WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Study on slope engineering in China open pit coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper briefly introduces the main content of a study on slope engineering in Chinese open pit coal mines. This paper also discusses the applications of open pit mining and surrounding rock stability, water pressure control in slope, controlled mining technology, slope monitoring and measurement, and other R & D results in obtaining optimum mining conditions, increasing mine economic benefits and mine safety and production with certain mine operation cases. 2 refs., 8 figs.

Ma Xinming; Hou Qiyuan; Rui Yongqing [Central Coal Mining Research Institute (China). Fushun Branch

1994-12-31

2

Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

3

Open-pit coal mines: anthropogenic stressors and vegetation succession  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the spoil heaps, i.e. in the waste dumps of the soil removed in open-pit coal mining, the emergence and development of spontaneous vegetation is a prerequisite for 'bringing them to life', i.e. for development of flora and fauna. Here, the diversity of plants is the result of locally different conditions - often extreme ones (such as drought and overheating of the surface, toxicity of the substrate, erosion, etc.). At initial stages, phytocenoses, which are not rich in the number of species and which usually have a dominant edificator species, emerge here. The abiotic stress in the spoil heaps is a regular and predictable phenomenon. The theory of primary strategies, represented by the relations of stress, disturbance and competition, was applied. A general diagram of succession development of vegetation in the spoil heaps in the North Bohemia has been prepared; the basic concept is the concept of C-S-R strategies here. The stress-tolerant taxa are determined by the conditions of these anthropogenic areas, i.e. these species are diagnostic indicators for an environment strongly burdened with stress factors (S-strategists). On the other hand, there are species well adapted to unpredictable disturbances (R-strategists); these often include field weeds and ruderal plants. Competitive C-strategists grow in the relatively stable habitats of spoil heaps areas. They are able to resist stress and disturbance only with difficulties. The C-S-R life strategies represent intersections based on the principle of the compromise of profits and losses.

Novak, J.; Steklova, J.; Ceska, J. [Czech University of Life Science Prague, Prague (Czech Republic)

2009-07-01

4

Utilization of residual reserves of coal strata outcrops by open-pit mining with a subsequent disposal of industrial waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper the author deals with the possibilities of open-pit mining of residual reserves of coal seam outcrops. Following the coal extraction, certified regional industrial waste can be disposed in the mined-out area, thus reducing the environmental burden of the region.

Kryl Václav

1998-06-01

5

Utilization of residual reserves of coal strata outcrops by open-pit mining with a subsequent disposal of industrial waste  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the paper the author deals with the possibilities of open-pit mining of residual reserves of coal seam outcrops. Following the coal extraction, certified regional industrial waste can be disposed in the mined-out area, thus reducing the environmental burden of the region.

Kryl Václav

1998-01-01

6

Use of computers for mine engineering: 1. Modernization at the Fushun West open pit coal mine, PRC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At Fushun West Open Pit mine in the People's Republic of China, a coal seam 40-140 m thick is being worked. Oil shale is also produced. There are plans to increase annual production of coal and oil shale to 5 Mt and 8 Mt, respectively, from the present 3.5 Mt and 4.5 Mt. Current mining methods are described. Designs for the modernisation programme are being carried out by Fluor Engineers and the China National Coal Development Corporation. This paper gives details of the new material handling system design. The slope conveyor system design used Fluor's computer program BELT.

Tooker, G.E.

1985-02-01

7

Land reclamation policy after open pit coal mining in the North Bohemian brown coal mining district  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is presented of the results of land reclamation activities in the North Bohemian brown coal mining district, and the principles are outlined of the long-term plan for ecosystem restoration in that region. (J.B.)

8

Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measur flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

9

Back-analysis and design review of a failed slope at an open-pit coal mine, Mpumalanga, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mining activity in open-pit mines may change material properties over time and as a result, shear strengths are reduced and may lead to slope failures. It is therefore important to design slope geometries with an acceptable probability of failure. In the event of slope failure occurring, the process of back-analysis to determine material properties at failure may lead to slope redesign for safety reasons. A case study is presented from the back-analysis performed on a slope fai...

Selomane, Mmathapelo Annah

2012-01-01

10

Influence of cultivation measures on the development of vegetation and nutrient ratios in spoil banks from brown-coal open-pit mining at Borken/northern Hessen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spoil banks from open-pit brown-coal mining at Borken in northern Hessen are extremely acidic and depleted in nutrients. This material was mixed with neutralizing cellulose ash. For initial fertilization, N, P2O5 and K2O were applied at the same time as the seeding mixture. Seeding mixtures used were ''Dauerweide'', containing fast-growing species, and ''Boeschungssaat'', containing undermanding species. The fact that no top soil was applied resulted in increasing gaps and decreasing production rates in the plant stands. This work aimed to investigate how plant stands and the soil material develop after revegetation measures without application of topsoil. (orig.)

11

Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health. PMID:23054761

Cvetkovi?, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosi?, Aleksandra

2013-05-01

12

EFFECTS OF THE DISPOSAL OF COAL WASTE AND ASHES IN OPEN PITS  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the extent of groundwater quality deterioration when coal mine solid waste (refuse) and power plant ashes were disposed of into open pits. In addition, disposal methods were developed and procedures for planning and designing disposal ...

13

A spatial decision support system for the optimal environmental reclamation of open-pit coal mines in Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mine reclamation is an integral part of the mineral development process. The selection of land use after the mine closure is a difficult decision, which is complicated further because of the variety of parameters that must be taken into account trying to provide the local community with a viable development plan. Conventional methods used for reclamation planning are characterised by the lack of data integration and by time-consuming analysis. In this study, we propose a spatial decision-support system (SDSS) that minimises these problems, as data integration and analysis are offered within one computerised environment. A geographical information system and multi-criteria decision-making methods, based on binary integer linear programming models, have been integrated to select the appropriate land use in different parts of a post-mining area taking into account social, technical, economic, environmental and safety criteria. The proposed SDSS was used for the selection of the optimal landscape reclamation strategy of the Amynteon lignite surface mine located at West Macedonia Lignite Centre, Northern Greece. On the basis of developed mine maps, the model variables are assessed and incorporated into the objective optimisation function. Emphasis is placed on the spatial diversification of the model variables. The application demonstrates that the decision-support system allows the mining company to determine in an efficient way the specific land use (agricultural land, forest, recreational area and industrial zone) that is considered the most suitable for every part of the study area.

F. Pavloudakis; M. Galetakis; C. Roumpos [Public Power Corporation of Greece - Mines Division, Athens (Greece)

2009-12-15

14

Haulage Truck Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for haulage truck operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

15

Shovel Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for shovel operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

Hartley, Larry

16

Track Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for track dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

17

Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

Savilow, Bill

18

Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

19

Front End Loader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for front end loader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

Savilow, Bill

20

Grader Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for grader operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for classroom…

Savilow, Bill

 
 
 
 
21

Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

Amankwah, Henry

2011-01-01

22

Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber an...

Ivana Cehlárová; Michal Cehlár

2007-01-01

23

Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

2009-07-01

24

Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.)

25

Assessing the impact on the animal population of the lowering of the ground water level due to brown coal open-pit mining. Tieroekologische Bewertung von Grundwasserabsenkungen durch Braunkohlentagebau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lowering of the groundwater table due to open-pit brown coal mining will adversely effect the dynamics of rivers and lakes, soilbiological processes and the plant and animal communities. Birds, amphibians, carabid beetles and snails were studied in a 520 km{sup 2} area to predict possible effects of a proposed mining project and to assess the impact from a nature conservation as well as from a synecological point of view. Selected species were used as bioindicators, habitat preference of most species was determined and sensitive areas for nature conservation were depicted on a map (scale 1:50,000) using criteria such as rarity of species, local abundance, and results from cluster analysis. (orig.).

Mader, H.J.

1989-01-01

26

Management of open pit mining operations with ore stockpiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An open pit mining operation consists of mining processing and refining stages. The mining stage is responsible for provision of required amount of ore of pre-defined grade to the processing plant. The heterogeneity in the ore grade in various parts of the deposit leads to the definition of cutoff grade. The material below cutoff grade is sent to the stockpiles for utilization in later years when it becomes economical. The cutoff grade optimization theory maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of a mixing operation with a declining effect as the deposit leads toward exhaustion. This declining effect of NPV defines dynamic cutoff grades i.e. higher cutoff grades in the early years of mine life and lower cutoff grades in the later years. However, this precisely defines the amount and grade of material sent to the stockpile for processing in the later years. The management i.e. supply of material from the mine to stockpile and from the stockpile to the processing plant is an issue that is addressed in this paper by developing a cutoff grade optimization algorithm with option to stockpile. The benefits of methodology are elaborated in a case study. (author)

27

Report on anthracite open pit mining: a feasibility study. Part IV. Environmental reclamation. Report Exhibit No. 4. [245 references  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Mahanoy Creek Watershed study, the estimated reduction in acid mine drainage was under 50 percent. It appears possible that open pit mining of those areas previously devastated by mining, which still have large reserves of coal, followed by good reclamation by a mining company, could alleviate many environmental problems of these areas. The economic feasibility of such a plan, including mining and reclamation and possible relocation costs, has been examined in Exhibits 1, 2, and 3 of this report. Should a mining operation prove itself to be financially feasible, it would provide significant savings to the Commonwealth in on-going pollution costs or costs of palliative reclamation.

Knight, C.G.; Gatrell, N.

1976-05-01

28

Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST y Partículas Respirables (PM 10 producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10 generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST y partículas respirables (PM10 producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (distribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios. Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación.This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distribution, morphology and density and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants. These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

Luis C Angulo

2011-01-01

29

Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST) y Partículas Respirables (PM 10) producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto / Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10) generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST) y partículas respirables (PM10) producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (dis [...] tribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad) y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios). Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación. Abstract in english This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP) and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10) generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distr [...] ibution, morphology and density) and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants). These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

Luis C, Angulo; José I, Huertas; Gloria M, Restrepo.

30

The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

31

GPSS system applied to optimization of technological process of open-pit mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The queuing sub-system and the stored sub-system are abstracted as a composed dynamic system from the technological process of open-pit mining. Using the GPSS system the simulation models were established, and by changing the parameters of the models the optimization of the technological process was carried out

32

Occupational exposure to dust in open pit mining. A short review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A literature review concerning the scientific knowledge of all the key factors related to respirable crystalline silica dustexposure was conducted and a chronological evolution of the state-of-the-art knowledge that can respond to questionsraised by the development of the work done in quarries and opencast mines is presented, based on bibliographic research.Findings assert that exposure to silica dust is the most frequent and dangerous hazard in open pit mining. Some aspectsmeet consensus ami...

Maria Matos; João Santos Baptista; Miguel Tato Diogo

2012-01-01

33

Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

34

Optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation in combined mining using (0-1) integer programming  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english There are many near-surface deposits with considerable vertical extent that have the potential to be mined by a combined method of open-pit and underground methods. In this regard, there is often a point called 'transition depth' where a decision has to be made whether to continue deepening the pit [...] or change to underground methods. Recently, optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation has become an important challenge in mining engineering. Optimally, to model the transition problem on the basis of maximization of the profit from open-pit and underground mining, (0-1) integer programming has been used. In this method, block economic values of open-pit and underground methods should be imported to the transition model. A hypothetical example is presented in order to assess the model in detail.

E., Bakhtavar; K., Shahriar; A., Mirhassani.

1059-10-01

35

Optimal cut-off grade determination based on variable capacities in open-pit mining  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SYNOPSIS Optimal cut-off grade is one of the most critical parameters in open-pit mine design because it defines the ore and waste and thus determines the maximum net present value possible from the mining operation. Although the algorithm presented by Lane (Choosing the optimum cut-off grade. Color [...] ado School of Mines Quarterly, vol. 59, no. 4, 1964. pp. 811-829) is the most common one in the literature, it does assume constant capacities of the mine, processing, and refinery. In this paper, Lane's original algorithm has been modified to consider variable processing capacities in order to determine the optimal cut-off grade in open-pit mines. The new algorithm proposed here is compared to both Lane's original algorithm and to a previous modification that incorporated rehabilitation costs into the cut-off grade estimation. The algorithm proposed here that permits variable processing capacities is shown to be superior for the determination of optimal cut-off grade to both these previous versions. In addition, a computer-based program was developed in Microsoft Office Excel© to calculate the optimal cut-off grade as proposed here.

J., Abdollahisharif; E., Bakhtavar; M., Anemangely.

1065-10-01

36

30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...operations. (3)(i) Surface coal mining operations in the mine pit have...be mined; or (ii) Surface coal mining operations which may be developed...to the deep open-pit method of mining the coal. (6) There is no...

2010-07-01

37

Combining Multiple Surveying Techniques to Accelerate Surveys of Open Pit Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial Lidar Scanning (TLS) is well-accepted as the most precise tool for surveying open pit mines, collecting ultra-dense measurements drastically faster than traditional land surveying with a GNSS receiver. However, while a TLS can capture the most important parts of a mine in only a few surveys, the remaining occluded areas of the mine require several additional surveys, extending the survey time. To drastically reduce the time required for a TLS survey while still providing good quality data, we have adopted an approach that augments TLS data with UAV-based aerial triangulation. First, we identify a handful of positions from which the TLS can survey the vast majority of the mine, paying particular attention to the most important areas of the mine and the areas that an airborne scanner would have difficult accessing, such as the walls. We then survey the mine with a UAV-mounted camera and collect several ground control points (GCPs) in areas spread across the mine. During post-processing, we use aerial triangulation to derive a point cloud from the overlapping images captured by the UAV and matched the TLS and UAV data with the GCPs. Generally, the aerial-triangulation data is less dense and precise than the TLS data so we only used it to fill in areas we did not cover with the TLS. To minimize the impact of any loss of detail, we plan surveys so that the TLS covers the most important parts of the mine and so the UAV data is only needed for less important areas. The result is a georeferenced topographic map of the entire mine with high-quality data in the most important areas, all collected within hours rather than days. As proof of this concept, geo-konzept surveyed a mid-sized German open pit mine with a goal of spending only half a day surveying on-site. With an Optech ILRIS TLS and a geo-konzept Geo-Copter X-8000 UAS, we met this goal by surveying the entire 500-m×500-m mine in only 3 hours. Post-processing and georeferencing only required another 4 hours, meaning the entire survey could be done in a single day of work. We conclude that this multi-instrument approach greatly accelerates the rate at which surveyors can scan open-pit mines while still collecting dense and precise data.

Faust, János; Schimmer, Christoph; Herkommer, Martin; Kutschera, Johannes

2014-05-01

38

Duality results for stationary problems of open pit mine planning in a continuous function framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Open Pit Mine Planning problems are usually considered in a Mixed Integer Programming context. Characterizing each attainable profile by a continuous function yields a continuous framework. It allows for a more detailed modeling of slope constraints and other material properties of slanted layers. Although the resulting nonlinear programming problems are in general non-convex and non-differentiable, they provide certain advantages as one can directly compute sensitivities of optimal solutions w.r.t. small data perturbations. In this work duality results are derived for the stationary problems of the continuous framework employing an additional condition called convex-likeness.

A. Griewank

2011-01-01

39

Mining and technological characteristics of future open-pit mine at Brod-Gneotino  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development program of Electric Power Company of Macedonia includes opening of several coal pits with aim to prolong ate the working period of TPP Bitola, of which one is the bed Brod-Gneotino. This coal bed is characterized with some characteristic mining and technological parameters described in this paper. (Author)

40

Mining and technological characteristics of future open-pit mine at Brod-Gneotino  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development program of Electric Power Company of Macedonia includes to open several pits of coal with aim to prolongate the working period of TPP Bitola, of which one is the bed Brod-Gneotino. This coal bed is characterized with some characteristic mining and technological parameters described in thi paper. (Author)

 
 
 
 
41

Long term monitoring of water basin of an abandoned copper open pit mine  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonoperating open pit mines, very often as a matter of fact abandoned, create serious ecological risk for the region of their location especially for the quality of the water since the rainfall fills the bottom of the pit forming water body having different depth. This water as a rule has very high concentration of the metals in it and is highly toxic. One example for such opencast, idle copper mine is Medet located in the central part of Bulgaria who was started for exploitation in 1964 and at that moment being the largest in Europe for production of copper concentrate. In the vicinity of it after autumn and spring rains there are many cases reported for water contamination by heavy metals such as arsenic, copper, cadmium in the rivers running close to this open pit mine. This justifies the need for long term and sustainable monitoring of the area of the water basin of this idle mine in order to estimate its acid drainage and imaging spectroscopy combined with is-situ investigations is proved to provide reliable results about the area of the water table. In the course of this study we have investigated historical data gathered by remote sensing which allowed us to make conclusions about the year behavior of this area. Our expectations are that the results of this research will help in the rehabilitation process of this idle mine and will provide the local authorities engaged in water quality monitoring with a tool to estimate the possible damage caused to the local rivers and springs. With this research we also would like to contribute to the fulfillment of the following EU Directives: Directive 2006/21/°C on the Management of Waste from the Extractive Industries and Directive 2004/35/ °C on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Remedying of Environmental Damage.

Nikolov, H.; Borisova, D.

2012-04-01

42

Evaluation and monitoring an on-going landslide in volcanic sediments - a case study for an open pit mine, Turkey: Part 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TKI (Turkish Coal Enterprises) has been operating an open pit lignite mine since late 1970s in a town called Can which is situated in the north-west of Turkey. There is a ceramic factory, which is one of the biggest in Europe as far as capacity is concerned, operating very close to the lignite open pit mine. In 1999, a catastrophic earthquake demolished not only the cities and towns located on the Northern Anatolian fault zone but also triggered a landslide on the ceramic factory site benches of the Can lignite open pit. The susceptibility of artificial slopes to failure during earthquakes is a well-known event. This paper summarises geological, geomorphological and hydrological surveys of the area and the work done to define the slip surface by means of inclinometer surveys. Geotechnical parameters collected from all local geological formations were used later in the slope stability analysis. Details of the studies undertaken since the beginning of the landslide are given in this paper.

Onur, A.H.; Konak, G.; Koca, Y.; Yenice, H.; Kose, H.; Karakus, D. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mineral Engineering

2004-09-01

43

Gastropods as indicators of the ecological impact of the lowering of the ground water level due to projected open-pit brown coal mines. Gastropoden als Indikatorgruppe fuer die Bewertung von Grundwasserabsenkungen durch geplante Braunkohlentagebaue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possible effects on the biocoenosis caused by changed ground water tables due to open-cast mining were investigated during 1984/85 in the planned brown coal areas Garzweiler II and Inden II (Rheinisches Braunkohlenrevier). Among others, gastropods were recorded to point out moisture depending and endangered coenosis. According to the composition of moisture indicators and endangered species the sites were assigned to three categories of sensitivity. A cluster analysis supported these assessments. The prediction for most of the investigated sites is an irreversible damage and long-lasting threatening of the coenosis in case of a manipulated water balance. (orig.).

Willecke, S. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Naturschutz und Landschaftsoekologie, Bonn (Germany, F.R.))

1989-01-01

44

Stochastic Modeling Approach for the Evaluation of Backbreak due to Blasting Operations in Open Pit Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Backbreak is an undesirable side effect of bench blasting operations in open pit mines. A large number of parameters affect backbreak, including controllable parameters (such as blast design parameters and explosive characteristics) and uncontrollable parameters (such as rock and discontinuities properties). The complexity of the backbreak phenomenon and the uncertainty in terms of the impact of various parameters makes its prediction very difficult. The aim of this paper is to determine the suitability of the stochastic modeling approach for the prediction of backbreak and to assess the influence of controllable parameters on the phenomenon. To achieve this, a database containing actual measured backbreak occurrences and the major effective controllable parameters on backbreak (i.e., burden, spacing, stemming length, powder factor, and geometric stiffness ratio) was created from 175 blasting events in the Sungun copper mine, Iran. From this database, first, a new site-specific empirical equation for predicting backbreak was developed using multiple regression analysis. Then, the backbreak phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The results reveal that stochastic modeling is a good means of modeling and evaluating the effects of the variability of blasting parameters on backbreak. Thus, the developed model is suitable for practical use in the Sungun copper mine. Finally, a sensitivity analysis showed that stemming length is the most important parameter in controlling backbreak.

Sari, Mehmet; Ghasemi, Ebrahim; Ataei, Mohammad

2014-03-01

45

Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

Adel Badri

2011-09-01

46

Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background

47

The continuous excavating technique system parameters optimization and economic assessment simulation model in open-pit mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the fundamental simulation theories and methods, this paper studies as truck dispatching, discrete processing of belt system continuous haulage, belt system interlock, and economic assessment methods. On the basis of above studies, the paper establishes a simulation model for open-pit mine semi-continuous production technique system. The paper applies GPSS language to construct a simulation program, and the program has been successfully applied in a certain coalmine. 2 refs., 1 fig.

Zhao, B. [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). College of Business Administration

2001-12-01

48

Properties of nano- and microparticles emitted into the environment from open-pit mining of iron deposits  

Science.gov (United States)

The properties of nano- and microparticles (60 nm-200 ?m) of the dust formed by mass blasting in the iron ore open pit of the Lebedinsky Mining and Concentrating Combine have been studied. Data on the morphology of particles, their magnetic properties, mineralogy, and dimensions have been obtained. Quartz, magnetite, and mica were identified among these particles. The dust mostly consisted of fragmented iron ore formation from the rock massif involved in the blasting.

Adushkin, V. V.; Weidler, P. G.; Dubovskoi, A. N.; Pernik, L. M.; Popel, S. I.; Friedrich, F.

2010-10-01

49

Typical whole body vibration exposure magnitudes encountered in the open pit mining industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to recent research, a causal link has been established between occupational exposure to whole body vibration and an increased occurrence of low back pain. To aid in the further development of an in-house health and safety program for a large open pit mining facility interested in reducing back pain among its operators, whole body vibration magnitudes were characterized for a range of jobs. Specifically, thirty-five individual jobs from five different areas across the facility were evaluated for tri-axial acceleration levels during normal operating conditions. Tri-axial acceleration magnitudes were categorized into thirteen job groups. Job groups were ranked according to exposure and compared to the ISO 2631-1 standard for health risk assessment. Three of the thirteen job groups produced tri-axial acceleration magnitudes below the ISO 2631-1 low/moderate health caution limit for a twelve hour exposure. Six of the thirteen job groups produced exposures within the moderate health risk range. Four job groups were found to subject operators to WBV acceleration magnitudes above the moderate/high health caution limit. PMID:20037244

Howard, Bryan; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Don

2009-01-01

50

Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on ground water under several operating conditions. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1:1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

51

Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: {yields} Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. {yields} Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. {yields} Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. {yields} Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

Bendell, L.I., E-mail: bendell@sfu.ca

2011-02-15

52

A GIS-based, confined aquifer, hypothetical model of ground-water seepage into a former mining open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater seepage into a former mining site in Egypt is proposed for simulation. This site was used for basalt extraction. After the mining activities had stopped a large open pit was left over and groundwater seeped into the pit forming a lake. The pit has a dimension of approximately 1200 x 600 x 30 m. Because of the lack of field data, several scenarios may be hypothesized to explain the filling of these open pits with water. In this paper, one of these scenarios is studied. It is suggested that this water comes from an underneath confined aquifer. Through fractures in the host rock, water seeped upwards into the open pit. To estimate the rate at which water seeps into the lake, numerical study based on the finite element method is performed. Firstly, geo-referencing of the site was performed using GIS. The boundary of the lake was then digitized and elevation contours was defined. These data was then imported into grid-builder software to generate a two-dimensional triangular mesh which was then used by hydro-geosphere software to build the three-dimensional mesh and solve the problem. It was found that the set of discrete fractures was insufficient to fill the lake in the time span that was actually elapsed to fill up the lake which is on the order of two to three years.

53

Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on groundwater under several operating conditions. The slope stability of a clay liner was analyzed at three stages of operation: (1) near the beginning of construction, (2) when the pit is partially filled with tailings, and (3) at the end of construction. Both clay lined and unlined pits were considered in the fluid flow modeling. Finally, the seepage of tailings solutions through the clay liner was analyzed. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1 : 1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

54

Net present value maximization model for optimum cut-off grade policy of open pit mining operations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimum cut-off grade policy maximizes the net present value (NPV) of an open pit mining operation subject to the mining, processing, and refining capacity constraints. The traditional approaches to cut-off grade determination ignore the escalation of the economic parameters such as metal price [...] and operating costs during life of an operation, and consequently lead to unrealistically higher values of the objective function. Further, the NPV of a mining operation declines due to the depletion of the available reserves, causing a decline in the optimum cut-off grade, i.e. higher cut-off grades in the early years of an operation and lower cut-off grades during the later years. Hence, low grade material mined in the earlier years may be stockpiled for processing during later years to offset the effect of escalating economic parameters on NPV. This paper demonstrates the combined impact of introducing economic parameters, escalation and stockpiling options into the cut-off grade optimization model. The model promises an enhancement in NPV as illustrated in a case study incorporating practical aspects of an open pit mining operation.

