WorldWideScience

Sample records for open-pit coal mines

  1. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  2. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  3. Peak particle velocity for rockbursts in underground coal mines and for shot-hole explosions in open-pit mines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Karel; Rušajová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 46, ?. 1 (2011), s. 104-114. ISSN 1217-8977 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : hole-shot explosion * open-pit mine * peak particle velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2011 http://www.akademiai.com/content/k3u1334gw21u4x27/

  4. Assessment of Rosa Majalis Herrm-Fruits Contamination with Heavy Metals in Open-Pit Coal Mine Waste Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nikolaevna Egorova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work studies heavy metals content in embryo-earths and Rosa majalis Herrm. Fruits in conditions of "Kedrovsky" open-pit coal mine waste dump in Kuzbass region, Russia. It has been experimentally proven that embryo-earths of the dump are characterized by significant fluctuations in heavy metal content - maximum values are typical for Mn and Fe (79.5 and 26.6 mg/kg, minimum values for Cd and Cu (0.134 and 0.27 mg/kg. It has been found that the content of biologically active elements, Cu and Zn, is below sufficient soils reserves. Comparison of results with hygienic standards did not reveal content of heavy metals in embryo-earths the dump more than MPC (APC. It has been found that the briar fruits accumulate more biophile metals (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu; content of technogenic group elements (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co is low - between 0.05 and 1.1 mg/kg. Calculation of biological motility rate (Bx showed that briar fruits absorb more Cu (13.03 and Zn (4.82 from soil. For the majority of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, Ni, Fe and Cr inhibition of biological absorption (Bx <1 has been detected with minimum for Pb. Hygienic assessment of Rosa majalis Herrm. fruits showed no excess in the content of heavy metals over MPC accepted for vegetative BAA, MPC based on generalized world information and regional background of ecologically pure areas of Kuzbass. The work accomplished proves safety of briar fruits grown at waste dumps of the Kedrovsky open-pit coal mine as far as ecotoxicants like heavy metals are concerned.

  5. Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measur flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

  6. Monitoring hazardous open pit mine slope.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    Houten : EAGE, 2012, C038/1-C038/5. ISBN 978-90-73834-27-9. [EAGE Conference & exhibition incorporationg SPE EUROPEC 2010 /74./. Copenhagen (DK), 04.06.2012-07.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : tiltmeter * slope monitoring * open-pit mine Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  7. Influence of cultivation measures on the development of vegetation and nutrient ratios in spoil banks from brown-coal open-pit mining at Borken/northern Hessen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoil banks from open-pit brown-coal mining at Borken in northern Hessen are extremely acidic and depleted in nutrients. This material was mixed with neutralizing cellulose ash. For initial fertilization, N, P2O5 and K2O were applied at the same time as the seeding mixture. Seeding mixtures used were ''Dauerweide'', containing fast-growing species, and ''Boeschungssaat'', containing undermanding species. The fact that no top soil was applied resulted in increasing gaps and decreasing production rates in the plant stands. This work aimed to investigate how plant stands and the soil material develop after revegetation measures without application of topsoil. (orig.)

  8. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel. The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Effect of mining landscape history on local species diversity: a case study of the Yimin open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarula Kang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and utilization of mineral resources accelerates local economic and social development and simultaneously exacerbates the effects of climate and landscape changes, resulting in landscape fragmentation. Landscape change is widely considered as a major threat to species loss at a regional and global scale. However, how species diversity responds to landscape changes on a temporal scale has usually been ignored. In this study, we explored relationships between landscape and biodiversity (species level and functional group level during different years (1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010 at the Yimin open-pit coal mine, a mine that has been exploited for more than 30 years and that has produced obvious fragmentation effects on the landscape in Hulunbuir City. The ongoing patterns of transformation of the landscape were measured using the landscape dominance index, the habitat integral index of connectivity (IIC, and the habitat probability of connectivity (PC at seven different spatial scales. The main results were as follows: The present species diversity is significantly correlated with the landscape pattern indices of previous and earlier mining at a medium-sized spatial scale (4–8 km buffers. Different plant functional groups responded in various ways to changing landscape patterns. The species richness of perennial rhizome grasses was significantly correlated with the present small-scale landscape pattern (1–3 km, and the species richness of perennial forbs was significantly correlated with the previous and earlier mining large-scale landscape patterns (4–10 km. Perennial bunchgrasses were not significantly correlated with landscape patterns. We concluded that the time lag expressed by changes in plant species diversity occurred in response to changing patterns of construction and configurations of habitats in the landscape. The regional species pool determined the local species diversity. The connected habitat patches within a 4–8 km buffer region represented the principal species pool. The propagation strategies and dispersal traits of various functional groups were important mechanisms maintaining species diversity in a fragmented area.

  10. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines “Kolubara”, Serbia – risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and 40K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines “Kolubara” and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. - Highlights: • Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples were determined. • Effect on population health due to the activity of these radionuclides was estimated. • All samples were collected at different locations of the open pit mines “Kolubara”. • All measured and calculated values were below the recommended limits. • There is no enhanced radiation hazard for population nearby open pit mines

  11. Identification of a Hidden Volcano in an Open-pit Coal Mine by Gravity Survey, NW Bohemia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    Houten : EAGE, 2014, Tu PA2 03/1-Tu PA2 03/5. ISBN 978-94-6282-027-2. [Near Surface Geoscience 2014 - 20th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics. Athens (GR), 14.09.2014-18.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : hidden volcano * coal mine * gravity survey Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcano logy, Earth Structure

  12. Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovi?, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosi?, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health. PMID:23054761

  13. VIABILIDAD DE LA EXTRACCIÓN DE CARBONES A CIELO ABIERTO. CASO MINA LA MARGARITA / OPEN PIT COAL EXPLOTATION VIABILITY. MARGARITA MINE CASE OF STUDY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JULIA, VELOZA; JORGE, MOLINA; HUMBERTO, MEJIA.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la viabilidad, planeamiento y diseño de una nueva explotación a cielo abierto de carbón en la mina La Margarita S.A., con recursos carboníferos superficiales calculados en 440.139,7 ton. Se logró dimensionar, diseñar y evaluar económicamente con tres diferentes métodos de explo [...] tación: Cortas, Contorno y Terrazas. Para el método de Cortas el Valor Presente Neto (VPN) fue de 817,5 de Contorno 518,5 y Terrazas 645,2 dado en millones de pesos ($) colombianos corrientes del 2004 y la Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR) para Cortas: 78,33%, Contorno 34,0% y Terrazas 38,62. Estos indicadores sirvieron para seleccionar el método de Cortas, el cual fue ajustado con cierto detalle, ya que fue necesario trabajar conjuntamente dos frentes para hacerlo viable. Como valor agregado para el proyecto se hizo una evaluación general ambiental, que es de vital importancia para la explotación. Se dan recomendaciones para minimizar los impactos más importantes tales como la flora, fauna, aire, suelo, aguas. De cada una de ellas se plantean medidas ya sean de mitigación, control o prevención. Se espera que este trabajo sirva como soporte técnico - económico para el desarrollo de una nueva extracción de carbón a cielo abierto dentro de la mina La Margarita. Abstract in english This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for “La Margarita” mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation was possible by three exploitation methods: (Multiple bench, Open Cast [...] contour, and Terraces). Net Present Values (NVP) were calculated: $C 817,5; $C 518,5 and $C 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $C 2380 are equivalent to $US 1) and Rate of Return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. In addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. It is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the Margarita Mine

  14. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 ?m - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle concentrations are the highest in January and February, being the correlation between the TSP and PM10 measurements not as strong during this time period. This could be associated with the spatial and temporal variability of wet deposition as well as a larger mechanical and eolic resuspension of particles. We found that precipitation drastically reduces the levels of particulate matter. In order to describe the effect of wet deposition, a mathematical model was developed based on a first order relaxation proportional to the precipitation rate. Daily average concentrations and daily accumulated precipitation were used in this model, which showed high concentration reductions even for low precipitation levels essentially for all stations. Monthly precipitation values showed a better correlation with TSP concentrations. Finally, we found evidence of a significant decrease in global radiation due to particulate matter, particularly during the dry season, which could potentially affect farming and agricultural activities in the region.

  15. A spatial decision support system for the optimal environmental reclamation of open-pit coal mines in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Pavloudakis; M. Galetakis; C. Roumpos [Public Power Corporation of Greece - Mines Division, Athens (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    Mine reclamation is an integral part of the mineral development process. The selection of land use after the mine closure is a difficult decision, which is complicated further because of the variety of parameters that must be taken into account trying to provide the local community with a viable development plan. Conventional methods used for reclamation planning are characterised by the lack of data integration and by time-consuming analysis. In this study, we propose a spatial decision-support system (SDSS) that minimises these problems, as data integration and analysis are offered within one computerised environment. A geographical information system and multi-criteria decision-making methods, based on binary integer linear programming models, have been integrated to select the appropriate land use in different parts of a post-mining area taking into account social, technical, economic, environmental and safety criteria. The proposed SDSS was used for the selection of the optimal landscape reclamation strategy of the Amynteon lignite surface mine located at West Macedonia Lignite Centre, Northern Greece. On the basis of developed mine maps, the model variables are assessed and incorporated into the objective optimisation function. Emphasis is placed on the spatial diversification of the model variables. The application demonstrates that the decision-support system allows the mining company to determine in an efficient way the specific land use (agricultural land, forest, recreational area and industrial zone) that is considered the most suitable for every part of the study area.

  16. Rotary Drill Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilow, Bill

    This training outline for rotary drill operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  17. Haulage Truck Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for haulage truck operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  18. Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

  19. Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Cehlárová; Michal Cehlár

    2007-01-01

    Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber an...

  20. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.)

  1. Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cehlárová

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is “deepened” in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level.

  2. Preliminary study of realizability of Karazhyra open pit coal fines briquetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main properties of brown coals in Karazhyra open pit upper and lower packs are determined. Characteristics of these coals briquette-ability are evaluated. A conceptual possibility to obtain high-quality briquettes from open pit coal fines is shown. (author)

  3. Dewatering of the Jenkins open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining of low grade uranium sandstones in the Jenkins open pit mine in the Shirley Basin, Wyoming was troubled by slope failures and wet conditions in the pit. Since the mine was expanding toward a river, the possibility of drainage from this river into the mine raised serious concern during the mine planning. A baseline hydrogeologic study was performed and dewatering measures were designed with the help of a numerical mathematical model. A combination of dewatering wells installed from the surface around the perimeter of the pit and horizontal drains in areas of high slope failure potential substantially improved the mining conditions and slope stability. This procedure consequently led to the successful ore recovery from the highly saturated sandstone strata. The development of drawdown during the dewatering of two separated aquifers in the overburden was close to that predicted by the model

  4. Some questions on small uranium open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiences of the existing uranium open pits are summarized and the questions in design, erection and production are analyzed. It is important helpful to develop and to design such economical and reasonable small uranium open pits

  5. Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST) y Partículas Respirables (PM 10) producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto / Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10) generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis C, Angulo; José I, Huertas; Gloria M, Restrepo.

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST) y partículas respirables (PM10) producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (dis [...] tribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad) y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios). Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación. Abstract in english This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP) and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10) generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distr [...] ibution, morphology and density) and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants). These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  6. Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST y Partículas Respirables (PM 10 producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10 generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C Angulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST y partículas respirables (PM10 producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (distribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios. Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación.This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distribution, morphology and density and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants. These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  7. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations, mine dimensions, production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 630 Ci/RRY (1 RRY one = 1000-MW(e) reactor operating for 1 year) during mining operations and 26 Ci/RRY/y after abandoment of the mine assuming 100% recovery of U3O8 from the ore, or 700 Ci/RRY and 29 Ci/RRY/y assuming 90.5% recovery

  8. The using of GPS – RTK technology for creation of the OpenPit mine basic map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Mu?ková

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The comparison of accuracy of results of methods used for measuring of detailed points of drawing of the openpit mine map with results of the method GPS – RTK is realized in the paper. The first part of the article deals with classical methods of tacheometry as wire tacheometry, reducing tacheometry or tacheometry with electronic tacheometer. In the second part of the article the selective set of coordinates of detailed points measured in the openpit mine in Jakub?ovice nad Odrou is evaluated. The results of comparison written are estimated in the end of the paper as well as some tasks at surveying by means of using GPS –RTK technology in the open pit mine.

  9. The using of GPS – RTK technology for creation of the OpenPit mine basic map

    OpenAIRE

    Jitka Mu?ková

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of accuracy of results of methods used for measuring of detailed points of drawing of the openpit mine map with results of the method GPS – RTK is realized in the paper. The first part of the article deals with classical methods of tacheometry as wire tacheometry, reducing tacheometry or tacheometry with electronic tacheometer. In the second part of the article the selective set of coordinates of detailed points measured in the openpit mine in Jakub?ovice nad Odrou is eva...

