiding en habitats van Ceratophallus natalensis (Mollusca: Planorbidae in Suid-Afrika Distribution and habitats of Ceratophallus natalensis (Mollusca: Planorbidae in South Africa

    K. N. de Kock

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel handel oor die geografiese verspreiding en habitats van Ceratophallus natalensis soos weerspieël deur die 1 797 monsters wat tans in die databasis van die Nasionale Varswater- slakversameling (NVWSV opgeneem is. Hierdie spesie is in al 14 verskillende waterliggaamtipes wat in die databasis verteenwoordig word, aangetref. Die grootste getal monsters was afkomstig van damme, spruite en riviere. Habitats met standhoudende, stilstaande en varswater waarvan die substratum oorwegend uit modder bestaan het, was die beste verteenwoordig. Die resultate van ’n geïntegreerde besluitnemingsboom- en effekgrootte-analise het getoon dat temperatuur, hoogte bo seevlak en waterliggame as sodanig, ’n deurslaggewende rol in die gedokumenteerde geografiese verspreiding van hierdie spesie in Suid-Afrika gespeel het. ’n Temperatuurindeks wat bereken is, het getoon dat C. natalensis ook goed toegerus is om habitats in die koeler streke van Suid-Afrika te bevolk. Gesien in die lig van die wye geografiese verspreiding van hierdie spesie in hierdie land en dat dit elders in Afrika bevind is dat dit serkarieë van verskeie helmintspesies onder natuurlike toestande kan vrystel, word dit aanbeveel dat sy rol as tussengasheer in Suid-Afrika deeglik ondersoek behoort te word.Species of the genus Ceratophallus are known only from some islands in the western Indian Ocean and Africa, where they occur in Eritrea and the area extending southwards and westwards into the Western Cape of South Africa. The most recent classification recognises nine species of this genus of which only two, namely Ceratophallus natalensis (Krauss and Ceratophallus gibbonsi (Nelson occur in South Africa. Although partially sympatric, C. gibbonsi is largely associated with a tropical climate and perennial water-bodies while C. natalensis is fairly common in cooler areas and are often found in ephemeral rain pools. This article focuses on the geographical distribution and habitats of C. natalensis, the most widespread species of the genus, as reflected by the data on record in the National Freshwater Snail Collection (NFSC. Details pertaining to the habitats of 1 797 samples of C. natalensis as recorded at the time of collection were extracted from the database of the NFSC. In view of the finding of Brown1 that C. natalensis and C. gibbonsi are partly sympatric, but that the latter is associated with fully tropical climatic areas, samples of Ceratophallus collected in loci ( 1 / 16 th square degrees that fall within the altitude interval ranging from 0-500 m, were selected for closer investigation. A number of 153 samples from 64 loci falling within this altitude interval was subsequently identified as C. natalensis. The number of loci in which the 1 797 collection sites were located, was distributed in intervals of mean annual air temperature and rainfall, as well as intervals of mean altitude, to illustrate the frequency of occurrence within specific intervals. A temperature index was calculated for all mollusc species in the database from their frequencies of occurrence within selected temperature intervals and the results were used to rank them in order of their association with low to high climatic temperatures. Chi-square values were calculated to evaluate the significance of the difference between the frequency of occurrence in, on, or at the different options for each variable. Additionally, an effect size value was calculated to determine the significance of the effect of all the different variables discussed in this paper on the geographical distribution of C. natalensis in South Africa. A multivariate analysis in the form of a decision tree was also constructed. This is a statistical model that enables the selection and ranking of those variables that can maximally discriminate between the frequency of occurrence of a given species under specific conditions as compared to all other mollusc species in the database.The 1 797 samples of C. natalensis of which the collection sites could be located on a 1:250 000 topo-cadastral map

  5. Evolution of poecilogony from planktotrophy: cryptic speciation, phylogeography, and larval development in the gastropod genus Alderia.

    Ellingson, Ryan A; Krug, Patrick J

    2006-11-01

    Poecilogony, a rare phenomenon in marine invertebrates, occurs when alternative larval morphs differing in dispersal potential or trophic mode are produced from a single genome. Because both poecilogony and cryptic species are prevalent among sea slugs in the suborder Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), molecular data are needed to confirm cases of variable development and to place them in a phylogenetic context. The nominal species Alderia modesta produces long-lived, feeding larvae throughout the North Atlantic and Pacific, but in California can also produce short-lived larvae that metamorphose without feeding. We collected morphological, developmental, and molecular data for Alderia from 17 sites spanning the eastern and western Pacific and North Atlantic. Estuaries south of Bodega Harbor, California, contained a cryptic species (hereafter Alderia sp.) with variable development, sister to the strictly planktotrophic A. modesta. The smaller Alderia sp. seasonally toggled between planktotrophy and lecithotrophy, with some individuals differing in development but sharing mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. The sibling species overlapped in Tomales Bay, California, but showed no evidence of hybridization; laboratory mating trials suggest postzygotic isolation has arisen. Intra- and interspecific divergence times were estimated using a molecular clock calibrated with geminate sacoglossans. Speciation occurred about 4.1 million years ago during a major marine radiation in the eastern Pacific, when large inland embayments in California may have isolated ancestral populations. Atlantic and Pacific A. modesta diverged about 1.7 million years ago, suggesting trans-Arctic gene flow was interrupted by Pleistocene glaciation. Both Alderia species showed evidence of late Pleistocene population expansion, but the southern Alderia sp. likely experienced a more pronounced bottleneck. Reduced body size may have incurred selection against obligate planktotrophy in Alderia sp. by limiting fecundity in the face of high larval mortality rates in warm months. Alternatively, poecilogony may be an adaptive response to seasonal opening of estuaries, facilitating dispersal by long-lived larvae. An improved understanding of the forces controlling seasonal shifts in development in Alderia sp. may yield insight into the evolutionary forces promoting transitions to nonfeeding larvae. PMID:17236422

  6. Functional chloroplasts in metazoan cells - a unique evolutionary strategy in animal life

    Krug Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among metazoans, retention of functional diet-derived chloroplasts (kleptoplasty is known only from the sea slug taxon Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia. Intracellular maintenance of plastids in the slug's digestive epithelium has long attracted interest given its implications for understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis. However, photosynthetic ability varies widely among sacoglossans; some species have no plastid retention while others survive for months solely on photosynthesis. We present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sacoglossa and a survey of kleptoplasty from representatives of all major clades. We sought to quantify variation in photosynthetic ability among lineages, identify phylogenetic origins of plastid retention, and assess whether kleptoplasty was a key character in the radiation of the Sacoglossa. Results Three levels of photosynthetic activity were detected: (1 no functional retention; (2 short-term retention lasting about one week; and (3 long-term retention for over a month. Phylogenetic analysis of one nuclear and two mitochondrial loci revealed reciprocal monophyly of the shelled Oxynoacea and shell-less Plakobranchacea, the latter comprising a monophyletic Plakobranchoidea and paraphyletic Limapontioidea. Only species in the Plakobranchoidea expressed short- or long-term kleptoplasty, most belonging to a speciose clade of slugs bearing parapodia (lateral flaps covering the dorsum. Bayesian ancestral character state reconstructions indicated that functional short-term retention arose once in the last common ancestor of Plakobranchoidea, and independently evolved into long-term retention in four derived species. Conclusion We propose a sequential progression from short- to long-term kleptoplasty, with different adaptations involved in each step. Short-term kleptoplasty likely arose as a deficiency in plastid digestion, yielding additional energy via the release of fixed carbon. Functional short-term retention was an apomorphy of the Plakobranchoidea, but the subsequent evolution of parapodia enabled slugs to protect kleptoplasts against high irradiance and further prolong plastid survival. We conclude that functional short-term retention was necessary but not sufficient for an adaptive radiation in the Plakobranchoidea, especially in the genus Elysia which comprises a third of all sacoglossan species. The adaptations necessary for long-term chloroplast survival arose independently in species feeding on different algal hosts, providing a valuable study system for examining the parallel evolution of this unique trophic strategy.

  7. Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements

    Zardoya Rafael

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mitochondrial genomes exhibit an unusually great variety of gene orders compared to other metazoan mitochondrial genome such as e.g those of vertebrates. Hence, gastropod mitochondrial genomes constitute a good model system to study patterns, rates, and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome rearrangement. However, this kind of evolutionary comparative analysis requires a robust phylogenetic framework of the group under study, which has been elusive so far for gastropods in spite of the efforts carried out during the last two decades. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of five mitochondrial genomes of gastropods (Pyramidella dolabrata, Ascobulla fragilis, Siphonaria pectinata, Onchidella celtica, and Myosotella myosotis, and we analyze them together with another ten complete mitochondrial genomes of gastropods currently available in molecular databases in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the main lineages of gastropods. Results Comparative analyses with other mollusk mitochondrial genomes allowed us to describe molecular features and general trends in the evolution of mitochondrial genome organization in gastropods. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (ME, MP, ML, BI arrived at a single topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in the group. Conclusion Four main lineages were identified within gastropods: Caenogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Patellogastropoda, and Heterobranchia. Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are sister taxa, as well as, Patellogastropoda and Heterobranchia. This result rejects the validity of the derived clade Apogastropoda (Caenogastropoda + Heterobranchia. The position of Patellogastropoda remains unclear likely due to long-branch attraction biases. Within Heterobranchia, the most heterogeneous group of gastropods, neither Euthyneura (because of the inclusion of P. dolabrata nor Pulmonata (polyphyletic nor Opisthobranchia (because of the inclusion S. pectinata were recovered as monophyletic groups. The gene order of the Vetigastropoda might represent the ancestral mitochondrial gene order for Gastropoda and we propose that at least three major rearrangements have taken place in the evolution of gastropods: one in the ancestor of Caenogastropoda, another in the ancestor of Patellogastropoda, and one more in the ancestor of Heterobranchia.

  8. Relationship between geographic distribution and morphological patterns in genus Cerion (Mollusca: Cerionidae in Cuba

    Alejandro Rodríguez-Ochoa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Cerion, with 90 species described for Cuba, is highly polytypical and it had been litle studied. The idea of the absence of and spatiall arrage-ment of morphotypes had been mantained even knowing that in other distri-bution areas several patterns had arise. The goal of this paper was to charac-terize morphological variation on the Cuban species of Cerion and to assess relationship between geographic distances between populations and shell shape differences. Geometric morphometry was used in 812 individuals from 45 species to describe shell shapes, using procrustes dis-tances, centroide size and principal warps, keeping shell lenght as size measure. Morphological distances and size differences was correlated to geographic dis-tances using Mantel tests. Size show a weak correla-tion (-0.12 but morphological and geographic distanc-es was correlated (0.401. A morphological variation pattern was detected in the second principal warp, ordering geographic groups in a way consistent to clinal variation of shell shapes described to Cerion in the eastern region of Caribbean. All results reinforce the need of a taxonomic review of the genus in Cuba.

  9. The surface morphology of the ctenidia of Spondylus spinosus (Mollusca: Bivalvia from Antalya Bay, Turkey

    Deniz Aksit

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface morphology of the ctenidia of Spondylus spinosus Schreibers, 1793 was studied with light and scanning electron microscopy for comparison with the gill structures of other bivalves. The demibranch of S. spinosus is heterorhabdic, with the principal filaments at the descending lamellae and ordinary filaments at the ascending lamellae. The gill lamellae have a prominent gauze-like structure at their distal part, with numerous groups of eight ordinary filaments. They bear ciliary arrays on their frontal surfaces and ostia at their latero-frontal surfaces. Frequent cirral plates form regular interfilamentary junctions. The description of the gill structure of S. spinosus presented here can be used to derive implications for the correlations among the structure, habitat and mode of life of this species. At a particular stage of its adult life, Spondylus spinosus could be used as a subject for biomonitoring studies in natural and experimental environments.

  10. The surface morphology of the ctenidia of Spondylus spinosus (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Antalya Bay, Turkey

    Deniz Aksit; Beria Falakali Mutaf; Ahmet Balci

    2013-01-01

    The surface morphology of the ctenidia of Spondylus spinosus Schreibers, 1793 was studied with light and scanning electron microscopy for comparison with the gill structures of other bivalves. The demibranch of S. spinosus is heterorhabdic, with the principal filaments at the descending lamellae and ordinary filaments at the ascending lamellae. The gill lamellae have a prominent gauze-like structure at their distal part, with numerous groups of eight ordinary filaments. They bear ciliary arra...

  11. The sensorial structures of Spondylus americanus Hermann,1781 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Spondylidae

    Marina Gomes Viana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult animals of Spondylus americanus were analyzed and specialized sensorial structures, the sensorial papillae and the eyes, were characterized. The sensorial papillae were projections on the edge of the mantle in form of light brown fingers which had function of percepting stimulus coming from the medium. They were constituted by loose conjunctive tissues with longitudinal muscular fibers and externally covered by ciliated cubic epithelium, which presented high amount of melanocytes that gave the coloration of the papillae. The eyes were more complex, being on small stalks histologically similar to the papillae. They exhibited a circular formate and had a metallic blue color. Theses structures were constituted by a corneo epithelium, cornea, lens, retina, basal stalk, periocular band and optical nerve. The eyes were distributed asymmetrically to both valves related with the sedentarism of the species. Right valve presented a smaller number of eyes when compared to left one.Foram examinados exemplares adultos de Spondylus. americanus Hermann, 1781 e estruturas especializadas na percepção de estímulos foram caracterizadas: as papilas sensoriais e os ocelos. As papilas sensoriais são projeções do bordo manto em forma de dedos de cor castanha e com a função de perceber estímulos vindo do meio, são constituídas por tecido conjuntivo frouxo contendo fibras musculares longitudinais e revestidas externamente por epitélio cúbico ciliado, o qual apresenta grande quantidade de melanócitos, que dão a coloração das papilas. Os ocelos são mais complexos, estando sobre pequenos pedúnculos histologicamente semelhante às papilas, têm formato circular e possui cor azul metálica. Constituí-se por um epitélio córneo, córnea, lente, retina, pedúnculo basal, banda periocular e nervo óptico. Os ocelos distribuem-se assimetricamente por ambas as valvas, o que está relacionado com o sedentarismo da espécie. A valva direita apresenta menor número de ocelos quando comparada a esquerda.

  12. The sensorial structures of Spondylus americanus Hermann,1781 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Spondylidae)

    Marina Gomes Viana; Cristina de Almeida Rocha-Barreira

    2007-01-01

    Adult animals of Spondylus americanus were analyzed and specialized sensorial structures, the sensorial papillae and the eyes, were characterized. The sensorial papillae were projections on the edge of the mantle in form of light brown fingers which had function of percepting stimulus coming from the medium. They were constituted by loose conjunctive tissues with longitudinal muscular fibers and externally covered by ciliated cubic epithelium, which presented high amount of melanocytes that g...

  13. The influence of thymol+DMSO on survival, growth and reproduction of Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca: Bradybaenidae

    Paula Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821, commonly known as the Asian trampsnail, is a terrestrial snail native to Asia, introduced in other regions of the world. In Brazil, populations of this land snail are distributed from the state of Amapá in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. This species acts as an intermediate host for parasites and is a difficult-to-control agricultural pest as well, causing great losses to crops and ornamental plant cultivation. This land snail is easily reared in the laboratory and has been successfully used as a biological model in studies that aim at verifying molluscicidal effects of plant extracts. Several studies have demonstrated that B. similaris, like many other species of land and freshwater snails, is physiologically adapted to survival over transitory unfavorable environmental conditions. Moreover, this species seems to have a life history strategy characterized by a short life span and a maximal opportunistic reproductive effort during transient favorable periods. Such biological features may potentially lead to the inefficacy of control attempts and, simultaneously, make this species able to repopulate sites previously treated with biocides. For this reason, studies that aim at verifying the effect of molluscicides on the reproduction, growth and survival of molluscs are greatly required. Molluscicides of plant origin may represent a safe and effective way of controlling these animals. Thymol is a substance of plant origin which has bactericidal, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory properties and has been presented as a promissory biocide of mollusc species. The aim of this work was to assess the molluscicidal property of thymol in combination with DMSO against eggs and adults of B. similaris. During 120 days, we evaluated the effect of thymol+DMSO at different concentrations (2.5 g/L and 5 g/L on the hatching success, hatchling survival, growth and reproduction of B. similaris under laboratory conditions. We tested thymol+DMSO on 160 eggs, 160 10-day-old and 160 30-day-old juveniles. The results showed that thymol+DMSO (5 g/L and 2.5 g/L affected hatching success, acting as an ovicide. The tests with 10-day-old juveniles showed that thymol+DMSO at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L caused 90 and 100% of mortality, respectively. For the 30-day-old juveniles, thymol+DMSO caused 87.5% of mortality at 5 g/L, and 75% at 2.5 g/L. With regard to growth, the results were not significant. The 10-day-old individuals treated with thymol+DMSO showed only one reproductive event during the 120 days of the experiment. Thymol+DMSO showed molluscicidal and residual activity, which makes evident its potential for controlling snails, and consequently, snail-borne diseases.