M.W.A, Asad; E, Topal.

2011-11-01

55

Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nastup Tusimice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently the open cast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa) area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper. (authors)

56

PLANEAMIENTO DE MINAS A CIELO ABIERTO MEDIANTE OPTIMIZACIÓN ESTOCÁSTICA / PLANNING OF OPEN PIT MINES THROUGH STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los procesos de planificación minera en los depósitos a cielo abierto en Colombia, se han realizado utilizando herramientas deterministas, que excluyen la evaluación de riesgos y las incertidumbres del negocio minero y en algunos casos dejan de maximizar los beneficios en términos monetarios. Es nec [...] esario desarrollar modelos alternativos de planificación minera que mejoren las condiciones de competitividad y productividad en términos de los siguientes factores: Aumento de la vida de la mina - LOM; Extracción y explotación de recursos de menor calidad; Obtención de mayores beneficios del negocio minero; Disminución del riesgo y la incertidumbre del proceso de planificación minera, entre otros. Dentro de los procesos de planificación minera de los yacimientos minerales a cielo abierto en Colombia no hay evidencia de la utilización de herramientas para la toma de decisiones bajo escenarios de incertidumbre que permiten llevar a cabo estos procesos con técnicas meta heurísticas tales como recocido simulado; algoritmos genéticos; búsqueda tabú; redes neuronales, entre otros. En este trabajo se hace énfasis en los algoritmos genéticos y su aplicación a los procesos de planificación minera para explotaciones a cielo abierto. Se pretende que este trabajo sirva de base para realizar una aproximación al planeamiento minero estocástico, desde los algoritmos genéticos, y que su aplicación se lleva a cabo en las empresas que explotan los recursos minerales en Colombia, con el objetivo de mejorar la cadena productiva del proceso minero. Abstract in english Mine planning processes in open-pit deposits in Colombia, have been performed using deterministic tools, which excludes the assessment of risks and uncertainties in the mining business and in some cases fail to maximize the benefits in monetary terms. We need to develop alternative models for mine p [...] lanning to improve the competitiveness and productivity in terms of the following factors: Increased mine of life- LOM; Extraction and exploitation of lower quality resources; Obtaining more benefits from the mining business; Reduced risk and uncertainty in the mine planning process, among others. Within the planning processes of mineral mining in the open pit mine in Colombia there is no evidence of the use of tools for decision making under uncertainty scenarios that allow these processes to perform metaheuristic techniques such as simulated annealing; genetic algorithms; tabu search; neural networks; among others. In this paper we focus on genetic algorithms and its application to mine planning for open pit. This paper is intended to serve as the basis for a stochastic approach to mine planning, from the genetic algorithm and its implementation is carried out in companies that exploit the mineral resources in Colombia, with the aim of improving the production chain mining process.

Giovanni, Franco Sepúlveda; John Willian, Branch Bedoya; Patricia, Jaramillo Álvarez.

2012-07-01

57

The development of a remote-controlled highwall rockbroom-a world first for the open-pit mining industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Jointed rock slopes are generally stable, as there is no freedom of movement for blocks of rock. In an open- pit mining environment, blasting opens up space into which blocks of rock can fail, resulting in the common occurrence of slope failure. Prior to the blasting of a trim pattern, the immediate [...] highwall is scaled, where loose rock material is removed by means of a mechanical scaler. As mining of the pit progresses, the height of the scaled highwall from the pit floor progressively increases. These highwalls are never scaled again for the remainder of the pit life, and time-dependant deterioration contributes to these highwalls becoming subject to rockfall and, sometimes, slope failure. This paper documents the development of a South African innovation, a remote-controlled mechanical highwall scaler, a world first for the mining industry. The scaler will enable open-pit highwalls to be scaled from crest to toe whenever the need arises. It will reduce the risk associated with highwalls and deliver on the Anglo American promise of producing safe, profitable platinum.

D., van Rensburg; L., Melis.

58

Consequences of coal mining and burning in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (2). Territorial consequences of coal mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Out of the 1450 km2 of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin, the area of the coal-bearing territory is 850 km2. The area occupied by the open pits, spoil banks and mines is nearly 27O km2, out of which over 90 km2 have already been recultivated. Predicted mining development scenarios for the region till 2035 are outlined. The extent of mining will decrease gradually, and land will be reclaimed. The abandoned pits will be filled with water and employed for recreation purposes. The specific features of the individual open pit mines are given. The ways to reduce the adverse environmental impacts of mining are outlined; these include, in particular, desulfurization of existing power plants on the one hand, and energy savings associated with a reduction in mining and power generation activities on the other hand. (J.B.)

59

Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of 238U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional 'sticky vinyl' passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained

60

Development of generalized cutoff grade optimization algorithm for open pit mining operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of optimum cutoff grade is influenced by the economic parameters (price of metal, mining and processing costs, etc.),The capacities of stages (mine, mill, and refinery) in the mining operation, and the grade distribution of the deposit. The cutoff grade changes with the influence of these parameters, sometimes widely, during the life of a mining operation. The theory of optimum cutoff grades is complex. However, this problem can be solved by the availability of algorithms, which could be implemented by the computer programs. This paper presents a cutoff grade optimization algorithm, which maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of the mining operation subject to mining, milling and refining constraints, the benefits of the methodology developed are demonstrated in a case study. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI) represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection an...

Hartwig, Marcos E.; Mura, Jose? C.; Paradella, Waldir R.

2013-01-01

62

Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote Sensing Systems Department at Space Research and Technology Institute thematically oriented spectrometric system TOMS working in the 0.4-0.9 ?m range of the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS). For proper comparison between the data obtained from the different sources mentioned spectral transformations such as normalized difference and rationing data for two wavelengths were applied in order to avoid misinterpretation. Statistically significant dependence between the various spectral transformations and the quantitative content of the iron in the different type of compounds was established. The achieved results provided evidence that methodology used could be extended to other regions of the country polluted by the mining activities and should be also tested in the region of the copper and zinc extraction. In the next step of our research we intend to use the results obtained by the multitemporal analysis of the satellite and ground-based multispectral data for the same and the similar regions of interest.

Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

2013-10-01

63

Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS) and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new app...

Adel Badri; Sylvie Nadeau; André Gbodossou

2011-01-01

64

Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

65

Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999  

Science.gov (United States)

The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock (Savage and others, 2000). Although jarosite would be expected to dissolve in water having the composition of the developing pit lake, iron oxyhydroxide species (ferrihydrite and goethite) would be stable, and strong partitioning of arsenic onto suspended particles or bottom sediments containing these iron phases would be expected. Arsenic release to the lake would not be expected until stratification develops, producing a reducing, non-circulating hypolimnion in which the iron phases would be destroyed by dissolution. The fact that arsenic concentrations increased rapidly before the pit lake was deep enough to stratify shows that arsenic may not be attenuated in the ways that the earlier Clio mine area study indicated, and suggested that our understanding of release and transport of arsenic in this environment is incomplete. Therefore, in 1997 we decided to study the chemical evolution of the Harvard pit lake as part of a project on environmental impacts of gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, and in early 1998 we developed a cooperative study with several of the investigators in the Stanford University Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences who had done the Clio study. The U.S. Geological Survey portion of the project has been funded by the Mineral Resources Program. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the release and transport of arsenic into the Harvard pit lake and its accumulation there will contribute to more accurate predictions of arsenic release from weathering of sulfide-bearing rocks exposed by mining or other activities or events, and to better forecasts of pit lake evolution in this and similar environments, leading to more effective monitoring and mitigation strategies. An accurate predictive model is needed for the Harvard pit lake to forecast trends in metal concentrations, particularly arsenic, and also concentrations of major cations and anions. As the lake approaches pre-mining groundwater levels the lake water could move down the hydrologic gradient to the southeast into domestic wells, and could also affect the surface

Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

2001-01-01

66

Determination of the radioactive aerosols transport coefficients generated in open pit uranium mining areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical atmospheric transport model is applied to uranium mining operations. Among the transport parameters there is one concerned with radioactive decay, but it does not include the radioactive decay series which is the specific case for uranium. Therefore, an extension of the transport theory is developed and tested, giving results greater than the ones obtained with the classical model, as expected. (author)

67

Numerical Study on an Applicable Underground Mining Method for Soft Extra-Thick Coal Seams in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The EGAT Mae Moh Mine is the largest open pit lignite mine in Thailand and it produces lignite about 16 million tons annually. In the near future, the pit limit of the mine will be reached and underground mine will then be developed through the open pit in the depth of 400 - 600 m from the surface. However, due to the challenges for underground mining such as poor geological conditions, extra thickness (20 - 30 m) of coal seams, and weak mechanical properties of coal seams and the surrounding...

Nay Zarlin; Takashi Sasaoka; Hideki Shimada; Kikuo Matsui

2012-01-01

68

Mining principles in the situation of Dolni Rozinka Uranium Mines deposit with respect to protection of open pits and mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three surface and a network of underground monitoring points were established for assessing the impact of extracting oblique and steep ore zones and veins in the uranium ore deposit at Dolni Rozinka on the surrounding massif and on the earth surface. On the basis of these in-situ measurements and the results of modelling using equivalent materials and mathematical modelling and the evaluation of practical experience in the excavation of mines in this deposit new techniques were designed for protecting installations and buildings from the impacts of mining activities. The distance and size of limit angles of the mining effect were determined which allowed to considerably limit the range of existing safety pillars and thereby to reduce the volume of utility minerals whose excavation had previously been restricted. (B.S.)

69

Simulation of Dynamic Fracturing of Continuum Rock in Open Pit Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic fracture mechanism related to blast-induced borehole breakdown and crack propagation, 2D distinct element commercial code was used. The dynamic stresses, material status and velocity vectors are plotted and shown to evaluate rock mass failure under blast load. This paper focuses on the propagation and dynamic effects of blast waves in continuum rock masses. In order to investigate the effect of high strain rate loading on rock mass failure, a numerical simulation was conducted. The 2D distinct element code was used to model blast load effect on rock failure and stress distribution through the rock mass due to blast wave propagation. The blast loading history was simplified and applied to the blasthole walls. Accordingly, the interaction of explosive energy transferred to the rock mass from the blasthole pressure was examined as a function of time. A Mohr-Coulomb material model was used for host rock to allow for plastic failure calculations. The conducted numerical study describes the role of dynamic stresses in blasting in a qualitative manner. On the other hand, a free face boundary was considered as a common blast operation which is conducted in surface mining.

Zeinab Aliabadian

2013-07-01

70

Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nástup Tušimice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently the opencast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper.

Martin Vrubel

2007-06-01

71

Numerical scheme for elastoplastic parameter identification and finite element analysis of wall-slope of the Fushun West open pit mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The elastobrittle plastic finite element analysis has been taken on the prediction for the deformation of the northwall of an open pit of Fushun, China. Numerical simulation has been made on the reinforcement measures of the slope structure. Using parameter identification techniques and connecting with elasto brittle plastic finite element program, the displacement back analysis has been made on the material parameters of the rockslope. The equivalent parameter values of the real slope structure have been obtained. The process of the rapid increment of the slope's deformation caused by open mining during 1987 to 1990 has been reappeared through the numerical simulation. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Shen, X.; Wang, J.; Mroz, Z. [Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang (China)

2002-06-01

72

Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

2013-02-01

73

The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of Meirama.

Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

2009-04-01

74

Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

Marcos E. Hartwig

2013-09-01

75

Performance evaluation of a new stochastic network flow approach to optimal open pit mine design-application at a gold mine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimal design of production phases and ultimate pit limit for an open pit mining operation may be generated using conventional or stochastic approaches. Unlike the conventional approach, the stochastic framework accounts for expected variability and uncertainty in metal content by considering a [...] set of equally probable realizations (models) of the orebody. This paper evaluates the performance of a new stochastic network flow approach for the development of optimal phase design and ultimate pit limit using a gold deposit as the case study. The stochastic and conventional frameworks as considered here utilize the maximum flow and Lerchs-Grossman (LG) algorithms, respectively. The LG algorithm is restricted to considering an estimated (average-type) orebody model, while the stochastic maximum flow algorithm is developed to simultaneously use a set of simulated orebody realizations as an input. The case study demonstrates that, when compared to the conventional LG algorithm as used in the industry, the stochastic approach generates a 30 per cent increase in discounted cash flow, a 21 per cent larger ultimate pit limit, and about 7 per cent more metal, while it maintains a consistency in phase size.

M.W.A., Asad; R., Dimitrakopoulos.

2012-07-01

76

The open pit of Garzweiler II. Authorisation secures energy supply and economic power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In end-March 1995 the North-Rhine-Westphalian Government granted an authorisation for the open pit of Garzweiler II thus permitting brown coal mining in the Rheinish mining region to continue at the same pace as before. At that time the decision was supported by a large majority across parties which made itself felt not only in parliament but also in the Brown Coal Committee and its subcommittees. The author describes the open pit mining project and the course of the authorisation procedure and explains this view he shares of the energy-economic necessity of Garzweiler II. It should be added that in the meantime a red-green coalition has come to power in the Land and the project may be defeated after all. (orig./HP)

77

Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ''ground truth'', from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions

78

Coal Mines Security System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, au...

Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Rane, Milind E.

2012-01-01

79

Numerical Study on an Applicable Underground Mining Method for Soft Extra-Thick Coal Seams in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The EGAT Mae Moh Mine is the largest open pit lignite mine in Thailand and it produces lignite about 16 million tons annually. In the near future, the pit limit of the mine will be reached and underground mine will then be developed through the open pit in the depth of 400 - 600 m from the surface. However, due to the challenges for underground mining such as poor geological conditions, extra thickness (20 - 30 m of coal seams, and weak mechanical properties of coal seams and the surrounding rock, the success possibility of underground mining and an applicable underground mining method is being investigated at the present. The paper discusses the applicability of multi-slice bord-and-pillar method for the soft extra thick coal seams in the Mae Moh mine by means of numerical analyses using the 3D finite difference code “FLAC3D”.

Nay Zarlin

2012-11-01

80

Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR)-region image usin...

Gila Notesco; Veronika Kopa?ková; Petr Rojík; Guy Schwartz; Ido Livne; Eyal Ben Dor

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões / A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sort [...] e a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática. Abstract in english This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and qua [...] lity targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

Francisco César Rodrigues de, Araújo; Marcone Jamilson Freitas, Souza.

2011-03-01

82

Real -time dispatching modelling for trucks with different capacities in open pit mines / Modelowanie w czasie rzeczywistym przewozów ci??arówek o ró?nej ?adowno?ci w kopalni odkrywkowej  

Science.gov (United States)

Application of fully automated systems for truck dispatching plays a major role in decreasing the transportation costs which often represent the majority of costs spent on open pit mining. Consequently, the application of a truck dispatching system has become fundamentally important in most of the world's open pit mines. Recent experiences indicate that by decreasing a truck's travelling time and the associated waiting time of its associated shovel then due to the application of a truck dispatching system the rate of production will be considerably improved. Computer-based truck dispatching systems using algorithms, advanced and accurate software are examples of these innovations. Developing an algorithm of a computer- based program appropriated to a specific mine's conditions is considered as one of the most important activities in connection with computer-based dispatching in open pit mines. In this paper the changing trend of programming and dispatching control algorithms and automation conditions will be discussed. Furthermore, since the transportation fleet of most mines use trucks with different capacities, innovative methods, operational optimisation techniques and the best possible methods for developing the required algorithm for real-time dispatching are selected by conducting research on mathematical-based planning methods. Finally, a real-time dispatching model compatible with the requirement of trucks with different capacities is developed by using two techniques of flow networks and integer programming.

Ahangaran, Daryoush Kaveh; Yasrebi, Amir Bijan; Wetherelt, Andy; Foster, Patrick

2012-10-01

83

Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km2. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

84

A case study of a large open pit uranium AML [Abandoned Mine Land] Project Gas Hills, Wyoming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Abandoned Mine Lands Program (AML), authorized under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 provides funding for the abatement of health and safety hazards on lands disturbed by mining prior to enactment of the Act. A good example of the implementation of the AML Program in Wyoming is the A-8 Pit. The reclamation site is located in the East Gas Hills Uranium Mining District of Wyoming. Reclamation activities include selective handling of 3.5 million cubic yards of backfill, controlling pit dewatering and water treatment, installing second order drainage channel and riprap control structures, and salvaging sufficient coversoils and topsoils for site revegetation

85

Technical and environmental aspects of Coal mining,a case study on Maamba Collieries,Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the general flow chart of stripping, mining, processing and handling of coal at Maamba Collieries. Major sources of environmental degradation starting from the Open Pit, Coal Preparation Plant(CCP), Aerial Ropewayup to the Screening Plantand dispatch facilities located some eleven kilometres away at Masuku Rail Terminalare pointed out. Past and on-going efforts by Maamba Collieries at ameliorating and, where feasible, mitigating of adverse environmental impact of mining, processing and handling of coal as well as limitations of these measures as applied at Maamba are presented and discussed. (author)

86

Change detection over Sokolov open-pit mining area, Czech Republic, using multi-temporal HyMAP data (2009-2010)  

Science.gov (United States)

Two HyMap images acquired over the same lignite open-pit mining site in Sokolov, Czech Republic, during the summers of 2009 and 2010 (12 months apart), were investigated in this study. The site selected for this research is one of three test sites (the others being in South Africa and Kyrgyzstan) within the framework of the EO-MINERS FP7 Project (http://www.eo-miners.eu). The goal of EO-MINERS is to "integrate new and existing Earth Observation tools to improve best practice in mining activities and to reduce the mining related environmental and societal footprint". Accordingly, the main objective of the current study was to develop hyperspectral-based means for the detection of small spectral changes and to relate these changes to possible degradation or reclamation indicators of the area under investigation. To ensure significant detection of small spectral changes, the temporal domain was investigated along with careful generation of reflectance information. Thus, intensive spectroradiometric ground measurements were carried out to ensure calibration and validation aspects during both overflights. The performance of these corrections was assessed using the Quality Indicators setup developed under a different FP7 project-EUFAR (http://www.eufar.net), which helped select the highest quality data for further work. This approach allows direct distinction of the real information from noise. The reflectance images were used as input for the application of spectral-based change-detection algorithms and indices to account for small and reliable changes. The related algorithms were then developed and applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to map spectral changes over the space of a year. Using field spectroscopy and ground truth measurements on both overpass dates, it was possible to explain the results and allocate spatial kinetic processes of the environmental changes during the time elapsed between the flights. It was found, for instance, that significant spectral changes are capable of revealing mineral processes, vegetation status and soil formation long before these are apparent to the naked eye. Further study is being conducted under the above initiative to extend this approach to other mining areas worldwide and to improve the robustness of the developed algorithm.

Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojik, P.; Kopacková, V.; Zelenkova, K.; Misurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanus, J.; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben Dor, E.

2011-11-01

87

Prediction of ground vibrations resulting from the blasting operations in an open-pit mine by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study is to predict the peak particle velocity (PPV) values from both presently constructed simple regression model and fuzzy-based model. For this purpose, vibrations induced by bench blasting operations were measured in an open-pit mine operated by the most important magnesite producing company (MAS) in Turkey. After gathering the ordered pairs of distance and PPV values, the site-specific parameters were determined using traditional regression method. Also, an attempt has been made to investigate the applicability of a relatively new soft computing method called as the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict PPV. To achieve this objective, data obtained from the blasting measurements were evaluated by constructing an ANFIS-based prediction model. The distance from the blasting site to the monitoring stations and the charge weight per delay were selected as the input parameters of the constructed model, the output parameter being the PPV. Valid for the site, the PPV prediction capability of the constructed ANFIS-based model has proved to be successful in terms of statistical performance indices such as variance account for (VAF), root mean square error (RMSE), standard error of estimation, and correlation between predicted and measured PPV values. Also, using these statistical performance indices, a prediction performance comparison has been made between the presently constructed ANFIS-based model and the classical regression-based prediction method, which has been widely used in the literature. Although the prediction performance of the regression-based model was high, the comparison has indicated that the proposed ANFIS-based model exhibited better prediction performance than the classical regression-based model.

Iphar, Melih; Yavuz, Mahmut; Ak, Hakan

2008-11-01

88

Designing an advanced RC drilling grid for short-term planning in open pit mines: three case studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SYNOPSIS This paper shows the usefulness of geostatistical conditional simulation combined with the quantification of sampling errors obtained from the analyses of fundamental errors - validated from duplicate data - to assess the relevance of the quality and quantity of the information, for short-t [...] erm mine planning purposes. Traditional blast-hole drilling equipment has been designed for efficient drilling, but not for obtaining high-quality samples. Furthermore, blast-hole sampling interferes with production, and thus usually produces poor-quality results. These results are the basis of short-term plans, where the grades of selective mining units are estimated and used for distinguishing between ore and waste. Under these conditions, misclassification (ore blocks sent to the waste dump and waste blocks processed at the plant) is inevitable, leading to significant hidden losses that can amount to millions of dollars per annum. Reverse circulation drilling with the latest automated sampling technology improves significantly the quality of the information used for short-term planning, and thus reduces misclassification, improving the financial returns of the operation. In this paper, we present the general methodology for assessing the effect of poor blast-hole sampling, as compared to advanced reverse circulation drilling grids at several spacings, in order to arrive at the most appropriate grid for short-term planning. This plan can be prepared well in advance using several additional variables that are usually not available when the plan is based on blast-hole samples. Furthermore, blending options can be analysed in order to optimize plant recovery, minimize the use of sulphuric acid, etc. Three case studies are presented, namely a typical porphyry copper deposit, an exotic oxide copper deposit, and a complex gold deposit, where mineralization is controlled by structures and lithology. This paper shows that in all cases, advanced reverse circulation drilling grids provide good-quality information that, coupled with the use of geosta-tistics for short-term mine planning, significantly improve the financial returns of the operation.

J.M., Ortiz; E.J., Magri.

2014-08-01

89

Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto / Haul roads structural design in open pit mines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores [...] e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais. Abstract in english An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the [...] DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de, Sousa; Waldyr Lopes de, Oliveira Filho; Hernani Mota de, Lima.

2012-06-01

90

Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

2012-10-01

91

The mine planning process for an open-pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper discusses the mine planning process for Letseng diamond mine in the Kingdom of Lesotho, in conjunction with the various software packages used during the process. The major pillars of the long-term mine planning process at Letseng are pit optimization followed by pit design and scheduling [...] . Letseng uses Gemcom Whittle and GEMS for pit optimization and design and Runge XPAC for scheduling. The output of the mine planning process results in the generation of published mineral reserves and provides input into the Letseng overall business plan. The process of defining the key inputs for the entire mine planning process is discussed, which covers: ? Slope design as an input ? Diamond price inputs ? Operating and capital cost inputs ? Generation of pit shells ? Selection of an optimum pit shell and interim cutbacks using operational scenarios ? Sensitivity analysis on the selected optimum pit shell. ? Slope design criteria in the detailed design ? Split shell vs concentric pit design ? Practical mining widths to determine cutback design ? Pit design process in the GEMS software package. ? Development of scheduling scenarios in the XPAC software package ? Planning through mining production bottlenecks. ? Company-level NPV model ? Comparing scenarios and input of the different schedule scenarios into the company NPV model.

A., Madowe.

92

Coal Mines Security System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

Ankita Guhe

2012-05-01

93

Coal mine site reclamation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

NONE

2013-02-15

94

Coal and its mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal is a national asset but public sector coal industry has become a liability. Mine safety requires systematic supervision, hard, regular work. Prosperity in the UK grew up around coal and some time later in Germany and USA. Coal also stimulated invention. As the surface deposits were soon exhausted in UK, miners had to dig deeper and face flooding. The necessity to pump out water mothered Newcomen's invention of steam pump that may be regarded as the forerunner of steam engine. Raw materials were moved to coal fields where various industries grew. In UK coal fields are situated around the coast so British people brought their raw materials by sea. This choice of locating factories around the coal field still persists in that country. As the age of electricity came, power stations were erected in coal fields and power was transmitted over a wider area. A similar trend is noticable in India. Many industries including power stations have sprung up in coal fields continually from Durgapur in West Bengal to Hazaribagh in Bihar and in adjoining Ranchi area of the same state. An industrial complex is rising also in Talcher Coalfield in Orissa State. Three countries - Russia, Poland, Australia - have built up industry based on their coal, the first in between the Two World Wars and the second two countries after 2nd World War. Italy and Sweden have become highly industrialised even though these countries own little or no coal.Still the possession of coal is an asset as in India because coal is a cheap source of both energy and chemicals. India has become nearly a major steel producer whose requirement of hard coke is being met indigenously.