  10. The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

  11. A Heuristic Traditional MIP Solving Approach for Long Term Production Scheduling in Open Pit Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafiee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is optimization of long term production scheduling by solving the traditional MIP formulation that the objective function and all of constrains are satisfied. The economic viability of the modern day mine is highly dependent upon careful planning and design. Appropriate planning and operation of large open pit mines are enormous and complex task. Optimization techniques can be successfully applied to resolve a number of important problems that arise in the planning and management of a mine. Optimization of long-term production planning needs correct selection of equipments and labor forces and reducing capital and operation costs. Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP methods are used for optimizing production planning in open pit mines with objective of maximizing the total discounted net present value. But MIP formulation of the production scheduling in open pit mines, particularly in large open pit with many numbers of blocks needs too many variables causing it very difficult or impossible to solve. To over come this problem a new heuristic approach by reducing schedule period and applying primary guess is developed based on mixed integer linear programming to reduce the periods of planning and decrease the number of variable and the number of constraint needed in the formulation. The results of this method compared to existing methods shows the significant reduction of binary variable in MIP formulation and higher chance to obtain the optimal Net Present Value (NPV.

  12. Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas, Jose I., E-mail: jhuertas@itesm.mx [Tecnologico de Monterrey, Eduardo Monroy Cardenas No 2000, Toluca, Mexico (Mexico); Huertas, Maria E. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Solis, Dora A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Carrera Toluca - Atlacomulco km 14.5. Tlachaloya, Toluca, Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-04-15

    We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d = 5.46 {+-} 0.32 {mu}m and {sigma}(ln d) = 0.61 {+-} 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d = 3.6 {+-} 0.38 {mu}m and {sigma}(ln d) = 0.55 {+-} 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Airborne particles from an opencast mining region were fully characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM-EDS and XPS techniques were applied to characterize airborne particles Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particle size distributions of TSP and PM{sub 10} are lognormal Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particles are composed of limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metals content in the particles does not represent any risk to human health.

  13. A Heuristic Traditional MIP Solving Approach for Long Term Production Scheduling in Open Pit Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Rafiee; Omid Asghari

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is optimization of long term production scheduling by solving the traditional MIP formulation that the objective function and all of constrains are satisfied. The economic viability of the modern day mine is highly dependent upon careful planning and design. Appropriate planning and operation of large open pit mines are enormous and complex task. Optimization techniques can be successfully applied to resolve a number of important problems that arise in the planning...

  14. Engineering application of thrust block analysis in slope stability problems in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K.N., Karparov; M.F., Handley.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical limit equilibrium methods are suspected to be ineffective in predicting the potential for highwall failure in many instances in coal mines around the world. Slope engineers have for many years recognized a block thrust failure mechanism for slope failures, but little work had been done [...] before 2000 to explain the actual mechanisms which must be responsible for the failure. The main reason for this is that limit equilibrium methods implicitly assume rigid blocks, and the resulting force equations must be satisfied everywhere simultaneously for them to have any meaning. This paper will show that the material involved in the slope failure is not rigid; indeed it undergoes considerable permanent deformation during failure. This observation allows the authors to treat the block boundaries independently, because they need not maintain a constant spatial relationship with one another, as is assumed in other methods. To enable analysis of this type the authors assume that the weight of the blocks is evenly distributed. This is reasonable, because the slope material is not strong enough to be self-supporting without some sort of constraint, or strong enough to be able to apply point loads to the surrounding material. The purpose of this paper is to extend the practical application of the analytical method developed from mechanism studies to provide an objective assessment of the risk of slope failure, and therefore guidelines for more stable slope designs. This work is based on studies carried out on two failures in an open pit coal mine in South Africa, and provides a methodology to assess the potential for failure more objectively than is possible with currently accepted methods, while at the same time remaining sufficiently simple to allow a 'back of the cigarette box' assessment by geotechnical engineers on site.

  15. Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

  16. AN ANOTHER WAY FOR OPEN PIT MINE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION – FLOATING SLOPES METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Jankovi?

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors of the work presents main principles of a new method of design the ultimate pit which is primarily applicable for bedded formations, but also can be acceptable for other types of deposits. On the basis of main criteria of optimum design (profitability and slope stability, the authors have tested theirs procedure and proposed a new method for optimum design of open pit mines, for which the most suitable name would be the Floating Slopes Method.

  17. Duality results for stationary problems of open pit mine planning in a continuous function framework

    OpenAIRE

    Griewank, A.; Strogies, N.

    2011-01-01

    Open Pit Mine Planning problems are usually considered in a Mixed Integer Programming context. Characterizing each attainable profile by a continuous function yields a continuous framework. It allows for a more detailed modeling of slope constraints and other material properties of slanted layers. Although the resulting nonlinear programming problems are in general non-convex and non-differentiable, they provide certain advantages as one can directly compute sensitivities of optimal solutions...

  18. Optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation in combined mining using (0-1) integer programming

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Bakhtavar; K., Shahriar; A., Mirhassani.

    1059-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many near-surface deposits with considerable vertical extent that have the potential to be mined by a combined method of open-pit and underground methods. In this regard, there is often a point called 'transition depth' where a decision has to be made whether to continue deepening the pit [...] or change to underground methods. Recently, optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation has become an important challenge in mining engineering. Optimally, to model the transition problem on the basis of maximization of the profit from open-pit and underground mining, (0-1) integer programming has been used. In this method, block economic values of open-pit and underground methods should be imported to the transition model. A hypothetical example is presented in order to assess the model in detail.

  19. Open pit mine planning and design. Vol 1. Fundamentals; Vol. 2. CSMine software package and orebodey case examples. 2nd.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustrulid, W.; Kuchta, M. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2006-04-15

    This book is designed to be both a textbook and a reference book describing the principles involved in the planning and design of open pit mines. Volume 1 deals with the fundamental concepts involved in the planning and design of an open pit mine. The eight chapters cover mine planning, mining revenues and costs, orebody description, geometrical considerations, pit limits, and production planning, mineral resources and ore reserves, and responsible mining. There is an extensive coverage of environmental considerations and basic economic principles. A large number of examples have been included to illustrate the applications. A second volume is devoted to a mine design and software package, CSMine. CSMine is user-friendly mine planning and design software developed specifically to illustrate the practical application of the involved principles. It also comprises the CSMine tutorial, the CSMine user's manual and eight orebody case examples, including drillhole data sets for performing a complete open pit mine evaluation. 545 ills., 211 tabs.

  20. igm Robots with laser measurement for an economic repair welding of equipment components of open-pit minings; igm-Roboter mit Laservermessung zum wirtschaftlichen Reparaturschweissen von Tagebauausruestungsteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wihsbeck, Martin [igm Robotersysteme AG, Wiener Neudorf (Austria); Wache, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Spremberg (Germany). Schwarze Pumpe; Springfeld, Peter

    2012-08-15

    In the Lusatian area,Vattenfall Europe AG prosecutes four open-pit minings whose lignite directly is supplied to power stations. A quarter of Germany's total electricity supply is based on lignite. The lignite mining in the area of the Lusatian open-pit minings is particularly efficient due to the horizontal orientation of the Lusatian coal seams. The movable components of the overburden conveyor bridges as well as the bucket wheel excavators and bucket ladder dredgers are subject to a tremendous wear. It is not economically feasible to refurbish certain wear parts. Such parts include Turas corners. In order to refurbish such Turas corners nevertheless, the Austrian company igm robot system AG (Wiener Neudorf, Austria) offers a welding robot.

  1. Analysis of open-pit mines using high-resolution topography from UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Among the anthropogenic topographic signatures on the Earth, open-pit mines deserve a great importance, since they significantly affect the Earth's surface and its related processes (e.g. erosion, pollution). Their geomorphological analysis, therefore, represents a real challenge for the Earth science community. The purpose of this research is to characterize the open-pit mining features using a recently published landscape metric, the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC) (Sofia et al., 2014), and high-resolution DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) derived from drone surveyed topography. The research focuses on two main case studies of iron mines located in the Beijing district (P.R. China). The main topographic information (Digital Surface Models, DSMs) was derived using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric technique. The results underline the effectiveness of the adopted methodologies and survey techniques in the characterization of the main geomorphic features of the mines. Thanks to the SLLAC, the terraced area given by multi-benched sideways-moving method for the iron extraction is automatically depicted, and using some SLLAC derived parameters, the related terraces extent is automatically estimated. The analysis of the correlation length orientation, furthermore, allows to identify the terraces orientation respect to the North, and to understand as well the shape of the open-pit area. This provides a basis for a large scale and low cost topographic survey for a sustainable environmental planning and, for example, for the mitigation of environmental anthropogenic impact due to mining. References Sofia G., Marinello F, Tarolli P. 2014. A new landscape metric for the identification of terraced sites: the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC). ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.06.018

  2. Optimal cut-off grade determination based on variable capacities in open-pit mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Abdollahisharif; E., Bakhtavar; M., Anemangely.

    1065-10-01

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Optimal cut-off grade is one of the most critical parameters in open-pit mine design because it defines the ore and waste and thus determines the maximum net present value possible from the mining operation. Although the algorithm presented by Lane (Choosing the optimum cut-off grade. Color [...] ado School of Mines Quarterly, vol. 59, no. 4, 1964. pp. 811-829) is the most common one in the literature, it does assume constant capacities of the mine, processing, and refinery. In this paper, Lane's original algorithm has been modified to consider variable processing capacities in order to determine the optimal cut-off grade in open-pit mines. The new algorithm proposed here is compared to both Lane's original algorithm and to a previous modification that incorporated rehabilitation costs into the cut-off grade estimation. The algorithm proposed here that permits variable processing capacities is shown to be superior for the determination of optimal cut-off grade to both these previous versions. In addition, a computer-based program was developed in Microsoft Office Excel© to calculate the optimal cut-off grade as proposed here.

  3. Combining Multiple Surveying Techniques to Accelerate Surveys of Open Pit Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, János; Schimmer, Christoph; Herkommer, Martin; Kutschera, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial Lidar Scanning (TLS) is well-accepted as the most precise tool for surveying open pit mines, collecting ultra-dense measurements drastically faster than traditional land surveying with a GNSS receiver. However, while a TLS can capture the most important parts of a mine in only a few surveys, the remaining occluded areas of the mine require several additional surveys, extending the survey time. To drastically reduce the time required for a TLS survey while still providing good quality data, we have adopted an approach that augments TLS data with UAV-based aerial triangulation. First, we identify a handful of positions from which the TLS can survey the vast majority of the mine, paying particular attention to the most important areas of the mine and the areas that an airborne scanner would have difficult accessing, such as the walls. We then survey the mine with a UAV-mounted camera and collect several ground control points (GCPs) in areas spread across the mine. During post-processing, we use aerial triangulation to derive a point cloud from the overlapping images captured by the UAV and matched the TLS and UAV data with the GCPs. Generally, the aerial-triangulation data is less dense and precise than the TLS data so we only used it to fill in areas we did not cover with the TLS. To minimize the impact of any loss of detail, we plan surveys so that the TLS covers the most important parts of the mine and so the UAV data is only needed for less important areas. The result is a georeferenced topographic map of the entire mine with high-quality data in the most important areas, all collected within hours rather than days. As proof of this concept, geo-konzept surveyed a mid-sized German open pit mine with a goal of spending only half a day surveying on-site. With an Optech ILRIS TLS and a geo-konzept Geo-Copter X-8000 UAS, we met this goal by surveying the entire 500-m×500-m mine in only 3 hours. Post-processing and georeferencing only required another 4 hours, meaning the entire survey could be done in a single day of work. We conclude that this multi-instrument approach greatly accelerates the rate at which surveyors can scan open-pit mines while still collecting dense and precise data.

  4. Duality results for stationary problems of open pit mine planning in a continuous function framework

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Griewank; N., Strogies.

    Full Text Available Open Pit Mine Planning problems are usually considered in a Mixed Integer Programming context. Characterizing each attainable profile by a continuous function yields a continuous framework. It allows for a more detailed modeling of slope constraints and other material properties of slanted layers. A [...] lthough the resulting nonlinear programming problems are in general non-convex and non-differentiable, they provide certain advantages as one can directly compute sensitivities of optimal solutions w.r.t. small data perturbations. In this work duality results are derived for the stationary problems of the continuous framework employing an additional condition called convex-likeness.

  5. Duality results for stationary problems of open pit mine planning in a continuous function framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Griewank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Open Pit Mine Planning problems are usually considered in a Mixed Integer Programming context. Characterizing each attainable profile by a continuous function yields a continuous framework. It allows for a more detailed modeling of slope constraints and other material properties of slanted layers. Although the resulting nonlinear programming problems are in general non-convex and non-differentiable, they provide certain advantages as one can directly compute sensitivities of optimal solutions w.r.t. small data perturbations. In this work duality results are derived for the stationary problems of the continuous framework employing an additional condition called convex-likeness.