  14. The influence of thymol+DMSO on survival, growth and reproduction of Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca: Bradybaenidae)

    Paula Ferreira; Geraldo L. G. Soares; Sthefane D'Ávila; Elisabeth C. de Almeida Bessa

    2011-01-01

    Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821), commonly known as the Asian trampsnail, is a terrestrial snail native to Asia, introduced in other regions of the world. In Brazil, populations of this land snail are distributed from the state of Amapá in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. This species acts as an intermediate host for parasites and is a difficult-to-control agricultural pest as well, causing great losses to crops and ornamental plant cultivation. This land snail is easily rear...

  15. Molluscicidal activity of some marine substances against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Planorbidae).

    Miyasato, P A; Kawano, T; Freitas, J C; Berlinck, R G S; Nakano, E; Tallarico, L F

    2012-05-01

    Freshwater snails of the genus Biomphalaria play a major role as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, the etiologic agent of schistosomiasis. While Biomphalaria spp. control by molluscicides is one of the main strategies to reduce the snail population in infected areas, there are few effective molluscicides commercially available. Natural products may be considered as potentially useful and safe molluscicides. We have evaluated the molluscicidal activity of 12 extracts from ten marine organisms on adult and embryonic stages of Biomphalaria glabrata. Only extracts of the red algae Liagora farinosa and of the sponge Amphimedon viridis presented molluscicidal activity. Lethal concentration (LC)(50) values obtained were 120 ?g/mL for L. farinosa CH(2)Cl(2) extract (apolar fraction) and 20 ?g/mL for A. viridis extract and halitoxin. The polar alga fraction and halitoxin had no effect on B. glabrata embryos. The algae apolar fraction was active on B. glabrata in all embryonic development stages, with LC(50) values for blastulae at 42 ?g/mL, gastrulae at 124 ?g/mL, trochophore at 180 ?g/mL, and veliger at 222 ?g/mL. This is the first report of extracts from marine organisms which presented molluscicidal activity. PMID:22205347

  16. ESTADO DE LAS POBLACIONES DE QUITONES (MOLLUSCA: POLYPLACOPHORA EN ROMPEOLAS ARTIFICIALES DE COVEÑAS, SUCRE, COLOMBIA

    Sampedro-M. Alcides C.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se realizó en dos rompeolas en Coveñas, Sucre, Colombia. Los objetivosfueron determinar las especies de quitones presentes ahí y su abundancia,distribución espacial, actividad y aspectos morfológicos, así como el papel delos rompeolas en el incremento de la diversidad biológica. Se midieron factoresabióticos y se anotaron otros organismos presentes. Las especies de quitonesque se encuentran en los rompeolas de Coveñas, son las mismas que aparecenen el litoral rocoso de regiones cercanas, como el departamento de Córdoba.Las poblaciones de quitones presentaron una abundancia similar a la encontradaen otras regiones naturales del Caribe. Éstos realizan movimientos nocturnospara alimentarse y regresan a los sitios de reposo diurnos una vez concluyen esaactividad. Sus tallas máximas son mayores que las registradas para otras regiones.La distribución espacial agrupada y la asociación en un mismo microhábitat delas diferentes especies de quitones, aunque obedece a la búsqueda de mejorescondiciones alimentarias, en el caso de los rompeolas pudiera estar influenciadaademás por la estructura de los mismos y por la poca amplitud de las mareas,características de esta región. Los rompeolas permiten la presencia de diversasespecies que se relacionan entre sí y que no existían allí con anterioridad, luegoincrementan la diversidad biológica

  17. On the morphology of Laevapex vazi n. sp. from Brazil (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Basommatophora: Ancylidae)

    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    A description of Laevapex vazi n. sp. based on 8 specimens collectec in Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, is presented. Shell thin, diaphanous, with a light brown periostracum and moderately elliptical opening. Apex not pointed, smooth, situated on the right posterior region of the shell, inclined to the right often reaching the edge of the shell or extending beyond it. Concentric lines clearly visible; radial striation not visible or when perceptible very thin, here and there. Ratios: shell widt...

  18. On the morphology of Laevapex vazi n. sp. from Brazil (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Basommatophora: Ancylidae

    Sonia Barbosa dos Santos

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of Laevapex vazi n. sp. based on 8 specimens collectec in Ourinhos, state of São Paulo, is presented. Shell thin, diaphanous, with a light brown periostracum and moderately elliptical opening. Apex not pointed, smooth, situated on the right posterior region of the shell, inclined to the right often reaching the edge of the shell or extending beyond it. Concentric lines clearly visible; radial striation not visible or when perceptible very thin, here and there. Ratios: shell width/shell lenght = 0,60 - 0,67 (mean = 0,63; shell height/shell length = 0,50 - 0,61 (mean = 0,55; shell height/shell width = 0,33 - 0,40 (mean = 0,35. Body of normal ancylid type; mantle pigmentation concentrated on the left side; three muscles are seen: a round posterior one on the left side, an elliptical muscle on the right anterior side and an almost almond-shaped one on the left anterior side. Tentacles with a medium core of black pigment. Pseudobranch two-lobed and folded, the dorsal lobe smaller than the vetral one. Ovotestis with 20 unbranched diverticula, around a short collecting canal. Ovispermiduct with an enlargement with several round outpocketings constituting the seminal vesicle. Carrefour as a round sac. Albumen gland almost cylindrical with several acinous diverticula. Elongated nidamental gland continous with the galndular wall of the uterus; uterus flattened and thin-walled. Spermathecal body almost rounded. Pear-shaped prostate without diverticula. Penial complex without flagellum but with well-developed ultra-penis and penis. Jaw horseshoe shaped. Radular forma 20.1.20; raquidian tooth quadricuspid, asymmetrical. The genus Laevapex Walker, 1903 is recorded for the first time in Brazil. It is easily distinguished from South American Gundlachia Pfeiffer, 1849 by its penial complex. Laevapex vazi is dedicated to Dr. Jorge Faria Vaz, from SUCEN-SP, who have been sent to me the specimens.

  19. Diversidad y microestructura de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora del Caribe de Costa Rica

    Cedar I García-Ríos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los poliplacóforos asociados a los arrecifes de coral en la costa caribeña de Costa Rica han sido poco estudiados. El examen del cascajo de coral acumulado en el sublitoral somero, en cuatro estaciones de colección, localizadas en la Provincia de Limón reveló una diversidad de quitones mayor a la documentada. Anteriormente se habían registrado ocho especies para el Caribe costaricense: Ischnochiton erythronotus (C.B. Adams, 1845; Ischnoplax pectinata (Sowerby 1840; Stenoplax boogii (Haddon, 1886; S. purpurascens (C.B. Adams, 1845; Acanthopleura granulata (Gmelin, 1791; Chiton marmoratus Gmelin, 1791; C. tuberculatus Linnaeus, 1758; Acanthochitona rhodea (Pilsbry, 1893. Otras cinco se registran aquí por primera vez: Callistochiton portobelensis Ferreira 1976; Ischnochiton kaasi Ferreira 1987; I. pseudovirgatus Kaas 1972; Acanthochitona balesae Abbott 1954; Cryptoconchus floridanus (Dall 1889.

  20. Proteomic analysis from the mineralized radular teeth of the giant Pacific chiton, Cryptochiton stelleri (Mollusca).

    Nemoto, Michiko; Wang, Qianqian; Li, Dongsheng; Pan, Songqin; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Kisailus, David

    2012-09-01

    The biomineralized radular teeth of chitons are known to consist of iron-based magnetic crystals, associated with the maximum hardness and stiffness of any biomineral. Based on our transmission electron microscopy analysis of partially mineralized teeth, we suggest that the organic matrix within the teeth controls the iron oxide nucleation. Thus, we used Nano-LC-MS to perform a proteomic analysis of the organic matrix in radular teeth of the chiton Cryptochiton stelleri in order to identify the proteins involved in the biomineralization process. Since the genome sequence of C. stelleri is not available, cross-species similarity searching and de novo peptide sequencing were used to screen the proteins. Our results indicate that several proteins were dominant in the mineralized part of the radular teeth, amongst which, myoglobin and a highly acidic peptide were identified as possibly involved in the biomineralization process. PMID:22833255

  1. Ensamblaje de quitones (Mollusca: Polyplacophora en el litoral rocoso del departamento de Córdoba, Caribe colombiano

    Jorge A Quirós-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre septiembre de 2006 y junio de 2007 se caracterizó la estructura del ensamblaje de quitones en siete estaciones del litoral rocoso del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Para los muestreos se utilizó una cadena, delimitando un área de 25 m² con tres repeticiones dispuestas al azar en cada estación a profundidades iguales o menores a 1 m. Se recolectaron en total 524 ejemplares de cinco especies de las familias Acanthochitonidae, Chitonidae y Ischnochitonidae. El estudio evidencia que la estructura del ensamblaje de quitones en Córdoba, está definida por tres conglomerados de estaciones; el primero, formado por las estaciones 1 y 2 de San Antero, caracterizado por Acanthopleura granulata y Chiton tuberculatus; el segundo, constituido por las estaciones 3, 4, 5 y 6 de Moñitos y Puerto Escondido, reunió a A. granulata, C. marmoratus y C. tuberculatus, mientras que el tercer conglomerado se asoció con la estación 7 de Los Córdobas, destacando a C. marmoratus como la especie dominante. Se incluyen dos nuevos registros para el Caribe cordobés; Acanthochitona spiculosa e Ischnochiton striolatus, las cuales fueron recolectadas en costas de la plataforma rocosa de San Antero, Moñitos y Puerto Escondido..

  2. Cytogenetics of Anodonta cygnea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) as possible indicator of environmental adversity

    Carrilho, J.; Leitão, A.; Vicente, C.; Malheiro, I.

    2008-11-01

    Anodonta cygnea is a freshwater clam, belonging to the Unionidae family, which can be found in rivers and lagoons all over Europe and Northern America. As they appear as important case studies for ecological damage assessments, the various species of the Unionidae family have been submitted to a sort of recent studies on their chromosomal or cytogenetic status. In this study we confirmed the diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38 for this species, and established for the first time the karyotype, which comprised six metacentric, 12 submetacentric and one subtelocentric chromosome pairs. We also found a high percentage of cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes. Considering that karyotype disturbances in Unionids have been previously related with exposure to chemicals, either natural or produced by human activity, we determined the aneuploidy index for our population. The aneuploidy index is an excellent marker for pollutant presence/effect. The animals acclimatized in tap water and in natural water from the lake where the individuals were collected showed different levels of aneuploidy. The higher values were found in tap water. Chromosome analysis techniques seem a suitable tool to study the impact of contaminants referred above, and making A. cygnea a suitable organism for assessment of an eugenic damage in aquatic systems. On the other hand, our results also point out to the importance of doing the acclimatizing process of the collected animals in their own natural water.

  3. Biodiversity among luminescent symbionts from squid of the genera Uroteuthis, Loliolus and Euprymna (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    GUERRERO-FERREIRA, R. C.; Nishiguchi, M. K.

    2007-01-01

    Luminescent bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae (Bacteria: γ-Proteobacteria) are commonly found in complex, bilobed light organs of sepiolid and loliginid squids. Although morphology of these organs in both families of squid is similar, the species of bacteria that inhabit each host has yet to be verified. We utilized sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA, luciferase α-subunit (luxA) and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapA) genes to determine phylogenetic relationships between 63 stra...

  4. Ueber den begriff "Kinoplasma" in der spermiogenese von Australorbis Glabratus Olivaceus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae)

    Rudolf, Barth; Geth, Jansen.

    1960-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as modificações sofridas pelos espermídeos durante a histogênese, a fim de esclarecer se o têrmo "Kinoplasma", proposto por MERTOn (1924; 1926; 1930), pode ser aplicado à certas formações protoplasmáticas, observadas por aquêle autor nos espermídeos em estado de maturação, de molusc [...] os pulmonados, ou se esta designação deva ficar restrita aos componentes do citoplasma, no sentido de STRASBURGER (1897) e SCARTH (1927). Das nossas observações chegamos aos seguintes resultados: 1. O "Kinoplasma" interpretado por MERTON não existe na espermiogênese de Australorbis glabratus olivaceus. O que o referido autor descreve como "Kinoplasma" nós o encontramis, em nosso material, nas mesmas células e dentro delas nos mesmos pontos por êle indicados; e nada mais é do que u'a massa esférica eliminada dos espermídeos e composta de protoplasma e mitocôndrios. O têrmo "kinoplasma" deve ser aplicado apenas àquelas fibrilas, de tamanho submicroscópico, componentes do citoplasma, com função retardadora e impediente da queda em linha reta das outras partes do referido citoplasma ou, ainda, com a função de desviar as partículas no seu caminho através do citoplasma. com isto, porém, temos que eliminar o "Kinoplasma" do têrmo citoplasma porque êste representa uma diferenciação protoplasmática, provàvelmente de natureza reversível. 2. O flagelo do espérmio de Australorbis glabratus olivaceus é formado pelos centríolos (filamento axial), mitocôndrios (dois filamentos espirais periféricos) e por um cilindro protoplasmático. 3. O flagelo do espermídeo, depois de ter terminado seu crescimento, compõe-se apenas de um filamento axial e um cilindro protoplasmático. Nesta altura, u'a massa protoplasmática começa a locomover-se, partindo da região da cabeça do espermídeo em direção à extremidade distal do flagelo. encontramos nesta porção de protoplasma o aparêlho de Golgi e abundantes e pequenos mitocôndrios. Êstes últimos dão origem a fibrilas que se juntam para formar os dois filamentos espirais periféricos. 4. A locomoção desta parte protoplasmática do espermídeo resulta da pressão que os mitocõndrios sofrem pela formação contínua das fibrilas. 5. O rêtorno do corpo protoplasmático em direção á cabeça do espermídeo resulta, provàvelmente, da elasticidade e contratilidade do plasmalema. 6. O protoplasma, depois de ter voltado para a região da cabeça, é eliminado em forma de esfera, incluindo alguns mitocôndrios restantes, e em seguida é fagocitado pela célula nutridora. 7. Antes do protoplasma ter terminado sua migração, a aparêlho de Golgi é eliminado ao nível da metade distal do flagelo do espermídeo.

  5. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    symmetrically situated pairs lying dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally in the pretrochal part of the trochophore-like larva and they send axons into the cerebral commissure. They are lost at metamorphosis. The fine structure of these cells strongly resembles that of so-called "ampullary cells" known from various...

  6. Ueber den begriff "Kinoplasma" in der spermiogenese von Australorbis Glabratus Olivaceus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae

    Rudolf Barth

    1960-11-01

    Full Text Available Zur Klaerung der Frage, ob der Begriff "Kinoplasma" fuer gewisse, von MERTON (1924,1926, 1930 beobachtete Bildungen an den reifenden Spermiden von pulmonaten Mollusken oder fuer Bestandteile des Cytoplasmas im Sinne von STRASBURGER und SCARTH zu verwenden ist, werden in der vorliegenden Mitteilung die Vorgaenge bei der Spermiohistogenese von Australorbis glabratus olivaceus untersucht. Es ergibt sich: 1. Das von MERTON bezeichnete "Kinoplasma" existiert nicht als solches, es handelt sich bei den von ihm dargestellten Protoplasmabildungen um kugelige, von den Spermiden abgeschnuerte Restkoerper nicht verwendeten Baumaterials, bestehend aus Protoplasma und einigen Mitochondrien. Sie werden von den Naehr- oder Bazalzellen phagozytiert. Der Ausdruck "Kinoplasma" kann nur fuer die submikroskopischen, geformten, faedigen Elemente des Cytoplasmas reserviert bleiben, die den geradlinigen Fall der uebrigen nicht geformten Komponenten bremst oder ablenkt; damit muss das Kinoplasma aber aus dem Begriff des Cytoplasmas herausgenommen werden, da es, wenn auch vermutlich reversibel, eine Differenzierung darstellt. 2. Der Spermienfaden wird von den Centriolen (Axialfilament und den Mitochondrien (zwei peripher gelegene Spiralfilamente, sowie einem Plasmamantel gebildet. 3. Nach Beendigung des Auswachsens der Spermiengeissel, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt nur aus dem Achsenfaden und dem Protoplasmazylinder besteht, setzt sich eine Protoplasmamasse vom Kopf in Richtung zum Geisselende in Bewegung. Sie fuehrt den Golgi-Koerper und sehr viele Mitochondrien mit sich. Aus diesen entwickeln sich Fibrillen, die sich zu den beiden Spiralfilamenten zusammenfuegen. Diese Masse entspricht der von MERTON in seiner Theorie als Kinoplasma bezeichneten Komponente. 4. Die Bewegung dieses Protoplasmateils wird auf den Schub zurueckgefuehrt, den die sich bildenden Fibrillen auf die Mitochondrien ausueben. 5. Die Rueckwaertsbewegung dieses Protoplasmakoerpers beruht wahrscheinlich auf Elastizitaet und Kontraktilitaet des Plasmalemmas. 6. Das zum Kopf zurueckgekehrte Protoplasma wird mit restlichen Mitochondrien als Kugel ausgeschieden und von den Naehrzellen phagocytiert. 7. Der Golgi-Koerper wird vor Beendigung der Protoplasmawanderung bereits in der letzten Haelfte der Geissel eliminiert.

  7. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Nautilus macromphalus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Boore Jeffrey L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Mitochondria contain small genomes that are physically separate from those of nuclei. Their comparison serves as a model system for understanding the processes of genome evolution. Although complete mitochondrial genome sequences have been reported for more than 600 animals, the taxonomic sampling is highly biased toward vertebrates and arthropods, leaving much of the diversity yet uncharacterized. Results The mitochondrial genome of the bellybutton nautilus, Nautilus macr...