Ghose, P.C.

1978-10-01

95

German coal mining equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief history of the Ruhr coalfield and the major projects undergone in the area to date are given. The development of the area and the equipment now available for all aspects of coal mining is discussed. Special consideration is given to: shearer and ploughs; armoured conveyors; longwall supports; haulage and hoisting; conveyor vulcanizers. Finally a list of electrical suppliers is given. 6 references.

Pearse, G.

1986-03-01

96

Mining software for the Muara Tiga Besar Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Datamine software system consists of a database core and extension modules covering different areas including drillhole data handling, geological modelling, surveying, open pit and underground mine planning and production scheduling. The system has been used by PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam for the modelling, evaluation and mine planning of the new Muara Tiga Besar open-pit coal mining project in south Sumatra. 9 figs.

Wheeler, A. (Datamine International, London (UK))

1992-05-01

97

Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

2014-10-01

98

Coal mining technology in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper consists of a two-page text plus a set of 25 slides/overheads outlining the presentation to the conference. It first discussed world coal resources and production trends and the issues of achieving a stable supply of coal. The main part of the paper discussed features of Japanese coal mining technology and coopertive projects carried out by JCOAL with China, Indonesia, Australia, Vietnam and elsewhere on topics including exploration techniques, prevention of explosions, monitoring and control of belt conveyors and other mine equipment, dust control, coal mine methane recovery and utilization, and coal cleaning.

Furukawa, H. [Japan Coal Energy Center (Japan). Resources Dept.

2006-03-15

99

China`s coal industry at work  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes coal mining in four of China`s provinces: Shanxi, Shaanxi; Shandong; and Liaoning. The administration of mining in these regions is described. The Xiqu mine in Shanxi, a coking coal mine using continuous miners is described in detail, along with its coal preparation plant. Coal mining and use of equipment in Shaanxi, Liaoming, and Shandong is described, and the Fushun Administration West Open Pit mine described in detail. This mine produces coal, oil shale and jet. Oil refinery facilities, both for shale oil and petroleum and coal cleaning facilities are described. 6 figs.

Sanda, A.P.

1995-06-01

100

Coal Mine Methane in Russia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

NONE

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Mining technology and policy issues 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents conference papers on advances in mineral processing, coal mining, communications for mining executives, environmental laws and regulations, exploration philosophy, exploration technology, government controls and the environment, management, mine finance, minerals availability, mine safety, occupational health, open pit mining, the precious metals outlook, public lands, system improvements in processing ores, and underground mining. Topics considered include coal pipelines and saline water, an incentive program for coal mines, sandwich belt high-angle conveyors, the development of a mining company, regulations for radionuclides, contracts for western coal production for Pacific Rim exports, and the control of radon daughters in underground mines

102

Brown coal mining in 1995  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statistical data on brown coal exploitation in Poland in 1995 are given and discussed. In that year 63.4 mln ton of brown coal was excavated and 62.2 mln ton was sent to power plants. 40.1% of electric power generated in public utilities were produced using brown coal as the fuel. The results of all 5 brown coal mines are shortly described

103

Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

Nichiporuk, A.

2007-09-15

104

Coal mine subsidence and structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Underground coal mining has occurred beneath 32 x 109m2 (8 million acres) of land in the United States and will eventually extend beneath 162 x 109m2 (40 million acres). Most of this mining has taken place and will take place in the eastern half of the United States. In areas of abandoned mines where total extraction was not achieved, roof collapse, crushing of coal pillars, or punching of coal pillars into softer mine floor or roof rock is now resulting in sinkhole or trough subsidence tens or even hundreds of years after mining. Difference in geology, in mining, and building construction practice between Europe and the United States preclude direct transfer of European subsidence engineering experience. Building damage cannot be related simply to tensile and compressive strains at the ground surface. Recognition of the subsidence damage role played by ground-structure interaction and by structural details is needed

105

Feasibility of thin seam coal mining at Dorstfontein Coal Mine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Please read the abstract in the section 00front of this document © 2003 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Meyer PC, 2003, Feasibility of thin seam coal mining at Dorstfontein coal mine, MSc dissertat...

Meyer, Petrus Cornelius

2005-01-01

106

Feasibility of thin seam coal mining at Dorstfontein Coal Mine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Please read the abstract in the section 00front of this document © 2003 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Meyer PC, 2003, Feasibility of thin seam coal mining at Dorstfontein coal mine, MSc dissertat...

Meyer, Petrus Cornelius

2003-01-01

107

Glencore to list coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Swiss-based trading house Glencore International AG is to list its coal mining business on the Australian Stock Exchange in two months time in the largest public offering in the mining and metal sector so far this year. Glencore plans to offer 60-70% of the new company, to be called Enex Resources Ltd., to raise around 2.5 bn Australian dollars. Glencore's coal mining assets are located in Australia and South Africa with 11 mines in New South Wales and 14 in Mpumalanga Province. The initial public offering (IPO) will be made to investors in the US, Europe, Asia and Australia.

NONE

2001-07-27

108

76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

...Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine...Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This extension...Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA...

2011-11-10

109

76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

...Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine...Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published on...Systems on Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Due to...

2011-10-12

110

Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

2014-01-01

111

Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

2014-01-01

112

Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at ? = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

Gila Notesco

2014-07-01

113

Project design of an open pit colliery in Terkidag, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this manuscript, first of all, the status of Turkey in terms of energy production and consumption is given and the need to relyon domestic sources, namely lignite deposits, is emphasized rather than importing fuels from abroad. Then, a thorough literature workconcerning open pit design and production planning is explained in detail. On this basis, the project design and production planningof Tekirdag-Saray open pit colliery are conducted. According to the selected production technique, machinery-equipment that willbe utilized in the coal winning system is determined and in the final part, the investment cost and unit production cost regardingthe project are computed and the importance of constructing a power plant in the region operating with domestic fuels is expressed.

H. Kose

2010-10-01

114

Project design of an open pit colliery in Terkidag, Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this manuscript, first of all, the status of Turkey in terms of energy production and consumption is given and the need to rely on domestic sources, namely lignite deposits, is emphasized rather than importing fuels from abroad. Then, a thorough literature work concerning open pit design and production planning is explained in detail. On this basis, the project design and production planning of Tekirdag-Saray open pit colliery are conducted. According to the selected production technique, machinery-equipment that will be utilized in the coal winning system is determined and in the final part, the investment cost and unit production cost regarding the project are computed and the importance of constructing a power plant in the region operating with domestic fuels is expressed. (authors)

115

30 CFR 816.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 816...MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New...impounding structures constructed of coal mine waste or intended to impound coal...

2010-07-01

116

30 CFR 817.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 817...MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New...impounding structures constructed of coal mine waste or intended to impound coal...

2010-07-01

117

Black coal mining - its resources and possibilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal reserves in Poland are evaluated in 3 coal basins based on figures from 1.1.81: Upper Silesia 54,700 Mt (83.3%), Lower Silesia 400 Mt (0.7%) and the Lublin basin 6,800 Mt (11.0%). So-called perspective coal reserves amount to 102,000 Mt (50,000 Mt in Upper Silesia, 400 Mt in Lower Silesia and 52,000 Mt in the Lublin basin). Coal reserves at depths to 1000 m amount to 78.3% and at 1000 to 1500 m they are 21.7%. Distribution of coal reserves in operating coal mines is evaluated: 46.1% of reserves is in coal seams to 1.5 m thick, 30.8% in coal seams from 1.5 to 3.0 m thick and 23.1% in coal seams more than 3.0 m thick. Coal used in power plants prevails: 67.9% of reserves is flame coal, gas-flame coal and gas coal, 30.6% coking coal, 1.5% other coal types such as anthracite or lean coal. Development of the Upper Silesian basin is evaluated. Coal output in 15 mines will stagnate or decline, output of 47 mines will increase. Five coal mines are being constructed. By the year 2030 mining depth in 60% of Polish coal mines will exceed 1000 m. The average mining depth in Polish coal mining is increasing by 15 m per year.

Ciszak, E.; Lakomy, W.

1983-09-01

118

Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...

Qingliang Chang; Jianhang Chen; Huaqiang Zhou; Jianbiao Bai

2014-01-01

119

Complementarities Between Coal Mining Machinery Industry and Coal Mining Industry: Evidence from China 1991-2006  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study used VAR model to analyze and verify the complementaries between Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises and coal mining enterprises from the perspective of static state and dynamic state, it concluded that: there is a co-integration relationship between the actual output value of Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises and the actual value of Chinese coal mining enterprises, namely, there is a long-term and stable equilibrium; Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises have adv...

He Xiao-yan; Wang Fei; Bai Yu-hui; Yang Xiao

2013-01-01

120

Ruhr coal mining - moving northwards  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As coal reserves to the north of the Ruhr Valley are exhausted, mining is being extended further northward towards the River Lippe. In most cases the existing hoisting shafts are continuing in use, with the coal transported over long distances underground. Access and ventilation shafts have been sunk in the northern area, and details of some of these are given. The major part of the paper is concerned with operations at Westerholt Colliery in the Lippe Division of Ruhrkohle AG. The mine has 6 shafts in 3 locations, interconnected by some 100 km of underground roadways.

Pearse, G.

1985-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Major new Colombian coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Amcoal with partners Rio Tinto and Glencore, is developing a new large coal export operation in Colombia, following an agreement last year to combine the Cerrejon Centrale and Oreganal coal properties. Three major groups have been awarded a contract to develop the Cerrejon Sur block. Five new mining concessions in the Guajira region south of El Cerrejon will be developed. Colombia has proven and inferred coal reserves amounting to more than 20,000 Mt and hopes to be producing 50 Mt/y by 2005. 1 tab., 1 map.

Chadwick, J.

1998-09-01

122

Researches on safety of coal mines in China. Chugoku ni okeru tanko hoan kenkyu jokyo ni tsuite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Japan-China joint research project on safety of coal mines, measures for ignition of gas and coal dust in coal mines have been studied since 1990 and are planned to be studied for 4 years. As a part of this project, Japanese delegation visited China in January and February, 1991, to investigate the progress of concerned researches, laboratories, and organizations in China. This report introduces four organizations and their activities. A research institution in Beijing, which is under the control of the energy and industry department to support coal energy policy, manages all researches on the safety of coal mines and has 17 affiliated institutes. There are also 5 institutions including Beijing Research Institute of Mine Construction in its precincts. The Fushun Branch of this institution owns Ventilation Safety Research Laboratory, Open-Pit mining Research Laboratory, etc., and the Chungking Branch has Research Institute of Dust Control and Refuse Utilization, Research Institute of Gas, Fire and Ventilation, etc. The Shanghai Branch consists of Coal mining Mechanization Research Department and someother departments. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Kono, S.; Shikata, N. (National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan))

1991-09-25

123

30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816...MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area...

2010-07-01

124

30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817...MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area...

2010-07-01

125

The use of computers for engineering mine modernization and development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computers are being used in slope conveyor design at Fushun West open-pit coal mine and in the determination of selectively mineable reserves and quality at Huo Lin He coal deposit. The 2 months required to perform these studies will be more than made up by a shortened construction schedule.

Tooker, G.E.; Hartzell, D.R.; Parker, H.M.

1984-01-01

126

Calibration of Numerical Model Applied to a Shear Zone Located on a Slope in an Open Pit Mine—Case History  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The instability of a pit mine slope diagnostic caused by the slipping of a localized deep shear zone is described. The slope was designed on ultra basic, serpentine and metabasite rock formations with an angle varying from 40 to 45 de- grees. The perturbed slope zone was classified as RMR 12 and the non-perturbed zone as RMR 75. The boundary of these zones is defined as the shear zone. The pit slope was field mapped in detail and the mechanical properties of the rock were obtained through a laboratory test. The lab data were further processed using the RMR mechanical classifi- cation system. The Distinct Elements Code numerical modeling and simulation software was used to design the pit slope. The model was calibrated through topographic mapping of the points on the ground. The task of calibrating a numerical model is far from simple. Exhaustive attempts to find points of reference are required. The mechanical be- havior in function of the time factor is a problem that has yet to be solved. The instant deformation generated in the numerical model generated functions that can be compared with the deformations of quick shifts acquired in the topog- raphic monitoring. SMR is indeed more often recommended for Pit Slopes, though the fact that we have used RMR does not invalidate the classification for the modeling effect. The main parameters such as spacing, filling, diving direc- tion and continuity allow for compartmentalization of the modeled area. The objective of the modeling was not to pro- ject slopes because this massif was undergoing a progressive slow rupture. The objective of the modeling was to study the movement of the mass of rock and its progressive rupture caused by a shear zone.

Evandro Moraes da Gama

2012-01-01

127

Indonesia's coal mining development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indonesia's coal production has increased rapidly over the past fifteen years from 0.5 million tons per annum in 1981 to the current level of 61.2 million tons in 1998. The production capacity of the Indonesian coal industry is projected to be increased at about 112 million ton by the year 2005. The vast majority of Indonesia's coal production is produced by surface mining methods, while coal produced from underground mines which are situated in Ombilin. West Sumatera and the Mahakam River area of East Kalimantan currently contributes only a small amount to the total Indonesia's production capacity. Indonesia's coal resources are reported to over 38 billion tons but only 13.7% of this can be classified as mineable reserves. Therefore coal exploration programms should be conducted intensively in order to upgrade the status of hypothetical inferred. And indicated resources to measured reserves. In order to develop Indonisia's coal resources which are mainly located in Kalimantan and Sumatera and to anticipate increased of coal production and export development and improvement of coal infrastructures such as roadways, waterway, transshipment facilities and coal terminal would be needed. The Indonesian coal mining industry consist of four groups of coal producers namely state owned coal mining company, coal contractors, Mining Authorization Holders and Village Cooperative Units, but the key producers from a tonnage standpoint are the state owned coal mining company and coal contractors. 5 figs., 9 tabs.

Anis, N.Y. [Ministry of Mines and Energy (Indonesia)

2000-09-01

128

First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)

2005-07-01

129

Patrones de sucesión vegetal sobre los depósitos de material residual en minas de gravas - Santa Fe de Bogotá Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con Base en el estudio de la composicion y estructura de las comunidades vegetales y el analisis de las caracteristicas fisicoquimicas de los desechos, se determinaron los patrones iniciales de sucesion primaria, presentes en tres depositos de material residual de 18, 36, 120 meses de abandono, provenientes de la explotacion minera de gravas a cielo abierto al sur de Santafe de Bogota. La composicion, riqueza y diversidad floristica fueron maximas a los 36 meses de abandono del deposito. La dominancia alcanzo los maximos valores en el deposito de 120 meses. Los dos primeros parches de vegetacion presentaron un mejor ajuste al modelo de distribucion especie-abundancia logaritmico, y el tercero a un normal logaritimico. El azar es el patron de distribucion espacial-horizontal que mas abunda entre todas las especies,. seguido por patrones de micro y macroheterogeneidad. Las formas de crecimiento dominantes pasan de hierbas acaulirrosulas y postradas, en la comunidad pionera, a hierbas rastreras y arbustos, en el parche de 120 meses de edad. Las estrategias de historias de vida y las relaciones intraespecificas propuestas por Grime (1989, permitieron determinar que las plantas en la colonizacion de los primeros ambientes, se comportan como ruderales tolerantes a restricciones, y hacia el final del periodo sucesionall, como competidoras tolerantes a restricciones. Los modelos establecidos por Connell y Slatyer (1977 y Noble y Slatyer (1980, y los mecanimos de sucesion vegetal: arribo, establecimiento, facilitacion, tolerancia, inhibicion, extincion y maximo dominio, explican claramente los patrones de sucesion vegetal establecidos a traves de la dinamica de colonizacion y establecimiento de las especies vegetales sobre estos depositos. Cambios a traves del tiempo en la disponibilidad de condiciones y recursos en los sustratos expuestos a la colonizacion vegetal, medidos a partir de la caracterizacion de N, P, K, Ca, Na, Mg, porcentaje de arcillas, textura, pH, cBased on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia. This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of natural restauration of tropical ecosystems subjected to man-borne degradation.

Mora Goyes Ricardo A.

1999-11-01

130

New open pit operating method at Aumance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This operating unit at the Houilleres du Centre Midi (Coal Mines of the Centre South Region), in France, had to change the operating method of its mine because of a change in the deposit and the proximity of populated zones. To scour a bed of sandstone, the unit replaced 'load and haul' by 'rip' and 'push', using a D10 Cat Bulldozer equipped with an impact ripper. 2 photos.

Laversanne, J.

1993-04-01

131

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM ABANDONED UNDERGROUND COAL MINES  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper summarizes current research on abandoned underground coal mines. t forms an initial basis for developing an inventory of methane emissions from such mines. arly measurements have shown that some abandoned coal mines can liberate large volumes of high quality gas (up to ...

132

Complementarities Between Coal Mining Machinery Industry and Coal Mining Industry: Evidence from China 1991-2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study used VAR model to analyze and verify the complementaries between Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises and coal mining enterprises from the perspective of static state and dynamic state, it concluded that: there is a co-integration relationship between the actual output value of Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises and the actual value of Chinese coal mining enterprises, namely, there is a long-term and stable equilibrium; Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises have advanced the development of Chinese coal mining enterprises, while the development of Chinese coal mining enterprises also have played a significant role in promoting Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises; in the short term, the changes of the actual output value of Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises are due to themselves as well as the actual output value of Chinese coal mining enterprises and the changes of actual output value of Chinese coal mining enterprises are also due to themselves and the actual output value of Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises.

He Xiao-yan

2013-01-01

133

30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations...reclamation of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in...regulations for anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations...

2010-07-01

134

Optimum Coal Mine: striving towards a 'zero effluent' mine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Optimum Coal Mine comprises numerous defunct, active, and future mining sections. The mine is primarily a large opencast coal mine; however, underground mining activities will be increasing steadily over the next five years. Opencast and underground mining activities have a significant impact on sur [...] face and groundwater resources. To ensure that the mine will be able to continue with its mining operations in the catchment, the extent of this impact requires that substantial intervention and mitigation measures need to be implemented to ensure the environmental integrity and economic use of the catchment's water resources. In developing a sustainable long-term mine water management strategy, numerous scenarios had to be analysed. The various scenarios are a combination of water and land management activities. The main components of the mine's integrated water management strategy include: Management of water recharge by continual and appropriate rehabilitation of disturbed land Beneficial re-use of impacted mine water for coal plant process water and mining operations Reclamation and desalination of remaining excess impacted mine water to potable standard. From the mine's long-term water balance, it is evident that the continued implementation of numerous water management actions is required to mitigate the water resources impact in a sustainable manner. In addition, the installation of a water reclamation plant at Optimum Coal Mine (15M?/day) is a key step for the mine to achieve a zero impact target.

V.E., Cogho.

135

Coal mine gas projects conducted by JCOAL  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Japan has a system for the effective recovery and control of coal mine gas generated in the course of coal production. The recovered mine gas has been effectively utilized as a clean energy for generating electricity and for producing town gas and methanol. Making use of its various technologies and proven expertise, the Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL) is in the process of implementing projects for the recovery and utilization of coal mine gas in the major coal producing countries. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Hirasawal, H.; Yamashita, E. [Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL) (Japan)

2002-03-01

136

Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type  

Science.gov (United States)

About 7??Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13??m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10??km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7??m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Ta??chira and Me??rida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It is postulated that slower subsidence rates dominated during the Paleocene while greater foreland basin subsidence rates during the Eocene-Miocene resulted from the loading of nappe thrust sheets as part of the main construction phases of the Andean orogen. South-southeastward advance and emplacement of the Lara nappes during the oblique transpressive collision of the Caribbean and South American tectonic plates in the Paleocene was further removed from the sites of peat deposition, resulting in slower subsidence rates. Slower subsidence in the Paleocene may have favored the growth of raised mires, generating higher inertinite concentrations through more frequent moisture stress. Consistently low ash yield and sulfur content would be due to the protection from clastic input in raised mires, in addition to the leaching of mineral matter by rainfall and the development of acidic conditions preventing fixation of sulfur. In contrast, peat mires of Eocene-Miocene age encountered rapid subsidence due to the proximity of nappe emplacement, resulting in lower inertinite content, higher and more variable sulfur content, and higher ash yield.

Hackley, P.C.; Martinez, M.

2007-01-01

137

Mining challenges to deal with the land, forestry and environmental aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is given of a report of the IMA Business Commission dealing with mining development planning in Indonesia as related to land matters, forestry and environmental aspects. A summary of land matter management of an open pit coal mine is included

138

Mining challenges to deal with the land, forestry and environmental aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary is given of a report of the IMA Business Commission dealing with mining development planning in Indonesia as related to land matters, forestry and environmental aspects. A summary of land matter management of an open pit coal mine is included.

Simatupang, M. [Asian Federation of Mining Associations, Jakarta (Indonesia)

1996-12-31

139

Coal Mining in Southern Illinois  

Science.gov (United States)

After graduating from high school in 1936, C. William "Doc" Horrell received a $12 camera from his mother. Horrell was immediately bitten by the photography bug, and created a dark room in his mother's walk-in-closet. He attended Southern Illinois Normal University (now the Southern Illinois University Carbondale), and after his time in the armed services, he opened up his own photography studio in Anna, Illinois. In the 1960s, Doc began wandering around southern Illinois to document the region's coal mining industry. Over the next few years, he took thousands of photographs, some of which formed the heart of his 1973 book, "The Land Between the Rivers". The good folks at SIU Carbondale have created this online exhibit to introduce users to Horrell's work. Visitors can make their way through the exhibit, and they may find themselves gravitating to the complete online collection, which contains over 750 items. It's a tremendous find, and it includes images of abandoned coal mining facilities, men at work, and coal trains.

140

Increasing the service life of cross ties at open pits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis shows that the service life of cross ties on mobile tracks should be at least 6 years; on permanent ones, 11-12 years. Cross tie failure at open pits is greatly affected by frequent relaying of tracks during mining work, the significant dynamic and static loads when the rail lengths separate (up to 80-100 kN/length in the summer and 150-160 kN in the winter), instability of the soil foundation, movement of the cross ties when the gage is expanded, weakening of joints, etc. Improving their service life is affected by the ballast quality, heavier rail types, separate bolt and wood screw attachments, elastic liners between the tie plate and cross tie, and autoclave impregnation of the cross ties with oil antiseptics. Repair of old cross ties is an indispensable condition for extending their service life. At open pits, cross tie repair should be done at track repair and assembly stations with standard MPS cross tie repair shop equipment.

Tikhomirov, A.I.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Numerical Analysis of Block Caving-Induced Instability in Large Open Pit Slopes: A Finite Element/Discrete Element Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses one of the most challenging problems in mining rock engineering—the interaction between block cave mining and a large overlying open pit. The finite element modeling/discrete element modeling (FEM/DEM) approach was utilized in the analysis of block caving-induced step-path failure development in a large open pit slope. The analysis indicated that there is a threshold percentage of critical intact rock bridges along a step-path failure plane that may ensure the stability of an open pit throughout caving operations. Transition from open pit to underground mining at Palabora mine presents an important example of a pit wall instability triggered by caving. Using combined FEM/DEM-DFN (discrete fracture network) modeling, it was possible to investigate the formation of a basal failure surface within an open pit slope as a direct result of cave mining. The modeling of Palabora highlighted the importance of rock mass tensile strength and its influence on caving-induced slope response.

Vyazmensky, Alexander; Stead, D.; Elmo, D.; Moss, A.

2010-02-01

142

Data Structuration in Coal Research and Coal Mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This presentation of data structuration in coal research and coal mining is considered as the first step in the setting up of an operational data bank. This structuration, according to the HBDS model, seems interesting to take into account many qualitative or/and quantitative data and to manage their relations. This application to drilling data deals with scientific and technical purposes, in coal mine.

Roulet, Marie-jose

1981-01-01

143

Coal Mine Methane in Russia [Russian Version  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

NONE

2010-07-01

144

French jumbos for Indian coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

French technology is being put to use in four coal mines in India: Amlabad, East Katras, Chora and Godavari Khani 10. In two of the mines the soutirage (sub-level caving) method as developed in the coal mines of Aquitaine in south west France is being introduced. The method involves the depillaring of the full thickness of the coal seam in successive slabs, retreating on level galleries and loading the won coal from these levels. The pillars are split using blasting; the blasting patterns are drilled with an Eimco-Secoma jumbo. 6 figs.