  6. Estimation of resuspension of radioactive aerosols in equipment cab of open-pit uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In open-pit mining of high grade ores, operators of mining equipment in a pressurized cab are protected from inhaling radioactive aerosols by the use of filtered air through a pre-impactor and a HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter. At present, a limited amount of scientific information is available on the worker exposure to airborne alpha emitters in the mining of high-grade ores. Four series of field samplings were conducted during the fall of 1980 and the summer of 1981 at a mining site in northern Saskatchewan to investigate the extent of protection an equipment operator has against cab internal exposure to airborne alpha emitters with short and long half-life radionuclides. The variation in the breathing zone concentration of aerosols as a result of resuspension is discussed, however no attempt was made to isolate and investigate the factors and the associated parameters of the aerosol resuspension phenomenon

  7. A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In adisposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs

  8. A stochastic simulation framework for truck and shovel selection and sizing in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.R., Dindarloo; M., Osanloo; S., Frimpong.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Material handling in open pit mining accounts for about 50% of production costs. The selection and deployment of efficient, safe, and economic loading and haulage systems is thus critical to the production process. The problems of truck and shovel selection and sizing include determination of the op [...] timal number and capacities of haulage and loading units, as well as their allocation and operational strategies. Critical survey and analysis of the literature has shown that deterministic, stochastic, and experimental approaches to these problems result in considerably different outputs. This paper presents a comprehensive simulation framework for the problem of truck and shovel selection and sizing based on the random processes underlying the network-continuous-discrete event nature of the mining operation. The framework builds on previous research in this field and attempts to address limitations of available methodologies in the form of a comprehensive algorithm. To test the validity of the framework a large open pit mine was evaluated. The stochastic processes governing the uncertainties underlying the material loading and haulage input variables were defined and built into the stochastic model. Discrete event simulation was used to simulate the stochastic model. The proposed model resulted in several modifications to the case study.

  9. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of Daxin uranium mine of China - 59073

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Daxin Uranium Mine is an small open pit mine. Its contaminated facilities include open pit 87620 m2, East waste rock pile 71710 m2, west waste rock pile 57828 m2, ore transfer station and industrial fields 9370 m2, building and structure 26600 m2, equipment 246 pieces, plastic conduit 3000 m. steel conduit 2500 m2 and road for transporting ores 1020 m. The integrated decommissioning programmes are presented: uranium extraction, slope stabilization, clear-up, backfill, reshape, covering, re-vegetation, dismantlement/ demolishment, decontamination, re-smelting, waste water treatment. (authors)

  10. Optimal synthesis of energy supply systems for remote open pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary motivation underlying the proposal of polygeneration systems for mine sites is to increase the efficient use of natural resources by combining different technologies and energy resources while satisfying energy service demands. For many mineral producers, particularly in Canada's mining extremes of climate and depth, energy in support of mineral production can be the second largest cost center after labor. A generic methodology is proposed for the design of energy supply systems in mine sites, based on a search for the minimum discounted cost of energy supplied for all feasible different plant configurations. These configurations can be represented within a connectivity matrix which corresponds to a network representation. A Mixed Integer Programming formulation is set out for the multiperiod synthesis and operational planning problem. This is characterized by i) binary variables for the selection of technologies, ii) integer variables for the determination of the number of units installed, and iii) by continuous variables for the representation of energy and economic flows. Through the integration of particular energy supply strategies matching specific mine circumstances (on-grid, remote, degree days, etc) and consideration of technologies that improve energy efficiency, hitherto not considered new technologies and demand management systems or new perspectives on optimal mine site energy supply can be investigated. Some of these investigations identify the economic conditions through which biomass energy feedstocks should be used, for direct heat production, for gasification and providing for Fischer–Tropsch syndiesel manufacture. As well as integrating demand from mobile diesel-fueled plant into an optimization procedure this analysis shows how the techniques can be used to explore economic conditions of threshold prices for biomass (purpose-grown biomass and peat are considered herein) and trucked-in diesel. The methodology also allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. Within the paper the energy demands for a remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario are considered as a case study to illustrate the technique and investigations. As expected, for mines close to electricity, natural gas, and diesel distribution infrastructures, the optimal choice is to connect. When a constraint is applied specifying that connection is not possible, as would be for the case exemplified, the optimal choice includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply. - Highlights: •Optimal mine site energy supply methodology is established. •Methodology permits innovative, lower cost, energy supply solutions to be identified. •The methodology allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. •A remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario is considered as a case study. •The optimal solution includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply

  11. Public exposure to hazards associated with natural radioactivity in open-pit mining in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 ± 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana. (authors)

  12. A study of radiation parameters in an open-pit mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation parameters associated with the open pit mining of a small (10,000 tonnes) but high grade (2%) uranium deposit at Nabarlek, N.T., have been investigated in detail. External radiation levels, radon emanation rates and radon daughter levels were measured systematically during the development of the mine, and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, usually during the night and were invariably associated with thermal inversions. The mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated from the measured levels to be 0.065 Working Level Months for employees working in the pit for the entire four and a half months of mining. The mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure for the same employee group was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters to be 2.3 mSv (230 mrem). For most other employees, however, exposures were much lower. Data on long lived radionuclides in dust and on particle size distribution are also presented. (author)

  13. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

  14. Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background

  15. Modelling financial risk in open pit mine projects: Implications for strategic decision-making

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.A., Abdel Sabour; G., Wood.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Strategic decisions in the mining industry are made under multiple technical and market uncertainties. Therefore, to reach the best possible decision, based on information available, it is necessary to integrate uncertainty about the input variables and model financial risk of the project's merit me [...] asures. However, this rovides few useful insights to decision-makers unless accompanied by modeling management responses to uncertainty resolutions. It is widely acknowledged that conventional decision-support methods based on static, no-change, discounted cash flow (DCF) techniques such as net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) tend to provide inaccurate value estimates. This could mislead the strategic decision-making process and result in significant value losses. This paper aims to model financial risk related to uncertainty about market variables such as metal prices and foreign exchange rates. Other sources of risk that are related, for example, to geology and production costs are not considered in this work. The article outlines a flexible financial model that integrates uncertainty about market variables and management flexibility to react to uncertainty resolutions into mine project valuation using a real-options valuation technique based on Monte Carlo simulation. Significance of information generated from this simulation-based flexible valuation model to the strategic decision-making process is tested using an illustrative case study of a Canadian mining project. The project is a typical multi-metal, open pit mine that produces copper and gold. In this case, there are three uncertain market variables, which are: copper and gold prices and US$/CAN$ exchange rate. Financial valuations are carried out using both the conventional static DCF method and a flexible real-options model. In the flexible model, management flexibility to decide whether to go ahead with the next expansion or terminate production operations is integrated. Results show how the flexible financial model can enhance the decision-making process.

  16. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5?×?10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5.3 for inflow and from 2.16 to 3.5 for hydraulic head predictions). The analytical solutions underestimated the inflow compared to the numerical model for the time period of 2-19 weeks. The results presented in this paper can be used for developing an effective dewatering program. PMID:25186026

  17. A comparison of limit equilibrium and numerical modelling approaches to risk analysis for open pit mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.T., Chiwaye; T.R., Stacey.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis is an important step in the design of rock slopes in open pit mining. Risk is defined as the product of the probability of slope failure and the consequences of the failure, and is generally evaluated in terms of safety and economic risk. Most of the risk analysis done at present is ba [...] sed on the use of limit equilibrium (LE) techniques in evaluating the probability of failure (POF) of the slopes. The approach typically makes use of full Monte Carlo simulations of the limit equilibrium models, with all uncertain variables randomly varied. The number of required simulations is generally over a thousand, at times as high as 20 000, in order to produce statistically valid results of the POF. Such an approach is clearly not practical when using numerical modelling programs due to the high computational effort required. This paper explores the impact of using numerical modelling instead of the traditional LE techniques in evaluating the probability of slope failure. The difference in the overall assessed risk, in terms of economic impact, for the mining operation is then evaluated. With numerical models, approximate methods are used in the calculation of the probability of failure instead of full Monte Carlo simulations. This paper will use a method called the response surface methodology (RSM) for estimating the POF from numerical analyses. Simple slope models were used to verify the accuracy of the RSM method by comparing the results with those obtained from full Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that there is good agreement between the POF values computed using full Monte Carlo simulation and those obtained using the RSM method. Finally, the use of numerical modelling in the assessment of risk is shown to bring a significant difference in the result compared with that from LE methods. One of the reasons for the difference is that LE models tend to underestimate the failure volumes and hence the consequences of slope failure.

  18. A GIS-based, confined aquifer, hypothetical model of ground-water seepage into a former mining open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater seepage into a former mining site in Egypt is proposed for simulation. This site was used for basalt extraction. After the mining activities had stopped a large open pit was left over and groundwater seeped into the pit forming a lake. The pit has a dimension of approximately 1200 x 600 x 30 m. Because of the lack of field data, several scenarios may be hypothesized to explain the filling of these open pits with water. In this paper, one of these scenarios is studied. It is suggested that this water comes from an underneath confined aquifer. Through fractures in the host rock, water seeped upwards into the open pit. To estimate the rate at which water seeps into the lake, numerical study based on the finite element method is performed. Firstly, geo-referencing of the site was performed using GIS. The boundary of the lake was then digitized and elevation contours was defined. These data was then imported into grid-builder software to generate a two-dimensional triangular mesh which was then used by hydro-geosphere software to build the three-dimensional mesh and solve the problem. It was found that the set of discrete fractures was insufficient to fill the lake in the time span that was actually elapsed to fill up the lake which is on the order of two to three years.

  19. Assessment and modelling of heavy metal contamination from Madneuli open-pit mine, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchelidze, T.; Melikadze, G.; Leveinen, J.; Kaija, J.; Kumpalainen, S.

    2003-04-01

    Acid mine drainage from banked waste rocks (150 million m^3) and sulfide ore tailings of the Madneuli Cu-Au open-pit mine have created major environmental pollution problem in Bolnisi district, Georgia. Intensive leaching of exposed rocks and direct discharge of mine waters to nearby watercourses have lead to strong heavy metal pollution of groundwater and Rivers Kazretula, Poladauri and Mashavera. Increased concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Cd and Hg exceeding maximum permissible values by 3-2000 times, are registered almost everywhere. Polluted surface waters are used intensively for irrigation. Besides, contaminated groundwater is pumped for irrigation and drinking water supply in alluvial deposits along the rivers. Because the spread of contamination is a slow process, the adverse health effects may not yet have emerged in the investigation area. The transport modelling was used in the framework of risk assessment to estimate the direction, rate and extent of chemical migration in the contaminated site in order to support environmental management and decisionmaking involving identification of high-risk areas, protection from pollutants, and planning of remediation work. Geochemical and contamination transport modelling conducted in this study suggest that the present contamination levels will eventually reach the total investigation area causing serious health risks to the local population in long terms. Mineral lifetime estimates suggest that the contamination might continue for centuries with current pollution loads. Furthermore, geochemical modelling showed that there is no reason to expect the natural attenuation of the contamination. The potential impacts of preventive actions were studied by preparing a model scenario where the present heavy metal contamination level was lowered to 0.1 mg/l in two streams entering the model area. The model results suggest that within 5 years, already significant reduction of concentrations can be reached. The adverse effects on human health could be mitigated by redirecting the extraction of drinking water in the Bolnisi mining region to areas locating at a sufficient distance from the polluted stream. High investment in preventive actions will become exclusively cheaper than remediation of contaminated groundwater. With out preventive remediation, the situation can be expected only to get worse.

  20. Net present value maximization model for optimum cut-off grade policy of open pit mining operations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.W.A, Asad; E, Topal.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimum cut-off grade policy maximizes the net present value (NPV) of an open pit mining operation subject to the mining, processing, and refining capacity constraints. The traditional approaches to cut-off grade determination ignore the escalation of the economic parameters such as metal price [...] and operating costs during life of an operation, and consequently lead to unrealistically higher values of the objective function. Further, the NPV of a mining operation declines due to the depletion of the available reserves, causing a decline in the optimum cut-off grade, i.e. higher cut-off grades in the early years of an operation and lower cut-off grades during the later years. Hence, low grade material mined in the earlier years may be stockpiled for processing during later years to offset the effect of escalating economic parameters on NPV. This paper demonstrates the combined impact of introducing economic parameters, escalation and stockpiling options into the cut-off grade optimization model. The model promises an enhancement in NPV as illustrated in a case study incorporating practical aspects of an open pit mining operation.

  1. Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nastup Tusimice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the open cast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa) area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper. (authors)

  2. PLANEAMIENTO DE MINAS A CIELO ABIERTO MEDIANTE OPTIMIZACIÓN ESTOCÁSTICA / PLANNING OF OPEN PIT MINES THROUGH STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovanni, Franco Sepúlveda; John Willian, Branch Bedoya; Patricia, Jaramillo Álvarez.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de planificación minera en los depósitos a cielo abierto en Colombia, se han realizado utilizando herramientas deterministas, que excluyen la evaluación de riesgos y las incertidumbres del negocio minero y en algunos casos dejan de maximizar los beneficios en términos monetarios. Es nec [...] esario desarrollar modelos alternativos de planificación minera que mejoren las condiciones de competitividad y productividad en términos de los siguientes factores: Aumento de la vida de la mina - LOM; Extracción y explotación de recursos de menor calidad; Obtención de mayores beneficios del negocio minero; Disminución del riesgo y la incertidumbre del proceso de planificación minera, entre otros. Dentro de los procesos de planificación minera de los yacimientos minerales a cielo abierto en Colombia no hay evidencia de la utilización de herramientas para la toma de decisiones bajo escenarios de incertidumbre que permiten llevar a cabo estos procesos con técnicas meta heurísticas tales como recocido simulado; algoritmos genéticos; búsqueda tabú; redes neuronales, entre otros. En este trabajo se hace énfasis en los algoritmos genéticos y su aplicación a los procesos de planificación minera para explotaciones a cielo abierto. Se pretende que este trabajo sirva de base para realizar una aproximación al planeamiento minero estocástico, desde los algoritmos genéticos, y que su aplicación se lleva a cabo en las empresas que explotan los recursos minerales en Colombia, con el objetivo de mejorar la cadena productiva del proceso minero. Abstract in english Mine planning processes in open-pit deposits in Colombia, have been performed using deterministic tools, which excludes the assessment of risks and uncertainties in the mining business and in some cases fail to maximize the benefits in monetary terms. We need to develop alternative models for mine p [...] lanning to improve the competitiveness and productivity in terms of the following factors: Increased mine of life- LOM; Extraction and exploitation of lower quality resources; Obtaining more benefits from the mining business; Reduced risk and uncertainty in the mine planning process, among others. Within the planning processes of mineral mining in the open pit mine in Colombia there is no evidence of the use of tools for decision making under uncertainty scenarios that allow these processes to perform metaheuristic techniques such as simulated annealing; genetic algorithms; tabu search; neural networks; among others. In this paper we focus on genetic algorithms and its application to mine planning for open pit. This paper is intended to serve as the basis for a stochastic approach to mine planning, from the genetic algorithm and its implementation is carried out in companies that exploit the mineral resources in Colombia, with the aim of improving the production chain mining process.