  8. Old and sticky—adhesive mechanisms in the living fossil Nautilus pompilius (Mollusca, Cephalopoda)

    von Byern, Janek; Wani, Ryoji; Schwaha, Thomas; Grunwald, Ingo; Cyran, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Nautiloidea is the oldest group within the cephalopoda, and modern Nautilus differs much in its outer morphology from all other recent species; its external shell and pinhole camera eye are the most prominent distinguishing characters. A further unique feature of Nautilus within the cephalopods is the lack of suckers or hooks on the tentacles. Instead, the animals use adhesive structures present on the digital tentacles. Earlier studies focused on the general tentacle morphology and put littl...

  9. A study of the type series of Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca, Cephalopoda, Nautilida).

    Nikolaeva, Svetlana V

    2015-01-01

    Few animals are treasured by zoologists more than Nautilus, and Nautilus pompilius Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of the genus, in particular. However, the type series of this species has not been studied in great detail. According to the rules of zoological nomenclature the type series consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon at the time of description (whether directly or by bibliographic reference), and any evidence, published or unpublished, may be taken into account to determine what specimens are included. The type series of Nautilus pompilius includes specimens in the Linnean Society of London, the University Museum in Uppsala, and specimens figured by pre-Linnaean authors indicated by reference by Linnaeus (1758). One specimen in London and four specimens in Uppsala, which are still extant, are likely to have been known to Linnaeus at the time when he prepared the 10th Edition of Systema Naturae (Linnaeus 1758), although none of these specimens was specifically mentioned by him. Even though it is widely believed that Linnaeus (1767) designated as lectotype a specimen figured by Rumphius (1705) in his D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer, referred to in the Systema Naturae, this presumed lectotypification is not valid because Linnaeus did not explicitly indicate that any particular specimen was considered to be the type of the species. Later lectotype designations of Rumphius' illustrations are invalid because they show three different specimens. It seems that the best approach, given the quality of the material and the lack of clarity as to its type status, would be to apply to the ICZN asking to set aside all previous type fixations and designate a neotype, preferably a DNA sequenced specimen of known provenance. PMID:26249392

  10. Old and sticky-adhesive mechanisms in the living fossil Nautilus pompilius (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    von Byern, Janek; Wani, Ryoji; Schwaha, Thomas; Grunwald, Ingo; Cyran, Norbert

    2012-02-01

    Nautiloidea is the oldest group within the cephalopoda, and modern Nautilus differs much in its outer morphology from all other recent species; its external shell and pinhole camera eye are the most prominent distinguishing characters. A further unique feature of Nautilus within the cephalopods is the lack of suckers or hooks on the tentacles. Instead, the animals use adhesive structures present on the digital tentacles. Earlier studies focused on the general tentacle morphology and put little attention on the adhesive gland system. Our results show that the epithelial parts on the oral adhesive ridge contain three secretory cell types (columnar, goblet, and cell type 1) that differ in shape and granule size. In the non-adhesive aboral epithelium, two glandular cell types (cell types 2 and 3) are present; these were not mentioned in any earlier study and differ from the cells in the adhesive area. The secretory material of all glandular cell types consists mainly of neutral mucopolysaccharide units, whereas one cell type in the non-adhesive epithelium also reacts positive for acidic mucopolysaccharides. The present data indicate that the glue in Nautilus consists mainly of neutral mucopolysaccharides. The glue seems to be a viscous carbohydrate gel, as known from another cephalopod species. De-attachment is apparently effectuated mechanically, i.e., by muscle contraction of the adhesive ridges and tentacle retraction. PMID:22221553

  11. Morphological and histological organization of the pyriform appendage of the tetrabranchiate Nautilus pompilius (Cephalopoda, Mollusca).

    Spintzik, Jessica; Springer, Jochen; Westermann, Bettina

    2009-04-01

    The pyriform appendage, an organ only found in nautiloid cephalopods was investigated with histological, histochemical and ultrastructural methods in order to characterize the anatomical and the cytological structure of this organ. The pyriform appendage is situated within the genital septum and lies in close contact with the ventricle of the heart. The proximal side ends blindly near the gonad whereas the distal side is developed into a duct. The duct was observed to open into the mantle cavity in juvenile and adult Nautilus pompilius of both sexes. Injections of India ink in the heart demonstrate that the organ is supplied with hemolymph from an artery that extends from the heart. The pyriform appendage is a hollow organ consisting mainly of glandular tissue. The lumen is covered with a columnar epithelium, the tunica mucosa, consisting of only one cell type containing vacuoles with different inclusions. Underneath the tunica mucosa is the tunica muscularis, which is embedded in connective tissue and folded, enlarging the internal surface. A cuboidal tunica serosa surrounds this organ. The vacuoles and the secretory products contain neutral mucopolysaccharides, glycoproteins and glycolipids. Acid phosphatase and serotonin were localized in the tunica mucosa. Acetylcholinesterase, catecholamines and the tetrapeptide FMRF-amide were demonstrated within the nerve endings of the tunica muscularis indicating a dual "cholinergic-aminergic" neuroregulation, possibly modulated by FMRF-amide. These findings suggest that the pyriform appendage is not a rudimentary organ but instead has distinct biological functions in nautiloid cephalopods, possibly in intraspecific communication. PMID:19107812

  12. Notes on some slugs (Mollusca, Stylommatophora) of the N.W. part of Spain

    Castillejo, José; Manga-González, M. Yolanda

    1983-01-01

    In this work, the characteristics (geological, geographical, etc.) of the research area (Galicia and León) together with the taxonomical, anatomi— cal, ecological and biogeographical study of 15 species of slugs are summarised....

  13. Multi-species generalist predation on the stochastic harvested clam Tivela mactroides (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Turra, Alexander; Fernandez, Wellington S.; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flavia B.; Denadai, Márcia R.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down control is an important force modulating the abundance of prey and structuring marine communities. The harvested trigonal clam Tivela mactroides is hypothesized to be part of the diet of a variety of marine organisms, with its stock influencing predator abundance and being influenced by them. Here we analyzed the diet of potential predators of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay, northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil, to identify the main consumers of this marine resource, and also to address the importance of this clam in the diet of each predator. Samples were taken year-round by trawls; all specimens collected were identified and measured and the food items identified and quantified. Twenty-one species consumed T. mactroides, whose importance in the diet varied greatly in both the volume ingested and the frequency of occurrence (pompano Trachinotus carolinus > blue crab Callinectes danae > starfish Astropecten marginatus). Top-down influence on T. mactroides was also dependent on the abundance of consumers (yellow catfish Cathorops spixii > rake stardrum Stellifer rastrifer > barred grunt Conodon nobilis > A. marginatus). Considering the mean volume ingested, the frequency of occurrence of T. mactroides in the diet, and the relative abundance of consumers, the predators that most influenced T. mactroides were T. carolinus, A. marginatus, and C. danae, in decreasing order. Large numbers of small-sized individuals of T. mactroides (<10 mm) were generally preyed upon by A. marginatus, which may have a stronger effect on clam abundance in comparison to C. danae and T. carolinus, which preyed upon larger clams. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that predators' consumption of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay can influence its stocks, mainly due to the type and/or abundance of predator species, the volume and number of individuals of T. mactroides preyed upon, and the temporal variations in the abundance of predators.

  14. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

    M. ANTIT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrences of non-indigenous marine molluscs in Tunisia are reviewed, based booth on a literature survey and on original material. Species are accepted as established if there are two independent reports, either geographically separate or at least one month apart in time. On these grounds, 14 species are accepted (12 alien and 2 expanding their range from elsewhere in the Mediterranean, 3 aliens need confirmation but are likely to meet the standards for acceptation on a short future, and 5 records are rebutted or questioned. Two more species may be considered as cryptogenic, the reports are reliable but it is not clear indication that they are not indigenous. Two of the alien species are reported for the first time in Tunisian waters: the nudibranch Polycerella emertoni qualifies as established, and the bivalve Anadara transversa is tentatively identified from a juvenile live-taken specimen, which awaits further confirmation.The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  15. Toxicological aspects associated with the ecology of Donax trunculus (Bivalvia, Mollusca) in a polluted environment

    This study provides data on the ecology and toxicology observed in the population of Donax trunculus, a sand dwelling mussel, in the shallow subtidal of Haifa Bay (Mediterranean Sea, Israel). The studied population of the mussel forms a dominant fraction in a community of sand-dwelling molluscs in a zone located 5-25 m from the shoreline, and at depths of 20-120 cm, numbering up to 2000 per m2. Samples of the mussel were collected from three sites, located within 9 km of shore in Haifa Bay. These included a clean site (Akko), a site polluted by a chemical PVC-polymer industry (Frutarom), and a site polluted with oil and waste from the petrochemical industry (Qiryat Yam). Metal analysis indicated site-dependent variations in levels of cadmium, lead, copper and mercury in the mussel soft tissues. Copper levels were similar in the bivalves collected from all the sites. Levels of mercury were significantly higher in specimens from the PVC-polluted site (Frutarom) while levels of cadmium were higher in Akko and Qiryat Yam compared to Frutarom. Lead residues were found only in Donax from Akko. The residual contents of mercury, copper and cadmium were relatively high in the young and noticeably low in Donax of medium body size. The main site of deposition of metals was in the soft tissues of the bivalve, but bioaccumulation of metals was also found in the shells. A marked increase in permeability of gills and mantle to the fluorescent anionic dye-fluorescein (FLU) was detected in Donax from Qiryat Yam and especially Frutarom, compared to the bivalves sampled from Akko. Multiple foci of enhanced permeability (multiple fluorescent spots) were detected in all the individuals sampled from Frutarom but none in the bivalve samples from Akko. Lysosomal accumulation of the metachromatic fluorescent cationic probe, acridine orange - (AO), was significantly decreased in the tissues of D. trunculus from polluted sites, especially polluted by the PVC factory. This decrease correlated with lysosomal enlargement and the formation of secondary lysosomes. D. trunculus appears to possess the most effective biochemical and physiological defense mechanisms enabling it to survive in habitats of polluted shallow waters, where other sand dwelling mollusc species were absent or found only in waters deeper then 2.5 m. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Recovery of the biogenic nest habitat of Limaria hians (Mollusca: Limacea) following anthropogenic disturbance

    Trigg, Colin; Moore, Colin G.

    2009-04-01

    The rate of regrowth of Limaria hians nest material, following a simulated dredging impact, was examined on an extensive L. hians bed off the west coast of Scotland. Within an area of complete coverage of the sea bed by a turf of L. hians nest material, the turf was cleared by diver from 10 × 0.25 m 2 plots and the sediment subsequently raked to simulate the passage of a scallop dredge. The areal extent and pattern of nest regrowth were recorded after 6 and 12 months. Control plots showed no significant change in 100% nest cover over the year. In the treated plots regrowth generally occurred from extension of peripheral nest material. Over the initial 6 autumn and winter months treatment plots displayed a mean regrowth of 9.2% of the cleared area, increasing to 15% in the second 6-month spring and summer period. However, no significant difference in growth was found between these periods. After 12 months half the treatment plots exhibited dredging.

  17. ACUTE TOXICITY OF MERCURY TO EMBRYOS OF Helisoma trivolvis (SAY, 1817 (MOLLUSCA: PLANORBIDAE

    Passuni, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a metal very employed at industry and mining in Peru. The aim of current research was to determine embryotoxic lethal acute toxicity of Hg2+, in form of chloride of mercury (HgCl on 2 Helisoma trivolvis (Say, 1817 at 24 h exposure. Concentrations assayed were 514, 51.4, 5.14 and 0.51 ug Hg2+ L-1, since salt on base of HgCl using dechlorined water as diluents. Snail embryos 2 were considered dead when none rotation movement during since 30 seconds. Percentage of mortality of embryonic stages of H. trivolvis increased with each of concentrations crescents of Hg2+ at 24 h exposure. At a concentration of 514.4 ug Hg2+ L-1 was observed significantly differences in relation to control. Moreover, concentration of 514.4 ug Hg2+ L-1 showed differences with relation to other three treatments. LC was 2.49 ug Hg2+ L-1. Embryos of H. trivolvis were 50 higher sensible to Hg2+ in comparison to other freshwater snail species was concluded.

  18. Biostratigraphy and palaeoecology of the marine Pleistocene of Rhodes, Greece: Scleractinia, Serpulidae, Mollusca and Brachiopoda

    Hansen N -M; Nielsen J K; Hansen K S

    2006-01-01

    A biostratigraphical and palaeoecological study of the Pleistocene marine fauna from the Kallithea area (northeast Rhodes, Greece) has been conducted. In this area, the Lindos Bay Clay and the Cape Arkhangelos Calcarenite, which constitute the Rhodes Formation, are well exposed in ancient quarries. The study has revealed the presence of 120 mollusc taxa, viz scaphopods (3 taxa), bivalves (65), gastropods (52) and indeterminate polyplacophorans, together with brachiopods (6 ...

  19. External morphology of spermatozoa and spermatozeugmata of the freshwater mussel Truncilla truncata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Waller, D.L.; Lasee, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Truncilla truncata males release spherical aggregates of spermatozoa, called spermatozeugmata, at spawning. Sperm aggregates from other bivalve species have been described, but few detailed studies exist of the morphology of unionid spermatozeugmata and spermatozoa. We provide the first description of the external morphology of spermatozeugmata and spermatozoa of T. Truncata. The spermatozeugmata had an inside diameter of 76 mu m and contained 8000-9000 spermatozoa. Heads of spermatozoa were directed toward the center of the sphere into a translucent shell; tails were arranged radially and caused the spermatozeugmata to rotate. Spermatozoa of T. Truncata measured 3.3 mu m in length (excluding tail) and each had a head, a midpiece and a flagellum. We also documented the release of spermatozeugmata in two additional unionid species, Lampsilis cardium and Amblema plicata plicata.

  20. Random walk, zonation and the food searching strategy of Terebralia palustris (Mollusca, Potamididae) in Kenya

    Vannini, Marco; Cannicci, Stefano; Mrabu, Elisha; Rorandelli, Rocco; Fratini, Sara

    2008-12-01

    Terebralia palustris is a common mud-whelk present at a particularly high density in all Indo-West Pacific mangroves. Young snails feed on nothing but mud while larger specimens are able to feed on fallen leaves too. In Kenya (Mida Creek) under the canopy, competition for mangrove leaves can be very high due to the high density of Sesarmidae crabs. On open exposed muddy platforms, no Sesarmidae occur but the leaf density is very low because the leaves are only randomly present as they are deposited and removed twice a day by the tide. However, the snail density is always very high, raising the question as to whether the snails use a special searching strategy to optimize their resource finding rather than a purely random movement. By analyzing the snails' movements on a uniform area at different levels and comparing them with simulated random paths, we could show that the snails' movements are not purely random. The distribution of different size classes of T. palustris in Mida Creek was known to be quite odd: the same simulation approach suggests that the zonation asymmetry could reasonably be due to the stochastic recruitment of juveniles in space and time and maintained by a substantial long-lasting spatial inertia.

  1. A tropical Atlantic species of Melibe Rang, 1829 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Tethyiidae

    Erika Espinoza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Melibe is described based on two specimens collected in Florida. This new species is well differentiated morphologically and genetically from other species of Melibe studied to date. The four residue deletions in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 protein found in all previously sequenced tropical species of Melibe sequenced (and Melibe rosea are also present in this new species. These deletions do not appear to affect important structural components of this protein but might have fitness implications. This paper provides the first confirmed record of Melibe in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Ultrastructure of euspermatozoa and paraspermatozoa in the volutid snail Adelomelon ancilla (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda)

    Zabala, S.; Hermida, G. N.; Giménez, J.

    2009-09-01

    The ultrastructure of the euspermatozoa and the paraspermatozoa is investigated in Adelomelon ancilla, through histological section observed by transmission electron microscopy. Euspermatozoa of A. ancilla consists of: (1) a conical acrosomal vesicle (with a short basal invagination, constricted anteriorly) which is flattened at the apex and associated with an axial rod, a centrally perforated basal plate and a short accessory membrane, (2) a rod-shaped, solid and highly electron-dense nucleus (with a short basal fossa containing a centriolar complex and a initial portion of a 9 + 2 axoneme), (3) an elongate midpiece consisting of the axoneme sheathed by 5-6 helical mitochondrial elements each exhibiting a dense U-shaped outer layer, (4) an elongate glycogen piece (where the axoneme is sheathed by nine tracts of glycogen granules), (5) a dense annulus at the junction of the midpiece and glycogen piece, and (6) a short free tail region (where the axoneme is surrounded only by plasma membrane). We observed a parasperm in A. ancilla. This is vermiform in shape and is composed of multiple axonemes and extensive cytoplasm with numerous vesicles, and mitochondria are scattered inside the axonemes. Sperm of A. ancilla is characterized by the euspermatozoa type 2 and the paraspermatozoa morphology belongs to type 5. The U shaped electrodense mitochondrial element in the midpiece of the eusperm and the constriction in the acrosomal vesicle present in A. ancilla are exclusive. We suggest that these characteristics could have taxonomic importance, because these was observed in other volutids and have not been observed in the rest of caenogastropods studies. We consider that the morphology of paraspermatozoa in A. ancilla corresponds to the “lancet” type.