1989-03-01

145

Pioneer Coal Limited's coal mine reclamation projects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation outlined the land reclamation efforts at former surface mining sites in Pictou County Nova Scotia, notably the Stellarton Pit Mine; the Drummond Mine in Westville; and the Thorburn Mine. In August 1994 Pioneer Coal limited submitted a request for mine rehabilitation. The environmental approval to proceed was granted in 1995 and industrial approval was granted in 1996. The presentation included maps indicating the locations of the 3 mining sites as well as numerous aerial views and photographs depicting the mine operations as well as the results of the reclamation efforts. figs.

White, P.; Mattie, M. [Pioneer Coal Limited, Antigonish, NS (Canada)

2008-07-01

146

Outline of Ombilin coal mine, Indonesia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the present situation, mining methods, and future projects of Ombilin Coal Mine in Smatra, Indonesia. Ombilin Coal Mine, which started operation in 1892, is one of the oldest collieries in Indonesia. It has increased its production recently, and achieved a record production of about 880,000 tons of clean coal in 1992. 85% of total output is produced by surface mining, and the rest by underground mining. The accident rate there has been decreasing due to improvement of safety measures. There was no fatal accident for the last four years from 1989 to 1992. The mine has three seams, A, B, and C from the top, consisting of excellent steaming coal containing 5% ash and 37% volatile matter. Underground mining is carried out by longwall mining methods such as manual, semi mechanized, and fully mechanized methods. The longwall mining manual method, however, has not been used since 1990. The longwall mining fully mechanized method using drum shearer was introduced in 1986, and experienced the failure of roof strata. coal production record by this method was 1200 tons per day. Several projects aiming at the development of new mining area and the modernization of equipments are running, obtaining cooperation from foreign countries including Japan. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

Thaib, I. (Ombilin Coal Mine (Indonesia))

1993-03-01

147

Estimation of dynamics of technical-and-economic indices of the Korkinsk brown coal section  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamics of technical and economic indices of Korkinsk brown coal open pit was studied. It is pointed out that the average growth of the net cost of mining 1t of coal made up 1.8% a year, whereas the depth of the works in 35 years (1950-1985) increased by 5% annually. The conclusion is made that under relevant organizational conditions provided open mining of steeply dipping coal deposits is efficient at low depths. 3 figs

148

Need for Clean Coal Mining in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various fact...

Sribas Goswami

2014-01-01

149

Coal Mining Safety Monitoring Using WSN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose was to provide an implementable design scenario for underground coal mines using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main reason being that given the intricacies in the physical structure of a coal mine, only low power WSN nodes can produce accurate surveillance and accident detection data. The work mainly concentrated on designing and simulating various alternate scenarios for a typical mine and comparing them based on the obtained results to arr...

Ashish Kumar, Kriti Singh

2013-01-01

150

Centennial annual general meeting of the CIM/CMMI/MIGA. Montreal `98: a vision for the future; Rehabilitation of coal mine spoils in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of rehabilitation of ecosystems degraded by open pit coal mining is described. The areas studied are in the Katras and Mugma areas of Coal India Limited. The results of a pilot project at the Jharia coalfields, one of the oldest mining areas in India, are presented. The study consisted of laboratory pot experiments followed by a two-year pilot field study. The results show that screening of plant species and systematic revegetation are the most important steps for minimizing mining wastes. Revegetation of the spoil shows substantial growth of native plant species and, after three years, colonization of other successional species. The plant growth is similar to natural growth on a nearby unmined area. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Singh, R.S.; Chaulya, S.K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

1998-12-31

151

Dewatering of planned Key Lake open pits in northern Saskatchewan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The engineering design and experience gained so far with a dewatering system for an open-pit uranium mine planned at Key Lake in Northern Saskatchewan are presented. An extensive unconfined overburden aquifer is hydraulically connected with the underlying Athabasca Formation and basement rocks, both of relatively low hydraulic conductivity. The overburden aquifer is embedded in a bedrock trough, with the deepest depression between the planned pits. Hydrogeological data were used in a numerical dewatering model simulating groundwater flow at different stages of the pit development. Based on the model results, the enginering design had to provide for different pumping rates, varying between 1.0 and 0.21 m3/sec. This problem was solved by using a double line pressure system. The design concept for the complete peripheral discharge system and the well design used for 26 dewatering wells are discussed. (auth)

152

The practical considerations regarding coal mine rehabilitation and closure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal mine closure is an important subject for the coal mining industry and the community within SA. The coal mine closure process begins with planning during the project feasiblility assessment phase and concludes with the surrender of tenure. Where a coal mine has not developed a closure plan, early commencement of closure planning is the best insurance for achieving surrender.

Beer, Abri

2010-01-01

153

Coal mine methane drainage in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the history and development of methane drainage techniques employed in the Chinese coal mining industry. Most of the output is from underground mines in which, as a result of high coal seam methane contents and outburst-prone conditions, methane control has been a high priority. Many of the seams are inclined and a high proportion of the coal production is from seams having a thickness in excess of 3.5 m. From a safety point of view coal mines are classified into three types, (low emission, high emission and outburst prone), according to the rate and pattern of methane emission into the mine workings from the worked and surrounding seams. Methane drainage has been used in China for more than forty years, using a variety of techniques to suit all seam and mining conditions including gas drainage from the surface, working-seam drainage with hydraulic fracturing, adjacent seam drainage and gob drainage. The use of methane drainage has traditionally been driven by considerations of safety but increasingly coal seam methane is being regarded as a valuable resource, both for energy and as a raw material for the chemical industry. In the future, increased coal production from seams at greater depth will ensure that the control and utilisation of methane from coal seams will continue to be given high priority for research and development in China's coal mining industry. 8 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Yongyan, W.; Edwards, J.S. (Central Coal Mining Research Institute, Fushun (China). Dept. of Methane Control)

1993-11-01

154

30 CFR 49.30 - Requirements for small coal mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Requirements for small coal mines. 49.30 Section 49.30 Mineral...RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.30 Requirements for small coal mines. At mines with 36 or fewer...

2010-07-01

155

30 CFR 49.40 - Requirements for large coal mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Requirements for large coal mines. 49.40 Section 49.40 Mineral...RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.40 Requirements for large coal mines. At mines with more than 36...

2010-07-01

156

Microbial influences during mining and usage of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A range of interactions of microorganisms with coal is considered. Topics include: coal biodegradation; microorganisms and acid mine drainage; biological treatment of acid coal mine drainage; and bacteria and fly ash leaching. 68 refs

157

Injury experience in coal mining, 1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

none,

1991-01-01

158

Security in mining steeply dipping coal deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of coal by Charbonnages de France, was 10 Mt in 1993, 9 Mt of this being from underground mines. There are 5 underground mines, 1 in Provence and 4 in Lorraine. Of the four Lorraine mines, one, the Vouters mine, is working a steeply dipping coal deposit. In this mine, the depth reached - 1250 m below ground at the main level of the workings and is responsible for high stress conditions in coal veins and surrounding rock and occurrences of dynamic phenomena as discontinuous adjustment of stresses are occasionally associated with release of included gas, mainly methane. This situation requires particularly stringent security measures, and special attention to ventilation and methane monitoring. Mining must also be carried out with ageing manpower: no new employees have been hired since 1984 we must therefore check their physical condition ever more closely, particularly to prevent accidents leading to dorsalgia.

Bonnet, J. [Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine (France)

1994-12-31

159

Injury experience in coal mining, 1992  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

1994-05-01

160

20 years of Brown Coal Mine ''Belchatow''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

History of the biggest Polish brown coal mine ''Belchatow'' is described. The mine located in Central Poland sells yearly about 34-35 million tons of coal to ''Belchatow'' power plant which produces about 20% of electric energy in the country. The plans of the mine are connected with the exploitation of the new deposit ''Szczercow'' estimated on 750 million tons of coal and 2 new power units (=750 MW) in Belchatow power plant, which should be built in 1996-2002. 2 ills

 
 
 
 
161

GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR WESTERN SURFACE COAL MINES  

Science.gov (United States)

This EPA study was conducted to develop a source-specific groundwater monitoring methodology applicable to western surface coal mining. Section 1 discusses the potential for various aspects of surface coal mining, including exploration, mining, and reclamation, to pollute groundw...

162

30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817.81...Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a)...

2010-07-01

163

30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816.81...Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a)...

2010-07-01

164

30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section...Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles...

2010-07-01

165

30 CFR 816.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 816.84...Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...ACTIVITIES § 816.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New...

2010-07-01

166

30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section...Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles...

2010-07-01

167

30 CFR 817.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 817.84...Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...ACTIVITIES § 817.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New...

2010-07-01

168

30 CFR 942.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...Insurance Requirements for Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

2010-07-01

169

The coal mines of East-Lancashire  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book chronicles the history of coal mining in and around what is generally termed North-East Lancashire, an area which includes the townships of Burnley, Colne, Nelson, Padiham, Brierfield and a number of outlying villages. 43 refs.

Nadin, J.

1997-05-01

170

Injury experience in coal mining, 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

1991-12-31

171

Gray Correlation Analysis of Coal Mine Accidents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on the statistics of 2008-2012 State Administration of study safety coal mine accident,a grey relational analysis model of coal mine accidents was established,and the grey correlation matrixes were established according to the grey relevance degree of data series. The gas accident, roof accident and flood accident were considered as the main influential factors according to the advantage analysis method. The analysis method provides scientific basis for further prevention an...

Wen-Yan Tian; Zeng-Shou Dong; Ze-Min Li

2013-01-01

172

Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology developed during the project is considered satisfactory, therefore we don't consider necessary to prosecute the research in this field. The methodology could be used in the future for looking for suitable rubbish dumps in other mining areas, especially when no other adequate locations are available, even though such need is not apparent by now. (Author) 10 refs.

NONE

2000-07-01

173

Bacterial desulphurization of coal from mine Marcel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the work was verification of bacterial leaching on the samples of black coal from locality mine Marcel (Poland). From the results obtained it was clear that the coal is very well leached by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and this technology can be used for coal desulphurization. A leaching time of one month is required, to remove 72% of total sulphur and 60% of pyritic sulphur. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Peter Fecko; Pavla Ovcari; Silvie Riedlova; Barbara Tora [VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Krakow (Poland)

2003-07-01

174

FUGITIVE DUST FROM WESTERN SURFACE COAL MINES  

Science.gov (United States)

Field measurement of fugitive dust levels were made 250 to 500 meters downwind of mining activities and areas at four surface coal mines in the Northern Great Plains during three different climatic conditions. Ambient dust levels were also monitored. Wide ranges of temperature, w...

175

30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 ...MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles...disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2010-07-01

176

30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 ...MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles...disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be...

2010-07-01

177

78 FR 79010 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams  

Science.gov (United States)

...MSHA-2013-0037] Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety...Administration (MSHA) has updated the coal mine rescue team certification criteria...operator to certify the qualifications of a coal mine rescue team is that team members...

2013-12-27

178

30 CFR 49.20 - Requirements for all coal mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Requirements for all coal mines. 49.20 Section 49.20 Mineral...RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for Underground Coal Mines § 49.20 Requirements for all coal mines. (a) The operator of each...

2010-07-01

179

Characterization of coal samples from Dasal-i coal mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Summary: Characterization of coal from Dasal coal mine Khyber pukatunkwa, Pakistan. Coal samples were collected from 50, 100, 150, 175, 200 and 250 feet. Coal samples were crushed, grounded and screened through 250 macro m sieves shaker. Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal showed that these coals were of low grade from sub-bituminous to bituminous. Sulphur content from Dasal coal mine was less as compared with other mines in Pakistan. Leaching of coal led to significant amount of mineral matter with hydrochloric acid (HCl), ammonium acetate (CH/sub 3/ COONH/sub 4/ ), nitric acid (HNO/sub 3/), hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Among the leachants HCl was most effective for copper, iron, chromium and cobalt. In case of CH/sub 3/ COONH/sub 4/ no significant leaching was made. HNO/sub 3/ and NaOH also resulted average leaching while, HF was found to be a good leachant for lead, nickel and zinc. Most of inorganic elements were effectively leached by digestion as compared to other leachants. (author)

180

Prevention of explosion in coal mine and management of coal mine gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are many problems in terms of safe coal production and the sound development of the coal industry. Accompanying the intensification and increasing efficiency of coal production and the conducting of mining operations at deeper and more remote areas of mines, the efficient recovery and utilization of Coal Mine Methane (CMM) is an important issue in improving and stabilizing the productivity in the coal mining industry with high levels of gas, where the incidence of gas outbursts is increasing. We plan to study various aspects of the development of production technology and characteristics of the mine site. This is to establish the technology for highly efficient coproduction coal and gas operation rate. As a result, the productivity at the coal mine face will increase due to the reduction in gas emissions in the mining face. Effective use of recovered gas can be expected to reduce global warming by reducing the amount of coal mine methane gas emission in the air. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Hirofumi Furukawa; Bingrui Li; Shinji Tomita [Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL), Tokyo (Japan)

2009-06-15

 
 
 
 
181

Asbestos litigation should concern coal mine operators  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In asbestos litigation, the products are asbestos-containing products (ACPs). Since coal mines do not generally manufacture ACPs, this theory is ignored. However, all business, including mines, need to be aware of the second theory, premises liability. In asbestos litigation, premises liability addresses party's exposure to asbestos that may have occurred while that party was on someone else's premises. Coal operators should think about the historical presence of ACPs at a mine, first consider pipe insulation then protective clothing made from asbestos.

Gullborg, P.

2002-11-01

182

The open-pit truck dispatching method based on the completion of production target and the truck flow saturation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To address current problems in the 'modular dispatch' dynamic programming system widely used in open-pit truck real-time dispatching, two concepts for meeting production targets and truck flow saturation were proposed. Using truck flow programming and taking into account stochastic factors and transportation distance, truck real-time dispatching was optimised. The method is applicable to both shovel-truck match and mismatching and also to empty and heavy truck dispatching. In an open-pit mine the production efficiency could be increased by between 8% and 18%. 6 refs.

Xing, J.; Sun, X. [Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

2007-05-15

183

Disaster prediction of coal mine gas based on data mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technique of data mining was applied to predict gas disasters in view of the characteristics of coal mine gas disasters and feature knowledge based on gas disasters. The rough set theory was used to establish a data mining model of gas disaster prediction, and rough set attributes relations were discussed in a prediction model of gas disaster to supplement the shortages of the rough intensive reduction method by using information entropy criteria. The effectiveness and practicality of data mining technology in the prediction of gas disaster is confirmed through practical application. 7 refs., 11 tabs.

Shao, Liang-shan; Fu, Gui-xiang [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China)

2008-09-15

184

Health care challenge in coal mines community.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper depicts salient features of environment and living conditions with the comparison of various diseases prevalent among underground coal miners, surface workers, asbestos mine workers and general population of Jharia-Dhanbad coalfield as conducted by CMRS during the past few years. The investigations on coal miners' community comprise of different morbid conditions with respiratory (22%), Pneumoconiosis (11.6%), Skin (35%), Eye (29%), Intestinal parasitic infestation (44.6%), Anaemia (42%), Immunostatus (V.D.R.L. Positive-19.9%), Status of injuries and Blood pressure, Water-borne diseases, housing facilities and excreta disposal. The paper also includes the analysis of disease pattern obtained from hospital records of two coal mines which depicts 19.1%, 24.7% and 16% members of coal miners' families suffering from disorder with respiratory, gastro-intestinal and fever respectively. With speedy industrialization of the country, the mining of coal resource comes first in the chain of socio-economic development. The speedy human industrial activities are based on 80% steam, metallurgical and thermal electrical energy which hinges on coal wings. The coal has also gradually occupied all the phases of social life, our clothes, books, newspapers, cooking gas, chemical paints, dye stuff, oil phenyl, Benzene, Naphthalene, Coal tar, scents and various types of unaccountable products come out from coal derivatives and pushed to serve in the today's market for our daily exigencies. Every day one finds a new coal based industry is coming up in the area. The coal is utilized in two hundred ways in our various walks of social life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10130926

Golay, M S

1992-01-01

185

Surface mining: soil, coal, and society. [USA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two editorials drew attention to a number of the broad public policy issues that relate agriculture and energy. Important questions were raised concerning the massive expenditures for imported oil and the attempt to balance these foreign payments through the export of agricultural products; the high levels of soil erosion associated with current agricultural production; and the possibility that available agricultural land would be impaired by strip mining for coal. At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the National Academy of Sciences organized a task force, to explore these issues. The task force identified topics relevant to the uses and social values of land and soil in relation to surface mining for coal, ranging from basic soil geology and mining to optimization of resource management. The Bureau of Mines then commissioned this more detailed study of soil as a resource in relation to surface mining for coal. The committee divided into three working panels to explore the topics of: Soil Genesis, Mining and Reclamation, and Values and Choice. The panels augmented their membership where necessary in order to deal adequately with the problems before them. Using the documents and information gathered by the panels the committee developed this report.

1981-06-01

186

Coal mining and water quality: Criciuma's case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coal mining in the Santa Catarina Coal-Basin started in 1885 and since them it has been causing serious damage to the environment, specially the water resources, causing several problems like sedimentation and acidification of the rivers that supply the region, and compromising the agricultural-industry and fishery. The mining is also responsible for several professional diseases. The region was considered, in 1980, the '14th Critical Area' to the Pollution Control and Environmental Quality Conservation. Only in the beginning of the 80's, after the publication of the 917 Interministerial Resolution (July, 1982), the first official actions were taken, in order to minimize the environmental impact due to the coal mining industry. With that scenario, the region was chosen as one of the study areas of the 'National Center of Control of Mining Pollution', derived from an agreement between the Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral - DNPM and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The present study is part of the set of studies that have been realized in the region, with the aim of evaluating the environmental impact caused by the coal mining industry, and to suggest actions (to the miners) in order to minimize the environmental problems. This study presents a review of the occupation process of the Criciuma region, its connection to the coal industry, the progress of the mineral and environmental legislation, and the periodic monitoring of environmental parameters (physic-chemical analysis of the Mae Luzia and Sangao rivers, and the drainage from two coal mines) during the period of three years. This period began before the setting of environmental restrictions, going up to after the adoption of reclamation actions. The results allow to conclude that, during the period studied, there was no improvement in the river water characteristics, despite the adoption of reclamation actions. This behaviour may be due to the following factors: there are several abandoned mines (mainly after 1990, year of the implantation of the free trade for the coal sector), that did not finish their reclamation works. These sites are still producing acid drainage; n the sub-basins of the rivers Mae Luzia and Sangao there are several dumping tailings, probably connected to abandoned mines. These tailings are permanent fonts of sulfuric acid; even the mines in operation, in accordance with the official regulations, drain to the rivers, eventually, acid mine drainage, with no previous treatment. (author)

187

Geotechnical Risks in Underground Coal Mines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, a quantitative approach and decision tree were employed in order to assess and manage roof fall risks as only major problem bring about geotechnical issues in Iranian coal mines. For the objectives, risk was assessed due to the determination of likelihoods and cost of consequences (outcomes by the analysis of assembled roof fall data from 5 different coal regions comprising several underground coal mines in Iran. In addition, the cost of consequences is considered by a relative cost. Then, it was concluded that the annual average accidents in the all investigated mines are high and it is economically admissible to serve the proposed solutions for reducing the accidents.

K. Shahriar

2009-01-01

188

Exposure of workers in Tusnica coal mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to identify potential exposure of the workers in the coal mine Tusnica. The results of the investigation showed increased activity of brown coal up to 1060±88 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 976±30 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra and 118±31 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. Dose rate measurements ranged from 0.07 to 0.25 ?Sv h-1. The annual effective dose, taking into account external exposure to ambient gamma radiation and internal exposure due to inhalation of the resuspended dust, would be 1.6 mSv a-1. The results presented lead to the conclusion that Tusnica coal mine contains brown coal with significant radioactivity, indicating that the working hours in the area should be regulated and the use of respiratory protective equipment is obligatory. (authors)

189

Analysis of coal mining mechanization results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the remaining 11 coal mines after the rationalization of the industry, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. The statistics of coal industry are as follows. - The production of 1996 was dropped to 4,952 thousand tonne from 5,719 thousand tonne of 1995. - The overall O.M.S was increased to 1.81 ton per man{center_dot}shift from 1.68 ton of 1995. (author). 10 tabs., 12 figs.

Kim, Young-Shik; Lee, Kyung-Woon; Kim, Oak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1997-12-01

190

Application of nuclear technics in Polish coal mining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiometric gages, radiometers, densimeters, level indicators, thickness gages and other measuring instruments used in the Polish coal mining are described. The examples of possible applications in the automation of coal mines are given. The technical and economical advantages of using them in coal mining are presented. (Z.M.)

191

Need for Clean Coal Mining in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.4870

Sribas Goswami

2014-01-01

192

Need for Clean Coal Mining in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.

Sribas Goswami

2014-04-01

193

Research Status on Control System of Coal Mine Rescue Robot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The coal mine rescue robot is the device which replaces the rescue workers to detect the environment and rescue victims in mine. And the control system is the core of the coal mine rescue robot and decides the performance of the robot. To design the control system which meets the requirement of coal mine rescue, it is firstly analyzed that requirements of the coal mine rescue robot in this study. Then, it is recommended that the control systems of coal mine robots which have been developed in China and its advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. In the end, we suggest an open control system based on ether net which meets the requirements of the coal mine rescue robot. The outdoor test shows that this control system effective and reliability for coal mine rescue robot.

Liu Jian

2013-01-01

194

Analysis on Backfill Mining of “Under Three” Coal in Zhouyuanshan Mine and Strata Movement Law  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to solve the problem of "under three" (under railways, buildings and water bodies) coal pillar mining, analysis on backfill mining and strata movement law is carried on in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine. First of all, according to the engineering geology and strata occurrence condition in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, FLAC2D software be used to establish a two-dimensional numerical model and to analyze and calculate the full caving method, strip method a...

Weijian Yu; Bo (Bob) Xu; Tao Feng 3; Xinyuan Chen

2013-01-01

195

Geotechnical applications of geophysics in coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In coal mining, geophysical techniques have an established application in determining the location of seam boundaries ahead of the face so that underground mines can be planned to avoid any geological structures that might disrupt production. Geophysics can also be used in geotechnical studies to determine the in situ properties of the rock mass and the response of the rock mass to the mining. The use of geophysical logs and microseismic monitoring in these geotechnical applications are discussed in this paper. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Hatherly, P. [CMTE/CSIRO Exploration and Mining, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

2002-07-01

196

Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, Coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.)

197

30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 785.11 Section...INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION...Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This...

2010-07-01

198

30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization...MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine waste fires shall be...

2010-07-01

199

30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization...MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine waste fires shall be...

2010-07-01

200

Coal Mining Technology, An Innovative Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Described in detail in this report are the processes and procedures involved in the development of a State funded curriculum and program for a new emerging technology, in this instance a Coal Mining Technology Program, to be taught at Wabash Valley College in Illinois. The document provides a step-by-step account of the determination of need,…

Wabash Valley Coll., Mt. Carmel, IL.

 
 
 
 
201

Blast! Cape Breton coal mine disasters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book contains 18 chapters. Each chapter describes a major disaster (where three or more deaths occurred) in Cape Breton's coal mining history. The Lingan boiler explosion in 1877, the 1878 Sydney Mines explosion, 1892 Victoria Mines boiler explosions, No. 5 reserve gas explosion of 1903, runaway coal box at Scotia No. 4 in 1907, the 1908 Port Hood mine explosion, Florence No. 3 gas explosion in 1911, explosion at the New Waterford No. 12 Colliery in 1917, and a fall of stone at Inverness No.1 in 1924 are described. Other accidents were a runaway trip in 1937 and a runaway rake exactly a year later at the Sydney Mines Princess Colliery. A coal tank accident occurred at New Aberdeen No. 2 Colliery in 1943. Six disasters at Glace Bay are described: Caledonia fire and explosions in 1899, a boiler explosion at Numbers 2 and 9 surface plant in 1907, a speeding man rake in 1B Colliery in 1944, bump at No. 2 Colliery in 1946, and the explosions at No. 20 Colliery in 1952 and at No. 26 Colliery in 1979. A note containing a tribute to Cape Breton draegermen is included. 1 map.

MacKenzie, R.