  3. Mitigation of adverse effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine (Bilbao, northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz de Omeñaca, J.; Ereño, I.; Atxabal, K.; Azurmendi, I.

    1993-09-01

    Solid fills arranged in 1-m-thick layers were prepared with stone blocks and pebbles of a drainage bed every 8 m. Runoff gathering in a well and the use of silts and mud lands for bordering and sealing the limestones are the main techniques employed for minimizing unfavorable effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine. Since there were waste disposal problems in the area, the rate of disposal has made the activity profitable. No significant faults have been detected by control studies, and the objectives are being achieved without problems.

  4. Uranium in mining waters of kaolin open pit in Zarow (Lower Silesia); methodology of determination and genetic remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a method of determination of uranium 238 and 234 in mining waters of Andrzej kaolin open pit in Zarow (Lower Silesia) is presented. The method is based on independent measurements of alpha and beta radiation intensities by means of a liquid scintillation spectrometer ?/?. The initial volume of water sample was 3 dm3, then it was diminished by chemical preparation to 6 cm3, and then 12 cm3 of scintillator was added. The lower limit of detection (for the measurement time of 8 h) for both 234U and 238U amounted to 0.02 Bq/dm3. For determination of the uranium content in ferruginous sediments precipitating from mining waters of the above-mentioned open pit, gamma ray spectrometry was used. The obtained results may be viewed as a contribution to studies on anomalous uranium concentration within this kaolin deposit. The elevated uranium content, in comparison with its average concentration in the Earth crust, is characteristic for parent rocks of Andrzej kaolin deposit, which are granitoids of Strzegom-Sobotka massif. In connection with it, the high uranium content can be observed not only in kaolin and weakly kaolinised granitoids from the deposit in question, but also in mining waters genetically related with them

  5. Towards the Application of Augmented Reality in the Mining Sector: Open-Pit Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Hugues, Olivier; Gbodossou, Andre?; Cieutat, Jean-marc

    2012-01-01

    This article put augmented reality technology, and its application in the mining sector, in perspective. The current vitality in the mining sector in Canada, and particularly in the province of Quebec, is leading decision-makers to use new technologies in a sector which is nevertheless quite traditionalist. An exploration of the different activities connected to mining operations in order to identify the potential relevance of the use of augmented reality in this sector is shown. This analysi...

  6. The planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines: proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Pretoria, 9-13 April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book records the proceedings of the second international conference on the theme of planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines. The conference was held in Pretoria during April 1984. The major portion of South African iron ore and copper is mined in open-pit mines. The rapid expansion of the open-pit and strip mining industry has led to the thriving industry of today. Notable areas of growth have been the introduction of capital-intensive machinery such as walking drag-lines, large capacity shovels, in-pit crushers, extensive use of conveyor belts, large haul tracks and ore-dressing plants. Among other areas where corresponding progress has been made are blasting techniques, maintenance planning, computer applications, and large-scale stock-piling of bulk materials. The conference touched on all these subjects under four main headings: mine planning, mining operations, equipment selection and maintenance, and new developments. One paper looks at open-pit production control at Rossing Uranium Limited

  7. Project solution for land reclamation and spatial arrangement of the 'Srebro' open pit mine at the Fruška Gora National Park

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Vuji& #263; ; J., Cveji& #263; ; I., Miljanovi& #263; ; A., Petrovski.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of stone (trachyte) at the 'Srebro' open pit mine, located on the northern slopes of the Fruška Gora National Park (Serbia) central area begun in 1964. Stone exploitation in this locality does not endanger the environment in an ecological sense, does not pose a threat to plants and [...] animals, and apart from the terrain configuration changes, it did not leave behind permanent consequences to the environment. Projects for permanent cessation of mining operations and for land reclamation and spatial arrangement were completed in these circumstances. The paper gives a short review of the condition at the open pit mine; furthermore, the key problems and basic demands are presented, together with a concept of technical and biological land reclamation and the spatial arrangement of the mining complex.

  8. Tanacetum vulgare as a Bioindicator of Trace-Metal Contamination: A Study of a Naturally Colonized Open-Pit Lignite Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Be?chatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare ap...

  9. Multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data for the analysis of open-pit mining earth surface dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zengwen; Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Open-pit mining activities can affect the earth surface processes inducing soil erosion, landslides, and subsidence. The recognition and the analysis of mining induced Earth surface changes and the related processes represent, therefore, a challenge for a sustainable environmental planning for those regions affected by an intense mining activity. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effects of open-pit mining and the associated landform processes using multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data. The study area consists in an open-pit mine located in Miyun county, northern Beijing. For the study area different datasets are available for different years: a GeoEye image (2011, res. 1m/pix), two pairs of Cartosat - 1 stereo pairs (2009, 2012, res. 2.5m/pix) from which we extracted two DSMs (res. 5m/pix), an UAV aerial photograph (2014, res. 0.07m) and the derived DSM (2014, res. 0.1m). We also obtained a DTM (2014, res. 1m) from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and a DSM (2014, res. 0.5m) using the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique by a camera. These data served as the basis to recognize, through the application of morphometric indicators, the areas subject to erosion and landsliding. A volumetric estimate of soil loss from 2009 to 2014 has been also quantified using the multiple DSMs provided by the multi-platform. The recognition and the analysis of earth surface dynamics using low-cost multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing such as SfM and UAVs represents a useful tool to mitigate the environmental consequences open-pit mining, and to mitigate the related natural disaster and risk.

  10. Development of generalized cutoff grade optimization algorithm for open pit mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of optimum cutoff grade is influenced by the economic parameters (price of metal, mining and processing costs, etc.),The capacities of stages (mine, mill, and refinery) in the mining operation, and the grade distribution of the deposit. The cutoff grade changes with the influence of these parameters, sometimes widely, during the life of a mining operation. The theory of optimum cutoff grades is complex. However, this problem can be solved by the availability of algorithms, which could be implemented by the computer programs. This paper presents a cutoff grade optimization algorithm, which maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of the mining operation subject to mining, milling and refining constraints, the benefits of the methodology developed are demonstrated in a case study. (author)

  11. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig, Marcos E.; Mura, Jose? C.; Paradella, Waldir R.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI) represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection an...

  12. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

    2013-10-01

    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote Sensing Systems Department at Space Research and Technology Institute thematically oriented spectrometric system TOMS working in the 0.4-0.9 ?m range of the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS). For proper comparison between the data obtained from the different sources mentioned spectral transformations such as normalized difference and rationing data for two wavelengths were applied in order to avoid misinterpretation. Statistically significant dependence between the various spectral transformations and the quantitative content of the iron in the different type of compounds was established. The achieved results provided evidence that methodology used could be extended to other regions of the country polluted by the mining activities and should be also tested in the region of the copper and zinc extraction. In the next step of our research we intend to use the results obtained by the multitemporal analysis of the satellite and ground-based multispectral data for the same and the similar regions of interest.

  13. Numerical Study on an Applicable Underground Mining Method for Soft Extra-Thick Coal Seams in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nay Zarlin; Takashi Sasaoka; Hideki Shimada; Kikuo Matsui

    2012-01-01

    The EGAT Mae Moh Mine is the largest open pit lignite mine in Thailand and it produces lignite about 16 million tons annually. In the near future, the pit limit of the mine will be reached and underground mine will then be developed through the open pit in the depth of 400 - 600 m from the surface. However, due to the challenges for underground mining such as poor geological conditions, extra thickness (20 - 30 m) of coal seams, and weak mechanical properties of coal seams and the surrounding...

  14. Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

  15. Determination of the radioactive aerosols transport coefficients generated in open pit uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical atmospheric transport model is applied to uranium mining operations. Among the transport parameters there is one concerned with radioactive decay, but it does not include the radioactive decay series which is the specific case for uranium. Therefore, an extension of the transport theory is developed and tested, giving results greater than the ones obtained with the classical model, as expected. (author)

  16. A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy,estions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality

  17. Mining principles in the situation of Dolni Rozinka Uranium Mines deposit with respect to protection of open pits and mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three surface and a network of underground monitoring points were established for assessing the impact of extracting oblique and steep ore zones and veins in the uranium ore deposit at Dolni Rozinka on the surrounding massif and on the earth surface. On the basis of these in-situ measurements and the results of modelling using equivalent materials and mathematical modelling and the evaluation of practical experience in the excavation of mines in this deposit new techniques were designed for protecting installations and buildings from the impacts of mining activities. The distance and size of limit angles of the mining effect were determined which allowed to considerably limit the range of existing safety pillars and thereby to reduce the volume of utility minerals whose excavation had previously been restricted. (B.S.)

  18. Simulation of Dynamic Fracturing of Continuum Rock in Open Pit Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Aliabadian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic fracture mechanism related to blast-induced borehole breakdown and crack propagation, 2D distinct element commercial code was used. The dynamic stresses, material status and velocity vectors are plotted and shown to evaluate rock mass failure under blast load. This paper focuses on the propagation and dynamic effects of blast waves in continuum rock masses. In order to investigate the effect of high strain rate loading on rock mass failure, a numerical simulation was conducted. The 2D distinct element code was used to model blast load effect on rock failure and stress distribution through the rock mass due to blast wave propagation. The blast loading history was simplified and applied to the blasthole walls. Accordingly, the interaction of explosive energy transferred to the rock mass from the blasthole pressure was examined as a function of time. A Mohr-Coulomb material model was used for host rock to allow for plastic failure calculations. The conducted numerical study describes the role of dynamic stresses in blasting in a qualitative manner. On the other hand, a free face boundary was considered as a common blast operation which is conducted in surface mining.

  19. Integration of UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for the Three-Dimensional Mapping and Monitoring of Open-Pit Mine Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Tong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical framework for the integration of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS with application to open-pit mine areas, which includes UAV image and TLS point cloud acquisition, image and cloud point processing and integration, object-oriented classification and three-dimensional (3D mapping and monitoring of open-pit mine areas. The proposed framework was tested in three open-pit mine areas in southwestern China. (1 With respect to extracting the conjugate points of the stereo pair of UAV images and those points between TLS point clouds and UAV images, some feature points were first extracted by the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT operator and the outliers were identified and therefore eliminated by the RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC approach; (2 With respect to improving the accuracy of geo-positioning based on UAV imagery, the ground control points (GCPs surveyed from global positioning systems (GPS and the feature points extracted from TLS were integrated in the bundle adjustment, and three scenarios were designed and compared; (3 With respect to monitoring and mapping the mine areas for land reclamation, an object-based image analysis approach was used for the classification of the accuracy improved UAV ortho-image. The experimental results show that by introduction of TLS derived point clouds as GCPs, the accuracy of geo-positioning based on UAV imagery can be improved. At the same time, the accuracy of geo-positioning based on GCPs form the TLS derived point clouds is close to that based on GCPs from the GPS survey. The results also show that the TLS derived point clouds can be used as GCPs in areas such as in mountainous or high-risk environments where it is difficult to conduct a GPS survey. The proposed framework achieved a decimeter-level accuracy for the generated digital surface model (DSM and digital orthophoto map (DOM, and an overall accuracy of 90.67% for classification of the land covers in the open-pit mine.

  20. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of Meirama.

  1. Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

    2013-02-01

    Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

  2. Investigating continuous time open pit dynamics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Askari-Nasab; S., Frimpong; J., Szymanski.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Current mine production planning, scheduling, and allocation of resources are based on mathematical programming models. In practice, the optimized solution cannot be attained without examining all possible combinations and permutations of the extraction sequence. Operations research methods have lim [...] ited applications in large-scale surface mining operations because the number of variables becomes too large. The primary objective of this study is to develop and implement a hybrid simulation framework for the open pit scheduling problem. The paper investigates the dynamics of open pit geometry and the subsequent material movement as a continuous system described by time-dependent differential equations. The continuous open pit simulator (COPS) implemented in MATLAB, based on modified elliptical frustum is used to model the evolution of open pit geometry in time and space. Discrete open pit simulator (DOPS) mimics the periodic expansion of the open pit layouts. Function approximation of the discrete simulated push-backs provides the means to convert the set of partial differential equations (PDEs), capturing the dynamics of open pit layouts, to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Numerical integration with the Runge-Kutta scheme yields the trajectory of the pit geometry over time with the respective volume of materials and the net present value (NPV) of the mining operation. A case study of an iron ore mine with 114 000 blocks was carried out to verify and validate the model. The optimized pit limit was designed using Lerchs-Grossman's algorithm. The best-case annual schedule, generated by the shells node in Whittle Four-X yielded an NPV of $449 million over a 21-year mine life at a discount rate of 10% per annum. DOPS best scenario out of 2 500 simulation iterations resulted in an NPV of $443 million and COPS yielded an NPV of $440 million over the same time span. The hybrid simulation model is the basis for future research using reinforcement learning based on goal-directed intelligent agents.