  3. Spawning, fertilization, and larval development of Potamocorbula amurensis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from San Francisco Bay, California

    Nicolini, M.H.; Penry, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    In Potamocorbula amurensis time for development to the straight-hinge larval stage is 48 hr at 15??C. Potamocorbula amurensis settles at a shell length of approximately 135 ??m 17 to 19 days after fertilization. Our observations of timing of larval devdlopment in P. amurensis support the hypothesis of earlier workers that its route of initial introduction to San Francisco Bay was as veliger larvae transported in ballast water by trans-Pacific cargo ships. The length of the larval period of P. amurensis relative to water mass residence times in San Francisco Bay suggests that it is sufficient to allow substantial dispersal from North Bay to South Bay populations in concordance with previous observations that genetic differentiation among populations of P. amurensis in San Francisco Bay is low. Potamocorbula amurensis is markedly euryhaline at all stages of development. Spawning and fertilization can occur at salinities from 5 to 25 psu, and eggs and sperms can each tolerance at least a 10-psu step increase or decrease in salinity. Embryos that are 2 hr old can tolerate the same range of salinities from (10 to 30 psu), and by the time they are 24 hr old they can tolerate the same range of salinities (2 to 30 psu) that adult clams can. The ability of P. amurensis larvae to tolerate substantial step changes in salinity suggests a strong potential to survive incomplete oceanic exchanges of ballast water and subsequent discharge into receiving waters across a broad range of salinities.

  4. Phylogeny and evolution of ontogeny of the family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Lutikov, O. A.; Temkin, I. E.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2010-08-01

    We described ontogenies and reconstructed morphogeneses of hinges in some supraspecific taxa of the bivalve family Oxytomidae Ichikawa, 1958 from the Mesozoic of Russia. The phylogeny of the family is reconstructed using evolutionary and cladistic methods. The appearance of the endemic genus Arctotis Bodylevsky, 1960 in the epicontinental seas of Siberia can be explained in terms of gradual transformations of the ligament and byssal apparatus in the Northern Siberian members of Praemeleagrinella Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009 and Praearctotis Lutikov et Shurygin, 2009.

  5. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  6. Freshwater bivalve mollusca (unionidae, sphaeriidae, corbiculidae) of the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    A guide to freshwater bivalve molluscs found at the Savannah River Plant is presented. A dichotomous taxonomic key is provided to common forms and to unreported species whose geographic distributions include nearby localities. Discussions of ecology, life history, larval hosts, and other pertinent information is provided

  7. Spermatozoa and spermatogenesis in the northern quahaug Mercenaria mercenaria (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Ying, Xue-Ping; Yang, Wan-Xi; Dahms, Hans-U.; Lin, Zhihua; Chai, Xueliang

    2008-12-01

    We studied the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in the northern quahaug, the clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Spermatogenetic cells gradually elongate. Mitochondria gradually fuse and increase in size and electron density. During spermatid differentiation, proacrosomal vesicles migrate towards the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus and eventually form the acrosome. The spermatozoon of M. mercenaria is of a primitive type. It is composed of head, mid-piece, and tail. The acrosome shows a subacrosomal space with a short conical contour. The slightly curved nucleus of the spermatozoon contains fine-grained dense chromatin. The middle piece consists of a centriolar complex which is surrounded by four mitochondria. The flagellum has a standard “9 + 2” microtubular structure. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of M. mercenaria shares a number of features with other species of the family Veneridae. M. mercenaria may be a suitable model species for further investigations into the mechanisms of spermatogenesis in the Bivalvia.

  8. Size-differential feeding in Pinna nobilis L. (Mollusca: Bivalvia): Exploitation of detritus, phytoplankton and zooplankton

    Davenport, John; Ezgeta-Bali?, Daria; Peharda, Melita; Skeji?, Sanda; Nin?evi?-Gladan, Živana; Matijevi?, Slavica

    2011-04-01

    The endangered fan shell Pinna nobilis is a large bivalve mollusc (<120 cm shell length) endemic to the Mediterranean that lives one-third buried in soft substrata, generally in shallow coastal waters. We hypothesised that P. nobilis of different sizes would ingest different food sources, because small fan shells will inhale material from closer to the substratum than do large fan shells. We studied stomach contents and faeces of 18 fan shells, 6 small (mean 23.0 cm length), 6 medium-sized (mean 41.5 cm length) and 6 large (mean 62.7 cm length) living in a small area of a low-energy coastal detritic bottom characterised by mud, sand and macroalgae at Mali Ston Bay, Croatia. We found that all P. nobilis ingested copious quantities of undetermined detritus (probably at least 95% of ingested material), phytoplankton, micro and mesozooplankton and pollen grains. Large P. nobilis stomach contents showed a preponderance of water column calanoid copepods, while small fan shells had higher numbers of bivalve larvae. All fan shells took in high numbers of harpacticoid copepods that are benthonic, feeding on microbial communities of detritus and benthic vegetation. There was also a significant selection of phytoplankton species, some apparently occurring between inhalation and ingestion. The stomach contents of small P. nobilis had a higher organic matter content than either medium-sized or large fan shells; this indicated that small fan shells ingested detritus of higher organic content than did larger P. nobilis. As the faeces of all P. nobilis had similar organic matter content, this also indicates higher assimilation efficiencies in small fan shells. The demonstration of differential dietary selectivity by different sized animals has implications for future trophic studies of this endangered species. This study also provides the first demonstration of predation on zooplankton by P. nobilis.

  9. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    Combined electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry of the larvae of several polyplacophoran species (Chiton olivaceus, Lepidochitona aff. corrugata, Mopalia muscosa) revealed a sensory system new to science, a so-called "ampullary system." The cells of the "ampullary system" are arranged in fou...

  10. Temporal dynamics of amino and fatty acid composition in the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    Baptista, Miguel; Repolho, Tiago; Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Lopes, Vanessa M.; Narciso, Luis; Marques, António; Bandarra, Narcisa; Rosa, Rui

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the temporal dynamics of both amino acid (AA) and fatty acid (FA) profiles in marine bivalves. We investigated the seasonal variation of these compounds in the pod razor clam Ensis siliqua in relation to food availability, salinity, water temperature and reproductive cycle. AA content varied between 46.94 and 54.67 % dry weight (DW), and the AAs found in greater quantity were glutamic acid, glycine and aspartic acid. FA content varied between 34.02 and 87.94 mg g-1 DW and the FAs found in greater quantity were 16:0 and 22:6 n-3. Seasonal trends were observed for AAs and FAs. FAs increased with gametogenesis and decreased with spawning while AA content increased throughout spawning. The effect of increasing temperature and high food availability during the spawning season masked the loss of AAs resulting from gamete release. Still, a comparatively greater increase in the contents of glutamic acid and leucine with spawning indicate their possible involvement in a post-spawning gonad recovery mechanism. A post-spawning decrease in 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-7 and 18:1 n-9 is indicative of the importance of these FAs in bivalve eggs. An increase in 18:3 n-3, 18:4 n-3, 20:1 n-9 and 20:2 n-6 during gametogenesis suggests their involvement in oocyte maturation. The FA 22:4 n-6, while increasing with spawning, appears to play a role in post-spawning gonad recovery. Salinity did not have an effect on the AA composition. None of the environmental parameters measured had an effect on FA composition.

  11. The end of a long controversy: systematics of the genus Limenandra (Mollusca: Nudibranchia: Aeolidiidae)

    Carmona, Leila; Pola, Marta; Gosliner, Terrence M.; Cervera, Juan Lucas

    2014-03-01

    Limenandra Haefelfinger and Stamm 1958 is a small genus within the Aeolidiidae with, until this paper, only two species: Limenandra nodosa Haefelfinger and Stamm 1958 and Limenandra fusiformis Baba 1949. Although most recent authors have regarded Limenandra as a junior synonym of Baeolidia Bergh 1888, recent molecular studies have demonstrated its monophyletic status and have rejected the circumtropical distribution attributed to the type species, L. nodosa. The present paper reviews the previously known species of Limenandra with additional morphological data and describes three new species: Limenandra barnosii sp. nov. and Limenandra rosanae sp. nov. from the Indo-Pacific are easily distinguished from all other Limenandra species by their vivid and bright colour patterns, while Limenandra confusa sp. nov., also from the Indo-Pacific, is very similar to the Atlantic and Mediterranean L. nodosa. The five species differ in colouration, the size and ornamentation of the cerata, the rhinophorial papillae, details of the reproductive system and the number of salivary glands. Additionally, Limenandra can be easily distinguished from other Aeolidiidae based on differences in the radular and receptaculum seminis morphology.

  12. Members of the genus Pisidium C. Pfeiffer (Mollusca: Bivalvia) of the Czech Republic

    Currently, thirteen species assigned to the genus Pisidium are known from the territory of the Czech Republic. This paper contains a new key to them with original figures of definitive characteristics. The key is supplemented with species descriptions and notes on their ecology and distribution in the Czech Republic. Differences between conchologically similar species and possibilities of misidentification with juvenile specimens of the genera Sphaerium and Musculium are commented on as well. (authors)

  13. Clarifying phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of the bivalve order Arcida (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pteriomorphia).

    Combosch, David J; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The systematics of the bivalve order Arcida constitutes an unresolved conundrum in bivalve systematics. The current definition of Arcida encompasses two superfamilies: Limopsoidea, which includes the recent families Philobryidae and Limopsidae, and Arcoidea, which encompasses the families Arcidae, Cucullaeidae, Noetiidae, Glycymerididae and Parallelodontidae. This classification, however, is controversial particularly with respect to the position and taxonomic status of Glycymerididae. Previous molecular phylogenies were limited either by the use of only a single molecular marker or by including only a few limopsoid and glycymeridid taxa. The challenging nature of Arcida taxonomy and the controversial results of some of the previous studies, prompted us to use a broad range of taxa (55 species), three nuclear markers (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and histone H3) and a wide range of algorithmic approaches. This broad but stringent approach led to a number of results that differ significantly from previous studies. We provide the first molecular evidence that supports the separation of Arcoidea from Limopsoidea, although the exact position of Glycymerididae remains unresolved, and the monophyly of Limopsoidea is algorithm-dependent. In addition, we present the first time-calibrated evolutionary tree of Arcida relationships, indicating a significant increase in the diversification of arcidan lineages at the beginning of the Cretaceous, around 140Ma. The monophyly of Arcida, which has been supported previously, was confirmed in all our analyses. Although relationships among families remain somehow unresolved we found support for the monophyly of most arcidan families, at least under some analytical conditions (i.e., Glycymerididae, Noetiidae, Philobryidae, and Limopsidae). However, Arcidae, and particularly Arcinae, remain a major source of inconsistency in the current system of Arcida classification and are in dire need of taxonomic revision. PMID:26427825

  14. The opisthobranch gastropods (Mollusca: Heterobranchia) from Venezuela: an annotated and illustrated inventory of species.

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Caballer; Ortea, Jesús; Rivero, Nelsy; Tucker, Gabriela Carias; Malaquias, Manuel António E; Narciso, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The Caribbean waters of Venezuela are composed by a large variety of habitats, with over 2800 km of coastline, islands, and islets. This area is a transitional zone between two main biogeographic provinces, the Caribbean and the Brazilian, separated by the fresh water outflows of the Orinoco and Amazon rivers, and is therefore expected to be an area of high species diversity. However, concerning the study of molluscs, Venezuela is probably the poorest known region in the Caribbean. The best compilation of opisthobranch species known in Venezuela was produced almost a decade ago, mentioning the occurrence of 57 species, plus seven determined only to genus level. In this work, 134 species are reported for Venezuela (71 are illustrated), representing about 40 % of the entire diversity of opisthobranchs known in the Caribbean. Among the species occurring in Venezuela, 49 have here the southern limit of their distribution range and only one the northern limit. Forty-six species are recorded for the first time to the country and one is a new record for the Caribbean Sea, namely Placida cremoniana. In addition, the distribution and ecology of the species are given based in literature and new data. PMID:26624440

  15. Wood-Boring Bivalves (Mollusca: Teredinidae, Pholadidae) of Pacific coast of Colombia

    Twelve species of wood-boring bivalves, ten of the family Teredinidae and two of family Pholadidae were collected in mangroves at 6 locations of the Pacific coast of Colombia. This paper presents a brief description of these species, including size, ecological notes and geographical distribution.

  16. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) of the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    Sérgio Ávila; Julia Sigwart

    2013-01-01

    Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic), and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA) were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  17. A tropical Atlantic species of Melibe Rang, 1829 (Mollusca, Nudibranchia, Tethyiidae)

    Erika Espinoza; Anne DuPont; Angel Valdes

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Melibe is described based on two specimens collected in Florida. This new species is well differentiated morphologically and genetically from other species of Melibe studied to date. The four residue deletions in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 protein found in all previously sequenced tropical species of Melibe sequenced (and Melibe rosea) are also present in this new species. These deletions do not appear to affect important structural components of this protein but migh...

  18. Developmental dynamics of myogenesis in the shipworm Lyrodus pedicellatus (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    2014-01-01

    The shipworm Lyrodus pedicellatus is a wood-boring bivalve with an unusual vermiform body. Although its larvae are brooded, they retain the general appearance of a typical bivalve veliger-type larva. Here, we describe myogenesis of L. pedicellatus revealed by filamentous actin labelling and discuss the data in a comparative framework in order to test for homologous structures that might be part of the bivalve (larval) muscular ground pattern.

  19. Vestigial phragmocone in the gladius points to a deepwater origin of squid (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.; Bizikov, Vyacheslav A.; Fuchs, Dirk

    2012-03-01

    The microstructure of the gladius cone was investigated in six species of nektonic squid: shallow-water Loligo gahi (Loliginidae), pelagic eurybathic Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), and deepwater Onykia ingens (Onychoteuthidae) and Gonatus antarcticus (Gonatidae) using state-of-the-art microscopy. Apart from L. gahi, all other species had septa-like layers in the gladius cone, which for the first time were investigated in detail and compared with those in extinct Cretaceous belemnites Hibolithes sp. and Pachyteuthis sp., and spirulid Cyrtobelus sp. It was found that the organic layers of the gladius cone in recent squid can be homologized with the organic components of the shell in fossil phragmocone-bearing coleoids. The septa-like layers in modern gladius cones therefore represent a vestigial phragmocone composed of organic septal rudiments of the ancestral phragmocone that has lost the siphuncle and gas-filled chambers. The well-developed rostrum in onychoteuthids and small rostrum of the gladius in ommastrephids and gonatids can be seen as homologous with the belemnoid rostrum, which may indicate a close phylogenetic relationship between belemnites and at least some squid. Possible evolutionary pathways of the reduction of the functional phragmocone in squid ancestors are discussed. Several features such as the loss of shell calcification, deep water speciation, and the structure of the equilibrium organ point to a deep-water origin of squids.

  20. Evaluation of Freshwater Mussel (Mollusca: Unionoidea) Fitness Pre- and Post- Relocation Efforts

    McIntyre, H. E.; Farris, J. L.; Christian, A. D.

    2005-05-01

    Freshwater mussels are often displaced by human activities. Construction of bridges that offer potential impact to large numbers mussels often results in a relocation strategy to minimize loss. While this may reduce mortality, the metabolic consequences of relocation have not been evaluated. In this study we measured glycogen and lipid concentrations and RNA to DNA ratios to determine fitness impairments on relocated mussels. We hypothesize that organisms subjected to continuous stress should first use stored glycogen, followed by growth cessation measured as a reduction of RNA in relation to the DNA present, and finally a mobilization of tissue lipids, measured as a decrease in tissue lipid concentrations. We collected mantle snips from three surrogate species of mussels from four sites on the White River in eastern Arkansas during late summer, to establish expected glycogen, lipid, and RNA:DNA levels. Mean tissue lipids concentrations (?g/g) were 63.09, 67.96, and 50.46 for Quadrula quadrula, Q. pustulosa and Obliquaria reflexa, respectively. Mean tissue glycogen concentrations (?g/g) were 346.66, 592.26, and 336.58 for Q. quadrula, Q. pustulosa, and O. reflexa, respectively. This study can provide response information on relocated individuals as well as provide estimation of sufficient time required for mussel adaptation to novel environments.

  1. Ultrastructure developments during spermiogenesis in Polydora ciliata (Annelida: Spionidae), a parasite of mollusca

    Gao, Yan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Libin; Qiu, Tianlong; Xue, Dongxiu; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Spionid worms of Polydora ciliata inhabit the shells of many commercially important bivalves and cause disease in molluscan aquaculture. Their sperm structure is closely related to their fertilization method. To give an insight into the sperm structure and spermatogenesis, ultrastructure details of the subcellular components of germ cells during spermiogenesis of Polydora ciliata are detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In P. ciliata, during spermiogenesis, chromatin is regularly arranged as dense fibrils and becomes more condensed when the nucleus elongates. Microtubules do not surround the nucleus during its elongation. The Golgi phase is characterized by the formation of proacrosomal granules within the Golgi apparatus. The proacrosomal granules fuse to form a single, spherical acrosomal vesicle that migrates to the anterior pole of the cell. At the time of nuclear condensation, mitochondria become reduced in number but increased in size, causing deep indentation at the base of the nucleus. The mid-piece has a few mitochondria. The cap phase includes the spreading of the acrosomal granule over the surface of the nucleus of the differentiating spermatid. The acrosomal phase of spermiogenesis is typically associated with changes in the shape of the nucleus, acrosome and tail. The relationship of sperm ultrastructure to spermiogenesis in spionidae species was discussed.