2007-07-01

202

Noise exposures in US coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) inspectors conduct full-shift environmental noise surveys to determine the occupational noise levels to which coal miners are exposed. These noise surveys are performed to determine compliance with the noise standard promulgated under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Data from over 60,000 full-shift noise surveys conducted from fiscal year 1986 through 1992 were entered into a computer data base to facilitate analysis. This paper presents the mean and standard deviation of over 60,000 full-shift noise dose measurements for various underground and surface coal mining occupations. Additionally, it compares and contrasts the levels with historical noise exposure measurements for selected coal mining occupations that were published in the 1970`s. The findings were that the percentage of miners surveyed that were subjected to noise exposures above 100%, neglecting personal hearing protectors, were 26.5% and 21.6% for surface and underground mining, respectively. Generally, the trend is that the noise exposures for selected occupations have decreased since the 1970`s.

Seiler, J.P.; Valoski, M.P.; Crivaro, M.A.

1994-05-01

203

Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uezuelmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m-3. It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration. (authors)

204

Game Analysis between Government and Coal Mine Enterprise in Coal Resource Exploitation Environmental Impact Compensation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the angle of compensation subject and compensation object, the interest involved with stakeholder was analyzed. Based on game theory, the relation between government and coal mine enterprise was analyzed. Through the research, the government should constraint the coal mine enterprise behavior, set up coal resources development environmental impact compensation incentive mechanism, increase coal resources exploitation and environmental compensation violations punishment, and incentive the coal mining enterprises.

MENG Zhao-jian

2013-08-01

205

Coal mining in Bangladesh: Options to mitigate environmental impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines methods of mitigating the environmental impacts of coal mining in Bangladesh. Coal is expected to aid in providing energy security for the country in the short-term. The coal mining industry is currently in its infancy, and no policy exists. This study examines the government policies of three diverse countries and discovers that there are several instruments commonly used to reduce the environmental impacts of coal mining. These instruments include regulations that set st...

Angen, Meara Rose

2008-01-01

206

Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

207

Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

208

Game Analysis between Government and Coal Mine Enterprise in Coal Resource Exploitation Environmental Impact Compensation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From the angle of compensation subject and compensation object, the interest involved with stakeholder was analyzed. Based on game theory, the relation between government and coal mine enterprise was analyzed. Through the research, the government should constraint the coal mine enterprise behavior, set up coal resources development environmental impact compensation incentive mechanism, increase coal resources exploitation and environmental compensation violations punishment, and incentive the...

Meng, Zhao-jian

2013-01-01

209

30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Burning and burned waste utilization. 817...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned... (a) Coal mine waste fires shall be extinguished...conducts the surface mining...

2010-07-01

210

30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Burning and burned waste utilization. 816...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned... (a) Coal mine waste fires shall be extinguished...conducts the surface mining...

2010-07-01

211

Emergence and growth of plant species in coal mine soil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse in Arizona with the following objectives: to evaluate the chemical properties of undisturbed soil, surface-mined coal land (coal mine soil) on the Black Mesa Coal Mine, and Gila loam soil; and to study the emergence of seven plant species in the greenhouse in Gila loam soil and coal mine soil. The pH of coal mine soil (6.2) was lower than the pH of undisturbed soil (7.5) or Gila loam (7.6). The total soluble salts in coal mine soil (3241) and undisturbed soil (4592) were much higher than in Gila loam (378); however, coal mine soil was lower in total soluble salts than undisturbed soil. The nitrogen content of coal mine soil was higher than the nitrogen content of undisturbed soil or gila loam. Emergence percentages for seven plant species grown in coal mine soil were similar to emergence percentages for the same species grown in Gila loam. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell.) had from 84 to 93% emergence in coal mine soil. Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides Roem. and Shult), fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens Pursh), yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis Lam.), and winterfat (Euroti lanata Pursh.) emerged <35% in coal mine soil and Gila loam. Plant growth data from forage species grown in the greenhouse indicate that coal mine soil has a lower fertility level than does Gila loam soil. When supplied with optimum soil moisture and plant nutrients, coal mine soil produced approximately the same yields of forage from alfalfa, barley, and wheat as were produced in Gila loam under the same soil-moisture and fertility conditions.

Day, A.D.; Mitchell, G.F.; Tucker, T.C.; Thames, J.L.

1979-01-01

212

ESTIMATE OF GLOBAL METHANE EMISSIONS FROM COAL MINES  

Science.gov (United States)

Country-specific emissions of methane (CH4) from underground coal mines, surface coal mines, and coal crushing and transport operations are estimated for 1989. Emissions for individual countries are estimated by using two sets of regression equations (R2 values range from 0.56 to...

213

Labour productivity in coal mining sector in India: with special to major coal mining states  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal is one of the Primary sources of Energy accounting for about 67% of total energy consumption in India. The production of Coal has increased from 35 million tons in 1951 to 409.3 million tons in 2004. At the same time, the Average Daily Employment (ADE) has increased from 352 thousand in 1951 to 405 thousand in 2004. However, the journey of Coal sector was not uniform throughout the five decades. It is shown in recent time that the productivity of labour in coal mines in Tamil Nadu and Or...

Santra, Swarup; Bagaria, Nidhi

2014-01-01

214

Seismic surveying for coal mine planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More and more coal in Australia is extracted by underground mining methods especially by longwall mining. These methods can be particularly sensitive to relatively small-scale structural discontinuities and variations in roof and floor rock character. Traditionally, information on these features has been obtained through drilling. However, this is an expensive process and its relevance is limited to the immediate neighbourhood of the boreholes. Seismic surveying, especially by 3D seismic, is an alternative tool for geological structure delineation. It is one of the most effective geophysical methods available for identification of geological structures such as faults, folds, washouts, seam splits and thickness changes which are normally associated with potential mining hazards. Seismic data even can be used for stratigraphic identification. The information extracted from seismic data can be integrated into mine planning and design. In this paper, computer aided interpretation techniques for maximising the information from seismic data are demonstrated and the ability of seismic reflection methods to resolve localised geological features illustrated. Both synthetic and real seismic data obtained in recent 2D and 3D seismic surveys from Australian coal mines are used. 7 refs., 9 figs.

Zhou, B. [CMTE/CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

2002-07-01

215

Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazil has 10% of global Mn reserves with its most important mine located in the Amazon region. The Azul deposit is related to sandstones and siltstones of the Águas Claras Formation (Archean), situated in the central portion of the Carajás Strike-Slip System. Vale S.A. mining company operates the Azul mining complex with three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 and 3) conducted on rock materials of low geomechanical qualities. Mining operations are openpit, with 4-8 m-high benches and depth of 80 m. A stack of 19 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images was used for the investigation covering the period of March 20-October 4, 2012. In order to minimize the topography phase error in the interferometric process, a high resolution DEM was generated based on a panchromatic GeoEye-1 stereo pair. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) analysis was carried out using the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis) software and led to the detection of 40,193 point-wise persistent scatterers (PS), with an average density of 5,387 PS/km2. It was concluded that most of the mining area can be considered stable during the TSX coverage. High deformation rates related to settlements were mapped over a waste pile, while small deformation rates were detected along the north and south flanks of mine 1and were interpreted as cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. Despite only ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time period during the TSX coverage, and covering a sector of bench walls along the south flank of mine 1, the PSs movement patterns showed concordance with the field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that PSI technique can play in planning and risk assessment in this mining area. Monitoring of this type of deformation by PSI can usefully complement other commonly used field geotechnical measurements due to the synoptic SAR coverage over a dense grid, providing ground deformation data independently of field access and with millimeter accuracy.

Pinto, Carolina d. A.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Mura, José C.; Gama, Fabio F.; dos Santos, Athos R.; Silva, Guilherme G.

2014-10-01

216

Monitoring of radon daughters in coal-mine atmospheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In some coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin a significant concentration of radon daughters is observed. Monitoring of radon daughters in coal-mine atmospheres involves special problems related to high coal-dust concentration and methane hazards. To solve these problems an 'Integrating Radon Daughters Monitor' (IRDM) for coal-mine atmospheres has been developed. The instrument consists of a typical dust sampler, BARBARA IIIa, used in Polish coal mines, and a supplementary unit with thermoluminescent detectors. Laboratory tests in the calibration chamber showed that the IRDM response to the cumulative activity of radon daughters is independent of the dust concentration within the range 5 to 80 mg/m3 (respirable fraction). A detection limit of about 0.002 WL can be achieved with a sampling time of 8 h. Some preliminary results obtained in Polish coal mines are included. (author)

217

Introduction to the coal mining industry in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some basic data on the coal mining industry in China, such as energy production and construction, coal consumption, production by classification, coal reserves, coal produced by seams angle, by thickness, by mechanization, by methods, etc., are introduced in this paper. 3 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

218

Biodesulfurization of Subbituminous Coal by Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Coal Mine Soil of South Sumatera  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal as fuel should be necessarily pre-treated by desulfurization in order to prevent excessive emissions of sulfur dioxide, a precursor of acid rain. Organic sulfur in coal can be eliminated by microbial action through the technology known as biodesulfurization. Source of microorganisms in the present study was coal mine soil in which microorganisms have been adapted to use the sulfur in coal. Coal mine in South Sumatra was choosen as source of microorganisms in this study, because it is an ...

Megga Ratnasari Pikoli; Sugilubin; Dea Indriani Astuti; Akhmaloka; Pingkan Aditiawati

2013-01-01

219

Selecting rational modes of operation of coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modes of operation of coal mines and their productive sectors are examined. A solution is cited to the problem of selecting the rational operational conditions of a mine with consideration of different factors.

Srebnyy, M.A.; Ivanov, V.I.; Kharchemko, V.I.; Ospanov, Kh.A.

1984-01-01

220

Establishment of Japan-China coal mine safety network  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cooperative project has been set up with JCOAL and Kyushu University in which Chinese research staff receive training in coal mine technology and Japanese researchers conduct studies in China. Topics will include safety mining and environmental protection. 1 tab.

Inoue, M. [Kyushu University (Japan)

2006-09-15

 
 
 
 
221

Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C1) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C1 to C5), while only C1 and C2 were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C1 to C4 were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C1 (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C2-C3, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presencetions from confined coals and the presence of C2 was detected in all samples while C3-C5 were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

222

30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 942.761...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761...Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

223

30 CFR 947.800 - Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

2010-07-01

224

30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to...

2010-07-01

225

30 CFR 921.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

2010-07-01

226

30 CFR 939.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

2010-07-01

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30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

2010-07-01

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30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to...

2010-07-01

229

30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. (a) Part 764...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to...

2010-07-01

230

30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 922.761...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761...Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

231

30 CFR 937.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

2010-07-01

232

30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section...AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land...designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The...

2010-07-01

233

30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 939.761...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761...Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

234

30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, pertaining...

2010-07-01

235

30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, pertaining...

2010-07-01

236

30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. (a) Part 764...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, pertaining...

2010-07-01

237

43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations. 20.402 Section...Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations. (a) Definitions...interest in underground or surface coal mining operations means...

2010-10-01

238

30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to...

2010-07-01

239

30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 912.761...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761...Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

240

30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

30 CFR 910.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

2010-07-01

242

30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 942.762 Section...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. (a) Part 762...Areas as Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to...

2010-07-01

243

30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to...

2010-07-01

244

30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to...

2010-07-01

245

30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 905.761...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761...Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining...

2010-07-01

246

76 FR 32951 - Coal Mining Equipment, Technologies and Services Trade Mission to China and Mongolia  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration Coal Mining Equipment, Technologies and Services...through 2030. About 90% of the coal mining equipment used in China is produced...competitive advantage in supplying heavy coal mining machines and systems. For...

2011-06-07

247

30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to...

2010-07-01

248

30 CFR 941.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

2010-07-01

249

30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 947.761...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761...Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

250

30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations,...

2010-07-01

251

30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to...

2010-07-01

252

30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 933.761...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761...Areas Designated Unsuitable for Coal Mining by Act of Congress, with...

2010-07-01

253

30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 910.761...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761...Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

254

30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to...

2010-07-01

255

30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. 941.761...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress. Part 761...Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

256

30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...Designatng Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, pertaining...

2010-07-01

257

30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section...AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration...designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation...

2010-07-01

258

30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, pertaining to...

2010-07-01

259

30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

2010-07-01

260

30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 921.761...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761...Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. 937.761...designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress. Part 761...Congress, shall apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

262

30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, pertaining...

2010-07-01

263

30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to...

2010-07-01

264

30 CFR 922.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. ...Requirements for Bonding of Surface Coal Mining and Reclamation Operations...

2010-07-01

265

30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, shall apply to...

2010-07-01

266

30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, pertaining...

2010-07-01

267

30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, pertaining...

2010-07-01

268

30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section...areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, applies to...

2010-07-01

269

30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations, pertaining...

2010-07-01

270

30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire...

2010-07-01

271

30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment...

2010-07-01

272

30 CFR 761.11 - Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited...11 Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited. You may not conduct surface coal mining operations on the following lands...

2010-07-01

273

30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 762.15 Section 762...UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.15 Exploration...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Designation of any...

2010-07-01

274

30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 785.12 Section...INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION...include, as part of the mining operations and reclamation...

2010-07-01

275

30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 762.13 Section 762...UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.13 Land exempt...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. The requirements of this...

2010-07-01

276

Coal mining and the environment. Bergbau und Umwelt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The papers facilitate access to the relation between black coal mining and different environmental aspects. The examples used to describe the problem and adequate solutions represent the situation of the Saar region and the North-Rhine Westphalian coal district. Among others, they point out the environmental effects of coal mines and deal with the environmental impact statement, the effects of landscaping on ecological functions and the securing of the resources left behind in shut-down coal districts.

1986-01-01

277

What differences does age make? Coal mining injuries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Bureau of Labor Statistics says that in 2002 the coal mine workforce in the USA had a higher medium age than the workforce in any other sector of mining. Many older miners are part of the generation group known as Baby Boomers. The article gives figures for injuries received in underground coal mining, surface coal mining and coal preparation plant workers, analysed by age groups (Nexters, {lt}22; Generation Xers, 22-41; Baby Boomers, 42-59; Veterans, 60 and above), and also by job title. In all generation groups, more injuries were recorded in miners with less than two years experience. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 6 charts.

Mallett, L.; Schwerha, D.J. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Research Laboratory

2007-02-15

278

Subsidence and reclamation in coal mine areas of China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal mining has caused widespread ground surface subsidence and deterioration of soil structure in China. Approximately 8,500,000 hectares of land have been affected by subsidence. Two major causes of subsidence are the mining technique used and the pumping of ground water to facilitate coal extraction. About 60% of all coal mines in China have been included in a reclamation study. This study includes filling underground mines with gangue, coal ash, and garbage and use of subsided areas as fish ponds and wastewater treatment ponds

279

Solutions, tasks and problems of automating brown coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Points out achievements of automating equipment in brown coal surface mines in the GDR. Mining by bucket wheel excavators has been automated by the BPS 720 and BPS 5000 program control, operation of belt conveyor haulage has been automated in the Berzdorf mine since 1977 using the process control system 4000. Furthermore, automation of boom spreaders and overburden conveyor bridges in regard to their movement and spoil bank build-up has been partially reached. Computerized mine monitoring systems are installed for dispatching coal delivery trains, controlling mine drainage systems, calculating coal production, and planning equipment maintenance and other auxiliary tasks. 103 refs.

Reinhardt, H.; Metzing, P.; Lorenz, E.

1988-01-01

280

Simulator for bucket wheel excavators in brown coal open mining of RWE Power AG; Simulator fuer Schaufelradbagger in Braunkohlentagebauen der RWE Power AG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the three large open pits Hambach, Garzweiler and Inden RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) uses bucket wheel excavators, conveyor systems and spreaders that provide a continuous mass flow of the production side to the damping site of the opencast mine or the coal bunker respectively. On the world market there hardly exist paragons of solutions for the construction and commissioning of technical innovations of this conveyor technology. Consequently, the eligible technical and technological solutions have to be newly created. Therefore RWE Power AG developed an innovative simulator for bucket wheel excavators. The implementation takes place in a phased approach in which each stage has its own benefits for the company.

Mittmann, Robert; Niess, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Frechen-Habbelrath (Germany). Technikzentrum Tagebaue / Abt. PCZ-E Betriebsfuehrungssysteme; Rosenberg, Heinrich [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Tagebauplanung und -genehmigung

2011-05-15

 
 
 
 
281

Coal bed methane (CBM) and coal mine methane (CMM) importance in the world; Importance du CBM (Coal Bed Methane) et CMM (Coal Mine Methane) dans le monde  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The opportunity offered by the recovery of coal bed and coal mine methane (CBM and CMM) after the closing down of mines is one of the topic presented at the 2004 congress of the mineral industry society (SIM, Lille (France)). This article briefly presents the mechanisms of methane generation from coal beds and the estimation of the world production and reserves of CBM and CMM. (J.S.)

Bossie-Codreanu, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

2004-09-01

282

4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions.

Du, Wen-Feng; Peng, Su-Ping

2014-06-01

283

Investigation of the long-term behaviour of residues of brown coal upgrading processes in an underground deposit in the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining. Text volume. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Residues of brown coal upgrading processes are problematic substances that require extensive monitoring. In East Germany, these residues were usually stored above ground in abandoned open pits and industrial waste dumps. In the Land of Thuringia, the most urgent poblems are posed by the ''Neue Sorge'' abandoned open pit near Rositz and the Rusendorf industrial waste dump. In both cases, large volumes of highly polluted waste materials must be disposed of. The method of choice recommended for disposal is the combustion in a hazardous-waste incinerator in accordance with the specifications of the Waste Management Technical Guide (TA Abfall). Preliminary studies are currently being made for the construction of a waste incinerating plant in this region. An alternative option for disposal would be underground storage in an abandoned salt mine. Thuringia has a number of abandoned potassium mines that appear to be well suited for this purpose. On the other hand, there have been no systematic investigations so far on the long-term behaviour of hazardous waste under the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining, so that further studies will be necessary. (orig.)

284

Coal quality controlled by Wirtgen surface miners at Gracanica - Gacko pit mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gacko coal pit mine, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, has complex mining system, the combination of continuous and discontinuous mining systems operating on two mining fields. Mine deploys two Wirtgen surface miners for coal extraction cutting maximum 0.5 m coal slice. Surface miners' performances enable coal quality control essential for the strategic consumer thermal power station in Gacko. This paper shows elements of mining operations and selective mining, achieving required coal quality. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Knezicek, T.; Petroviae, M. [University of Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina)

2008-03-15

285

Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

1977-01-01

286

30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS...UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS...coal mining and reclamation operations. ...operations and reclamation plan, the detailed...Wyoming regulatory program,...

2010-07-01

287

Dermatoses of Belchatow brown coal mine employees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluates the results of examinations carried out in the Belchatow brown coal surface mine on skin diseases. Influence of working conditions specific for brown coal mines on the development of some dermatoses is analyzed. From 1978 to 1979 443 miners were examined. Two groups of miners were examined separately: 1. 235 miners who contacted the firm physician due to skin problems and 2. 208 miners who underwent a periodic examination. In group 1 skin dermatoses were found in 86% of all cases, and in group 2 in 48%. Foot skin inflammation, particularly interdigital intertrigo, was the most common dermatosis. Oil acne (occupational disease of coal miners) was diagnosed in 15 cases, common acne in 23 cases, pytiriasis versicolor in 19 cases, erythrasma in 10, eczema and other contact dermatitis in 10 cases. Investigations show that 23% of the foot interdigital intertrigo is caused by mycotic infections. Dermatoses of the skin of miners' feet are caused mainly by rubber protective boots. (10 refs.) (In Polish)

Ruszczak, Z.; Bienias, L.; Proszczynska-Kuczynska, W.

1981-09-01

288

Effects of coal mine subsidence in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of the surface effects of past underground coal mining in the Sheridan, Wyoming, area suggest that underground mining of strippable coal deposits may damage the environment more over long periods of time than would modern surface mining, provided proper restoration procedures are followed after surface mining. Subsidence depressions and pits are a continuing hazard to the environment and to man's activities in the Sheridan, Wyo., area above abandoned underground mines in weak overburden less than about 60 m thick and where the overburden is less than about 10-15 times the thickness of coal mined. In addition, fires commonly start by spontaneous ignition when water and air enter the abandoned mine workings via subsidence cracks and pits. The fires can then spread to unmined coal as they create more cavities, more subsidence, and more cracks and pits through which air can circulate. In modern surface mining operations the total land surface underlain by minable coal is removed to expose the coal. The coal is removed, the overburden and topsoil are replaced, and the land is regraded and revegetated. The land, although disturbed, can be more easily restored and put back into use than can land underlain by abandoned underground mine workings in areas where the overburden is less than about 60 m thick or less than about 10-15 times the thickness of coal mined. The resource recovery of modern surface mining commonly is much greater than that of underground mining procedures. Although present-day underground mining technology is advanced as compared to that of 25-80 years ago, subsidence resulting from underground mining of thick coal beds beneath overburden less than about 60 m thick can still cause greater damage to surface drainage, ground water, and vegetation than can properly designed surface mining operations. This report discusses (11 the geology and surface and underground effects of former large-scale underground coal mining in a 50-km 2 area 5-20 km north of Sheridan, Wyo., (2) a ground and aerial reconnaissance study of a 5-km^2 coal mining area 8-10 km west of Sheridan, and (31 some environmental consequences and problems caused by coal mining.

Dunrud, C. Richard; Osterwald, Frank W.

1980-01-01

289

ANÁLISIS Y DISEÑO DE LA OPERACIÓN DE PERFORACIÓN Y VOLADURAS EN MINERÍA DE SUPERFICIE EMPLEANDO EL ENFOQUE DE LA PROGRAMACIÓN ESTRUCTURADA / ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DRILLING AND BLASTING OPERATION ON OPEN PIT MINING USING FOCUS ON STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presenta el análisis y el diseño de la operación de perforación y voladuras en minería de superficie empleando el enfoque de la programación estructurada. El propósito de este trabajo es crear una interfaz, por medio de la cual se ingresan la densidad del explosivo, diámetro e in [...] clinación de la perforación, resistencia a la compresión de la roca y dimensiones del banco. Luego se obtiene el valor de las variables más importantes que acondicionan el diseño de la operación de perforación y voladuras, tales como: altura del banco, burden, espaciamiento, taco, carga del barreno, numero de barrenos, factor de carga, entre otras. Esta aproximación permite diseñar la operación de perforación y voladuras en menor tiempo y disminuir el error humano que se tiene por el uso repetitivo de las fórmulas para cálculos de los parámetros involucrados en el diseño de la perforación y voladura en minería de superficie. Abstract in english This article show analysis and design drilling and blasting operation on surface mining it focus on structured programming. The idea about this article a program where you can introduce different variables like, explosive density, diameter, inclination drilling, compressive strength rock and rock ma [...] ss design, after that, we get most important variables for this design like rock mass height, burden, spacing, hole charging , hole number, load factor. This article has allowed design drilling and blasting operation a lower time and get down mistake of the people that get it for repetitive use of calculation for parameter used in this design in drilling and blasting operation on surface mining.

JUAN CARLOS, DÍAZ-MARTÍNEZ; MELISSA ANDREA, GUARÍN-ARAGÓN; JOVANI ALBERTO, JIMÉNEZ-BUILES.

2012-12-01

290

R&D and Technological Change in Coal Mining.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report examines the issue of research and development (R and D) as well as technological changes in coal mining, focusing primarily on deep coal mining from 1970 to the present. First, a conceptual framework for classification of R and D as well as technological change is developed. A review of the literature that gives a mixed impression of…

Baker, Joe G.

291

Ecological risk assessment of open coal mine area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The coal mine areas in China have the serious conflicts between resources exploitation and ecology safety, therefore the coal mine ecological risk assessment is an important problem which relates to the sustainability of coal mines to regions and the whole country. In this study, open coal mine area serves as researching object, heavy metals, soil erosion and coast are screened out as risk resources, soil wireworm as the receiver of heavy metals risk, biotope ecosystem as the receiver of soil erosion and coast risk; ecological indexes are calculated with species background index, biological diversity index and natural degree index, ecological friability indexes are calculated with soil fertility index, plant coverage, plant species diversity index, soil wireworm index and maturity index, and the typical coal mine area assessment indexes system is established. In addition, the regional ecological risk assessment is conducted on the friable ecological system of Fuxin Haizhou open coal mine area. Examples are researched of Haizhou open coal mine, the coal mine risk distribution is established, and foundations are provided for the administrative decision-making. PMID:18301998

Xi-jun, Ma; Zhao-hua, Lu; Jian-long, Cheng

2008-12-01

292

30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil...vegetation or increase the moisture retention of the soil...conservation of soil moisture, or facilitation of...are needed to retain moisture, minimize erosion...the refuse pile, the coal mine waste shall...