  3. Production shift from open-pit to underground at Vietnamese coalmines - consideration on safety management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isei, T.

    2006-09-15

    Vietnam's coal industry is being forced to increase production to meet demands. Production may increase from 33 million tons in 2006 to 75 million tons in 2025. All increased production may have to come from underground as oppose to open-pit production and deepening of underground mines may be inevitable. The author presents some apprehensions on safety management that will need consideration in mines are deepened. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  5. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Rane, Milind E.

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, au...

  6. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Be?chatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone. PMID:23748998

  7. Performance evaluation of a new stochastic network flow approach to optimal open pit mine design-application at a gold mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.W.A., Asad; R., Dimitrakopoulos.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimal design of production phases and ultimate pit limit for an open pit mining operation may be generated using conventional or stochastic approaches. Unlike the conventional approach, the stochastic framework accounts for expected variability and uncertainty in metal content by considering a [...] set of equally probable realizations (models) of the orebody. This paper evaluates the performance of a new stochastic network flow approach for the development of optimal phase design and ultimate pit limit using a gold deposit as the case study. The stochastic and conventional frameworks as considered here utilize the maximum flow and Lerchs-Grossman (LG) algorithms, respectively. The LG algorithm is restricted to considering an estimated (average-type) orebody model, while the stochastic maximum flow algorithm is developed to simultaneously use a set of simulated orebody realizations as an input. The case study demonstrates that, when compared to the conventional LG algorithm as used in the industry, the stochastic approach generates a 30 per cent increase in discounted cash flow, a 21 per cent larger ultimate pit limit, and about 7 per cent more metal, while it maintains a consistency in phase size.

  8. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining...

  9. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ''ground truth'', from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions

  10. Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões / A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco César Rodrigues de, Araújo; Marcone Jamilson Freitas, Souza.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sort [...] e a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática. Abstract in english This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and qua [...] lity targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

  11. Real -time dispatching modelling for trucks with different capacities in open pit mines / Modelowanie w czasie rzeczywistym przewozów ci??arówek o ró?nej ?adowno?ci w kopalni odkrywkowej

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangaran, Daryoush Kaveh; Yasrebi, Amir Bijan; Wetherelt, Andy; Foster, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Application of fully automated systems for truck dispatching plays a major role in decreasing the transportation costs which often represent the majority of costs spent on open pit mining. Consequently, the application of a truck dispatching system has become fundamentally important in most of the world's open pit mines. Recent experiences indicate that by decreasing a truck's travelling time and the associated waiting time of its associated shovel then due to the application of a truck dispatching system the rate of production will be considerably improved. Computer-based truck dispatching systems using algorithms, advanced and accurate software are examples of these innovations. Developing an algorithm of a computer- based program appropriated to a specific mine's conditions is considered as one of the most important activities in connection with computer-based dispatching in open pit mines. In this paper the changing trend of programming and dispatching control algorithms and automation conditions will be discussed. Furthermore, since the transportation fleet of most mines use trucks with different capacities, innovative methods, operational optimisation techniques and the best possible methods for developing the required algorithm for real-time dispatching are selected by conducting research on mathematical-based planning methods. Finally, a real-time dispatching model compatible with the requirement of trucks with different capacities is developed by using two techniques of flow networks and integer programming.

  12. Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km2. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  13. Mining coal seam rests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waksmanski, E.; Cyrek, A.

    1986-11-01

    The Czerwona Gwardia black coal mine was founded in 1973 by merging 3 coal mines with coal reseves reduced due to resource depletion. The 3 mines had been founded in 1822, 1860 and 1885. From 1981 to 1985 about 4 Mt of coal were mined in safety pillars around mine shafts and pillars left under structures at the ground surfaces as well as in coal seam sections left in fault areas. Special schemes for underground mining in safety pillars as well as in seam sections characterized by complicated conditions were developed by the Central Mining Institute, the Silesia Technical University or by the Association of Mining Engineers (SITG). Mining in safety pillars was characterized by increased hazards but efficient safety engineering measures prevented increase in the accident rate. In general, the mine's accident rate was low. Number of occupational accidents in the mine was 130 in 1981, 114 in 1982, 109 in 1983, 48 in 1984, 27 in 1985. Analysis of accident causes showed that complicated mining conditions in safety pillars did not cause excessive accident rates.

  14. A case study of a large open pit uranium AML [Abandoned Mine Land] Project Gas Hills, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Abandoned Mine Lands Program (AML), authorized under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 provides funding for the abatement of health and safety hazards on lands disturbed by mining prior to enactment of the Act. A good example of the implementation of the AML Program in Wyoming is the A-8 Pit. The reclamation site is located in the East Gas Hills Uranium Mining District of Wyoming. Reclamation activities include selective handling of 3.5 million cubic yards of backfill, controlling pit dewatering and water treatment, installing second order drainage channel and riprap control structures, and salvaging sufficient coversoils and topsoils for site revegetation

  15. Regional groundwater drawdown in strata of the Bunter Sandstone, caused by open pit lignite mine and a water work and the refilling of the cone of depression after abandoning the lignite mine (Borken, Hessen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambow, D.

    1986-01-01

    The draining of two neighbouring open pit mines, partly more than 80 m deep and located near the fault, resulted in an extensive wide spanned drawdown in the adjacent Bunter. The inflow from the Bunter into the mines amounted to about 180 l/s. The water work Haarhausen, situated near the marginal fault within the Bunter, produced another 48 to 57 l/s. After the pumping from the mines had been stopped the combined cone of depression was nearly filled up again in spite of the continued pumping of the water work. Despite the massive discharge and the resulting lowering of the groundwater surface there was no significant change of the groundwater quality. In particular the feared salt water encroachment from deeper strata did not occur.

  16. Open-pit construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual design of a nuclear power plant accordingly to SR 136, situated in deep open pits in rock near the brink of a plateau and accessible from above as well as horizontally from the receiving stream, was further worked out. The increased backfill covering enables the reactor building to withstand heavier external forces and higher internal pressure caused by contaminated atmosphere in the event of severe hypothetical internal accidents. The leakage of this atmosphere is to be collected in special condensation rooms and another part of it is to be cooled down in these rooms. An outer safety barrier and leakage extraction fans keep this atmosphere substantially enclosed. By that means the consequences of a core melt accident will be reduced considerably. (orig.)

  17. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  18. Designing an advanced RC drilling grid for short-term planning in open pit mines: three case studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Ortiz; E.J., Magri.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS This paper shows the usefulness of geostatistical conditional simulation combined with the quantification of sampling errors obtained from the analyses of fundamental errors - validated from duplicate data - to assess the relevance of the quality and quantity of the information, for short-t [...] erm mine planning purposes. Traditional blast-hole drilling equipment has been designed for efficient drilling, but not for obtaining high-quality samples. Furthermore, blast-hole sampling interferes with production, and thus usually produces poor-quality results. These results are the basis of short-term plans, where the grades of selective mining units are estimated and used for distinguishing between ore and waste. Under these conditions, misclassification (ore blocks sent to the waste dump and waste blocks processed at the plant) is inevitable, leading to significant hidden losses that can amount to millions of dollars per annum. Reverse circulation drilling with the latest automated sampling technology improves significantly the quality of the information used for short-term planning, and thus reduces misclassification, improving the financial returns of the operation. In this paper, we present the general methodology for assessing the effect of poor blast-hole sampling, as compared to advanced reverse circulation drilling grids at several spacings, in order to arrive at the most appropriate grid for short-term planning. This plan can be prepared well in advance using several additional variables that are usually not available when the plan is based on blast-hole samples. Furthermore, blending options can be analysed in order to optimize plant recovery, minimize the use of sulphuric acid, etc. Three case studies are presented, namely a typical porphyry copper deposit, an exotic oxide copper deposit, and a complex gold deposit, where mineralization is controlled by structures and lithology. This paper shows that in all cases, advanced reverse circulation drilling grids provide good-quality information that, coupled with the use of geosta-tistics for short-term mine planning, significantly improve the financial returns of the operation.

  19. Reliability Analysis of Drilling Operation in Open Pit Mines / Analiza niezawodno?ci urz?dze? wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalniach odkrywkowych

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimdel, M. J.; Ataei, M.; Kakaei, R.; Hoseinie, S. H.

    2013-06-01

    Considering the high investment and operation costs, reliability analysis of mining machineries is essential to achieve a lean operation and to prevent the unwanted stoppages. In open pit mining, drilling, as the initial stage of the exploitation operations, has a significant role in the other stages. Failure of drilling machines causes total delay in blasting operation. In this paper, the reliability of drilling operation has been analyzed using the Markov method. The failure and operation data of four heavy rotary drilling machines in Sarcheshme copper mine in Iran have been used as a case study. Failure rate and repair rate of all machines have been calculated using available data. Then, 16 possible operation states have been defined and the probability of being of drilling fleet in each of the states was calculated using Markov theory. The results showed that there was 77.2% probability that all machines in fleet were in operational condition. It means that, considering 360 working days per year, drilling operation will be in a reliable condition in 277.92 days. Bior?c pod uwag? wysoko?? kosztów inwestycyjnych a tak?e eksploatacyjnych, przeprowadzenie analizy niezawodno?ci maszyn i urz?dze? górniczych jest spraw? kluczow? dla zapewnienia sprawnego dzia?ania i dla wyeliminowania niepo??danych przestojów. W kopalniach odkrywkowych prace wiertnicze prowadzone w pocz?tkowych etapach eksploatacji maj? ogromne znaczenie równie? w pó?niejszych fazach dzia?alno?ci przedsi?wzi?cia. Awaria urz?dze? wiertniczych powoduje opó?nienia przy pracach strza?owych. W pracy tej przeanalizowano niezawodno?? urz?dze? wiertniczych w oparciu o metod? Markowa. Jako studium przypadku wykorzystano dane zebrane w trakcie eksploatacji i awarii czterech obrotowych urz?dze? wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalni rud miedzi Sarcheshme w Iranie. Awaryjno?? maszyn i zakres oraz cz?sto?? napraw obliczono na podstawie dost?pnych danych. Zdefiniowano 16 mo?liwych stanów dzia?ania, a prawdopodobie?stwa znalezienia si? jednego z urz?dze? wiertniczych w ka?dym z podanych stanów obliczono z wykorzystaniem teorii Markowa. Wyniki pokazuj?, ?e poziom prawdopodobie?stwa tego, ?e wszystkie urz?dzenia wiertnicze znajdowa? si? b?d? w stanie gwarantuj?cym ich w?a?ciwe dzia?anie wynosi 77.2%. Bior?c pod uwag? 360 dni roboczych w roku, oznacza to, ?e prace wiertnicze prowadzone by? mog? w warunkach niezawodno?ci przez 277.92 dni w roku.

  20. Consequences of Open-Pit Coal Mining on the Geohydraulical System.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzlík, Josef; Tr?ková, Ji?ina

    Graz : Techn. University Graz, 1999 - (Bergmann, H.; Krainer, R.; Breinhaelter, H.), s. 1 [IAHR Congress /28./. Graz (AT), 22.08.1999-27.08.1999] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/97/0783 Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  1. REDUCTION OF SEISMIC EFFECTS FROM BLASTING IN OPEN PIT COAL-MINES BANOVI?I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Štimac

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The ground motions of higher intensities are generated by deep-hole blasting of overburden. The most appropriate type of explosive as well as the optimum parameters of blasting was chosen. The minor part of the blasting energy is being transformed into the kinetic energy of seismic waves of smaller intensity.

  2. Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto Haul roads structural design in open pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de Sousa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais.An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

  3. Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto / Haul roads structural design in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de, Sousa; Waldyr Lopes de, Oliveira Filho; Hernani Mota de, Lima.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores [...] e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais. Abstract in english An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the [...] DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

  4. Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

  5. The mine planning process for an open-pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Madowe.

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the mine planning process for Letseng diamond mine in the Kingdom of Lesotho, in conjunction with the various software packages used during the process. The major pillars of the long-term mine planning process at Letseng are pit optimization followed by pit design and scheduling [...] . Letseng uses Gemcom Whittle and GEMS for pit optimization and design and Runge XPAC for scheduling. The output of the mine planning process results in the generation of published mineral reserves and provides input into the Letseng overall business plan. The process of defining the key inputs for the entire mine planning process is discussed, which covers: ? Slope design as an input ? Diamond price inputs ? Operating and capital cost inputs ? Generation of pit shells ? Selection of an optimum pit shell and interim cutbacks using operational scenarios ? Sensitivity analysis on the selected optimum pit shell. ? Slope design criteria in the detailed design ? Split shell vs concentric pit design ? Practical mining widths to determine cutback design ? Pit design process in the GEMS software package. ? Development of scheduling scenarios in the XPAC software package ? Planning through mining production bottlenecks. ? Company-level NPV model ? Comparing scenarios and input of the different schedule scenarios into the company NPV model.