  2. Pterópodos thecosomados en el Pacífico suroriental frente a Caldera, Chile (Mollusca, Opistobranchiata: Euthecostomata y Pseudothecostomata

    Mónica Labrín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los pterópodos thecosomados colectados en una transecta oceanógrafica efectuada entre Caldera, Chile (~27°S y los alrededores de Isla de Pascua e Isla Salas y Gómez, Pacífico suroriental. Se registró un total de 2021 individuos, agrupados en 18 especies, siendo Clio pyramidata y Styliola subula especies dominantes a lo largo del transecto, las más frecuentes y representadas en 18 de las 23 estaciones analizadas. Las especies más abundantes fueron S. subula (35%, C. pyramidata (28% y Cavolinia inflexa (13%. Las siguientes especies constituyen nuevos registros para el Pacífico suroriental: Cavolinia labiata, Cavolinia uncinata, Cavolinia gibosa, Cuvierina columnella, Clio cuspidata, Clio chaptali, Diacria trispinosa, D. quadridentata, D. major, Cymbulia sp. y Peracle reticulata. La clasificación permite reconocer tres conjuntos de estaciones caracterizadas por sus especies, abundancia total, riqueza de especies y diversidad, que incluyen un conjunto nerítico (71-79°W, un conjunto oceánico (82-105°W y un conjunto de estaciones talasoepipelágicas asociadas a las islas oceánicas.

  3. Three new species of Pruvotinidae (Mollusca: Solenogastres) from Antarctica and NW Spain

    Zamarro, Maria; García-Álvarez, Oscar; Urgorri, Victoriano

    2013-09-01

    The family Pruvotinidae (Solenogastres, Cavibelonia) includes thirty species of fifteen genera grouped in five subfamilies. These subfamilies are defined by the combination of the presence or absence of hollow hook-shaped sclerites, the presence or absence of a dorsopharyngeal gland and the type of ventrolateral foregut glandular organs: type A, type C or circumpharyngeal. In this paper, three new species of the family Pruvotinidae are described: Pruvotina artabra n. sp. and Gephyroherpia impar n. sp. from NW Spain, and Pruvotina manifesta n. sp. from Antarctic Peninsula. These new descriptions increase the global knowledge of Solenogastres biodiversity.

  4. Taxonomic implications of molecular studies on Northern Brazilian Teredinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia specimens

    Sonia Maria Lima Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The current taxonomy of the Teredinidae (shipworms is wholly based on morphology and up to now no molecular studies of the phylogeny of this group have been published. In the present study the relationships between four genera of the subfamilies Teredininae and Bankiinae were established and the efficiency of the 16S rRNA gene in characterizing four Teredinidae species was tested. Phylogenetic trees support the grouping of Bankia fimbriatula with Nausitora fusticula and of Neoteredo reynei with Psiloteredo healdi, but the genetic distances do not justify the classification of these species into two distinct subfamilies. The results show that B. fimbriatula, N. reynei and P. healdi specimens from the coast of the Brazilian state of Pará have five distinct 16S rRNA haplotypes, with one N. reynei haplotype differing from the other haplotypes in respect to at least seven sequences sites, indicating the existence of two very distinct sympatric lineages.

  5. Submarine canyons as the preferred habitat for wood-boring species of Xylophaga (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Romano, C.; Voight, J. R.; Company, J. B.; Plyuscheva, M.; Martin, D.

    2013-11-01

    Submarine canyons are often viewed as natural “debris concentrators” on the seafloor. Organic substrates may be more abundant inside than outside canyon walls. To determine the effects of the presence these substrates in the Blanes submarine canyon (NW Mediterranean) and its adjacent western open slope, we deployed wood to study colonizing organisms. Three replicate pine and oak cubes (i.e. most common trees inland) were moored at 900, 1200, 1500 and 1800 m depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months. Wood from inside the canyon was significantly more heavily colonized by the five morphotypes of wood-boring bivalves than was wood on the adjacent open slope. Xylophaga sp. A dominated all wood types and locations, with peak abundance at 900 and 1200 m depth. Its growth rate was highest (0.070 mm d-1) during the first three months and was faster (or it recruits earlier) in pine than in oak. Size distribution showed that several recruitment events may have occurred from summer to winter. Xylophaga sp. B, appeared first after 9 months and clearly preferred pine over oak. As the immersion time was the same, this strongly supported a specific association between recruiters and type of substrate. Three morphotypes, pooled as Xylophaga spp. C, were rare and seemed to colonize preferentially oak inside the canyon and pine in the adjacent open slope. Individuals of Xylophaga were more abundant inside the canyon than in nearby off-canyon locations. Blanes Canyon may serve as a long-term concentrator of land-derived vegetal fragments and as a consequence sustain more animals. Are the species richness and abundance of wood-boring bivalves higher inside the canyon than on the adjacent open slope? Do the composition and density of the wood-boring bivalves change with deployment time and depth, as well as on the type of the sunken wood? What is the growth rate of the dominant wood-boring species?

  6. Bioactive substances with anti-neoplastic efficacy from marine invertebrates: Bryozoa, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Urochordata

    Petr Sima; Vaclav Vetvicka

    2011-01-01

    The marine environment provides a rich source of natural products with potential therapeutic application. This has resulted in an increased rate of pharmaceutical agents being discovered in marine animals, particularly invertebrates. Our objective is to summarize the most promising compounds which have the best potential and may lead to use in clinical practice, show their biological activities and highlight the compounds currently being tested in clinical trials. In this paper, we focused on...

  7. Faecal bacteria in Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Bivalvia for biomonitoring coastal waters and seafood quality

    Diego Igawa Martinez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban development in coastal areas is intense and leads to the increase of sewage outfall and other negative impacts as consequences. Thus, stringent regulations establishing limits to the microbiological contamination of water and seafood are needed. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of Enterococci and Thermotolerant Coliform densities in the flesh of mussels Perna perna as an alternative tool for monitoring the microbiological quality of coastal waters. The study also considers allometric relations applied to clearance rates to understand rates of bacterial concentration. Bacterial loads obtained in mussels' flesh were from 50 to 4,300 times greater than in the water sampled in the vicinity of the mussels and some were considered inappropriate for consumption even when the water presented no restrictions. The mean clearance rate obtained for Enterococci retention was 317.7 ml h-1 and this rate (CR is related to the mussels' size (L by the equation CR = 28.3229L1.6421. The results showed that bacterial densities in the mussels' tissues may reflect chronic contamination of the environment and that clearance rates are important for taking the best decision in situations where, for example, it is desired to introduce mussels for aquaculture and the evaluation of the water concerned is required.O desenvolvimento urbano em áreas costeiras é intenso e o aumento das descargas de esgoto é uma das conseqüências. Assim, leis específicas que regulem limites para a contaminação microbiológica das águas e de alimentos de origem marinha são necessárias. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a utilização de Enterococos e coliformes termotolerantes na carne de mexilhões Perna perna como alternativa para o monitoramento da qualidade microbiológica de águas costeiras. O estudo também considera relações alométricas aplicadas às taxas de "clearance" para entender a concentração de bactérias pelo molusco. As densidades bacterianas obtidas no molusco foram de 50 a 4300 vezes maiores do que nas amostras de água coletadas próximas dos moluscos e alguns foram considerados impróprios para consumo, mesmo quando as águas não mostraram restrições. A taxa de "clearance" média obtida para retenção de Enterococos foi 317.7 ml h-1 e essas taxas (CR puderam ser relacionadas com o tamanho dos mexilhões (L pela equação CR = 28.3229L1.6421. Os resultados mostram que as densidades bacterianas nos tecidos dos mexilhões podem refletir a contaminação crônica do ambiente e que as taxas de "clearance" devem ser consideradas para a tomada de decisão em situações onde, por exemplo, se deseja implantar mexilhões para cultivo.

  8. Recrutamento larval e crescimento de teredinidae (mollusca-bivalvia) em região entremarés de manguezais

    Sônia Godoy Bueno Carvalho Lopes; Walter Narchi

    1997-01-01

    O recrutamento larval e o crescimento de Teredinidae na região entremarés do manguezal da Praia Dura, Ubatuba, SP, foi acompanhado durante doze meses (08/84 a 08/85) utilizando coletores construídos com madeira de mangue. O tempo decorrido para se detectar a presença dos primeiros Teredinidae foi de aproximadamente sete meses após o início do experimento e o número de indivíduos por coletor foi muito reduzido no período de amostragem. Esses resultados contrastam com os obtidos por outros auto...

  9. The influence of thymol+DMSO on survival, growth and reproduction of Bradybaena similaris (Mollusca: Bradybaenidae)

    Paula, Ferreira; Geraldo L. G., Soares; Sthefane, D' ávila; Elisabeth C. de Almeida, Bessa.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821), commonly known as the Asian trampsnail, is a terrestrial snail native to Asia, introduced in other regions of the world. In Brazil, populations of this land snail are distributed from the state of Amapá in the North to Rio Grande do Sul in the South. This speci [...] es acts as an intermediate host for parasites and is a difficult-to-control agricultural pest as well, causing great losses to crops and ornamental plant cultivation. This land snail is easily reared in the laboratory and has been successfully used as a biological model in studies that aim at verifying molluscicidal effects of plant extracts. Several studies have demonstrated that B. similaris, like many other species of land and freshwater snails, is physiologically adapted to survival over transitory unfavorable environmental conditions. Moreover, this species seems to have a life history strategy characterized by a short life span and a maximal opportunistic reproductive effort during transient favorable periods. Such biological features may potentially lead to the inefficacy of control attempts and, simultaneously, make this species able to repopulate sites previously treated with biocides. For this reason, studies that aim at verifying the effect of molluscicides on the reproduction, growth and survival of molluscs are greatly required. Molluscicides of plant origin may represent a safe and effective way of controlling these animals. Thymol is a substance of plant origin which has bactericidal, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory properties and has been presented as a promissory biocide of mollusc species. The aim of this work was to assess the molluscicidal property of thymol in combination with DMSO against eggs and adults of B. similaris. During 120 days, we evaluated the effect of thymol+DMSO at different concentrations (2.5 g/L and 5 g/L) on the hatching success, hatchling survival, growth and reproduction of B. similaris under laboratory conditions. We tested thymol+DMSO on 160 eggs, 160 10-day-old and 160 30-day-old juveniles. The results showed that thymol+DMSO (5 g/L and 2.5 g/L) affected hatching success, acting as an ovicide. The tests with 10-day-old juveniles showed that thymol+DMSO at 2.5 g/L and 5 g/L caused 90 and 100% of mortality, respectively. For the 30-day-old juveniles, thymol+DMSO caused 87.5% of mortality at 5 g/L, and 75% at 2.5 g/L. With regard to growth, the results were not significant. The 10-day-old individuals treated with thymol+DMSO showed only one reproductive event during the 120 days of the experiment. Thymol+DMSO showed molluscicidal and residual activity, which makes evident its potential for controlling snails, and consequently, snail-borne diseases.

  10. Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana

    Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

  11. Epibiotic relationships on Zygochlamys patagonica (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) increase biodiversity in a submarine canyon in Argentina

    Schejter, Laura; López Gappa, Juan; Bremec, Claudia Silvia

    2014-06-01

    The continental slope of the southern SW Atlantic Ocean has many distinguishable deep submarine canyons, varying in depth and extension. The benthic fauna within one of them, detected in April 2005 by means of a multibeam SIMRAD EM1002 sonar, and located at 43°35‧S to 59°33‧W, 325 m depth, was studied to discuss faunal affinities with the neighbouring Patagonian scallop fishing grounds located at upper slope depths. In order to add faunal information to the previous general study, we studied the epibiotic species settled on Patagonian scallops (the dominant species in the area) collected in the reference sampling site using a 2.5-m mouth-opening dredge, 10 mm mesh size. We sampled 103 scallops with shell heights between 22 and 69 mm; epibionts were recorded on both valves. We found 53 epibiotic taxa, which were most conspicuous on the upper valve. Bryozoa was the most diverse group (34 species) while Polychaeta was the most abundant group, recorded on 94% of the scallops. Stylasteridae (2 species) and Clavulariidae (Cnidaria) conform newly recorded epibionts on Z. patagonica and the sponge Tedania (Tedaniopsis) infundibuliformis also represents a new record for the SW Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Using DNA barcoding to differentiate invasive Dreissena species (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    Marescaux, Jonathan; Van Doninck, Karine

    2013-12-30

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) are considered as the most competitive invaders in freshwaters of Europe and North America. Although shell characteristics exist to differentiate both species, phenotypic plasticity in the genus Dreissena does not always allow a clear identification. Therefore, the need to find an accurate identification method is essential. DNA barcoding has been proven to be an adequate procedure to discriminate species. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene (COI) is considered as the standard barcode for animals. We tested the use of this gene as an efficient DNA barcode and found that it allow rapid and accurate identification of adult Dreissena individuals. PMID:24453560

  13. Using DNA barcoding to differentiate invasive Dreissena species (Mollusca, Bivalvia

    Jonathan Marescaux

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis are considered as the most competitive invaders in freshwaters of Europe and North America. Although shell characteristics exist to differentiate both species, phenotypic plasticity in the genus Dreissena does not always allow a clear identification. Therefore, the need to find an accurate identification method is essential. DNA barcoding has been proven to be an adequate procedure to discriminate species. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (COI is considered as the standard barcode for animals. We tested the use of this gene as an efficient DNA barcode and found that it allow rapid and accurate identification of adult Dreissena individuals.

  14. Novel polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated from the pen shell Atrina pectinata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pinnidae).

    Wu, B; Bai, L J; Yang, A G; Zhou, L Q; Liu, Z H

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we isolated 21 novel polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci from the pen shell Atrina pectinata using magnetic-bead hybridization enrichment. The characteristics of these loci were tested using a population of 30 individuals collected from the Penglai coast, Shandong Province. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13, and polymorphism information content (PIC) varied from 0.1730 to 0.8954. Values for observed heterozygosity (HO) and expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0.0714 to 0.9231 and from 0.1948 to 0.9237, respectively. Four loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The newly developed microsatellite markers will be beneficial in assessing the genetic diversity, population structure and genetic conservation of A. pectinata, and in other relevant research. PMID:25526185

  15. Population Structure And Growth Curve Of Acanthopleura Gemmata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) In The Northwestern Red Sea

    El Soliman, F. [???? ????? ?????? ?????

    1996-01-01

    Studies on Acanthopleura gemmata population were carried out in a site located on northwestern coast of the Red Sea called Sharm Elnagha, 40 km south of Hurghada city, Egypt (26° 56' N and 43° 00' E). In these studies, the population age structure, age and size at maturity, age and size at first reproduction, number of spawning times per year and per life span, rate of growth and type of growth curve were evaluated using the width of the 4th shell valve as a measuring character. The species p...

  16. Studies on the physiology and endocrinology of reproduction of Helisoma duryi (Mollusca: Pulmonata)

    Miksys, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    Helisoma duryi is a hermaphroditic, freshwater, pulmonate snail native to North America. It has been proposed as a biological control agent against snail intermediate hosts of Schistosoma sp., a parasitic trematode in man. Very little is known of the physiology and endocrinology of reproduction of H. duryi. This thesis investigates vitello-genesis, endocrine control of the synthesis of albumen, a nutrient-rich fluid catabolized by developing embryos, and the possible endocrine role of the gonad. Light and electron microscopy, chemical extraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and radioimmunoassay are used to identify the yolk protein ferritin. It is proposed that ferritin synthesis, and its circulating levels, are regulated, probably indirectly, by a gonadal factor released into the blood. The rate of synthesis of albumen polysaccharides can be monitored in vitro by providing albumen gland explants with the precursor /sup 14/C-glucose and measuring /sup 14/C-polysaccharide produced. The basal synthetic activity of the gland reflects the reproductive activity of the snail.

  17. Biostratigraphy and palaeoecology of the marine Pleistocene of Rhodes, Greece: Scleractinia, Serpulidae, Mollusca and Brachiopoda

    Nielsen J K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A biostratigraphical and palaeoecological study of the Pleistocene marine fauna from the Kallithea area (northeast Rhodes, Greece has been conducted. In this area, the Lindos Bay Clay and the Cape Arkhangelos Calcarenite, which constitute the Rhodes Formation, are well exposed in ancient quarries. The study has revealed the presence of 120 mollusc taxa, viz scaphopods (3 taxa, bivalves (65, gastropods (52 and indeterminate polyplacophorans, together with brachiopods (6 taxa, corals (3 and serpulids (7. The fauna of the Lindos Bay Clay contains counterparts of the modern biocoenoses of the coastal detritic (DC and muddy detritic bottoms (DE, whereas the Cape Arkhangelos Calcarenite shows evidence of the coralligenous biocoenosis (C, the biocoenosis of the 'Posidonia' meadows (HP, the biocoenosis of the photophilic algae (AP, the biocoenosis of fine-grained, well-sorted sand (SFBC, and the biocoenosis of coarse-grained sands and fine gravels under bottom currents (SGCF. The Windmill Bay Boulder Bed and the Kleopolu Calcirudite, which comprise the overlying Lindos Acropolis Formation, contain indeterminate bivalves and gastropods between eroded blocks from the Cape Arkhangelos Calcarenite. The Lindos Acropolis Formation shows remains of the coralligenous biocoenosis (C. The taxa identified confirm the warm-temperate conditions in the northeastern Mediterranean during the Pleistocene. Finds of Arctica islandica, which can be considered a 'northern guest', indicate the Pleistocene age of the Cape Arkhangelos Calcarenite. Two uranium/thorium dates of bivalves also support this age. Pteropods in the uppermost Lindos Bay Clay also suggest a Pleistocene age.