2010-07-01

293

30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil...vegetation or increase the moisture retention of the soil...conservation of soil moisture, or facilitation of...are needed to retain moisture, minimize erosion...the refuse pile, the coal mine waste shall...

2010-07-01

294

COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

295

Control of water hazards in black coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Problems are discussed associated with water hazards in underground coal mines. The following groups of problems are evaluated: accidents caused by water inrush to coal mines in Poland from 1946 to 1984; effects of hydrogeologic conditions, surface waters, aquifers and tectonic dislocations in aquifer zones; classification of water hazards used in Poland; use of geophysical surveys for forecasting water hazards; methods for water influx control used in Poland such as draining, construction of water barriers, use of safety pillars (methods for determining optimum safety pillar size); safety regulations in coal mines with water hazards; mine rescue during accidents caused by inrush of water or quicksand. 14 references.

Rogoz, M.; Posylek, E.

1986-08-01

296

Comparing the hazards of coal and uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article from a paper presented to the Uranium Institute Symposium, London, 1986. The risk calculation is based on: a) the fuel required to generate 1 GWe year of power, b) the productivity of uranium and coal mining, and c) the risk to a miner from one year of mining, and the risk to the public that results from 1 GWe year's worth of mine and mill operation. The evaluation reveals that the ratio of coal mining risk to uranium risk on a GWey basis differs from country to country, but falls in the range 10 to 30, coal being the higher. (U.K.)

297

Problem and cooperation requests at Ombilin coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article profiles the Ombilin coal mine, located the centre of Sumatra island, Indonesia. The concession area is about 154,9932 km{sup 2} and is divided into nine coal fields. Ombilin coal has a Hardgrove index of 40-45, ash content 5%, sulphur content {+-}0.5% and a calorific value of 6900-7100 kcal/kg. Both open cast and underground mining are used at Ombilin. The article profiles historical aspects of Ombilin coal production and the underground longwall mining. Problems encountered include geologic problems in the underground mines, transportation problems in the underground mines, transportation problems and the repair and maintenance of heavy equipment in the opencast mines. Technical cooperation has been received from Japan. Further cooperation is required to improve production, technology and management. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Sunardi, A. (PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Assam Indonesia (Indonesia))

1992-05-01

298

The Three-Dimensional (3D) Numerical Stability Analysis of Hyttemalmen Open-Pit  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper was to perform the 3D numerical calculations allowing slope stability analysis of Hyttemalmen open pit (location Kirkenes, Finnmark Province, Norway). After a ramp rock slide, which took place in December 2010, as well as some other small-scale rock slope stability problems, it proved necessary to perform a serious stability analyses. The Hyttemalmen open pit was designed with a depth up to 100 m, a bench height of 24 m and a ramp width of 10 m. The rock formation in the iron mining district of Kirkenes is called the Bjornevaten Group. This is the most structurally complicated area connected with tectonic process such as folding, faults and metamorphosis. The Bjornevaten Group is a volcano-sedimentary sequence. Rock slope stability depends on the mechanical properties of the rock, hydro-geological conditions, slope topography, joint set systems and seismic activity. However, rock slope stability is mainly connected with joint sets. Joints, or general discontinuities, are regarded as weak planes within rock which have strength reducing consequences with regard to rock strength. Discontinuities within the rock mass lead to very low tensile strength. Several simulations were performed utilising the RocLab (2007) software to estimate the gneiss cohesion for slopes of different height. The RocLab code is dedicated to estimate rock mass strength using the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Utilising both the GSI index and the Hoek-Brown strength criterion the equivalent Mohr-Coulomb parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction) can be calculated. The results of 3D numerical calculations (with FLA3D code) show that it is necessary to redesign the slope-bench system in the Hyttemalmen open pit. Changing slope inclination for lower stages is recommended. The minimum factor of safety should be equal 1.3. At the final planned stage of excavation, the factor of safety drops to 1.06 with failure surface ranging through all of the slopes. In the case of a slope angle 70° for lower stages, FS = 1.26, which is not enough to provide slope stability. Another series of calculations were therefore performed taking water table lowering into consideration, which increases the global safety factor. It was finally evaluated, that for a water table level of 72 m the factor of safety equals 1.3, which is enough to assure global open-pit stability.

Ca?a, Marek; Kowalski, Micha?; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka

2014-10-01

299

Coal Mining, Economic Development, and the Natural Resource Curse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal mining has a long legacy of providing needed jobs in isolated communities but it is also associated with places that suffer from high poverty and weaker long-term economic growth. Yet, the industry has greatly changed in recent decades. Regulations, first on air, have altered the geography of coal mining, pushing it west from Appalachia. Likewise, technological change has reduced labor demand and has led to relatively new mining practices such as invasive mountain-top approaches. Thus, t...

Betz, Mike; Farren, Michael; Lobao, Linda; Partridge, Mark D.

2014-01-01

300

Coal mine methane management, Nord?Pas?de?Calais (France)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A coal mine, once closed, still "lives". Coal beds release methane, which is then trapped in the mine voids by water rising as a result of natural flooding. The consequence is a rise of pressure (a well?known phenomenon in every coalfield) which may be dangerous, because gas can migrate directly to the surface. Controlling mine gas risk is essential for safety reasons, due to methane's highly flammable nature. A control methodology was developed by the original operator and starting on this...

De?fossez, Pierrick; Lemal, Sandrine; Schumacher, Jean-paul

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Estimating worker exposure to the decay of radon for the proposed olympic dam open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BHP Billiton has recently completed an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed expansion of the Olympic Dam copper and uranium operation in South Australia. The expansion includes the construction of one of the world's largest open pit mines, with a diameter of some 6km and a depth of 1 km. The unprecedented size of the proposed pit presented challenges when making assessments of radiation doses to workers. Doses were assessed for each of the main exposure pathways, with assessment of potential doses from gamma radiation and airborne radioactive dust being relatively straightforward. However, potential doses from inhalation of the decay products of radon required a more detailed assessment. The overall approach was to model radon decay product (RnDP) exposures using such parameters as; estimated radon emanation rates, assumed equilibrium factors and pit ventilation rates. In addition to these factors, the Olympic Dam region is subject to seasonal and nocturnal temperature inversions and it was was expected that these effects would also be present within the pit. A conservative approach was used which considered exposure during 'normal' conditions and exposure during the inversion conditions. Experimental work was conducted in other large open pits to confirm the assumptions made. The presentation outlines the approach and modeling used to determine the RnDP doses and the additional testwork that was conducted to estimate the RnDP dose for miners working at the base of the pit.

302

Environmental impacts of coal mining and coal utilization in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal has remained the main source of energy in the UK from 1700 to the end of 1970s, and it still plays an important role in the power generation. The paper discusses the current coal consumption in the UK together with environmental impacts of coal mining, coal processing and coal utilisation for power generation. Since coal remains the single biggest contributor to greenhouse gases worldwide, methods for minimising environmental impacts of coal combustion are described in this paper including systematic application of the principles of clean coal technologies financed by the private sector. (authors)

303

Volume activity 226Ra mine waters of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The State Office for Nuclear Safety, Regional Center Kamenna administers, within the framework of supervision, an inspection on workplaces of mines and discharge radionuclides into the environment from mines of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines. Join-stock company OKD exploit coal in next mines Paskov, Darkov, Lazy and CSA. Join -stock company CMD exploit coal in mine CSM. In 2002 DIAMO, state enterprise took over a part of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines and its division ODRA pump mine waters on Water-pumping shaft Jeremenko, Water- pumping shaft Zofie and close Mine Barbora. A water samples were take on main outflow mine water of mine. The presentation summarizes results from monitoring mine waters from 1999 to 2004 years. Volume activity 226Ra mine waters of Mine Lazy-locality Dukla and Water-pumping shaft Zofie are higher then clearance level from Regulation No.307/2002 Coll. On Radiation Protection. They are comparable with mine waters of uranium mines. Volume activity 226Ra surface waters under outflow perform, without stream Petrvaldska struzka under outflow Water-pumping shaft Zofie, guidance level for contamination surface waters from Government regulation No.61/2003 Coll. Volume activity 226Ra surface waters under outflow coal mines are higher then volume in surface waters under uranium mines, because mine waters from uranium mines are decontaminate on decontamination stations. Considering that volume activities 226Ra surface water of Orlovska struzka stream are under guidance level for contamination surface waters from Government regulation No.61/2003 Coll.. don't urgency arrangement to decontamination mine waters. Mass activity 226Ra in bed sediment under outflow Mine Lazy-locality Dukla are comparable with exemption level from Regulation No.307 /2002 Coll. On Radiation Protection. (authors)

304

30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the...and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the...underground coal mine, and a mine which has been abandoned or deactivated...

2010-07-01

305

30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas...200 Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas...where mining is prohibited or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining...

2010-07-01

306

30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS...OF MINING § 785.19 Surface coal mining and reclamation operations...

2010-07-01

307

75 FR 11906 - Notice of Availability and Notice of Hearing for the Buckskin Mine Hay Creek II Coal Lease by...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Kiewit Mining Properties, Inc. to lease the Federal coal in the Hay Creek...Kiewit Mining Properties, Inc., to mine...million tons of coal per year. If...Kiewit Mining Properties, Inc. As part of the coal leasing...

2010-03-12

308

The Rabbit Lake open pit tailing disposal system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Rabbit Lake open pit tailing depository is a below-ground tailing disposal system which takes advantage of existing low groundwater hydraulic gradients and low tailing permeabilities in preventing the exmigration of contaminants. Establishing a highly-permeable surround around the tailing connected to a pumped underdrainage system ensures maximum consolidation of tailing during placement. When pumping ceases at abandonment it provides a preferential path for groundwater flow around the fully consolidated tailing

309

Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. First half-year 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report provides up-to-date information on the German coal mining industry for the reporting time period. Data on coal mining as well as on brown coal mining cover: Production, stocks, productivity, employes, sales, imports and exports of coal and coal products. (orig.)

310

Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

311

Update of coal pillar database for South African coal mining  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Following the Coalbrook disaster in 1960, research into coal pillar strength resulted in the adoption of the concept of a safety factor for the design of stable pillars in South African coal mining. At the time when the original statistical analysis was performed by Salamon and Munro in the early 19 [...] 60s, 27 cases of failed pillar workings were considered suitable for inclusion in the database of failed pillars. Pillar failure did not stop after the introduction of the safety factor formula by Salamon and Munro (1967). In the ensuing years, pillars that were created before the application of the formula deteriorated and later failed, as did ones that were created after the introduction of the formula. This means that over time, the database of failed pillar cases increased in size, allowing ever more reliable analyses to be performed. The number of failed cases in the database had grown from the original 27 in the 1960s to 86 by 2011. All the failed cases are contained in the updated database. The database of stable pillars, which is also used in the derivation of strength formulae, has now been extended from 125 to 337 cases. The new database of intact pillar cases is more complete as it bridges the time gap between the Salamon and Munro (1967) and the Van der Merwe (2006) databases. The original requirements for inclusion into the database were satisfied in the compilation of this latest collection. The characteristics of the original database of intact pillars did not change in a meaningful way. The mining depth and pillar dimensions of the new database are largely as they were in the original database. Time-related trends with regard to pillar dimensions and depth of mining could not be found, indicating that the geometrical parameters of coal mining in South Africa have not changed meaningfully in approximately a century of mining. The characteristics of cases in the updated database of failed pillars does not differ substantially from the one published by Van der Merwe (2006). The same difference between that database and the original Salamon and Munro database, namely that the average safety factor of the failed cases had increased dramatically, from 1.0 to 1.5, is still apparent. This may be due to the inclusion of more failures from specific areas that exhibit a disproportionate number of failures at higher safety factors. These areas are the Vaal Basin, Klip River, and Free State coalfields. The new database confirms yet again that there is no correlation between the safety factors of failed pillars and their time of failure. The safety factor on its own is thus not a reliable predictor of longterm stability of pillars.

J.N., van der Merwe; M., Mathey.

2013-11-01

312

Final geological and mining exploration and reasons for the brown coal mine Laško closure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Final surface and underground geological and mine exploration data of the brown coalmine LaŠko are presented. The data refer to the period between 1978 and 1990 when most intensive and systematic exploration took place.In more than 225 years of activity, the brown coal mine Laško had many longer or shorter interruptions and oscillations of coal production. The coal from the Laško brown coal mine has always been known to be of the highest quality among the Slovenian browncoals, mostly due to its high calorific value (ARB and low sulphur content. Because of its quality, coal sales on the domestic market were never poor. Because of the energy crisis at the beginning of the 1970-ies, the decision was made to close the mine. The mine closure took a long period in spite of the mine company plans and activities forits restructure, so that the brown coal from Laško was mined until the middle of 1992. The ultimate mine closure reasons were technical and economic conditions of underground mining.After the final decision for closing the mine was made, the production was suspended, and extended underground mine closure and surface reclamation works were carried out.

Ivan Strgar

2003-06-01

313

Using hyperspectral indices to measure the effect of mine dust on the growth of three typical desert plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine the influence of coal dust from mining on vegetative growth, three typical plants from near an open-pit coalmine in an arid region were selected, and their spectral signals were determined. The present study was conducted near the Wucaiwan open-pit coalmine in the East Junggar Basin in Xinjiang. We extracted nineteen vegetation indices and examined their correlation with the dust flux. The objective was to determine which parameters that quantify vegetation damage could provide a basis for environmental monitoring in arid regions. The results indicate that when coal dust damages vegetation, both chlorophyll and moisture are reduced, and the amount of carotenoids increases with increasing coal dust. The pigment-specific normalized difference (PSNDb), structure-insensitive pigment index (SIPI) and plant water index (PWI) were the most sensitive indices, and sacsaoul was most sensitive to coal-dust pollution. PMID:25508734

Zhang, Peng-fei; Guli; Yin, Jun-qi; Bao, An-ming; Yao, Feng; Liu, Jin-ping

2014-08-01

314

Wetlands in the NB coal mine expansion project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation outlined the requirements of the New Brunswick Wetland Conservation Policy as they relate to the NB Coal Mine Expansion Project at Albright's Corner. Issues concerning wetland delineation, functional assessment and mitigation for project area wetlands were discussed. The expansion project was initiated as a result of recent complications with the coal seam at the Salmon Harbour Western Extension Mine. The increasing depth of the cuts and high incidence of slumping was affecting coal production at the site. This presentation described the project components as well as 2 mine options as determined by the technical expertise from wetland consultants. tabs., figs.

Cahill, K. [Gemtec Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Peck, D. [Debby Peck Botanical, Island View, NB (Canada)

2008-07-01

315

30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 922.764 Section 922...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...

2010-07-01

316

30 CFR 933.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 933.800 Section...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of...

2010-07-01

317

30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 947.764 Section 947...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. (a) Part 764 of...

2010-07-01

318

30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 937.764 Section 937...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...

2010-07-01

319

30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 912.764 Section 912...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO ...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...

2010-07-01

320

30 CFR 947.800 - Requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 947.800 Section...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

30 CFR 910.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 910.800 Section...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of...

2010-07-01

322

30 CFR 941.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 941.800 Section...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of...

2010-07-01

323

30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 933.764 Section 933...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...

2010-07-01

324

30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 922.762 Section 922...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...

2010-07-01

325

30 CFR 942.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 942.800 Section...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE...requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) Except...

2010-07-01

326

30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 942.764 Section 942...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. (a) Part 764 of...

2010-07-01

327

30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 947.762 Section 947...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...

2010-07-01

328

30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 910.764 Section 910...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...

2010-07-01

329

30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 941.764 Section 941...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...

2010-07-01

330

30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 921.762 Section 921...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...

2010-07-01

331

30 CFR 921.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 921.800 Section...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of...

2010-07-01

332

30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 910.762 Section 910...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...

2010-07-01

333

30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 933.762 Section 933...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...

2010-07-01

334

30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 921.764 Section 921...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...

2010-07-01

335

30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 903.762 Section 903...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...

2010-07-01

336

30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 905.764 Section 905...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...

2010-07-01

337

30 CFR 939.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 939.800 Section...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of...

2010-07-01

338

30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 905.762 Section 905...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...

2010-07-01

339

30 CFR 922.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 922.800 Section...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of...

2010-07-01

340

30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 937.762 Section 937...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 903.764 Section 903...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...

2010-07-01

342

30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 941.762 Section 941...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...

2010-07-01

343

30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 939.764 Section 939...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 764 of this...

2010-07-01

344

30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 912.762 Section 912...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO ...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...

2010-07-01

345

30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 942.762 Section 942...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. (a) Part 762 of...

2010-07-01

346

30 CFR 912.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 912.800 Section...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of...

2010-07-01

347

30 CFR 937.800 - General requirements for bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 937.800 Section...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON...bonding of surface coal mining and reclamation operations. Part 800 of...

2010-07-01

348

30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 939.762 Section 939...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND...unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. Part 762 of this...

2010-07-01

349

30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS...AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS...SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF MINING § 785.11 Anthracite...environmental protection performance standards, the...

2010-07-01

350

77 FR 38323 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration...to ``Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling'' to more accurately reflect the...70.201(c); 90.201(c); and Sampling; general requirements...

2012-06-27

351

The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

2009-06-01

352

Brown coal from Garzweiler II is in dispute. Green politicians want to abandon the project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Johannes Rau (SPD), the Prime Minister of North-Rhine Westphalia, and Michael Vesper, member of the Greens and his opposite number in the coalition negotiations, demonstrate placability. But on the subject of Garzweiler II, opinions are divided in the red-and-green coalition talks: while the party 'Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen' are uncompromising about abandoning Europe's largest brown-coal open-pit mining project, the SPD still sticks to it. (orig.)

353

Study on environmental effect of mining and utilizing radioactive bone-coal mine in Jiangxi province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces the method for investigating the ?-radiation level and annual average concentration of Rn inside and outside the houses built by the bone-coal cinder brick, and natural radionuclide level in bone-coal, bone-coal cinder, bone-coal cinder brick, soil in mining area and water discharging from the tunnel of bone-coal mine in the process of mining and utilizing bone-coal in Jiangxi province. Main results are reported, and additional doses to inhabitants living in bone-coal cinder brick houses in mining area are also calculated. The results show that: 1) ? radiation dose rates inside and outside the houses built by the bone-coal cinder brick in bone-coal mining area are 268 nGy/h and 278 nGy/h, respectively; 2) Annual average concentration of Rn in buildings constructed by the bone-coal cinder brick is 85.7 Bq/m3; 3) The contents of 238U and 226Ra are both 1.5 kBq/kg in bone-coal, about 0.9kBq/kg in bone-coal cinder and bone-coal cinder brick, and about 0.5 kBq/kg and 0.4 kBq/kg in soil in mining area, which are respectively 8.1 times and 6.4 times that in soil in Jiangxi province; 4) There are many associated toxic non-radioactive elements in bone-coal. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, As and F in bone-coal, bone-coal cinder, bone-coal cinder brick, soil in mining area are higher than local background values. Pollution of Cd and As is serious and the concentrations of Cd and As are 3.1 times and 1.4 times that ond As are 3.1 times and 1.4 times that of National Soil Environment Quality Standards (Level III); 5) The levels of U, Th, 226Ra, 40K in waste water discharging from the tunnel of bone-coal mine are 17.5 ?g/L, 7.0 ?g/L, 141 mBq/L and 333 mBq/L, respectively. 6) For inhabitants living in bone-coal cinder brick houses in mining area, annual average additional effective doses resulted from ? radiation and inhalation of 222Rn are 0.87 mSv and 1.0 mSv respectively, totally 1.9 mSv. 7) Most of bone-coal cinder might not be used in building material when its massic fraction is more than 20%

354

The role of the state coal mining enterprise in Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam is now becoming one of the 3 State Mining Enterprises in Indonesia which is dealing specifically with coal minings and their developments, while the other 2 are PT Tambang Timah for tin and PT Aneka Tambang for miscellaneous minerals. However, there are actually 3 other more State Enterprises under the umbrella of the Department of Mines and Energy, namely PERTAMINA which is dealing with oil and natural gas exploitation, PLN which is the State Electricity Corporation and the State Gas Corporation. The process of merging into one State Coal Mining Enterprise was only happening on October 30, 1990 by the issuance of the Government Regulation Number 56, 1991 whereby the then called Perum Tambang Batubara was merged into PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam, which was then operating only in Tanjung Enim, South Sumatra. The new scope of operation and management of the PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam is now including not only the management of coal mines at Tanjung Enim South Sumatra, but also the coal mines at Ombilin, West Sumatra and the supervision of all contract of works in coal which up to now amount to 11, mostly spread in East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and one in West Sumatra. The amount of coal produced by PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam in 1990 was 4,854 million tons, while the coal production from all contract of works was 4,059 million tons for the same year

355

Japanese R & D cooperation on coal mine safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

R & D Cooperation between Japan and foreign countries is described. The projects were carried out by the Japan Coal Energy Center, JCOAL, with partners in Australia, China, Indonesia and Vietnam. Two projects are described in some detail: a project on prevention of spontaneous combustion, with the China Coal Research Institute, CCRI, and another on mine gas control, with CSIRO, Australia. Future plans for technology transfer and R & D programs are outlined. Topic areas include prevention of roof falls, management of mine gas, safety monitoring in underground mines, ventilation, and mine rescue. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Deguchi, G. [Japan Coal Energy Center (Japan)

2002-03-01

356

THE ZAGORJE COAL MINE AND ITS COAL MINERS UNTIL THE WORLD WAR I.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In my diploma thesis the Zagorje coalmine, the beginnings of which date back to the middle of the 18th century, is presented. In the first part, I describe the geographical – geological characteristics of the Zagorje valley, that enabled the development and organisation of the coal mine and the other industrial plants. The first mining licence was gained on the 11th November 1755, which was the official beginning of the coal mining in the Slovene national territory. In the middle of the ...

Renko, Maja

2011-01-01

357

Study of rational mining capacity in super-huge coal mine based on possibility-satisfiability method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rational decision of mining capacity is one of the key technologies in super-huge coal mines with durative, steady and high efficiency production. Taking Jisan coal mine as an example, based on the analysis of data, the mining capacity of Jisan coal mine was predicted multiobjectively using the possibility-satisfiability method of demand and possibility. 14 factors were analyzed with possibility-satisfiability method and combined partly. The rational mining capacity and its dependent conditions of Jisan coal mine were obtained. The results show that the velocity across faults should be increased and the coal seam occupied by villages should be released to the maximum to achieve the mining capacity of 10 M t/a for Jisan coal mine. On the present condition of mining technology of it, 6 M t/a is the most rational mining capacity, and the possibility satisfiability degree is 0.93. 10 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Wang, H.; Zhang, D.; Chen, Y.; Ma, L.; Liu, Y. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mining and Safety Engineering

2007-03-15

358

The assessment of mine rebound and decanting in deeper coal mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This groundwater and monitoring study of 7 interlinked deep coal collieries in South Africa was conducted to develop analytical and numerical decant models of individual collieries suitable for integration into a single large model. The model will be used to prevent acid mine drainage after mining activities have stopped. The models considered interconnectivity between the mines, the geology of the overburden, the type of mining conducted at each mine, the topography and depth of the mining activities, and the piezometric levels of the mines and involved aquifers. The overburden formations in the studied region consisted of sandstone, shale, interbedded siltstone, mudstone and coal seams. Removal of the coal seams has resulted in the caving of the overlying strata into mined voids. The mining disruptions have resulted in subsidence and recharges of between 5 and 7 percent. The conceptual decant model predicted that piezometric levels of the mine will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. The flux from the overlying aquifers will decrease as water levels even out. Any polluted water will need to overcome 4 bar of pressure to to decant. Excess water above the weathered zone in the mines will seep out as normal unpolluted springs at lower points. Results of the numerical modelling study showed that it is unlikely that the collieries will decant, as the piezometric level of the mines will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. 5 refs., 4 figs.icient value of the mine. 5 refs., 4 figs.