  6. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  7. Change Detection over Sokolov Open-Pit Mining Area, Czech Republic, Using Multi-Temporal HyMAP Data (2009-2010).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojík, P.; Kopá?ková, V.; Zelenková, K.; Mišurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanuš, Jan; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben-Dor, E.

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2011 - (Bruzzone, L.), 81800T ISBN 9780819488077. ISSN 0277-786X. - (Proceedings of SPIE. 8180). [Conference on Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing XVII. Prague (CZ), 19.09.2011-21.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/09/1989 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : spectral change * coal mining * change detection * HyMap Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  9. Coal mine subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwall coal mining in southern Illinois occurs beneath some of the best agricultural land in the U.S. This region is characterized by highly productive, nearly level, and somewhat poorly drained soils. Subsidence from longwall mining causes changes in surface topography which alters surface and subsurface hydrology. These changes can adversely affect agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas that can be deleterious to crop production. While most subsided areas show little impact from subsidence, some areas experience total crop failure. Coal companies are required by law to mitigate subsidence damage to cropland. The objective of this paper is to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring grain yields to their pre-mined levels. The research was conducted on sites selected to represent conventional mitigation techniques on the predominate soils in the area. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max.(L.) Merr] yields in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 from mitigated areas were compared to yields from nearby undisturbed areas

  10. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  11. UNA APROXIMACIÓN A LA PLANEACIÓN MINERA A CIELO ABIERTO DESDE UN ENFOQUE BASADO EN DECISIONES BAJO INCERTIDUMBRE / AN APPOXIMATION TO THE OPEN PIT MINE PLANNING APPROACH BASED ON DECISIONS UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GIOVANNI, FRANCO SEPÚLVEDA; JOHN WILLIAN, BRANCH BEDOYA; PATRICIA, JARAMILLO ÁLVAREZ.

    2010-11-30

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta en primer lugar una descripción del proceso de planeamiento minero desde un punto de vista clásico y su relación con los actuales procesos de planeamiento minero que tienen como base la optimización en sus diferentes etapas. Seguidamente, se realiza un acercamiento a los [...] procesos de planeación minera a cielo abierto desde un enfoque basado en decisiones bajo incertidumbre. Por último, se lleva a cabo un análisis crítico de los artículos encontrados clasificándolos en cinco categorías: Modelamiento geológico; Planeamiento minero; Evaluación financiera; Decisiones bajo incertidumbre y modelos de optimización. Abstract in english This article first presents a description of the mine planning process from a classical view and its relation to existing mine planning processes that are based on optimization in its various stages. Then be made an approach to planning processes open pit mining from an approach based on decisions u [...] nder uncertainty. Finally, it performs a critical analysis of the items found divided into five categories: geological models, mine planning, financial evaluation, decisions under uncertainty and optimization models.

  12. Brown coal mining in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical data on brown coal exploitation in Poland in 1995 are given and discussed. In that year 63.4 mln ton of brown coal was excavated and 62.2 mln ton was sent to power plants. 40.1% of electric power generated in public utilities were produced using brown coal as the fuel. The results of all 5 brown coal mines are shortly described

  13. Compendium on underground coal mining in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The compendium documents experiences of working the coal seams of underground mines in India in the three time frames: to pre-industrial policy resolution period (1956); to complete nationalisation of coal mines (1973); and post-nationalization to date. It covers the development of equipment and of mining methods applied (bord and pillar mining, longwall mining and special mining methods).

  14. Mechanisation of underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, S.P.

    2002-07-01

    In order to improve production, productivity, safety and economics, mechanization of underground coal mines has become an urgent need. However the strategy of introducing a high degree of mechanization in few selected mines has not been successful. Therefore, this should be replaced by a strategy of introducing various degrees of mechanization based on indigenous equipment suited to the needs and accommodation capacity of individual mines.

  15. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines....

  16. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY...Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published...Proximity Detection Systems on Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines....

  17. Proposal of an environmental sustainability index for open-pit mines using landscape fragmentation indicators / Proposta de um índice de sustentabilidade ambiental para minas a céu aberto com o uso de indicadores de fragmentação de paisagem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe Vargas E, Silva; Rodrigo, Peroni.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A percepção dos impactos ambientais das atividades econômicas pela sociedade é subjetiva e muitas vezes afeta negativamente a imagem de certos setores econômicos como a mineração. Para não ser subjetiva, a avaliação de impactos ambientais deve se embasar em indicadores ambientais claros e criteriosa [...] mente selecionados. Para demonstrar que a sustentabilidade da mineração a céu aberto é comparável a outras atividades econômicas, foi criado um índice de sustentabilidade ambiental composto do consumo de água e energia combinado com um indicador de fragmentação de paisagem construído com o uso de sensoriamento remoto e geoprocessamento. Para ilustrar a metodologia, foi realizado um estudo comparativo em um período de 10 anos entre a maior mina de minério de ferro brasileira, N5W, com o maior município produtor de soja, Sorriso, no Mato Grosso. Abstract in english The perception of the environmental impacts caused by economic activities is subjective and usually negatively affects the image of an extractive sector such as mining. In order to avoid this, the environmental impact assessment must be supported by clear and well-selected environmental indicators. [...] An index of sustainability was created to demonstrate that open-pit mining is comparable to other economic activities. The index is composed by of environmental indicators like water and energy consumption combined with an indicator of landscape fragmentation, using remote sensing data and geoprocessing. A comparative study considering a ten-year period was carried out with the biggest iron ore mine in Brazil, N5W, and the largest Brazilian soybean producer, the Sorriso County, in the Mato Grosso State to illustrate the methodology.

  18. Complementarities Between Coal Mining Machinery Industry and Coal Mining Industry: Evidence from China 1991-2006

    OpenAIRE

    He Xiao-yan; Wang Fei; Bai Yu-hui; Yang Xiao

    2013-01-01

    This study used VAR model to analyze and verify the complementaries between Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises and coal mining enterprises from the perspective of static state and dynamic state, it concluded that: there is a co-integration relationship between the actual output value of Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises and the actual value of Chinese coal mining enterprises, namely, there is a long-term and stable equilibrium; Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises have adv...

  19. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Qingliang Chang; Jianhang Chen; Huaqiang Zhou; Jianbiao Bai

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...

  20. Multi-seam coal mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B.B., Tati.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The project report is based on vacation work done by the writer at the Khutala Colliery during December/January 2009-2010. The purpose of this report is to explain and describe the design process in a multi-seam mine design for coal extraction at the Khutala Colliery. The multi-seam design will focu [...] s on the No. 2 and No. 4 seams as these are the seams that are currently being mined by underground methods at Khutala Colliery. The seam thicknesses and the parting thickness between the seams provide suitable conditions for designing a multi-seam mine design. An investigation into the pillar design aspects is carried out followed by a numerical modelling analysis of various scenarios. This analysis validates the first principles approach provided by multi-seam design guidelines. The design results from the analysis of the selected pillar design indicate sufficient parting for primitive conditions between seams, thus illuminating the need for superimposing in-panel pillars. This multi-seam mine design confirms the potential for the extraction of coal in a new panel. The design indicates that significant amounts of power station coal are present and suitable for extraction by room and pillar mining methods. The panel block indicates 401 625 tonnes of ROM coal. This block has a life of panel that will be mined just over a 4-month period. This 4-month period is assumed to mined at a production rate of 48 000 tonnes per month. The total capital cost required for the new panel is R48 281 127.05.

  1. Slope modification of open pit wall using a genetic algorithm - case study: southern wall of the 6th Golbini Jajarm bauxite mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K., Goshtasbi; M., Ataei; R., Kalatehjary.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a genetic algorithm is used in a heavily jointed rock mass in order to investigate the critical circular slip surface and modification of slope surface. This method was applied to the southern wall of the 6th Golbini Jajarm bauxite mine. The mine is the largest bauxite deposit in Iran, [...] located to the northeast of the town of Jajarm in the Khorasan province. Estimated reserve of bauxite in this deposit is about 160 million tonnes. Field and laboratory investigations were conducted in order to determine rock mass behaviour. A genetic algorithm code that uses the Simplified Bishop method as an objective function was developed for finding the safety factor of circular slip surfaces. Sensitivity analysis was applied to determine the optimum values of the genetic algorithm variables, such as population size, selection method, crossover and mutation rates. After finding the critical circular slip surface, slope modification is carried out by removing unstable sections from marked critical slip surfaces, and this process is repeated until the last unsafe section is removed. Based on this code, modification occurred during 7 steps, by reaching a safety factor of 1.3 in the last step. Finally, the modified slope angle of the southern wall of the 6th Golbini Jajarm bauxite mine was determined to be 48.44 degrees.

  2. Results of the Promethee Method Application in Selecting the Technological System at the Majdan III Open Pit Mine / Wyniki Zastosowania Metody Promethee do Wyboru Systemu Technologicznego W Kopalni Odkrywkowej Majdan III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuji?, Slobodan; Hudej, Marjan; Miljanovi?, Igor

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses the application of the PROMETHEE model and the results achieved in practice, following the example of the multi-criteria selection of the technological system at the Majdan III clay mineral raw material open pit mine of the Potisje Company, Republic of Serbia. After the introduction comments, reasons are explained for selecting the new technological system, conditions and limitations for the seven alternative solutions considered are described, mathematical foundation for the PROMETHEE method and a multi-criteria model of the problem in question are presented. The solution with the following structure was ranked first and accepted by the Company management as the best: Bucket chain excavator - Conveyor belts - Spreader (ECS), alongside a decision is made on the acquisition of machinery and system construction. The system was put into operation in 2000. The experience and the data accumulated in the previous twelve years confirm that the decision made on the application of the ECS technology was just, and the conclusion lists the benefits achieved. W artykule omówiono zastosowanie modelu Promethee i przedyskutowano uzyskane w ten sposób wyniki na przyk?adzie wielokryterialnego wyboru systemu technologicznego do zastosowania w kopalni odkrywkowej minera?ów ilastych Majdan III, nale??cej do przedsi?biorstwa górniczego Potisje (Republika Serbii). Po uwagach wprowadzaj?cych przedstawiono powody wyboru nowego ci?gu technologicznego, omówiono warunki oraz ograniczenia dla siedmiu alternatywnych rozwi?za?, podstawy matematyczne metody Promethee oraz wielokryterialny model zagadnienia. Rozwi?zanie uznane za najlepsze i zaaprobowane przez zarz?d przedsi?biorstwa zak?ada zastosowanie nast?puj?cego ci?gu technologicznego: koparka ?ancuchowa jednonaczyniowa - przeno?niki ta?mowe - rozk?adarka(system ECS). Podj?to tak?e decyzje odno?nie zakupu sprz?tu i instalacji systemu, który uruchomiony zosta? w 2000 roku. Do?wiadczenia i danezebrane z przeci?gu ostatnich dwunastu lat potwierdzaj? zasadno?? wyboru systemu technologicznego. W podsumowaniu zestawiono list? uzyskanych korzy?ci

  3. Calibration of Numerical Model Applied to a Shear Zone Located on a Slope in an Open Pit Mine—Case History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Moraes da Gama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The instability of a pit mine slope diagnostic caused by the slipping of a localized deep shear zone is described. The slope was designed on ultra basic, serpentine and metabasite rock formations with an angle varying from 40 to 45 de- grees. The perturbed slope zone was classified as RMR 12 and the non-perturbed zone as RMR 75. The boundary of these zones is defined as the shear zone. The pit slope was field mapped in detail and the mechanical properties of the rock were obtained through a laboratory test. The lab data were further processed using the RMR mechanical classifi- cation system. The Distinct Elements Code numerical modeling and simulation software was used to design the pit slope. The model was calibrated through topographic mapping of the points on the ground. The task of calibrating a numerical model is far from simple. Exhaustive attempts to find points of reference are required. The mechanical be- havior in function of the time factor is a problem that has yet to be solved. The instant deformation generated in the numerical model generated functions that can be compared with the deformations of quick shifts acquired in the topog- raphic monitoring. SMR is indeed more often recommended for Pit Slopes, though the fact that we have used RMR does not invalidate the classification for the modeling effect. The main parameters such as spacing, filling, diving direc- tion and continuity allow for compartmentalization of the modeled area. The objective of the modeling was not to pro- ject slopes because this massif was undergoing a progressive slow rupture. The objective of the modeling was to study the movement of the mass of rock and its progressive rupture caused by a shear zone.