  18. High accumulation of cobalt-60 by the particular organ or part of some species in mollusca

    A large amounts of samples in marine Cephalopoda and Tridacna were sampled in north west pacific ocean, near Japan. The samples were separated into organs or parts for determination of Co-60 concentration. A peculiar accumulation of Co-60 by the branchial heart of Octopus was also recognized in field condition, but it had become apparent that branchial heart of squid had not same ability. Liver of Cephalopoda had the ability to highly accumulate the Co-60 and specific activity of squid was one order highter than Octopus. The concentration of Cobalt-60 in visceral muss kidney of Tridacna maxima lineally increased with increasing shell length but that in other soft parts was kept constant. After examination of the other papers it was assumed that Co-60 highly accumulated in these organs was transfered by the food chain. (author)

  19. Fisheries and reproductive biology of Octopus vulgaris (Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the Gulf of Alicante (Northwestern Mediterranean

    M. GONZALEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The common octopus Octopus vulgarisCuvier, 1797 is the most fished cephalopod species along the Spanish coasts. Its catches are highly fluctuating due to the short life cycle of the species and to the annual variability of the recruitment pattern, strongly dependent on the environmental conditions affecting the eggs and paralarvae. This study examines the common octopus fishery, the catch composition, and the main features of the reproductive biology of this species in the Gulf of Alicante (Spanish Eastern coast, Western Mediterranean FAO division 37.1.1. The common octopus fishery was studied analysing the monthly landing and effort data by fishing gear from 1994 to 2005. Monthly samplings of the commercial O. vulgarislandings from trawlers and clay pots from January 2004 to December 2005 resulted in the measuring of 1833 specimens to enable analysis of the catch composition, and allowed the biological sampling of 1176 individuals to provide the reproductive parameters of the species in the study area. The length-weight relationship calculated for the species was BW = 0.51 * DML 2.87. The yearly sex ratios (males:females were 1:1 (trawl, 2004, 1:0.74 (trawl, 2005, and 1:0.88 (clay pots, 2005. The size (dorsal mantle length, DML at maturity of the species in the study area was 9.67 cm for males and 14.38 cm for females. The gonadosomatic index reached a peak between April and July for males and in July for females. The Fulton condition index was lower in both sexes between June and September, and for males in November-December, whereas for both sexes the values of the digestive gland index were at their maximum between June and December. The energy allocation between somatic and reproductive growth was investigated and the results suggested that the energy spent on reproduction mainly came from feeding, and not from energy stored in the mantle tissues or in the digestive gland

  20. Notes on natural infection of some Helicidae spp. (Mollusca, Stylommatophora) by Protostrongylinae sheep larvae

    Manga-González, M. Yolanda; Morrondo-Pelayo, M. Patrocinio

    1980-01-01

    This work summarizes facts about natural infection by Protostrongylinae of the 8 Heicella spp. which, according to studies by GITTENBERGER & MANGA (1977) and MANGA (1977) are to be found in the province of León. These species belong to the Helicellinae Subfamily...

  1. Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) on the Cachoeira River Estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil Hermafroditismo nos moluscos dióicos Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786) (Mollusca, Psammobiidae) e Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818) (Mollusca, Donacidae) na região estuarina do Rio Cachoeira, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil

    LO. Ceuta; G. Boehs; JJB. Santos

    2010-01-01

    The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil) between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obta...

  2. Sinanodonta woodiana (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae: Isolation and Characterization of the First Microsatellite Markers

    Elena Iulia Iorgu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 is a large Unionid species with a real invasion success. It colonized Europe, Central America, the Indonesian Islands and recently North America. The species life cycle involves a larval parasitic stage on freshwater fish species which contributes to the spread of the mussel. In this paper we describe, for the first time, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the species Sinanodonta woodiana. The genetic screening of individuals confirmed that all loci were highly polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 14 and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.650 to 0.950. These loci should prove useful to study the species population genetics which could help to infer important aspects of the invasion process.

  3. Nonhemocyte sources of selected lysosomal enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea (Mollusca: Pulmonata

    Gary E. Rodrick

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, lysozymes, glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminate were determined in the head-foot and digestive gland of Brazilian Biomphalaria glabrata (Touros, B. tenagophila (Caçapava and B. straminea (Monsenhor Gil. All six enzymes were detected inthe 3000g supernatant. Both cytoplasmic enzymes, glutamate-oxalacetate and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase exhibited the highest specific activities. In the case of the four hydrolytic enzymes assayed, β-glucuronidase exhibited the highest specific activity while lysozyme showed the lowest activity. All six enzymes are thought to be produced by cells within the head-foot and digestive gland of B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and B. straminea.Foram determinadas, na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva de Biomphalaria glabrata de Touros (Rio Grande do Norte B. tenagophila de Cacapava (Sao Paulo e B. straminea de Monsenhor Gil (Piauí, as atividades específicas das seguintes enzimas: fosfatase acida, fosfatase alcalina, beta-glucuronidase, lisozima, transaminase glutâmico-oxalacetica e transaminase glutâmico-piruvica. As seis enzimas referidas foram detectadas no sobrenadante a 3000g. Ambas as enzimas citoplasmaticas - transaminases glutamico-oxalacetica e glutamico-piruvica - mostraram as atividades específicas mais altas. No caso das quatro enzimas hidrolíticas, a beta-glucuronidase revelou a mais alta atividade específica, enquanto a lisozima revelou a mais baixa. E admitido que todas as seis enzimas sao produzidas por celulas presentes na massa cefalopedal e na glândula digestiva das tres especies de moluscos examinadas.

  4. Life history of the bathyal octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) in the Mediterranean Sea

    Quetglas, Antoni; Ordines, Francesc; González, María; Franco, Ignacio

    2009-08-01

    The life cycle of the deep-sea octopus Pteroctopus tetracirrhus was studied from monthly samples obtained throughout the year in different areas of the western Mediterranean (mainly around the Balearic Islands and along the coast of the Iberian Peninsula). A total of 373 individuals (205 females, 168 males) were analyzed; females ranged from 4.5 to 14.0 cm mantle length (ML) and males from 4.5 to 11.5 cm ML. There were few small-sized octopuses (diet of the octopus was based on crustaceans and teleosts, which accounted for 75% and 23% of the prey items, respectively. Cephalopods and gastropods were accessory prey as they only represented 1.6% and 0.7%, respectively, of the total. The octopus showed a marked preference for the benthic fish Symphurus nigrescens and the endobenthic crustacean Alpheus glaber. The bathymetric distribution of P. tetracirrhus coincides with those of these two main prey, which suggests that the distribution of the octopus might be strongly linked to its trophic resources.

  5. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) of the Azores (NE Atlantic).

    Avila, Sérgio P; Sigwart, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic), and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA) were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species. PMID:23825446

  6. Chiton integument: ultrastructure of the sensory hairs of Mopalia muscosa (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Leise, E M; Cloney, R A

    1982-01-01

    The dorsal integument of the girdle of the chiton Mopalia muscosa is covered by a chitinous cuticle about 0.1 mm in thickness. Within the cuticle are fusiform spicules composed of a central mass of pigment granules surrounded by a layer of calcium carbonate crystals. Tapered, curved chitinous hairs with a groove on the mesial surface pass through the cuticle and protrude above the surface. The spicules are produced by specialized groups of epidermal cells called spiniferous papillae and the hairs are produced by trichogenous papillae. Processes of pigment cells containing green granules are scattered among the cells of each type of papilla and among the common epidermal cells. The wall or cortex of each hair is composed of two layers. The cortex surrounds a central medulla that contains matrix material of low density and from 1 to 20 axial bundles of dendrites. The number of bundles within the medulla varies with the size of the hair. Each bundle contains from 1 to 25 dendrites ensheathed by processes of supporting cells. The dendrites and supporting sheath arise from epidermal cells of the central part of the papilla. At the base of each trichogenous papilla are several nerves that pass into the dermis. Two questions remain unresolved. The function of the hairs is unknown, and we have not determined whether the sensory cells are primary sensory neurons or secondary sensory cells. PMID:7066970

  7. Fine structure of the mineralized teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Wealthall, Rosamund J; Brooker, Lesley R; Macey, David J; Griffin, Brendan J

    2005-08-01

    The major lateral teeth of the chiton Acanthopleura echinata are composite structures composed of three distinct mineral zones: a posterior layer of magnetite; a thin band of lepidocrocite just anterior to this; and apatite throughout the core and anterior regions of the cusp. Biomineralization in these teeth is a matrix-mediated process, in which the minerals are deposited around fibers, with the different biominerals described as occupying architecturally discrete compartments. In this study, a range of scanning electron microscopes was utilized to undertake a detailed in situ investigation of the fine structure of the major lateral teeth. The arrangement of the organic and biomineral components of the tooth is similar throughout the three zones, having no discrete borders between them, and with crystallites of each mineral phase extending into the adjacent mineral zone. Along the posterior surface of the tooth, the organic fibers are arranged in a series of fine parallel lines, but just within the periphery their appearance takes on a "fish scale"-like pattern, reflective of the cross section of a series of units that are overlaid, and offset from each other, in adjacent rows. The units are approximately 2 microm wide and 0.6 microm thick and comprise biomineral plates separated by organic fibers. Two types of subunits make up each "fish scale": one is elongate and curved and forms a trough, in which the other, rod-like unit, is nestled. Adjacent rod and trough units are aligned into large sheets that define the fracture plane of the tooth. The alignment of the plates of rod-trough units is complex and exhibits extreme spatial variation within the tooth cusp. Close to the posterior surface the plates are essentially horizontal and lie in a lateromedial plane, while anteriorly they are almost vertical and lie in the posteroanterior plane. An understanding of the fine structure of the mineralized teeth of chitons, and of the relationship between the organic and mineral components, provides a new insight into biomineralization mechanisms and controls. PMID:15959908

  8. [Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México].

    García Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez Ruiz, Migdalia

    2007-03-01

    Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahia de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness) and higher diversity (Shannon's index). PMID:18457125

  9. The continuing debate on deep molluscan phylogeny: evidence for Serialia (Mollusca, Monoplacophora + Polyplacophora).

    Stöger, I; Sigwart, J D; Kano, Y; Knebelsberger, T; Marshall, B A; Schwabe, E; Schrödl, M

    2013-01-01

    Molluscs are a diverse animal phylum with a formidable fossil record. Although there is little doubt about the monophyly of the eight extant classes, relationships between these groups are controversial. We analysed a comprehensive multilocus molecular data set for molluscs, the first to include multiple species from all classes, including five monoplacophorans in both extant families. Our analyses of five markers resolve two major clades: the first includes gastropods and bivalves sister to Serialia (monoplacophorans and chitons), and the second comprises scaphopods sister to aplacophorans and cephalopods. Traditional groupings such as Testaria, Aculifera, and Conchifera are rejected by our data with significant Approximately Unbiased (AU) test values. A new molecular clock indicates that molluscs had a terminal Precambrian origin with rapid divergence of all eight extant classes in the Cambrian. The recovery of Serialia as a derived, Late Cambrian clade is potentially in line with the stratigraphic chronology of morphologically heterogeneous early mollusc fossils. Serialia is in conflict with traditional molluscan classifications and recent phylogenomic data. Yet our hypothesis, as others from molecular data, implies frequent molluscan shell and body transformations by heterochronic shifts in development and multiple convergent adaptations, leading to the variable shells and body plans in extant lineages. PMID:24350268

  10. New records for the shallow-water chiton fauna (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of the Azores (NE Atlantic

    Sérgio Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Published records, original data from recent field work on all of the islands of the Azores (NE Atlantic, and a revision of the entire mollusc collection deposited in the Department of Biology of the University of the Azores (DBUA were used to compile a checklist of the shallow-water Polyplacophora of the Azores. Lepidochitona cf. canariensis and Tonicella rubra are reported for the first time for this archipelago, increasing the recorded Azorean fauna to seven species.

  11. Fine structure and immunocytochemistry of a new chemosensory system in the Chiton larva (Mollusca: Polyplacophora).

    Haszprunar, Gerhard; Friedrich, Stefan; Wanninger, Andreas; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard

    2002-02-01

    Combined electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry of the larvae of several polyplacophoran species (Chiton olivaceus, Lepidochitona aff. corrugata, Mopalia muscosa) revealed a sensory system new to science, a so-called "ampullary system." The cells of the "ampullary system" are arranged in four symmetrically situated pairs lying dorsolaterally and ventrolaterally in the pretrochal part of the trochophore-like larva and they send axons into the cerebral commissure. They are lost at metamorphosis. The fine structure of these cells strongly resembles that of so-called "ampullary cells" known from various sensory organs of other molluscs, such as the apical complex of gastropod and bivalve larvae, osphradia of vetigastropods, and olfactory organs of cephalopods, and nuchal organs of certain polychaetes. The ampullary cells and their nerves are densely stained by anti-FMRF-amide fluorescence dyes, whereas antiserotonin staining is only weak. While cytological homology of the ampullary cells with those of other organs is probable, the ampullary system as a whole is regarded as a synapomorphy of the Polyplacophora or Chitonida. PMID:11748704

  12. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  13. Acanthochitona terezae sp. n., um novo poliplacóforo da costa brasileira (Mollusca, Polyplacophora

    Orlando Guerra Júnior

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve uma nova espécie de poliplacóforo (Acanthochitona terezae para o litoral brasileiro, apresenta dados sobre sua morfologia e discute aspectos biogeográficos.The author describes a new species of chiton (Acanthochitona terezae from the coast of Brazil, adducing data on its morphology and biogeographic aspects.

  14. Hermaphroditism among dioecious Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786 (Mollusca, Psammobiidae and Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818 (Mollusca, Donacidae on the Cachoeira River Estuary, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil Hermafroditismo nos moluscos dióicos Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786 (Mollusca, Psammobiidae e Iphigenia brasiliana (Lamarck, 1818 (Mollusca, Donacidae na região estuarina do Rio Cachoeira, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil

    LO. Ceuta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The samples of Tagelus plebeius and Iphigenia brasiliana were manually collected on the Cachoeira River estuary region (Ilhéus, BA, Brazil between August 2005 and August 2006, with a periodicity of 15 days, with 20 animals collected/sampled, performing 500 samples from each species. The animals were measured, eviscerated and kept in solution of Davidson and after 24-30 hours, they were transferred to ethanol 70%. The material was processed for routine histology, with paraffin embedding, obtaining 7 μm thick slices, stained with Harris hematoxilin and Eosin (HE. By light microscopy analysis, 2 cases of hermaphroditism (0.4% in T. plebeius samples and one case (0.2% in I. brasiliana were registered with predominance of female over male follicles.Os exemplares de Tagelus plebeius e Iphigenia brasiliana foram manualmente coletados na região estuarina do Rio Cachoeira (Ilhéus, Bahia, entre agosto de 2005 e agosto de 2006, com coleta quinzenal de 20 animais, totalizando 500 exemplares/espécie. Os animais foram mensurados, eviscerados e fixados em solução de Davidson por 24-30 horas e depois transferidos para etanol a 70%. O material foi processado por técnica rotineira de histologia, com inclusão em parafina, obtenção de cortes com 7 μm de espessura e coloração por hematoxilina de Harris e Eosina (HE. A análise em microscopia de luz evidenciou 2 casos de hermafroditismo (0,4% em T. plebeius e um caso (0,2% em I. brasiliana (0,2%, com predominância de folículos femininos sobre os masculinos.

  15. Crescimento de órgãos do aparelho reprodutor durante o desenvolvimento de Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny (Mollusca, Planorbidae

    MONTEIRO W.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria tenagophila é um hermafrodita simultâneo cujo investimento na função masculina foi avaliado pelo crescimento de seus órgãos sexuais em relação ao diâmetro da concha. Foram criadas novas técnicas para medir órgãos reprodutivos, sem aparentes distorções, e contar folículos do ovoteste. Durante o crescimento de espécimes sexualmente maduros de B. tenagophila, cresceu o número de folículos do ovoteste, mas seus números máximos e mínimos são menores do que os citados na literatura. O número de divertículos da próstata e de folículos do ovoteste de B. glabrata é maior do que o de B. tenagophila. Embora o comprimento do ovoteste, da próstata, da bainha do pênis e da glândula mucípara-ootecal variassem durante o crescimento do caramujo, não variou significativamente o número de divertículos da próstata.

  16. Distribution of Lymnaeidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata), intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela

    Pointier JP; O. Noya; Alarcón de Noya, B.; A Théron

    2009-01-01

    An extensive malacological survey was carried out between 2005-2009 in order to clarify the exact number of lymnaeid species which may be intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Venezuela. Four species were discovered during this survey, including two local species: Lymnaea cubensis and Lymnaea cousini and two exotic species: Lymnaea truncatula and Lymnaea columella. The most common local species was L. cubensis which was found at 16 out of the 298 sampling sites. This species has a large ...