359

New methods of land reclamation in brown coal mine ''Adamow''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brown coal mine ''Adamow'' is located in Central Poland and fuels power plant ''Adamow'' (600 MW). Every year 4.5-5.0 million tons of coal is extracted from 3 mines of this mine. In 1991 one of the mines ''Bogdanow'' was closed and the new one ''Kozmin'' was started. Then the problem appeared whether collect capping on external dump located 520 meters from the new mining or whether use it to fill up the closed mine located at a distance of 3700 meters. The second solution was chosen despite of the fact that was more expensive. Due to it 164 hectares of agricultural area were preserved, 116 hectares were reclaimed and water reservoir was done. The realization of this project was financed by mine and the National Fund for Environment Protection and Water Economics. 3 ills, 1 tab

360

Mining simulation for room and pillar coal operation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The mechanized mining cycle using loaders and shuttle cars had its peak in terms of usage in the mining industry during 1950 through 1960. In Brazil, this system is still used at underground coal mines in southern Santa Catarina coal basin. With the aim of investigating the benefits of a new mining [...] scheme using the room and pillar method for these local mines, a computational simulator model was developed in order to investigate the mining cycle. This paper presents the methodology used to develop the simulator and the results that the simulation shows regarding impact of the proposed new scheme on mining productivity.

S.P, Pereira; J.F.C.L, Costa; P, Salvadoretti; J, Koppe.

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

COAL AND THE ENVIRONMENT ABSTRACT SERIES. MINE DRAINAGE BIBLIOGRAPHY 1910-1976  

Science.gov (United States)

The Coal Mine Drainage Bibliography covers the following areas: surface and underground mines, active and abandoned mines, reclaimed surface mines, and planning of new mines. Also included are information on lakes formed by surface mining, drainage from coal refuse disposal areas...

362

Barrier pillar between production panels in coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The function of the barrier pillar is to protect the mining panel in activity from the abutment load of adjacent mining panels that were mined. In the case of underground mines in Santa Catarina State, the barrier pillar has functioned to protect the main entries of the mine against pillar failure from old mining panels. The objective of this paper is to verify the application of the empirical method to design barrier pillars as proposed by Peng (1986), using numerical simulation following the mining geometry of the coal mines in Santa Catarina State. Two-dimensional numerical models were built taking into account the geometry of the main entries and mining panels for different overburden thickness, and considering the geomechanical properties for the rock mass that forms the roof-pillar-floor system for the Bonito coal vein. The results of the simulations showed that the empirical method to determine the barrier pillar width is valid for the studied coal vein and considered mine geometry. Neither did the pillar at the main entry become overstressed due to adjacent mine panels, nor did the roof present any failure due to stress redistribution. 9 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Zingano, Andre Cezar; Koppe, Jair Carlos; Costa, Joao Felipe C.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

2007-07-01

363

Environmental pollution caused by coal mining and utilization in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the BP Statistical Review of World Energy of 2010 45.6% of coal production and 46.9% of coal consumption in the world in 2009 are accounted for China. The large-scale coal production and use cause major environmental impacts. A large environmental impact is through the emission of some unavoidable reaction products (for example waste gas, waste heat) that affect and damage the ecosystem. A steady influence can lead to long-term climate changes and medium term damage to the ecosystem. Other environmental impacts occur during mining of coal by the change in the water balance and the transformation of the landscape (surface mining, spoil tips). The environmental problems caused by coal mining and utilization can not be ignored in China.

364

Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

365

Threat or opportunity? Landscape genetics in a coal mining area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aknowledgment The area of Sveagruva have experienced several periods of coal mining. This study aim to evaluating changes in vegetation composition, species distributions and genetic structure using a combination of field and molecular analyses, to identify whether or not coal mining have effected plant life in Svea. Investigations on species and gene level were done on two Luzula species, L. confusa Lindeb. and L. nivalis (Laest.) Spreng. No direct correlation was found, and the soil pH ex...

Skottvoll, Bente Sved

2013-01-01

366

Mining of coal pillars using the drilling method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An assessment of possibilities of utilizing other coal mining methods not used yet under conditions of rock and gas outburst hazard in the Ostrava-Karvina Coalfield (henceforth referred to as OKR) in the Czech Republic is one of outputs of the research project 'Protection of Employees against Consequences of Rock and Gas Outbursts'. These methods were to supplement a single method that had been in common use by then - longwall mining along the strike, and were to ensure the better recovery of coal reserves. Specifically, it was the case of mining of residual pillars blocking a considerable quantity of coal. What was chosen was a promising mining method utilising long large diameter boreholes. In the article the experience of application of this mining method abroad as well as under conditions of OKR in seams with a hazard of rock and gas outbursts is presented. (authors)

367

Mining of Coal Pillars Using the Drilling Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An assessment of possibilities of utilizing other coal mining methods not used yet under conditions of rock and gas outbursthazard in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield (henceforth referred to as OKR in the Czech Republic is one of outputs of the research project“Protection of Employees against Consequences of Rock and Gas Outbursts”.These methods were to supplement a single method that had been in common use by then – longwall mining along the strike,and were to ensure the better recovery of coal reserves [1]. Specifically, it was the case of mining of residual pillars blockinga considerable quantity of coal.What was chosen was a promising mining method utilising long large diameter boreholes. In the article the experienceof application of this mining method abroad as well as under conditions of OKR in seams with a hazard of rock and gas outburstsis presented.

Vlastimil Hude?ek

2009-12-01

368

Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

Deborah Kosmack

2008-10-31

369

EVALUATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF WESTERN SURFACE COAL MINING. VOLUME II. MINE INVENTORY  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains a tabular summary of general information for 37 surface coal mines active in the western United States during 1975 and for seven additional mines that were under development in that year. In total, 44 mines in the following states are included: Arizona, Color...

370

75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

...Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309 beginning on page 17529 in the issue of Tuesday,...

2010-04-22

371

Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2013  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2013. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

372

Analysis on Backfill Mining of “Under Three” Coal in Zhouyuanshan Mine and Strata Movement Law  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of "under three" (under railways, buildings and water bodies coal pillar mining, analysis on backfill mining and strata movement law is carried on in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine. First of all, according to the engineering geology and strata occurrence condition in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, FLAC2D software be used to establish a two-dimensional numerical model and to analyze and calculate the full caving method, strip method and backfill method and then gaining that backfill mining method is beneficial to improve the protection level of surface buildings and facilities. Then, using the theory of strata control and method of related mechanics to analyze the strata movement law and strata control principle of backfill mining, considering that supporting role of backfill body is mainly on lateral reinforcement of coal pillar and vertical supporting role of overlying strata, forming a cooperative control system of "bearing strata + coal pillar + backfill body" and deducing the equilibrium equations when it is in steady state. At last, using the numerical analysis method, respectively analyzing the surface subsidence of the corresponding important buildings of the three profiles of C-8 exploration line ,C-6 exploration line and A-A (cross section of the profile of C-8 exploration line after using backfill coal mining in 24 mining district. The results show that: the surface subsidence and horizontal deformation basically control within 30 mm and the surface deformation curvature of buildings generally in 0.1×10-3 /km in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, which accord with the relevant standards and requirements.

Weijian Yu

2013-09-01

373

Mechanism of formation of coal at Fushun coal mine in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fushun coal mine was formed in the Paleogene period in the northeastern province of China. The coal layer is more than 60m thick at the thickest part, and the thickness of the layer and the coal property differ remarkably in the east-and-west direction. Coal samples were collected from the three pits to the east of the western pit where coal is mined st present. Proximate analysis, elementary analysis, calorific value, Gieseler fluidity, coal petrographic constituents and Vitrinite reflectance of the coal samples were measured. Coal property characteristics, dump environment and horizontal and vertical changes in coal rank were studied, and the coal formation process of Fushun coal was investigated. Average reflectance of each pit is 0.6, 0.64, and 0.78. Topographical depth differences among the three pits do not influence the coal rank. Few changes are recognized in the lithofacies of the soil that covers the coal layer and in the thickness of the layer. Therefore, it can be concluded as follows. As there was a heat source by igneous activity deep in the eastern part of this area, the coal rank decreased from the east toward the west. 4 refs., 5 figs.

Fujii, Keizo; Suzuki, Yuichiro; Li, Sitian; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Zhuang, Xin-Gue (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Japan; Wuhan College of Geology, (China))

1987-10-01

374

Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania's abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania's comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania's geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resoun, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques

375

Surface coal mine reclamation enhancement initiative : status report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The coal industry has played a major role in the economy of Cape Breton and northern Nova Scotia since the late 1800s. A total of 450 million tonnes of coal has been produced from the 310 underground coal mines in the region, although production has varied due to changing market requirements and depletion of resources. This presentation focused on surface coal mining activity in Nova Scotia and the development of surface coal mine reclamation projects that support land-use strategies. Fourteen surface mines have been reclamation mining projects aimed at improving environmental conditions without incurring public expense by recovering remaining resources. Some sites may not be economic for reclamation mining. Examples of negative impacts from historical coal mining were presented. An oversight committee representing academia, government, industry and the public has conducted site assessments at former surface mine sites to establish parameters for the research needed to evaluate past reclamation efforts in Cape Breton County. This paper outlined the comprehensive vegetation surveys and test plots that were established to evaluate the ecological response to different vegetation amendments. Many sites were found to be acidic, lacking in organic matter and associated nutrients. Four different treatment applications were tested to increase organic matter and to accelerate naturally regenerated growth. These included fertilizer; fertilizer and lime; fertilizer, lime and seed; and spreading forest floor grubbing material from off-site. The committee has concluded that previously mined lands will eventually return to Acadian Forest ecology. However, the common restoration objective of developing a stable, non-eroding grassland cover, may actually delay the subsequent succession of trees and other local plant species. tabs., figs.

Khan, D. [Nova Scotia Dept. of Natural Resources, Halifax, NS (Canada)

2008-07-01

376

Agriculture and brown coal surface mining. The example of the Rhenish brown coal mining area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive surface mining in the Rhenish brown coal exploitation area has led to marked changes to the environment and living conditions there. This applies particularly to agriculture, which now has to subsist with a competitor for land. The progressive sacrifice of farmland and widespread relocation compaigns are grossly interfering with the business of farming. Only in exceptional cases do farms move as part of the relocation of whole villages. New sites are often found in hamlets and group settlements. This happens in connection with farming of newly reclaimed land or recultivated land reorganised and returned in land consolidation campaigns. (orig.)

377

Radioactive contamination of food chain around coal mine and coal-fired power stations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the coal mine in Lazarevac, and the coal-fired power stations in Obrenovac, on the activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs in some parts of human food chain of people living in the surrounding area. The obtained results showed that natural environment around the examined coal mine and the coal-fired power stations are not significantly affected by the emission of primordial radionuclides. The activi...

Vitorovi? Gordana S.; Mitrovi? Branislava M.; Andri? Velibor ?.; Stojanovi? Mirjana D.; Lazarevi?-Macanovi? Mirjana V.; Vitorovi? Duško P.

2012-01-01

378

Simulation of methane emission and recovery for coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is very important to estimate methane gas emission and recovery accurately in underground coal mines for safe operation. Permeability to methane gas is affected by stress distribution of surrounding rock mass which is deformed by the excavation. Therefore, it is necessary to know stress change and deformation condition of rock mass mining throughout the mining process from roadway development to coal extraction. Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL) has developed an FEM simulation program named Mine Gas Flow 3D (MGF-3D). MGF-3D is designed to predict the volume of methane gas emitted from surrounding coal and rock seams based on stress distribution and permeability change which are determined by 3D stress analysis. MGF-3D also can set up a number of pre-drainage holes and estimate drainage gas volume from each hole. These simulations for gas recovery can contribute to a mine gas utilization plan. Gas emission and recovery in Japanese coal mine was simulated. The effectiveness of the simulation by MGF-3D was confirmed by the comparison with the field data. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Tomita, S.; Hirasawa, H.; Ohga, K.; Kawahara, H. [Japan Coal Energy Center (Japan)

2004-09-01

379

30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...  

Science.gov (United States)

...rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated...rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated...prohibited or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not...

2010-07-01

380

30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...  

Science.gov (United States)

...to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by Act of Congress...to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by Act of Congress... Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

76 FR 45612 - Notice of Availability of the Buckskin Mine Hay Creek II Coal Lease-by-Application Final...  

Science.gov (United States)

...submitted by Kiewit Mining Properties, Inc., to lease Federal coal near the Buckskin Mine approximately...lease issued for Federal coal in the tract as applied for by Kiewit Mining Properties, Inc. As part of the coal leasing process, the...

2011-07-29

382

30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...  

Science.gov (United States)

...compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national...compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in national...b) to conduct surface coal mining operations on Federal lands within a...

2010-07-01

383

30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an...prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an...propose to conduct surface coal mining operations within 300 feet,...

2010-07-01

384

75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act...of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act...of Appalachian surface coal mining operations under the Clean Water...

2010-04-12

385

30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and the proposed surface coal mining operation may affect this alluvial...affected by the surface coal mining operation is of such small acreage as...and the proposed surface coal mining operation may affect an alluvial...

2010-07-01

386

RECULTIVATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL MINING IN KOLUBARA BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coal plays a fundamental role in global development, but the coal mining industry exerts impact on the environment, society and economy. Kolubara Coal Company produces about 30 million tonnes of coal, and digs about 70 million m3 of overburden per year. The main result of surface coal is certainly taking agricultural land, so that surface mines, which affect large areas in Kolubara, about 100 hectars a year, causing a number of problems related to the recultivation of degraded area after coal extraction. The lignite extraction through the method of opencast mining in Kolubara is about 60 years old. The previous exploitation usage is characterised by the fact that the disposal of overburden is made non-selectively, whereas the surface solum is not being preserved. The recultivation is carried out in parallel with overburden excavation. It is necessary to preserve the fertile solum through selective excavation in order to bring the soil back to its previous purpose - agricultural production. The objective of this paper is mainly to point out the need for the further expansion of the utilisation of fossil fuels, which in turn reduces the emission of CO2, and thus reduces or prevents global climate changes on Earth. In addition to that, bringing back deteriorated terrains to their previous purpose - agricultural production, or the afforestation - contributes to the maintenance of ecological balance in nature, which then makes coal mining sustainable.

Ivica M Ristovi?

2010-01-01

387

Utilization of coal ash/coal combustion products for mine reclamation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Society's demand for an inexpensive fuel, combined with ignorance of the long term impacts, has left numerous scars on the Pennsylvania landscape. There are over 250,000 acres of abandoned surface mines with dangerous highwalls and water filled pits. About 2,400 miles of streams do not meet water quality standards because of drainage from abandoned mines. There are uncounted households without an adequate water supply due to past mining practices. Mine fires and mine subsidence plague many Pennsylvania communities. The estimated cost to reclaim these past scars is over $15 billion. The beneficial use of coal ash in Pennsylvania for mine reclamation and mine drainage pollution abatement projects increased during the past ten years. The increase is primarily due to procedural and regulatory changes by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). Prior to 1986, DEP required a mining permit and a separate waste disposal permit for the use of coal ash in backfilling and reclaiming a surface mine site. In order to eliminate the dual permitting requirements and promote mine reclamation, procedural changes now allow a single permit which authorize both mining and the use of coal ash in reclaiming active and abandoned pits. The actual ash placement, however, must be conducted in accordance with the technical specifications in the solid waste regulations

388

Coal seam strength and pillar design for highwall mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The strength of highwall mining pillars is primarily dependent on the mechanical response of the coal due to the reduced influence of frictional restraint between roof and floor. A suitable pillar design approach therefore requires a method to estimate coal seam properties. A detailed study was carried out to determine ways of reliably predicting the large-scale mechanical properties of coal seams from small-scale test data. This provided a method of practical and systematic assessment of coal seam strength properties, which is based on using a measure of the rank or petrographic composition of the coal and seam brightness profiles. This approach has now been successfully applied to the design of highwall mining pillars in a number of operations in both Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. It provides the flexibility for use with modern numerical modelling programs combined with a simple hand calculation method for rapid assessment of pillar strength. 11 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Medhurst, T. [Australian Mining Consultants Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

2000-10-01

389

Evaluation of the mine gases hazard in the closed hard coal mine 'Niwka-Modrzejow'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Closing of hard coal mines, especially stopping the process of mine water pumping, results in a reconstruction of the Carboniferous water-bearing horizon, leading to the intensification of gas flux to the near-surface zone ('piston effect'). Stopping the fans considerably enhances the movement of mine gases towards the surface in closed mines. Stopping the fans results in an accumulation of gases in workings and old workings. The results of geochemical analyses performed in the area of the hard coal mine 'Niwka-Modrzejow' are presented in the paper. The obtained results and their comparison with the existing geological-reservoir model prove that the intensification of the mine gases flow towards the surface continues through the zones of tectonic discontinuities, cracking, and loosened zones in the Upper-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. The thickness and lithology of the onlying overburden plays a decisive role in the limitation of the mine gases migration. (authors)

390

Evaluation of the mine gases hazard in the closed hard coal mine „Niwka-Modrzejów”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Closing of hard coal mines, especially stopping the process of mine water pumping, results in a reconstruction of the Carboniferous water-bearing horizon, leading to the intensification of gas flux to the near-surface zone („piston effect”. Stopping the fans considerably enhances the movement of mine gases towards the surface in closed mines. Stopping the fans results in an accumulation of gases in workings and old workings.The results of geochemical analyses performed in the area of the hard coal mine „Niwka-Modrzejów” are presented in the paper. The obtained results and their comparison with the existing geological-reservoir model prove that the intensification of the mine gases flow towards the surface continues through the zones of tectonic discontinuities, crackings, and loosened zones in the Upper-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. The thickness and lithology of the onlying overburden plays a decisive role in the limitation of the mine gases migration.

Ludwik Zawisza

2006-10-01

391

Biodesulfurization of Subbituminous Coal by Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Coal Mine Soil of South Sumatera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coal as fuel should be necessarily pre-treated by desulfurization in order to prevent excessive emissions of sulfur dioxide, a precursor of acid rain. Organic sulfur in coal can be eliminated by microbial action through the technology known as biodesulfurization. Source of microorganisms in the present study was coal mine soil in which microorganisms have been adapted to use the sulfur in coal. Coal mine in South Sumatra was choosen as source of microorganisms in this study, because it is an area in Indonesia with the largest of subbituminous coal reserves. The microorganisms were activated as mixed culture by culturing the soil sample in mineral salt medium containing subbituminous coal as the sole sulfur. Desulfurization activities were examined by using three variations of the initial coal concentration, i.e., 10, 15 and 20% weight per volume. Growth and activity of the mixed culture on the subbituminous coal were monitored by measuring of medium pH, cell concentration, sulfate and organic sulfur concentration. The result showed that desulfurization activity of the mixed culture on 15% of coal was able to reduce sulfur up to 82.36%. Isolation and identification of the mixed culture based on genotypic and phenotypic characterizations revealed that members of the mixed culture were identified as genera of Enterobacter, Lelcersia and Bacillus. Observation on growth curves showing that the culturable isolates grew in at least three overlapping stages when using coal as sulfur source suggested that the members of the consortium worked alternately on coal as substrate.

Megga Ratnasari Pikoli

2013-01-01

392

Problems of selective brown coal mining in various geological conditions of the GDR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses in general terms the energy situation of the GDR, emphasizing the importance of brown coal in generating electricity and heat. The annual production of brown coal is 300 Mt. Brown coal is used to generate heat and power in thermal power stations (55%), in briquetting plants (35%) and in coking plants. Bucket wheel and bucket chain excavators are used to mine brown coal deposits. Main characteristics of brown coal deposits and of major surface brown coal mines that exploit thick brown coal seams (Nochten, Berzdorf and Welzow) are described. Aspects of coal quality, coal conversion (gasification, liquefaction and briquetting), coal transport and coal handling (stacking and blending) are discussed. 5 refs.

Strzodka, K.

1986-01-01

393

Mined land in the Ruhr area: Geological assessments to bound the environmental consequences of coal mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extraction, transportation, and processing of coal has severe environmental impacts. The development of the highly mechanized underground mining has resulted in the displacement of very large quantities of coal and waste rock at the surface and underground. This has led to land subsidence, changes in groundwater flow, soil erosion, air pollution, and local climatic effects. Thus, in the Ruhr area more than 4,000 km2 is subject to subsurface mass displacement. The surface undergoes a mobile trough-shaped subsidence. The resulting deformations produce a range of different effects on geomorphology and hydrology/geohydrology. Abandoned coal mines have to be taken under long term drainage, pumping stations have to regulate the groundwater levels. The devastated areas have to be restored, hazardous waste materials from mining activities must be treated, and the long term risks of coal mining must be assessed as part of long range planning and the protection of natural resources. (orig./HP)

394

Pedological characteristics of open-pit Cu wastes and post-flotation tailings (Bor, Serbia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english To gain a better knowledge of mining areas and potential remediation processes, some characteristics (morphological, physical, chemical and microbiological) of soils formed on open-pit Cu mine waste (OPW) and Cu post-flotation tailings (PFT) dumps were investigated. Soil profiles and surface samples [...] were studied. In general, the investigated soils are characterized by large proportion of coarse soil particles, degraded structure, low humus content, low pH, high As and Cu concentrations, and low soil microbial activity. In all investigated profiles there is no recognizable topsoil layer containing in situ formed humus probably due to soil age, lack of plant cover and organic litter, as well as other unfavorable soil conditions. The specificity of investigated soils is an irregular distribution of some soil characteristics (porosity, humus content, microbiological activity) over depth, which is a result of their technogenic origin. By establishing correlations between the studied surface sample parameters, using principal component analysis (PCA), poorer aggregate properties of PFT than of OPW soils were found, resulting most likely from aggressive mining, i.e., flotation processes. Both OPW and PFT soils compared with control natural soils are characterized by lower clay and humus content, and poorer aggregate properties.

J, Lili& #263; ; S, Cupa& #263; ; B, Lalevi& #263; ; V, Andri& #263; ; M, Gaji& #263; -Kvaš& #269; ev.

2014-03-01

395

Hard coal mining in the Saar-Lor-Lux area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As result of sedimentation in a limnic basin during upper carbonic the Saar Lorraine coal deposit whose systematically workable part lies between Neunkirchen in Saarland and Faulquemont in Lorraine, is characterized by largely changing series of strata and seams structures. While coal seams were worked at their crop out in the Sulzbach and Fischbach valleys in Saarland already in the 15th and 16th centuries and Prince William Henry of Saarbruecken-Nassau put mining activities under State authority by creating a Board of Mines, an early development of coal mining in Lorraine was impeded especially by water out-flows which could not be mastered at that time. After a high production period around 1960, when the two big mining corporations Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine and Saarbergwerke AG produced about 32 millions tons of coal yearly with more than 100 000 employees, the situation of energy markets forced both enterprises to drastic concentration of their production units and to rationalization. The backgrounds for the realization of new collieries succeeding elder installations as de Vernejoul and Nordschacht on the one hand, the compound collieries Simon-Wendel and Goettelborn-Reden-Camphausen on the other hand are illustrated. Coal mining and its economic importance has decisively characterized the region. Production decreases on both sides of the border have an aggravating influence on economical life. Therefore bigger importance is to be given to a closer cooperation on the same deposit, especially with regard to 1992.

Biehl, H.R.

1988-09-01

396

Greenhouse research to curb emission from coal mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to David Williams, senior research scientist and member of the CSIRO Energy Technology's air quality group, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from five sources in coal mining. These include energy consumption during mining activities, fugitive emissions (coal seam gas liberated in the extraction process), oxidation of carbonaceous wastes, landuse and embodied energy. Total emissions are dominated by contributions from the first three. Both fugitive and waste oxidation emissions from opencut operations come from 'area' sources and their magnitudes are poorly known. Although there may be no measurable gas in freshly uncovered open cut coal, such mines usually emit methane that can be detected and sometimes quantified by air pollution techniques. Reporting on a recent research program into GHG emissions in the black coal mining industry commissioned by the Australian Coal Association (ACA), Williams maintains that research indicates emission rates could be 2040 times higher than the overall estimate for emissions from this source for opencut mines in Australia. The overall objective of the project is to provide methods that are supported by direct measurement to quantify the emissions of GHG and options for the disposal and /or use of methane emissions as an eligible waste-product energy source

397

Use of mine spoils from Teruel coal mining district (NE, Spain)  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal mine restoration projects increase public perception of mining companies. Spain has relatively few examples of completed opencast mine rehabilitation projects. This study seeks to obtain the use of mine spoils from coal mines in Teruel. The studied mine spoils may be used as raw material for the Spanish ceramic industry, located in the provinces of Castellon, Valencia and Teruel. This study specifically discusses the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Lower Cretaceous materials from coal deposits in Estercuel basin, around Teruel and Castellon in Spain. These provinces have a large ceramic industry. A characterization of mine spoils from coal deposits has been carried out. This characterization is based on the data of both mineral and chemical analysis. The mineralogical characterization was complemented with SEM/EDAX. The study of the chemical composition allows the evaluation of the applicability of the studied mine spoils to the following industries: refractory, fine clay, red clay for pavement and coating, and heavy clay. The clay used for refractory industry has the highest compositional demand. The positive results obtained on this set of preliminary tests lead us to envisage new research programs, focusing on testing these mine spoils on a semi-industrial scale.