  4. Methane in German hard coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide, hard coal mining is being carried out at ever increasing depth, and has, therefore, to cope with correspondingly increasing methane emissions are caused by coal mining. Beside carbon dioxide, chloro-fluoro-carbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides, methane is one of the most significant 'greenhouse' gases. It is mainly through the release of such trace gases that the greenhouse effect is brought about. Reducing methane emissions is therefore an important problem to be solved by the coal mining industry. This paper begins by highlighting some of the fundamental principles of methane in hard coal mining. The methane problem in German hard coal mining and the industry's efforts to reduce methane emissions are presented. The future development in German hard coal mining is illustrated by an example which shows how large methane volumes can be managed, while still maintaining high outputs at increasing depth. (author). 7 tabs., 10 figs., 20 refs

  5. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  6. Patrones de sucesión vegetal sobre los depósitos de material residual en minas de gravas - Santa Fe de Bogotá Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Goyes Ricardo A.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Con Base en el estudio de la composicion y estructura de las comunidades vegetales y el analisis de las caracteristicas fisicoquimicas de los desechos, se determinaron los patrones iniciales de sucesion primaria, presentes en tres depositos de material residual de 18, 36, 120 meses de abandono, provenientes de la explotacion minera de gravas a cielo abierto al sur de Santafe de Bogota. La composicion, riqueza y diversidad floristica fueron maximas a los 36 meses de abandono del deposito. La dominancia alcanzo los maximos valores en el deposito de 120 meses. Los dos primeros parches de vegetacion presentaron un mejor ajuste al modelo de distribucion especie-abundancia logaritmico, y el tercero a un normal logaritimico. El azar es el patron de distribucion espacial-horizontal que mas abunda entre todas las especies,. seguido por patrones de micro y macroheterogeneidad. Las formas de crecimiento dominantes pasan de hierbas acaulirrosulas y postradas, en la comunidad pionera, a hierbas rastreras y arbustos, en el parche de 120 meses de edad. Las estrategias de historias de vida y las relaciones intraespecificas propuestas por Grime (1989, permitieron determinar que las plantas en la colonizacion de los primeros ambientes, se comportan como ruderales tolerantes a restricciones, y hacia el final del periodo sucesionall, como competidoras tolerantes a restricciones. Los modelos establecidos por Connell y Slatyer (1977 y Noble y Slatyer (1980, y los mecanimos de sucesion vegetal: arribo, establecimiento, facilitacion, tolerancia, inhibicion, extincion y maximo dominio, explican claramente los patrones de sucesion vegetal establecidos a traves de la dinamica de colonizacion y establecimiento de las especies vegetales sobre estos depositos. Cambios a traves del tiempo en la disponibilidad de condiciones y recursos en los sustratos expuestos a la colonizacion vegetal, medidos a partir de la caracterizacion de N, P, K, Ca, Na, Mg, porcentaje de arcillas, textura, pH, cBased on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia. This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of natural restauration of tropical ecosystems subjected to man-borne degradation.

  7. Optimum Coal Mine: striving towards a 'zero effluent' mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.E., Cogho.

    Full Text Available Optimum Coal Mine comprises numerous defunct, active, and future mining sections. The mine is primarily a large opencast coal mine; however, underground mining activities will be increasing steadily over the next five years. Opencast and underground mining activities have a significant impact on sur [...] face and groundwater resources. To ensure that the mine will be able to continue with its mining operations in the catchment, the extent of this impact requires that substantial intervention and mitigation measures need to be implemented to ensure the environmental integrity and economic use of the catchment's water resources. In developing a sustainable long-term mine water management strategy, numerous scenarios had to be analysed. The various scenarios are a combination of water and land management activities. The main components of the mine's integrated water management strategy include: Management of water recharge by continual and appropriate rehabilitation of disturbed land Beneficial re-use of impacted mine water for coal plant process water and mining operations Reclamation and desalination of remaining excess impacted mine water to potable standard. From the mine's long-term water balance, it is evident that the continued implementation of numerous water management actions is required to mitigate the water resources impact in a sustainable manner. In addition, the installation of a water reclamation plant at Optimum Coal Mine (15M?/day) is a key step for the mine to achieve a zero impact target.

  8. Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Paul C. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston VA 20192 (United States); Martinez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 3895, Caracas 1010 A (Venezuela)

    2007-08-01

    About 7 Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13 m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10 km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7 m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Tachira and Merida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It is postulated that slower subsidence rates dominated during the Paleocene while greater foreland basin subsidence rates during the Eocene-Miocene resulted from the loading of nappe thrust sheets as part of the main construction phases of the Andean orogen. South-southeastward advance and emplacement of the Lara nappes during the oblique transpressive collision of the Caribbean and South American tectonic plates in the Paleocene was further removed from the sites of peat deposition, resulting in slower subsidence rates. Slower subsidence in the Paleocene may have favored the growth of raised mires, generating higher inertinite concentrations through more frequent moisture stress. Consistently low ash yield and sulfur content would be due to the protection from clastic input in raised mires, in addition to the leaching of mineral matter by rainfall and the development of acidic conditions preventing fixation of sulfur. In contrast, peat mires of Eocene-Miocene age encountered rapid subsidence due to the proximity of nappe emplacement, resulting in lower inertinite content, higher and more variable sulfur content, and higher ash yield. (author)

  9. Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Martinez, M.

    2007-01-01

    About 7??Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13??m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10??km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7??m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Ta??chira and Me??rida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It is postulated that slower subsidence rates dominated during the Paleocene while greater foreland basin subsidence rates during the Eocene-Miocene resulted from the loading of nappe thrust sheets as part of the main construction phases of the Andean orogen. South-southeastward advance and emplacement of the Lara nappes during the oblique transpressive collision of the Caribbean and South American tectonic plates in the Paleocene was further removed from the sites of peat deposition, resulting in slower subsidence rates. Slower subsidence in the Paleocene may have favored the growth of raised mires, generating higher inertinite concentrations through more frequent moisture stress. Consistently low ash yield and sulfur content would be due to the protection from clastic input in raised mires, in addition to the leaching of mineral matter by rainfall and the development of acidic conditions preventing fixation of sulfur. In contrast, peat mires of Eocene-Miocene age encountered rapid subsidence due to the proximity of nappe emplacement, resulting in lower inertinite content, higher and more variable sulfur content, and higher ash yield.

  10. Coal Mining in Southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    After graduating from high school in 1936, C. William "Doc" Horrell received a $12 camera from his mother. Horrell was immediately bitten by the photography bug, and created a dark room in his mother's walk-in-closet. He attended Southern Illinois Normal University (now the Southern Illinois University Carbondale), and after his time in the armed services, he opened up his own photography studio in Anna, Illinois. In the 1960s, Doc began wandering around southern Illinois to document the region's coal mining industry. Over the next few years, he took thousands of photographs, some of which formed the heart of his 1973 book, "The Land Between the Rivers". The good folks at SIU Carbondale have created this online exhibit to introduce users to Horrell's work. Visitors can make their way through the exhibit, and they may find themselves gravitating to the complete online collection, which contains over 750 items. It's a tremendous find, and it includes images of abandoned coal mining facilities, men at work, and coal trains.

  11. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN: Underground Coal Mines in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COAL_UND, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN, is a polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the location and extent of underground coal mines in the...

  12. Coal Mine Methane in Russia [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  13. Geostatistical coal quality control in longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindistan, Mehmet Ali; Tercan, Abdullah Erhan; Uenver, Bahtiyar [Hacettepe University, Dept. of Mining Engineering, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-03-01

    The coal quality is an important aspect of coal mine planning. This paper presents a case study in which an underground coal mine is faced with severe penalty cost because it does not consider in situ coal quality control at all. To help short term planning of the coal production the mean calorific values of the blocks inside the production panels are estimated by kriging. The estimated calorific values are compared with those obtained from actual production. The ratio of the calorific values of actual production to estimated values is found to be 0.73 in average due to adverse effect of dilution on the quality of run-of-mine coal. This study reveals the importance of geostatistical block modelling in short term mine planning. (author)

  14. Coal mine greenhouse gas mitigation through utilisation of waste coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, M.; Mallett, C. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    2001-07-01

    The sustainability of the coal mining industry is under threat from both the public and government because of the poor perception of the industry as a major greenhouse producer. TO help overcome this problem, a program is underway to develop a hybrid waste coal and waste gas power generation system that has the potential not only to significantly reduce greenhouse emissions from coal mines but also to generate electrical energy at an efficiency greater than contentional coal systems. The use of waste coal as a supplementary fuel provides complete mitigation of mine methane because it allows combustion of the low concentration methane from mine ventilation systems and evens out the variation in the flowrate. Future developments of the new power generation system include conversion of other solid waste materials, such as municipal waste, bagasse and other biomass to energy. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Need for Clean Coal Mining in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an...

  16. Impact of Coal Mining on Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. On the unstable earth, the unresting mankind constantly uses a variety of resources for daily lives. Coal is recognized to have been the main source of energy in India for many decades and contributes to nearly 27 % of the world’s commercial energy requirement. Coal is mainly mined using two methods- surface or ‘opencast’ and underground mining. The geological condition determines the method of mining. Coal mining is usually associated with the degradation of natural resources and the destruction of habitat. This causes invasive species to occupy the area, thus posing a threat to biodiversity. Huge quantities of waste material are produced by several mining activities in the coal mining region. If proper care is not taken for waste disposal, mining will degrade the surrounding environment. The method of waste disposal affects land, water and air and in turns the quality of life of the people in the adjacent areas. This paper throws lights on the burning issues of coal mines and its impact on the environment.

  17. The practical considerations regarding coal mine rehabilitation and closure

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Abri

    2010-01-01

    Coal mine closure is an important subject for the coal mining industry and the community within SA. The coal mine closure process begins with planning during the project feasiblility assessment phase and concludes with the surrender of tenure. Where a coal mine has not developed a closure plan, early commencement of closure planning is the best insurance for achieving surrender.

  18. Acid leaching of coal mining wastes (tailings)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espina, A.; Llavona, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Jaimez, E.; Canibano, J.G. [University of Oviedo (Spain). Area of Inorganic Chemistry

    1993-12-31

    Describes acid leaching tests on coal mining wastes (tailings with aluminium or aluminium compounds). Hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric acids were employed. Process variables that affect optimum conditions are considered. Tests showed that the best results are with coal mining wastes (tailings) burnt at 800 C. Effect of leaching time and tailings burning temperature is shown in graphs. The results show that practically all the aluminium content of coal mining wastes can be extracted when sulfuric acid is used. Calcination increases the yield in extraction processes. 3 refs.

  19. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  20. International opportunities to reduce coal mine methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses opportunities to increase the recovery and use of methane from coal mines throughout the world. It presents information on resource estimates in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Russia, Ukraine and the People's Republic of China and discusses coalbed methane's role in helping these countries meet their energy and environmental goals. Existing barrier to expanded methane recovery and utilization at coal mines and some possible activities to overcome these barriers are also discussed

  1. Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology developed during the project is considered satisfactory, therefore we don't consider necessary to prosecute the research in this field. The methodology could be used in the future for looking for suitable rubbish dumps in other mining areas, especially when no other adequate locations are available, even though such need is not apparent by now. (Author) 10 refs.

  2. Mobile Robot in Coal Mine Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.TejaRam#1 , Smt. M. Nalinisri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the largest coal production and consumption countries in the world, many countries are having related accidents occurred frequently such as gas explosion, flood, breaking out of fire during the exploitation of coal mine. Hazardous Gas Detection Robot is required to detect various kind of gas in coal mines. Multiple data can be detected and calculated simultaneously, so the response is fast using the same reference value. The range of the measurement is wide and it can accurately detect the gas content.

  3. Coal Mining Safety Monitoring Using WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar, Kriti Singh, Dr. Debmalya Bhattacharya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available -The main purpose was to provide an implementable design scenario for underground coal mines using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The main reason being that given the intricacies in the physical structure of a coal mine, only low power WSN nodes can produce accurate surveillance and accident detection data. The work mainly concentrated on designing and simulating various alternate scenarios for a typical mine and comparing them based on the obtained results to arrive at a final design. In the Era of embedded technology, the Zigbee protocols are used in more and more applications. Because of the rapid development of sensors, microcontrollers, and network technology, a reliable technologicalcondition has been provided for our automatic real-time monitoring of coal mine. The underground system collects temperature, humidity and methane values of coal mine through sensor nodes in the mine; it also collects the number of personnel inside the mine with the help of an IR sensor, and then transmits the data to information processing terminal based on ARM.

  4. ????????????????? The Building of Environmental Cost System in Coal Mining Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Coal resource is China’s main energy. Coal mining enterprises in the coal mining process cause serious, environmental pollution not only in the mining area, but also outside the mining area. Analyze the production characteristics of coal mining enterprise and its requirements for environmental cost accounting. First, the concept and structure of the environmental costs in coal mining enterprises is defined and the environmental costs of coal mining enterprises are divided into six categories, including the costs of natural resources depletion, the cost of environmental prevention, the cost of environmental maintenance, the cost of environmental damage, the cost of environmental improvement and other necessary environmental spending. Second, make a detailed analysis for the recognition, measurement, recording and reporting of the environmental costs of coal mining enterprises. Third, design environmental cost accounting system for coal mining enterprise.