  17. Diversidad malacológica en una comunidad de Arca zebra (Mollusca: Bivalviaen Chacopata, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    Antulio S. Prieto

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad malacológica de una comunidad submareal de Arca zebra se estudió, desde septiembre, 1990 hasta septiembre, 1991, en Chacopata, Estado Sucre, Venezuela. Se identificaron 40 especies (24 de bivalvos y 16 de gasterópodos. Los parámetros de diversidad en número de la comunidad fueron bajos (H` = 2.087 bits /ind., J` = 0.392, Simpson = 0.528 cuando se comparan con otros reportes de áreas tropicales. Los datos del número de individuos por especies con el rango conforman una línea recta ajustada por la serie logaritmica, con un índice de diversidad (a de 5.66. Las máximas diversidades mensuales se observaron en septiembre, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind. y julio, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind., la mínima ocurrió en junio, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.. De las 40 especies identificadas, la pepitona, Arca zebra fue la especie dominante en número (68.87 % y en biomasa (72.34 %, seguida por Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla y Anadara notabilis. Los gasterópodos predadores Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons y Murex recurvirostris parecen tener relaciones tróficas con la especie dominante. La biomasa promedio total en peso húmedo con la concha (469.20 + 263 g m-2 es alta e indica que A. zebra, la especie dominante de rápido crecimiento, desempeña el papel más importante en la comunidad como un eficiente filtrador, que convierte el alimento planctónico en biomasa disponible, soportando una de las pesquerías más importantes de la región.The diversity of a subtidal epifaunal mollusk community was studied from September, 1990 to September, 1991 in Chacopata, Sucre State, Venezuela. There were 40 species (24 bivalves and 16 gastropods. The diversity indexes (H` = 2.087, J`=0.392, 1/D = 0.528 were low when compared with other tropical zones. Monthly diversity reached its maximum in September, 1990 (1.63 bits/ind. and July, 1991 (1.60 bits/ind.; minimum diversity occurred in June, 1991 (0.52 bits/ind.. A Log series model applied to species abundance data showed a straight line with a diversity index a of 5.56. Of 40 species identified, the turkeywing Arca zebra was dominant (69 % in number of individuals and 72 % of biomass followed by Pinctada imbricata, Modiolus squamosus, Chama macerophyla and Anadara notabilis. The predatory snails Phyllonotus pomum, Chicoreus brevifrons and Murex recurvirostris seemed to have trophic relationships with A. zebra. The total mean biomass in wet weight (469.20 + 263g m-2, shell included was high which indicates that A. zebra, a species with a rapid growth rate, occupies a central role in the assemblage as an efficient filter feeder that converts planktonic food into available biomass, supporting one of the most important fisheries in Venezuela.

  18. Crecimiento y mortalidad de Pinctada imbricata (Mollusca: Pteridae en Guamachito, Península de Araya, Estado Sucre, Venezuela

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el crecimiento, la distribución de tallas y la mortalidad de una población de Pinctada imbricata en Guamachito, Península de Araya, Venezuela, entre enero y diciembre de 2000. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente sobre transeptos perpendiculares a la línea de la costa con una rastra artesanal, tomando también datos sobre temperatura, oxígeno disuelto y salinidad de la columna de agua. La distribución de tallas fue variable con un predominio de tallas entre 50 y 70 mm, que constituyeron el 75% de la población. La mayor cantidad de juveniles fue observada en marzo, cuando la longitud media en la población fue de 55.8 mm. Los promedios de los pesos húmedo y seco siguieron la misma tendencia, con valores mínimos en junio, julio, septiembre y octubre de 2000. Las relaciones longitud-peso húmedo y longitud-peso seco fueron altamente significativas (P < 0.05. Los parámetros de la ecuación de crecimiento estacionalizada de von Bertalanffy fueron L? = 85.15 mm; K = 1.42 año–1, ts = 0.2, y C = 0.20; indicando un crecimiento lento (WP = 0.42 en el periodo de julio a noviembre, asociado con los parámetros ambientales del área con una longevidad estimada en 3 años. La mortalidad total fue de 14.35 año para los individuos pequeños (10–36 mm y 3.45 año, para los individuos grandes (36–84 mm. La alta tasa de crecimiento de P. imbricata muestra ser una ventaja para considerarla como una especie con potencial para actividades de acuicultura en la región. El banco ostrícola presenta buenas condiciones para mantener una explotación pesquera sostenida, tomando en consideración parámetros pesqueros como la captura registrada, el esfuerzo óptimo, la talla mínima de extracción, la mortalidad por pesca y la mortalidad natural.

  19. Cellular biomarker responses of limpets (Mollusca as measure of sensitivity to cadmiumcontamination

    Koot Reinecke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the availability and chemical nature of some heavy metals, sub-lethal toxicant levels may persist in the ocean waters and may cause physiological problems and toxicity in invertebrates and other marine organisms. Although studies of metal concentrations in False Bay showed relatively low mean concentrations of Cd, invertebrates such as molluscs, crustaceans and many other groups are able to accumulate high levels of heavy metals in their tissues and still survive in the heaviest polluted areas. They can accumulate numerous pollutants from natural waters in quantities that are many orders of magnitude higher than background levels. Bioaccumulation ofcadmium in intertidal species could cause stress which may be measurable at the cellular level. A variety of limpet species that may serve as suitable ecotoxicological monitoring species occur in abundance on rocky shores along the South African coastline. The aim of this study was to obtain sensitivity data which could contribute to the selection of a suitable monitoring species and the eventual establishment of a species sensitivity distribution model (SSD with a biomarker responseas endpoint. The limpets Cymbula oculus, Scutellastra longicosta, Cymbula granatina and Scutellastragranularis as well as water samples were collected at two localities in False Bay, South Africa. Analysis of water and biological samples were done by atomic absorption spectrometry. Exposures were done to three different sublethal concentrations of cadmium in the laboratory in static flow tanks over three days. There was a moderate increase in cadmium body concentrations over time. Results obtained at three exposure concentrations showed no significant differences in metal concentrations between the different C. oculus samples. Significant differences were obtained between the control and the exposure groups for each exposure time except between the control and the 1mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 24 and 72 hours of exposure. Cd body concentrations(soft tissue varied between 4.56 and 21.41µg/g (wet mass.Mean Cd concentrations in soft tissue of S. longicosta was considerably lower (varying between 1.18 and 19.58 µg/g Cd than in the tissues of C. oculus. The control group differed significantly from the 0.8 and 1 mg/L CdCl2 exposures after 48 and 72 hours. Mean Cd body concentrations in S. granular is were the highest of all exposed species, reaching a level of 148 µg/g Cd at the highest exposure concentration and differed significantly from the means of the other samples of the 0.8 mg/L CdCl2 exposure group after 72 hours and from the 1 mg/L CdCl2 group after 24 hours. Significant differences were also obtained between theCd body concentrations of C. granatina for the three exposure concentrations and three exposure times. Lysosomal membrane integrity was determined for both exposed and control animals, using the neutral red retention assay. Three of the four species showed a significant decrease in retention times with an increase in Cd concentration. Inter-species differences in sensitivity to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations were reflected in the biomarker responses. Based on reduction of NRR times, the order of relative sensitivity to cadmium was S. granularis >C. oculus> S. longicosta.> C.granatina. 

  20. Thyasira ockelmanni (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Veneroidea, A new species of Thyasiridae from the Norwegian Sea

    Rozemarijn Keuning

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false NO-BOK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A new species of Thyasiridae, Thyasira ockelmanni n.sp. is described from the abyssal depths of the Norwegian Sea. The generic assignment is tentative and possible alternatives are discussed. The new species has some resemblance to Thyasira subovata (Jeffreys, 1881 and Adontorhina similis Barry & McCormack, 2007, but the posterior outline is rounded and not angulate or truncate as in these species.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

    Tëmkin Ilya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  2. Toxicological aspects associated with the ecology of Donax trunculus (Bivalvia, Mollusca) in a polluted environment

    Fishelson, L.; Manelis, R. [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bresler, V.; Zuk-Rimon, Z.; Dotan, A.; Yawetz, A. [Institute for Nature Conservation Research, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Hornung, H. [Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, National Institute of Oceanography, Haifa (Israel)

    1999-02-09

    This study provides data on the ecology and toxicology observed in the population of Donax trunculus, a sand dwelling mussel, in the shallow subtidal of Haifa Bay (Mediterranean Sea, Israel). The studied population of the mussel forms a dominant fraction in a community of sand-dwelling molluscs in a zone located 5-25 m from the shoreline, and at depths of 20-120 cm, numbering up to 2000 per m{sup 2}. Samples of the mussel were collected from three sites, located within 9 km of shore in Haifa Bay. These included a clean site (Akko), a site polluted by a chemical PVC-polymer industry (Frutarom), and a site polluted with oil and waste from the petrochemical industry (Qiryat Yam). Metal analysis indicated site-dependent variations in levels of cadmium, lead, copper and mercury in the mussel soft tissues. Copper levels were similar in the bivalves collected from all the sites. Levels of mercury were significantly higher in specimens from the PVC-polluted site (Frutarom) while levels of cadmium were higher in Akko and Qiryat Yam compared to Frutarom. Lead residues were found only in Donax from Akko. The residual contents of mercury, copper and cadmium were relatively high in the young and noticeably low in Donax of medium body size. The main site of deposition of metals was in the soft tissues of the bivalve, but bioaccumulation of metals was also found in the shells. A marked increase in permeability of gills and mantle to the fluorescent anionic dye-fluorescein (FLU) was detected in Donax from Qiryat Yam and especially Frutarom, compared to the bivalves sampled from Akko. Multiple foci of enhanced permeability (multiple fluorescent spots) were detected in all the individuals sampled from Frutarom but none in the bivalve samples from Akko. Lysosomal accumulation of the metachromatic fluorescent cationic probe, acridine orange - (AO), was significantly decreased in the tissues of D. trunculus from polluted sites, especially polluted by the PVC factory. This decrease correlated with lysosomal enlargement and the formation of secondary lysosomes. D. trunculus appears to possess the most effective biochemical and physiological defense mechanisms enabling it to survive in habitats of polluted shallow waters, where other sand dwelling mollusc species were absent or found only in waters deeper then 2.5 m. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Mollusca from Preangerian deposits of Mandul Island, northeastern Kalimantan Timur (East Borneo)

    Beets, C.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper gives the result of work on a collection of molluscs which was made in 1916 by W. H. van Hoist Pellekaan on behalf of the Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, now Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij. A preliminary examination of the fossils was made by K. Martin, also in 1916, his conclusion, based on 22 species, being that their age was either 'uppermost Old Miocene' (i.e., Njalindung) or 'Upper Miocene'. According to modern usage, this would imply a dating of the fau...

  4. Production of digestive enzymes along the gut of the giant keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata (Mollusca: Vetigastropoda).

    Martin, Gary G; Martin, Alanna; Tsai, Whitney; Hafner, John C

    2011-11-01

    The esophagus and intestine form the longest regions of the digestive tract in the giant keyhole limpet and are lined by epithelial cells sharing a common morphology and releasing materials into the gut lumen by apocrine secretion. The purpose of this study was to determine if these morphologically similar regions release similar digestive enzymes and compare their contributions to digestive enzymes released from other regions of the gut. Principal component analysis of enzymes detected by the API ZYM system for 19 enzymes plus EnzChek assays for protease, ?-amylase, lipase, cellulase, and lysozyme identify four distinct regions of the gut: 1) crystalline style and style sac, 2) digestive gland, 3) salivary glands, and 4) esophagus and intestine. Heterogeneity in enzymatic activity was observed in regions of the gut with similar cell morphology (middle and posterior esophagus and intestine) as well as regions with different cell morphology (salivary glands, digestive gland and crystalline style). Enzyme activity in each of these regions is compared to other gastropods, in particular the abalone. Although much of the length of the digestive tract is lined by a morphologically similar epithelium, different regions of the alimentary tract produce a different suite of enzymes which may contribute to the digestive process. These data will help enhance our limited understanding of the digestive physiology of Megathura crenulata and lead to improvement of its culture for clinical research. PMID:21767658

  5. Predation on Biomphalaria sp. (Mollusca: Planorbidae) by three species of the genus Belostoma (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae)

    C. A. Armúa de Reyes; A. L. Estévez

    2006-01-01

    The voracious behaviour of water bugs is well known as they attack a great diversity of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms which may be of various sizes, even larger than they are (Schnack, 1976; Menke, 1979). All of the Belostomatidae family members have forelegs adapted to catch prey which are usually ambushed by bugs. After catching prey, bugs handle it in order to insert their piercing mouth parts to inject saliva and liquefy prey’s tissues to suck. (Párrafo extraído del texto a mod...

  6. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic parte of female duct to penial complex = 1.36 to 2.81 ((mean 1.90 +- 0.33; penial sheath to prepuce = 042 to 0.96 (mean 0.67 +- 0.13. Comparison with Morelet’s type specimens of Planorbis orbiculus and P. retusus points to the identity of those nominal species with B. obstructa.

  7. Molecular Phylogeny of Mobilid and Sessilid Ciliates Symbiotic in Eastern Pacific Limpets (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda).

    Irwin, Nicholas A T; Lynn, Denis H

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the ciliate subclass Peritrichia, composed of the orders Mobilida and Sessilida, have recently come under debate as morphological and molecular analyses have struck contrasting conclusions as to the monophyly of the group. We provide additional molecular data to assess the monophyly of the Peritrichia by sequencing the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of two symbiotic peritrichs, Urceolaria korschelti and Scyphidia ubiquita, found inhabiting the mantle cavity of limpets. Although phylogenetic analyses indicated a nonmonophyletic Peritrichia, approximately unbiased tests revealed that the monophyletic hypothesis could not be rejected. With regard to the Mobilida, our analysis showed divergence within the family Trichodinidae related to host taxa-a molluscan clade and a fish clade. For the Sessilida, the family Scyphidiidae was sister to the Astylozoidae. In our sampling of U. korschelti and S. ubiquita, both species showed significant genetic divergence among geographically isolated, yet morphologically indistinguishable populations. We hypothesize that cryptic speciation has produced these morphologically identical species and argue that more extensive genomic analyses are required to fully assess the monophyly, biogeography, and ultimately biodiversity of the peritrichs. PMID:25711931

  8. Avaliação das atividades antimicrobiana, citotóxica, moluscicida e antioxidante de Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae Evaluation of antimicrobial, cytotoxic, molluscicidal and antioxidant activities of Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae

    L.M. Manetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae, conhecida como gravatá ou caraguatá, apresenta características medicinais, alimentícias e ornamentais. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as atividades antifúngica, antibacteriana, citotóxica, moluscicida e antioxidante de extratos alcoólicos das folhas e frutos desta espécie. Na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana pelo método de microdiluição os extratos alcoólicos não foram eficientes frente à cepa referência do fungo Candida albicans (ATCC 90028, cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. glabrata, e frente às bactérias S. aureus (ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 e E. coli (ATCC 8739. A atividade citotóxica, avaliada pelo bioensaio de toxicidade sobre náuplios de Artemia salina Leach (TAS, foi positiva para ambos extratos, com valores de DL50 variando em torno de 620 µg mL-1 e 360 µg mL-1, para os extratos alcoólicos dos frutos e das folhas, respectivamente. A atividade moluscicida, avaliada frente a caramujos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata (Molusca, Gastropoda, não mostrou toxicidade aguda para soluções de 400 µg mL-1. As propriedades antioxidantes dos extratos investigadas in vitro mediante o método de DPPH• foram consideradas modestas (~ 35% de inibição na concentração de 1000 µg mL-1. Dentre as atividades biológicas que foram testadas a atividade citotóxica foi a mais pronunciada.Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae, popularly known as "gravatá" or "caraguatá", shows medicinal, nutritional and ornamental properties. In the present study, the alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of this species were evaluated for antifungal, antibacterial, cytotoxic, molluscicidal and antioxidant activities. The alcoholic extracts evaluated by microdilution method were not efficient against the standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028, clinical strains of C. albicans and C. glabrata, and S. aureus (ATCC 6538, P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 and E. coli (ATCC 8739. The cytotoxic activity evaluated by toxicity bioassay on nauplii of Artemia salina Leach (TAS was positive for both extracts, with LD50 values ranging around 620 µg mL-1 and 360 µg mL-1 for alcoholic extracts from leaves and fruits, respectively. The molluscicidal activity evaluated against Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda did not present acute toxicity for 400 µg mL-1 solutions. The antioxidant properties of the extracts investigated in vitro using the DPPH• method were considered modest (~ 35% of inhibition at 1000 µg mL-1. Among the evaluated biological activities, cytotoxic activity was the most marked.

  9. The Gastropods of Lake Eğirdir

    YILDIRIM, Mehmet Zeki

    2004-01-01

    The Gastropoda species and its distribution was investigated in Lake Eğirdir. It was determined that 5 species belonging to Gastropoda, order Prosobranchia (Theodoxus heldreichi, Valvata naticina, Graecoanatolica lacustristurca, Falsipyrgula pfeiferi and Bithynia pseudemmericia) and 7 species belonging to the order Pulmonata (Radix peregra, Stagnicola palustris, Physa fontinalis, Physa acuta, Planorbis planorbis, Planorbis carinatus and Gyraulus albus) were present. Gastropoda species from 9 ...