Meseguer, S.; Jordán, M. M.; Sanfeliu, T.

2009-01-01

398

Coalbed methane utilization of Fushun Coal Mining Administration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coalbed methane resources in China`s Fushun Coal Mining Administration are mainly distributed over Laohutai Mine, Shengli Mine and Longfeng Mine, the Administration has coalbed methane reserves of 14.4 billion m{sup 3}. The annual utilization of the methane amounts to 180 million m{sup 3}. This paper introduces the distribution of coalbed methane, points out the technical and economic conditions for domestic use of coalbed methane and describes the options and current situation of industrial use of the methane for manufacture of carbon black and formaldehyde and for fuelling various industrial plants. The feasibility of coalbed methane fired power generation is discussed. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Huang Lianchen [Fushun Coal Mining Administration (China)

1995-05-01

399

An Integrated Field Mapping-Numerical Modelling Approach to Characterising Discontinuity Persistence and Intact Rock Bridges in Large Open Pit Slopes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Field investigations were undertaken at three open pit mines and one major natural rock slope. Modified geotechnical field mapping techniques and remote sensing methods including LiDAR and photogrammetry were adapted for each site, in an effort to improve characterisation of discontinuity persistence and intact rock bridges. A fracture network engineering approach is proposed for trace mapping, with intensity factors to describe intact rock bridge trace intensity, R21, and blast-induced fract...

Tuckey, Zack Shane

2012-01-01

400

Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

1979-08-01

 
 
 
 
401

75 FR 73995 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors  

Science.gov (United States)

...75, and 90 RIN 1219-AB64 Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust...the proposed rule addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust...revise the Agency's existing standards on miners' occupational exposure to...

2010-11-30

402

Study of Natural Radioactivity in Coal Samples of Baganuur Coal Mine, Mongolia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal and soil samples from Baganuur Coal Mine (BCM) of Mongolia have been investigated. The activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K have been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using shielded HPGe detector. Contents of natural radionuclide elements (U, Th and K) have been determined. Also the activities and contents of radionuclide of ashes were determined which generated in Thermal Power Plant 3 of Ulaanbaatar from coal supplied from BCM.

403

Alunites in the red beds of the “Marcel” coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within the so-called red beds of the “Marcel” coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB),the authors have recorded the presence of alunite and natroalunite using XRD, IR and SEM/EDS. Both ofthem contain probably isomorphic substitutions of barium, strontium, phosphorus and, possibly, thehydronium ion. These two minerals preferably occur at the bottom of the red beds, in clay laminae overlyinga partly preserved coal seam; they are cryptocrystalline: their rhombohedral crystals, with a cub...

Piotr Wyszomirski; Marek Muszy?ski; Ireneusz Lipiarski

2004-01-01

404

Chemical and microbial sulphuric acid production from aerated mine lake sediment that was treated by different additions of NaOH (speech)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined sediment from an open pit lake that was intensively used for coal mining during the first decade of 20th. century. Today, the site (Lake 111, Lusatia, Germany) is flooded and water has extreme chemistry: low pH values (2-3), high concentrations of sulphate (up to 2000 mg/l) and elevated concentrations of Fe, Zn and Mn. As a result, anoxic sediment accumulated elevated concentrations of these elements, especially high levels of reduced sulphur compounds. (orig.)

405

Study of radioactivity effect of mining and utilizing bone-coal mine on environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and utilization of the bone-coal is a man-made activity that may bring a important effect on the environment around the mine and on radiation dose of public living in the mine area. The paper introduces investigation methods and main results about the pollution source term of bone-coal, which was caused by mining and utilizing in Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Anhui provinces. The store amount of bone-coal in five provinces is above 90% of the total store amount in our country. It was measured that the ?-radiation level and the annual average concentration of 222Rn indoors and outdoors in the bone-coal mine areas in the five provinces. The specific activities of radionuclides in the bone-coal, bone-coal cinder, bone-coal cinders brick et al. were analyzed. The additional dose to the public living in the bone-coal cinder brick house and the other people working in the bone-coal mine area was estimated. The investigation results showed that the mean specific activities of 238U, 226Ra in the bone-coal of the five provinces is 1.3 kBq/kg and 0.9 kBq/kg in the bone-coal cinder brick, respectively. The mean specific activities of 238U, 226Ra in the soil of bone-coal mine area are 0.37 kBq/kg and 0.24 kBq/kg, which are 8 times and 5 times higher than the average background value for the five provinces, respectively. The mean value of ?-radiation dose rate and the annual average concentrations of 222Rn in the bone-coal cinder brick houses in the five provinces are 0.3 ?Gy/h and 0.15 Bq/m3, respectively. The additional annual average doses, which are caused by ?-radiation and potential alpha rays of 222Rn in the bone-coal cinder brick house indoors and outdoors of the five provinces, are 1 mSv and 3 mSv, respectively. The additional collective dose (50 years), which were caused by bone-coal cinder brick house in 25 year, is some 1.5 x 105 person·Sv. Most of bone-coal cinder might not be used in constructional materials when its mass fraction is more than 20%

406

Critical success factors for an outsourcing strategy in the Mpumalanga coal mining industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the research was to explore the reasons why some coal mining companies in South Africa fail to get the benefits of outsourcing. The research aimed to achieve this by first establishing the critical success factors for outsourcing in coal mining and then discovering how well coal mines implement these factors.Managers from 55 coal mines were requested to rank on a Likert scale the importance of and their performance on these critical factors. The impor...

Khumalo, Francis

2010-01-01

407

Radon measurements and valuation in German hard coal underground mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of the radon concentrations by sampling in return air shafts of all hard coal mines in the area of the Chief Mines Inspectorate of the Land NW were carried out by means of a specially designed method of measurement. The dependence of radon concentrations on atmospheric pressure and fan pressure was evaluated on the basis of the measurement results available. Long-term measurements are carried out on the surface of a coal mine at return air shafts, using continuous measuring instruments. For continuous long-term measurements underground, an intrinsically-safe measuring device, which involves processing and storage of the measured values in a CMOS micro-computer, was developed. The radon concentrations which were found are low as compared with maximum levels based on dose/effect correlations put forward by the International Committee for Radiological Protection. Considering radon, the risk of the hard coal miner can therefore be regarded as negligible

408

Settlement and strength of clay-rich coal mine spoil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses the settlement and strength of clay-rich coal mine spoil material, which was sourced from Jeebropilly coal mine in south-east Queensland, Australia. The settlement consists of three components: self-weight, collapse on wetting up, and weathering-induced settlements; 80% of the self-weight settlement of initially dry spoil occurs during placement. Due to corrosion cracking at highly stressed particle contacts, collapse settlement of spoil occurs on wetting up. Weathering-induced spoil settlement occurs over a variable timeframe that depends on durability of the spoil. Laboratory tests included material characterization and geotechnical parameter testing. The characterization of testing methodologies is presented. The results of the tests have implications on the shear strength and settlement of clay-rich spoil materials such as the weathered clayrock found in the upper part of the Jeebropilly coal mine. These implications are detailed and they shed some light on the settlement and strength behavior of these materials.

Williams, David; Kho, Adrian; Daley, Andrew [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland (Australia)

2011-07-01

409

Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2010  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report on coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter 2010 contains the statistical data concerning the following issues: (i) black coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade; (ii) brown coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade.

410

76 FR 30878 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors  

Science.gov (United States)

...75, and 90 RIN 1219-AB64 Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust...the proposed rule addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust...MSHA published a proposed rule, Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine...

2011-05-27

411

76 FR 2617 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors  

Science.gov (United States)

...75, and 90 RIN 1219-AB64 Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust...the proposed rule addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust...MSHA published a proposed rule, Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine...

2011-01-14

412

76 FR 25277 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors  

Science.gov (United States)

...75, and 90 RIN 1219-AB64 Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust...the proposed rule addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust...MSHA published a proposed rule, Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine...

2011-05-04

413

Research on the Numerical Simulation of Steep Coal Seam Mining under Water Body  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The steep coal seam mining under water body is a technical difficult problem. Because it will bring many mining hazards such as ground subsidence, roof water inrush and water body destruction. To solve these problems in Tongjiaowan mine, the method combining with strip mining and backfilled mining is proposed. First the coal seam is divided into several strips along the trend and the width between two strips is ten meters. Then the coal seam of every strip ...

Huang Cun-Han; Deng Guang-Tao

2014-01-01

414

The prevention of water hazards in coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abrupt inrushes of water into deep coal mines have occurred from time immemorial. For example, in an undrained rock mass characterised by low strength, deposition of water-bearing loose rocks on the overlay of coal and disturbance by many water-bearing fault fissures, inrushes of water and quicksand are very common, resulting not only in any material damages but also causing human fatalities. 1 ref., 5 figs.

Milkowski, W. (Technical University, Gdansk (Poland))

1991-05-01

415

AN OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR A COAL MINING PRODUCTION UNIT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The coal mining industry faces increased pressure for higher quality coal at lower cost and increased volumes. To satisfy these requirements the industry needs technically skilled first line supervisors with operational management skills. Most first line supervisors possess the necessary technical, but not the required operational management skills. Various operational management philosophies, describing world-class operational management practices exist; however, i...

Visser, R.; Claasen, S. J.

2012-01-01

416

Free steered vehicles - increasing coal mining output and productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although free steered vehicles (FSCs) on rubber tyres, especially the diesel-engined load-haul-dump (LHD) and utility types, have dominated methods at metal and industrial mineral operation for a 2 decades, it was not until the late 1960's that the first trials were conducted in coal mines. The main reason for the long development period was the difficulty of designing practical engine flameproofing for mobile equipment. Although LHD's and scoops are used for loading coal and development rock particularly in room-and-pillar workings, a major application for FSVs in coal mines is transport of materials, equipment and men. The movement of heavy supports, shearer loaders and armoured face conveyors onto and off longwall faces is another important application. Other uses include roadway maintenance and floor dinting, as power packs to move roadheaders and continuous miners and to serve as drill rig carriers. The development and utilisation in coal mines of diesel, battery and electric FSV's in a number of countries is discussed. A list of manufacturers together with their vehicles (flameproofed to regulations applicable in the country of origin) is given, together with vehicle specifications. It is suggested that although most rubber-tyred equipment in coal mines is battery or electrically powered, the population of diesel-powered vehicles will continue to increase. 9 references.

Pearse, G.

1986-06-01

417

Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

418

Airways obstruction, coal mining, and disability.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has recently been suggested that the inhalation of coal in the absence of complicated coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) or smoking can lead to disabling airways obstruction. The cause of such obstruction has been variously attributed to emphysema or bronchitis. The frequency of significant airways obstruction in a group of United States coal miners seeking compensation for occupationally induced pulmonary impairment was therefore determined. In a sample of 611 "Black Lung" claimants there...

Seaton, A.

1994-01-01

419

Morphogenetic classification of coal seam washouts in Donbass mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper evaluates washout types in coal seams in Donbass mines. Five washout types are characterized: trough-shaped, V-shaped or U-shaped, lentil-shaped, consisting of groups of small lentils and discontinuous washouts which consist of a number of coal and rock partings. Each of the 5 washout types is shown in a scheme. The following aspects of coal seam washouts are discussed: dimensions, shape, angle of inclination of trough walls, washout dimensions in relation to coal seam thickness, rock types filling washout zones. Effects of seam washouts on longwall mining are analyzed. Morphogenetic characteristics of 5 washout groups are given. Investigations show that trough-shaped, U or V-shaped washouts are of epigenetic origin and lentil-shaped, discontinuous washouts consisting of a number of rock and coal partings and washouts with groups of rock lentils are of syngenetic origin. Washout classification is shown in a table. Classification is aimed at optimizing the mining system in washout zones. It considers washout dimensions, washout dimensions in relation to coal seam thickness and rock type filling the washout (sandstone, agrillite or aleurite). System for coding information on washouts is described.

Shul' ga, V.F.; Vashchenko, V.I.

1982-09-01

420

AN IMPROVED INVENTORY OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM COAL MINING IN THE UNITED STATES  

Science.gov (United States)

Past efforts to estimate methane emissions from underground mines surface mines, and other coal mine operations have been hampered, to different degrees, by a lack of direct emissions data. Direct measurements have been completely unavailable for several important coal mining ope...

 
 
 
 
421

Coal type and rank variation in Tatu Mine, New Zealand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tatu State Mine in Taranaki, North Island, New Zealand, worked a Miocene subbituminous coal seam about 2 m thick over an area of nearly 3 km{sup 2}. Detailed face sampling of the seam from 1940 to 1961 provided 46 proximate and 15 proximate and ultimate analyses. They show great variation, particularly in moisture, volatile matter, calorific value and sulphur content. The relations between the various analytical parameters exemplify and amplify those found generally within coals from New Zealand and many other countries, providing basic elements for geological study of coal properties. 12 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Suggate, R.P. [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

1995-01-01

422

Analysis of rock structure stability in coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the theory of limit point instability is used to analyse the stability of rock structures in coal mines. A general method of analysing stability of rock structures is put forward and a uniform instability condition of rock structures is set up. Some instability phenomena, such as rock bursts in circular roadways, pillars and long walls, and the outburst of coal and gas from circular roadways, are discussed analytically. At a later stage, the critical point of rock structure instability is determined. The influence of relative parameters (such as the mechanical properties of rock, coal, and the geometric sizes) on the stability of the rock structures is carefully analysed.

Pan, Y.S.; Li, Z.H. [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxing (China). Dept. of Engineering Science & Mechanics

2005-08-25

423

Diffuse soil degassing from abandoned underground coal mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Southeastern Ohio has been extensively coal mined. The coal in this region and associated rocks are high in sulfur and generate acid mine drainage when exposed to air and water. Poor water quality in rivers and streams is a common problem in this region. Water recharge to the underground coal mines occurs preferentially throughout subsidence features in areas where the overburden is thinner than around 60 feet, usually close to river and streams. Gases released from the coal beds such as methane and carbon dioxide, as well as radon generated in the rocks can diffuse throughout the overlying rocks and soils and discharge to the atmosphere. The soils of an area covering around 151 km2 close to the town of Corning, Ohio, were investigated. Around half of the study area has been coal mined. Soil gas samples were taking every 600 to 1000 m using a sonde and extracting the gas with a syringe. Samples were also extracted with a vacuum pump and analyzed for radon in a Pylon AB-5 Radiation Detector. Soil gas samples were analyzed in a Arizona Mercury Analyzer. Additional samples were stored in vaccutainers and analyzed in a gas chromatograph to determine the partial pressures of carbon dioxide and methane. Our results indicate that gas concentrations are significantly higher in regions of thin overburden compared to regions of thick overburden and non-mined areas. These results suggest that gases are diffusing throughout fractures and subsidence features of the rocks overlying the exploited coal seams and are discharged more easily to the atmosphere when the overburden is thinner.

Lopez, D.; Ruiz, V.

2003-04-01

424

Use of natural gamma radiation in the coal mining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique of delineating coal seams by the use of natural gamma borehole logging sondes has been known for many years. The principle of the technique is that the gamma fluxes in shales are higher than in coals as the abundance of naturally occurring radionuclides is some twenty times greater in the former. This paper discusses other applications where the differeing natural gamma properties of coals and shales can be used. These are: (a) To distinguish between stone (shale) and run-of-mine coal on conveyor belts. A common situation underground is one in which stone from development headings and normal run-of-mine coal have to be batched along the same conveyor system. A natural gamma device capable of distinguishing between such batches of material, and thus allowing suitable mechanical separation, will be described. (b) To provide an accurate measurement of roof coal thickness by measuring the natural gamma flux penetrating the roof coal. To illustrate this examples will be given where this technique is used to provide automatic controlled steering of Long Wall Shearers and to provide manually assisted steering of In-seam Heading Machines

425

Changes in coal mining society in contemporary West Bengal, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Government of India has, in recent years, taken multiple steps to encourage private sector participation, adopt a more holistic approach towards expanding its coal base, and improve efficiency in the sector as a whole. However, the existing regulatory framework in India is not adequately developed or in tune with international standards that the extractive industries sector have been putting together. It is thus crucial for the Indian coal industry to consider changes in its regulatory environment to make it a par with the international standards to meet the critical requirement for energy security. In fact coal mining society is passing though havoc changes due to Government’s newly introduced multifold policies. The industrial relation now has changed immensely than the previous practices. Coal industry, which contributes 67 percent of total energy requirements of our country. After two phases nationalization the industry witnessed certain developments, which have implications for the human recourses management and industrial relation. In the beginning of the 90s one important event was the introduction of the new economic policy and this has a great influence over the coal mine sector. Impact of the policy Change is the introduction of a number of private operators in the coal production. Broadly, new economic policy initiated the gradual withdrawal of state from the control of basic industry and infrastructure. Coal mines are no exception in this regard. So the effect of new economic policy in the consequence of globalization also falls on the coal sectors. We now see what sort of impact of policy change has taken place upon the coal sector and coal workers. This article tires to examine the changes taken place due to policy changes and changes in general outlook of the people of coal mines in which they live. Now the industrial relation as well as the mechanism of work has been changed drastically. The traditional practice of work and mental outlook is gradually replacing with global method. It was noticed that people associated in this industry has started accepting the wider scope of work culture.

Sribas Goswami

2011-01-01

426

Undeground Coal Mine Supervisory and Management Training. Phase I Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A project was conducted to develop a safety-oriented supervisory and management training program for the underground coal mining industry. The first phase of the project involved research to determine relevant training materials that are available and in use, assessment of supervisory and management training needs, and development of objectives…

Loustaunau, Paul; And Others

427

GSM Based Flexible Calling System For Coal Mining Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an emergency flexible calling system consists of GSM module, solar panel, vibration sensor, battery sensor and fire sensor which are connected with centralized control room by wireless communication. Proposed system may be installed near coal mine where even basic emergency services are not available. It will be totally based on GSM signal strength. In case of medical & accidental emergency happen in the coal mine, particularly when the workerdoesn’t have the mobile phone or having no tower in coal mine, this system may be very much helpful.System has flexible timer for calling to the control room. The System will be protected from theft attempts using different alarm circuits like vibration sensor, fire sensor and battery sensor. This system will be continuously powered through a solar panel. This system will be useful even for illiterate people as well as for coal mining worker. The purpose of this project is to help people in emergency in remote location as early as possible. This system can useful in villages having no electricity.

Prof. Himanshu K. Patel#1, Deep H. Desai*2, Tanvi G. Badheka

2013-04-01

428

Radioactive contamination of food chain around coal mine and coal-fired power stations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the coal mine in Lazarevac, and the coal-fired power stations in Obrenovac, on the activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs in some parts of human food chain of people living in the surrounding area. The obtained results showed that natural environment around the examined coal mine and the coal-fired power stations are not significantly affected by the emission of primordial radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 238U in the soil around the open coal mine and the coal processing installations (66.4-76.0 Bq/kg and in the soil around the coal-fired power stations (55.5-61.2 Bq/kg were not significantly higher than the average values in Serbia. The significant increase in the activity concentrations of natural radioisotopes in the samples of soil, vegetation, and animal products, was not confirmed. Food of animal origin used in human consumption is safe, i. e. not contaminated by radiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003 i br. TR34013

Vitorovi? Gordana S.

2012-01-01

429

Research on the Factors of Fatigue of Coal Mine Workers and Its Control Measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China is the largest coal producer in the world, it play a important role in the international field of coal production, but due to the frequent occurrence of coal mining accidents, it cause a enormous damage to the state's manpower and material resources. This article on research of the cause of the coal mining accident, it describes the fatigue of the coal mine workers assignment is the main cause of the accident and the threat to the safety of workers, and points out the important factors in ergonomics. MMEC theory is introduced and using for reference MMEC theory, finding out influence the cause of the coal mine worker fatigue, and combined with the relevant laws and regulations system to control and reduce the proposed method of coal mine worker fatigue to reduce and prevent the occurrence of coal mine accidents have some guidance Significance.

Zhang Jing-Gang

2013-07-01

430

Correlation of Risk Analysis Method Results with Numerical and Limit Equilibrium Methods in Overall Slope Stability Analysis of Southern Wall of Chadormalu Iron Open Pit Mine-Iran / Korelacja wyników analizy ryzyka z wynikami oblicze? numerycznych oraz wynikami uzyskanymi w oparciu o metod? równowagi granicznej zastosowanych do badania stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego na po?udniowej ?cianie odkrywkowej kopalni rud ?elaza w chadormalu w Iranie  

Science.gov (United States)

Slope stability analysis is one of the most important factors in designing open pit mines. Therefore an optimal slope design that supports both aspects of economy and safety is very significant. There are many different methods in slope stability analysis including empirical, limit equilibrium, block theory, numerical, and probabilistic methods. In this study, to analyze the overall slope stability of southern wall of Chadormalu iron open pit mine three numerical, limit equilibrium and probabilistic methods have been used. Software and methods that is used for analytical investigation in this study are FLAC software for numerical analysis, SLIDE software and circuit failure chart for limit equilibrium analysis and qualitative fault tree and semi-quantitative risk matrix for probabilistic analysis. The results of all above mentioned methods, was a circular failure occurrence in Metasomatite rock zone between 1405 to 1525 m levels. The main factors of failure occurrence in this range were heavily jointing and existing of faults. Safety factors resulted from numerical method; Circular chart method and SLIDE software are 1.16, 1.25 and 1.27 respectively. Regarding instability and safety factors in Metasomatite rock zone, in order to stabilize the given zone, some considerations such as bench angle and height reduction should be planned. In results of risk matrix method this zone was mentioned too as a high risk zone that numerical and limit equilibrium methods confirmed this. Badanie stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego jest jednym z najwa?niejszych czynników uwzgl?dnianych przy projektowaniu kopalni odkrywkowych. Optymalne zaprojektowanie wyrobiska pochy?ego z uwzgl?dnieniem czynników ekonomicznych oraz bezpiecze?stwa jest niezmiernie wa?ne. Istnieje wiele metod badania stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego, mi?dzy innymi metody empiryczne, metoda równowagi granicznej, teoria bloków oraz metody numeryczne i probabilistyczne. W pracy tej omówiono zastosowanie trzech spo?ród tych metod: metody numerycznej, równowagi granicznej oraz metody probabilistycznej, do analizy stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego na po?udniowej ?cianie kopalni rud ?elaza w Chadormalu w Iranie. Oprogramowanie wykorzystane w badaniach analitycznych to pakiet FLAK przy metodzie numerycznej, oprogramowanie SLIDE oraz wykresy ko?owe przy metodzie równowagi granicznej oraz jako?ciowe drzewa okre?laj?ce wyst?powanie uskoków i pó?-jako?ciowe macierze ryzyka przy metodzie probabilistycznej. Wyniki uzyskane w oparciu o trzy wy?ej wymienione metody wykaza?y wyst?pienie zawalenia si? ska? metasomatycznych na poziomie od 1405 do 1525 m. G?ównymi czynnikami warunkuj?cymi zawalenie si? ska? w tym regionie by?a obecno?? licznych p?kni?? oraz uskoków. Wska?niki bezpiecze?stwa uzyskane przy pomocy metod numerycznych, wykresu ko?owego oraz oprogramowanie SLIDE wynios?y kolejno: 1.16, 1.25, 1.27. W odniesieniu do niestabilno?ci w rejonie ska? metasomatycznych, aby uczyni? t? stref? bardziej stabiln? nale?y uwzgl?dni? takie czynniki jak k?t nachylenia ?awy oraz obni?enie wysoko?ci. Analiza przeprowadzona w oparciu o macierze ryzyka wykaza?a, ?e strefa ta jest stref? wysokiego ryzyka, za? wyniki analizy numerycznej oraz wyników uzyskanych przy pomocy metody równowagi granicznej w pe?ni ten wniosek potwierdzi?y.

Ahangari, Kaveh; Paji, Arman Gholinezhad; Behdani, Alireza Siami

2013-06-01

431

Automation of coal preparation at the Manifest Lipcowy mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses operation of the Manifest Lipcowy coal preparation plant constructed in 1970. The following separation processes are used in the plant: DISA-2/S heavy media separation (200-20 mm), ODM-18 pulsator jigs (20-0.5 mm), flotation machines (0.5-0 mm), three-product cyclon