  10. Biodiversidad de moluscos terrestres en México / Biodiversity of terrestrial mollusks in Mexico

    Edna, Naranjo-García.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Mollusca terrestres pertenecen exclusivamente a la clase Gastropoda. Son muy diversos en formas, tamaños (1 a 200-300 mm), hábitos, ambientes (por clima y vegetación), ciclos de vida y en la edad que alcanzan. Prosobranchia, con pocos representantes; los Pulmonata son los exitosos. Son presas o [...] depredadores. Hacia el final del siglo XIX e inicios del XX obras colosales conjuntaron la diversidad conocida entonces. Reconocemos 8 familias en Prosobranchia y 39 en Pulmonata, con 5 familias agregadas recientemente: Cerionidae, Eucalodiidae, Holospiridae, Epirobiidae y Echinichidae. El endemismo alcanza 62% en las familias pequeñas; las 1 184 especies terrestres mexicanas representan el 3.4% del total mundial y por hallarse habrá 2 200 más. Los patrones poblacionales de las familias Holospiridae y Epirobiidae están bien definidos pues se rigen por el tipo de suelo con caliza y/o dolomita. Los moluscos terrestres americanos son solitarios; empero, florecen poblaciones abundantes (Xerarionta, Praticolella, Humboldtiana). Bajo explotación local como alimento está Lysinoe ghiesbreghti. Nueve familias son las más diversas: Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae, Holospiridae, Helicinidae, Eucalodiidae, Helminthoglyptidae, Vertiginidae (= Pupillidae), Polygyridae y Humboldtianidae. La riqueza por estados es desigual, la de Veracruz es más conocida, mientras Aguascalientes y Tlaxcala carecen de registros. Entre 1891-1895 y 1926-1930 se describió un alto número de especies. En el grupo hacen falta estudios sobre los ciclos de vida, conducta y ecología. Abstract in english The land Mollusca are exclusively from the class Gastropoda. They are diverse in shapes, sizes (1 to 200-300 mm), habits, environments (by climate and vegetation), life cycles and life spans. Prosobranchia has the least number of species, Pulmonata is the richest. They are either preys or predators. [...] Towards the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century comprehensive works compiled the known diversity. We recognize 8 families in Prosobranchia, and 39 in Pulmonata, with 5 families: Cerionidae, Eucalodiidae, Holospiridae, Epirobiidae, Echinichidae, recently added. Endemism among the lesser families attains 62%; the 1 184 known Mexican terrestrial species represent 3.4% of the global molluscan diversity; 2 200 additional species are estimated yet to be found. The population patterns of the families Holospiridae and Epirobiidae are well established since they are defined by the presence of calcite and /or dolomite in the soil. Land American mollusks are solitary; however, some develop abundant populations (Xerarionta, Praticolella, Humboldtiana). Lysinoe ghiesbreghti is utilized locally for food consumption. Nine families are the most diverse: Spiraxidae, Orthalicidae, Holospiridae, Helicinidae, Eucalodiidae, Helminthoglyptidae, Vertiginidae, Polygyridae and Humboldtianidae. Richness per state is unequal; Veracruz is the best known, whereas Aguascalientes and Tlaxcala possess no records. Between the years 1891-1895 and 1926-1930, a great number of species were described. Studies on life cycles, behavior and ecology are still needed in the group.

  11. Spatial distribution and abundance of the megabenthic fauna community in Gabes gulf (Tunisia, eastern Mediterranean Sea

    H. EL LAKHRACH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to bring to light the knowledge of marine diversity of invertebrates in Gabes gulf. The spatial distribution of the megabenthic fauna community in Gabes gulf (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea, together with the bottom type and vegetation cover, were studied. The abundance of the megabenthic fauna was represented by eight groups: Echinodermata (38%, Crustacea (21%, Tunicata (19%, Mollusca (13%, Porifera (4%, Cnidaria (3%, Bryozoa, and Annelida (2%. It was spatially more concentrated in the coast area of the gulf than in the offshore waters. This area, especially, in Southern Kerkennah, North-est of Gabes and North-east of Djerba appeared to be in a good ecological condition  hosting a variety of species like the paguridsPaguristes eremita and Pagurus cuanensis, the brachyura Medorippe lanata, Inachus doresttensis, the Gastropoda Hexaplex trunculus, Bolinus brandaris, Aporrhais pespelecani, andErosaria turdus, the Bivalvia Fulvia fragilis, the Echinoidea Psammechinus microtuberculatus, Holothuria polii,Ophiothrix fragilis and Antedon mediterranea, and the AscidiaceaAplidium cf. conicum, Didemnum spp, and Microcosmus exasperatus.The species’ compositions of the megabentic fauna community showed clearly that the spatial analysis represented the differences between the community of these two regions (inshore waters and offshore waters. These differences were closely related to peculiar characters of the fauna and biotopes (depth, bottom type and vegetation cover community. The results of the present study should be considered as a necessary starting point for a further analysis of priceless benthic fauna contribution to the marine environment and its organisms.

  12. The endocrine disruptor effect of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails.

    Omran, Nahla Elsayed; Salama, Wesam Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Atrazine (AZ) and glyphosate (GL) are herbicides that are widely applied to cereal crops in Egypt. The present study was designed to investigate the response of the snailBiomphalaria alexandrina(Mollusca: Gastropoda) as a bioindicator for endocrine disrupters in terms of steroid levels (testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E)), alteration of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity, total protein (TP) level, and gonadal structure after exposure to sublethal concentrations of AZ or GL for 3 weeks. In order to study the ability of the snails' recuperation, the exposed snails were subjected to a recovery period for 2 weeks. The results showed that the level of T, E, and TP contents were significantly decreased (p≤ 0.05) in both AZ- and GL-exposed groups compared with control (unexposed) group. The level of microsomal CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity increased significantly (p≤ 0.05) in GL- and AZ-exposed snails and reach nearly a 50% increase in AZ-exposed group. Histological investigation of the ovotestis showed that AZ and GL caused degenerative changes including azoospermia and oocytes deformation. Interestingly, all the recovered groups did not return back to their normal state. It can be concluded that both herbicides are endocrine disrupters and cause cellular toxicity indicated by the decrease of protein content and the increase in CYP4501B1-like immunoreactivity. This toxicity is irreversible and the snail is not able to recover its normal state. The fluctuation of CYP4501B1 suggests that this vertebrate-like enzyme may be functional also in the snail and may be used as a biomarker for insecticide toxicity. PMID:24215068

  13. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  14. Macro Invertebrate Community from Sonamarg Streams of Kashmir Himalaya

    A.R. Yousuf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses a macroinvertebrate community survey for River Sindh and its tributary including Baltal, Yashmarg, Sonamarg and Thajwas Grar considering the extreme hydrological conditions linked with the seasonal low-flow period typical for some streams in this area. This study attempts to provide an overview of the macro invertebrate assemblages and physico-chemical variables of the River Sindh and its important tributary. Four study sites were selected from the River Sindh and its tributary including Baltal, Yashmarg, Sonamarg and Thajwas Grar for studying the ecological distribution of Macroinvertebrate assemblages. Totally, 33 taxa of macroinvertebrates were recorded from the two streams belonging to Mollusca-3 (Gastropoda-2 and Bivalvia-1, Annelida-1 and Arthropoda-29 (Insecta-29. Among insects Ephemeroptera (7, Trichoptera (6 and Diptera (13 dominated. Except Yashmrag all sites were found devoid of annelids while as the mollusks were found absent at Sonamarg. Highest values of Shannon Weiner Index were found at Yashmarg (2.42 and lowest at Sonamarg (1.99 while as highest and lowest Sorensen?s similarity coefficient were found between Baltal/Thajwas Grar (0.68 and Yashmarg/Thajwas Grar (0.39, respectively. A perusal of the data on physico-chemical characteristics showed that these streams were hard water type with high dissolved oxygen content. The ionic composition of the stream waters revealed the predominance of bicarbonate and calcium. Insecta dominated both qualitatively as well as quantitatively and the study revealed that the substrate compositions dominated by gravel, pebble and leaf litters are primary determinants of the invertebrate community structure recording maximum species diversity and abundance. Sample locations impacted by Amarnath yatris pilgrimage comparatively reflected slightly higher increase in nutrients than Thajwas Grar almost devoid of pilgrimage effect.

  15. Haematopoiesis in molluscs: A review of haemocyte development and function in gastropods, cephalopods and bivalves.

    Pila, E A; Sullivan, J T; Wu, X Z; Fang, J; Rudko, S P; Gordy, M A; Hanington, P C

    2016-05-01

    Haematopoiesis is a process that is responsible for generating sufficient numbers of blood cells in the circulation and in tissues. It is central to maintenance of homeostasis within an animal, and is critical for defense against infection. While haematopoiesis is common to all animals possessing a circulatory system, the specific mechanisms and ultimate products of haematopoietic events vary greatly. Our understanding of this process in non-vertebrate organisms is primarily derived from those species that serve as developmental and immunological models, with sparse investigations having been carried out in other organisms spanning the metazoa. As research into the regulation of immune and blood cell development advances, we have begun to gain insight into haematopoietic events in a wider array of animals, including the molluscs. What began in the early 1900's as observational studies on the morphological characteristics of circulating immune cells has now advanced to mechanistic investigations of the cytokines, growth factors, receptors, signalling pathways, and patterns of gene expression that regulate molluscan haemocyte development. Emerging is a picture of an incredible diversity of developmental processes and outcomes that parallels the biological diversity observed within the different classes of the phylum Mollusca. However, our understanding of haematopoiesis in molluscs stems primarily from the three most-studied classes, the Gastropoda, Cephalopoda and Bivalvia. While these represent perhaps the molluscs of greatest economic and medical importance, the fact that our information is limited to only 3 of the 9 extant classes in the phylum highlights the need for further investigation in this area. In this review, we summarize the existing literature that defines haematopoiesis and its products in gastropods, cephalopods and bivalves. PMID:26592965

  16. Comparative Mapping of GABA-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Buccal Ganglia of Nudipleura Molluscs.

    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Katz, Paul S

    2016-04-15

    Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the nudibranch species, Hermissenda crassicornis, Tritonia diomedea, Tochuina tetraquetra, and Dendronotus iris, the number of GABA-ir neurons was highly consistent. Another nudibranch, Melibe leonina, however, contained approximately half the number of GABA-ir neurons. This may relate to its loss of a radula and its unique feeding behavior. The GABA immunoreactivity in a sister group to the nudibranchs, Pleurobranchaea californica, differed drastically from that of the nudibranchs. Not only did it have significantly more GABA-ir neurons but it also had a unique GABA distribution pattern. Furthermore, unlike the nudibranchs, the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution was also different from that of other, more distantly related, euopisthobranch and panpulmonate snails and slugs. This suggests that the Pleurobranchaea GABA distribution may be a derived feature, unique to this lineage. The majority of GABA-ir axons and neuropil in the Nudipleura were restricted to the buccal ganglia, commissures, and connectives. However, in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, we detected a few GABA-ir fibers in buccal nerves that innervate feeding muscles. Although the specific functions of the GABA-ir neurons in the species in this study are not known, the innervation pattern suggests these neurons may play an integrative or regulatory role in bilaterally coordinated behaviors in the Nudipleura. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1181-1192, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26355705

  17. Molecular identification of first putative aquaporins in snails.

    Pieńkowska, Joanna R; Kosicka, Ewa; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Kmita, Hanna; Lesicki, Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs), also known as water channel proteins, are members of a large protein family termed Major Intrinsic Proteins (MIP). The mammalian AQPs have been most comprehensively described, while knowledge about AQPs in invertebrates is limited mainly to insects. Not a single AQP protein has been described in snails to date. Consequently, we decided to search for the proteins in gastropod representatives, namely Lymnaea stagnalis, Catascopia occulta, and Stagnicola palustris (Mollusca; Gastropoda; Pulmonata; Lymnaeidae). Using the molecular approach, we identified L. stagnalis, C. occulta, and S. palustris open reading frames (ORFs) showing homology to AQP genes available in GenBank database, and characterized the encoded proteins, referred to as LsAQP1, CoAQP1, and SpAQP1, respectively. The putative snail aquaporins contain 299 amino acids, have a molecular mass of about 32 kDa, display the general AQP topology and three-dimensional structure congruent with orthodox AQPs, i.e., water-specific ones. Due to high levels of similarity in their characteristics, LsAQP1 was chosen for further studies, as the obtained results were supposed to be applicable for CoAQP1 and SpAQP1. Expression analysis revealed the presence of LsAQP1 transcript in the digestive tract, the cerebral ganglia, the kidney, the reproductive system, and the foot, suggesting that LsAQP1 as well as CoAQP1 and SpAQP1 are ubiquitous proteins and may play important roles in many essential water transport processes. The role appears to be confirmed by results of the yeast growth complementation assay pointing at functionality of LsAQP1. Thus, the obtained results support the AQP expression in gastropod tissues for the first time. PMID:24445747

  18. Fine morphology of the jaw apparatus of Puncturella noachina (Fissurellidae, Vetigastropoda).

    Vortsepneva, Elena; Ivanov, Dmitry; Purschke, Günter; Tzetlin, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Jaws of various kinds occur in virtually all groups of Mollusca, except for Polyplacophora and Bivalvia. Molluscan jaws are formed by the buccal epithelium and either constitute a single plate, a paired formation or a serial structure. Buccal ectodermal structures in gastropods are rather different. They can be nonrenewable or having final growth, like the hooks in Clione (Gastropoda, Gymnosomata). In this case, they are formed by a single cell. Conversely, they can be renewable during the entire life span and in this case they are formed by a set of cells, like the formation of the radula. The fine structure of the jaws was studied in the gastropod Puncturella noachina. The jaw is situated in the buccal cavity and consists of paired elongated cuticular plates. On the anterior edge of each cuticular plate there are numerous longitudinally oriented rodlets disposed over the entire jaw surface and immersed into a cuticular matrix. The jaw can be divided into four zones situated successively toward the anterior edge: 1) the posterior area: the zone of formation of the thick cuticle covering the entire jaw and forming the electron-dense outer layer of the jaw plate; 2) the zone of rodlet formation; 3) the zone of rodlet arrangement; and 4) the anterior zone: the free scraping edge of the plate, or the erosion zone. In the general pattern of jaw formation, Puncturella noachina resembles Testudinalia tessulata (Patellogastropoda) studied previously. The basis of the jaw is a cuticular plate formed by the activity of the strongly developed microvillar apparatus of the gnathoepithelium. However, the mechanism of renewal of the jaw anterior part in P. noachina is much more complex as its scraping edge consists not just of a thick cuticular matrix rather than of a system of denticles being the projecting endings of rodlets. PMID:24549973

  19. Estudo quantitativo de metais presentes na hemolinfa de Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infectadas e não infectadas com Schistosoma mansoni Quantitative study of metal present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, infected and uninfected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Marco Antonio Vasconcelos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente, desenvolveu-se um estudo para quantificar e comparar as concentrações de alguns metais presentes em duas amostras de hemolinfa do caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata (infectados e não-infectados com Schistosoma mansoni. A espectrometria de emissão óptica com fonte de plasma induzido (ICP-OES, foi utilizada para analisar os metais nas duas amostras. Os metais estudados foram: alumínio, cálcio, cádmio, cobalto, cromo, cobre, ferro, potássio, magnésio, manganês, chumbo e zinco. Os resultados mostram que, a princípio, os metais não são fatores determinantes no processo de defesa desses organismos contra este parasita, quando presente nos seus tecidos.We conducted a preliminary study to quantify and compare two concentrations of the same metals present in the hemolymph of snail Biomphalaria glabrata. In this context, we used Induction Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy technique (ICP-OES, to analyze the metals in the two samples (snails infected and not infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The metals studied were: aluminum, calcium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, lead and zinc. Preliminary results showed that such metals are not involved in the defense of these organisms against the parasite, when present in their tissues.

  20. Avaliação dos problemas enfrentados no manejo do caramujo gigante africano Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata no Brasil Evaluation of the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata in Brazil

    Eduardo Colley

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant African snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 was introduced into Paraná, Brazil, in the 1980s. Since then, it has spread across the country, despite its known invasive status on a global scale. The main objective of this study was to assess the problems faced in the management of the giant African snail. To accomplish that, we gathered and analyzed information available on the internet, scientific databases, field studies, as well as interviews and consultations with official agencies, NGOs, museums, the scientific community and people that coexist with the species. Despite the fact that extensive information has been generated regarding A. fulica (1,340 articles, 65 summaries in national annals, 40,700 pages on the internet, essential to promote control measures to hinder the propagation of this species, the majority of the available information remains inaccessible to the world at large. Moreover, the environmental, economic and health impacts of this species remain unclear, which may contribute to discouraging the initiation of management actions. Finally, control measures are still inefficient due to the generalist profile of this species and the lack of knowledge concerning its biology and ecology. Thus, in conclusion, even though A. fulica has been an invasive species for over a century in many other countries, it is difficult to find evidence supporting the need to subsidize its management. This may be an indication that many other, poorly known exotic species will have time and the proper conditions to become established and cause problems before they come to be recognized as invasive.