  5. Coal mining and water quality: Criciuma's case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal mining in the Santa Catarina Coal-Basin started in 1885 and since them it has been causing serious damage to the environment, specially the water resources, causing several problems like sedimentation and acidification of the rivers that supply the region, and compromising the agricultural-industry and fishery. The mining is also responsible for several professional diseases. The region was considered, in 1980, the '14th Critical Area' to the Pollution Control and Environmental Quality Conservation. Only in the beginning of the 80's, after the publication of the 917 Interministerial Resolution (July, 1982), the first official actions were taken, in order to minimize the environmental impact due to the coal mining industry. With that scenario, the region was chosen as one of the study areas of the 'National Center of Control of Mining Pollution', derived from an agreement between the Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral - DNPM and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The present study is part of the set of studies that have been realized in the region, with the aim of evaluating the environmental impact caused by the coal mining industry, and to suggest actions (to the miners) in order to minimize the environmental problems. This study presents a review of the occupation process of the Criciuma region, its connection to the coal industry, the progress of the mineral and environmental legislation, and the periodic monitoring of environmental parameters (physic-chemical analysis of the Mae Luzia and Sangao rivers, and the drainage from two coal mines) during the period of three years. This period began before the setting of environmental restrictions, going up to after the adoption of reclamation actions. The results allow to conclude that, during the period studied, there was no improvement in the river water characteristics, despite the adoption of reclamation actions. This behaviour may be due to the following factors: there are several abandoned mines (mainly after 1990, year of the implantation of the free trade for the coal sector), that did not finish their reclamation works. These sites are still producing acid drainage; n the sub-basins of the rivers Mae Luzia and Sangao there are several dumping tailings, probably connected to abandoned mines. These tailings are permanent fonts of sulfuric acid; even the mines in operation, in accordance with the official regulations, drain to the rivers, eventually, acid mine drainage, with no previous treatment. (author)

  6. Geotechnical Risks in Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shahriar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a quantitative approach and decision tree were employed in order to assess and manage roof fall risks as only major problem bring about geotechnical issues in Iranian coal mines. For the objectives, risk was assessed due to the determination of likelihoods and cost of consequences (outcomes by the analysis of assembled roof fall data from 5 different coal regions comprising several underground coal mines in Iran. In addition, the cost of consequences is considered by a relative cost. Then, it was concluded that the annual average accidents in the all investigated mines are high and it is economically admissible to serve the proposed solutions for reducing the accidents.

  7. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  8. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver...

  9. Application of nuclear technics in Polish coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric gages, radiometers, densimeters, level indicators, thickness gages and other measuring instruments used in the Polish coal mining are described. The examples of possible applications in the automation of coal mines are given. The technical and economical advantages of using them in coal mining are presented. (Z.M.)

  10. Need for Clean Coal Mining in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.

  11. Need for Clean Coal Mining in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.4870

  12. FY 2000 survey report on the supplementary project for feasibility survey of overseas coal development. Kendisan area, Loa Janan coal mine, East Kalimantan, Indonesia; 2000 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hojo jigyo chosa hokokusho. Indonesia Higashi Kalimantan shu Loa Janan Kendisan chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    For the purpose of studying feasibility of coal development in the Kendisan area south of the Loa Janan coal mine, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, the geological structure survey including topography making, surface survey, test boring, physical logging, etc. was conducted to grasp the outline of the coal seam and coal amount. Together with the surface survey, the test boring was carried out in a total of 27 holes and in a total length of 4,495.30m. Out of the cores collected from core boring, 128 were sampled/analyzed. As a result of the survey, 47 coal seams with coal thickness of 1m or more were confirmed out of a total of 114 coal seams. As a result of the analysis of coal quality, the values obtained were favorable as follows: the coal seam in the lower Puluh Balang seam was 5% or lower in ash, 6,000 kcal/kg or more in calorific value, and 0.5% or lower in sulfur content; the coal seam in the upper Balikpapan seam was 10% or lower in ash, 5,000-6,300 kcal/kg in calorific value, and 0.5% or lower in sulfur content. As a result of the calculation made for coal seams with coal thickness of 1m or more, the coal amount was estimated at approximately 2.5 million tons, assuming that it is possible to drill down to 100m of surface length by open pit mining. (NEDO)

  13. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, Coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.)

  14. Greenhouse gas emission from Australian coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1997, when the Australian Coal Association (ACA) signed a letter of Intent in respect of the governments Greenhouse Challenge Program, it has encouraged its member companies to participate. Earlier this year, the ACA commissioned an independent scoping study on greenhouse gas emissions in the black coal mining industry This was to provide background information, including identification of information gaps and R and D needs, to guide the formulation of a strategy for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining, processing and handling of black coals in Australia. A first step in the process of reducing emission levels is an appreciation of the source, quantity and type of emissions om nine sites. It is shown that greenhouse gas emissions on mine sites come from five sources: energy consumption during mining activities, the coal seam gas liberated due to the extraction process i.e. fugitive emissions, oxidation of carbonaceous wastes, land use, and embodied energy. Also listed are indications of the degree of uncertainty associated with each of the estimates

  15. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uezuelmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m-3. It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration. (authors)

  16. Plan compliance process for underground coal mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.A., Angelov; K., Naidoo.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS This paper presents a unique method of monitoring the effectiveness of the planning process as well as the execution of mine plans. The method primarily determines the degree of deviation from the original mine plans by comparing actual mined areas to initially planned mining areas. The per [...] formance of mining operations is also measured by comparing actual and planned tonnages for a particular period. Once the degree of deviation from mine plans has been established the cause/s of the deviation can be determined through a simple fault tree analysis. Accurate identification of the reasons of deviation can aid the mine in selecting possible methods to correct the deviation. It is, however, beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the methods employed in correcting such deviations, as each mining operation will have unique causes of plan deviation and methods of remedying them. Deviations from the plan greatly affect the yields obtainable, which in turn affects the life of mine, thus having negative economic and financial implications. Accordingly, this paper presents a project management method which aims to reduce risk by improving planning systems to ensure optimum overall extraction of coal reserves.

  17. Game Analysis between Government and Coal Mine Enterprise in Coal Resource Exploitation Environmental Impact Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENG Zhao-jian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available From the angle of compensation subject and compensation object, the interest involved with stakeholder was analyzed. Based on game theory, the relation between government and coal mine enterprise was analyzed. Through the research, the government should constraint the coal mine enterprise behavior, set up coal resources development environmental impact compensation incentive mechanism, increase coal resources exploitation and environmental compensation violations punishment, and incentive the coal mining enterprises.

  18. Game Analysis between Government and Coal Mine Enterprise in Coal Resource Exploitation Environmental Impact Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Zhao-jian

    2013-01-01

    From the angle of compensation subject and compensation object, the interest involved with stakeholder was analyzed. Based on game theory, the relation between government and coal mine enterprise was analyzed. Through the research, the government should constraint the coal mine enterprise behavior, set up coal resources development environmental impact compensation incentive mechanism, increase coal resources exploitation and environmental compensation violations punishment, and incentive the...

  19. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  20. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Tianwei, Lan; Hongwei, Zhang; Sheng, Li; Jun, Han; Weihua, Song; Batugin, A. C.; Guoshui, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program...

  1. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  2. Modern coal mining on Spitsbergen produces less greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Spitsbergen, coal is now produced with profit and with less adverse climatic effect than imported coal from Australia. Many aspects of the mining operations at Spitsbergen's new coal mine, Svea Nord, contribute to the fact that the impact on the climate is less than with many other coal mines. The net calorific value of the coal is high, the amount of methane gas is negligible, and very little energy is used for transporting the coal to the quay. In some countries many coal power plants are old and operate at efficiencies of only 25 to 30 per cent. The efficiency of a modern coal power station in Western Europe is 80 to 85 per cent. At Spitsbergen, the new coal mine produces less carbon dioxide than does travelling there

  3. Determinants of coal mine labor productivity change. [1950 to 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. G.; Stevenson, W. L.

    1979-11-01

    Coal mine labor productivity (tons per miner-shift) has been falling yearly since 1970. The decline in labor productivity since 1970 has implications for the coal industry's labor demand, cost of production, and injuries and could hinder the ability of the industry to meet the coal output goals of the National Energy Plan. The purpose of this research study was to identify and measure the causes of labor productivity decline. Concise answers are given to three questions: Why is coal mine labor productivity important. What are the causes of labor productivity decline in deep and surface coal mines. What are the implications of these findings for future coal mine labor productivity. Coal mine labor productivity is important for three reasons: (1) it affects the cost of coal production, (2) it affects coal industry labor demand, and (3) it affects injuries and injury rates in coal mining. Labor productivity is the link between output levels and employment requirements. The period of declining productivity coincides with major changes in the coal industry's environment: (1) change from a largely unregulated industry to a highly regulated industry (the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969; implementation of many state surface mine reclamation laws, etc.) and (2) change from a declining, marginal profits industry to a growing, profitable industry (increasing coal prices and demand in the 1970s). A major conclusion of the study is that a portion of the high labor productivity of the 1960s was possible because some of the costs of coal mining - worker injuries, black lung disability, and environmental damage - were not being paid for by the coal industry and coal consumers. Once these costs were forced internally on the mine operators by legislation, productivity fell and the cost of production increased.

  4. Applicable underground coal mining systems in very thick seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, H. [Japan Coal Energy Center, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Matsui, K.; Sasaoka, T.; Shimada, H. [Kyushu Univ., Nishi-ku Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Earth Resources Engineering; Ichinose, M. [Center of Urban Infrastructure, Environment and Resources, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Thailand's EGAT Mae Moh Lignite Mine produces approximately 16 million tons of lignite annually from open-cut mining. It is used to generate 2,400 megawatts of electricity. However, in the near future, the coal will have to be extracted from underground from a 400-500 metre depth, and the thickness of the coal seams are causing a thickness interburden. Several mining systems for thick coal seams have been attempted, utilized and improved around the world. The thickness of coal seams is beyond the limitation of current mining technology, and an applicable mining system considering influencing factors has yet to be introduced. In early 2009, a joint research group was established by Japanese and Thai researchers and mining engineers in order to investigate thick seam mining systems and to propose a new mining system for ultra thick seams in Thailand. This paper discussed underground mining systems for thick coal seams and discussed applicable mining systems. The study took into consideration the geological and geotechnical conditions of the lignite mine in Thailand. Topics that were presented included underground mining systems in very thick seams; some actual practices in thick seams in China, Japan, and India; and applicable mining methods in Thailand. It was concluded that it is possible to develop a highly mechanized innovative method to overcome the challenge of extracting ultra thick coal seams with high productivity, safety and coal recovery. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Gregg River mine: reclamation in progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, D. [Luscar Ltd. (Canada). Gregg River Mine Reclamation Project

    2004-03-31

    Gregg River is an open pit coal mine in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in west central Alberta. In May 2000 the mine was closed, and at that time 346 of the 1351 hectares had been reclaimed. 2003 marked the first year of a concentrated effort to reforest over 60% of the mine with 1.6 million trees and shrubs. The challenge now will be to manage a wildlife resource that has been encouraged through habitat creation and protected during the mining and reclamation process. There is growing pressure from the public for access and utilization of this resource. 8 photos.

  6. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that in the United States will be drawn.

  7. Aspects of operational mine safety assurance at the 4 south mine, Quinsam coal mining operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivokuca, P. [Hillsborough Resources Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Quinsam Coal Corp., Campbell River, BC (Canada); DuBois, C.J. [Quinsam Coal Corp., Campbell River, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Mine safety management strategies at the Quinsam coal mine were discussed. The Quinsam mine is located 25 km from the Campbell River in Alberta. The mine has won several safety awards. A checkerboard de-pillaring design was used at the mine, which is also currently applying for a bulk sample permit. Some of the mine's seams are prone to spontaneous combustion and hard cutting coal. Accidents have tended to occur at extended cuts in structurally complex coal deposits. Structural mapping is used to identify and assess structural data as well as to develop ground support plans. Structural visualization and wedge stability analyses are also used. Customized training is provided to ensure that mining personnel are knowledgeable about rock mechanics, mine planning, depillaring practices, and ground support. On-site specialized ground training sessions are also provided. It was concluded that the variability of mining environments must be understood in order to make mines safer. Details of the mine's employees were provided, including details of the average age of employees, average hours worked, and their work experience. tabs., figs.

  8. Depth to Coal Mining in the Colorado Front Range (frimndpthu)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the depth to (overburden above) abandoned underground coal mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  9. Introduction to the coal mining industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some basic data on the coal mining industry in China, such as energy production and construction, coal consumption, production by classification, coal reserves, coal produced by seams angle, by thickness, by mechanization, by methods, etc., are introduced in this paper. 3 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Mining simulation for room and pillar coal operation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.P, Pereira; J.F.C.L, Costa; P, Salvadoretti; J, Koppe.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanized mining cycle using loaders and shuttle cars had its peak in terms of usage in the mining industry during 1950 through 1960. In Brazil, this system is still used at underground coal mines in southern Santa Catarina coal basin. With the aim of investigating the benefits of a new mining [...] scheme using the room and pillar method for these local mines, a computational simulator model was developed in order to investigate the mining cycle. This paper presents the methodology used to develop the simulator and the results that the simulation shows regarding impact of the proposed new scheme on mining productivity.

  11. Slope Stability Analysis of Waste Dump in Sandstone Open Pit Osielec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Justyna; Ca?a, Marek; Flisiak, Jerzy; Kolano, Malwina; Kowalski, Micha?

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the slope stability analysis for the current as well as projected (final) geometry of waste dump Sandstone Open Pit "Osielec". For the stability analysis six sections were selected. Then, the final geometry of the waste dump was designed and the stability analysis was conducted. On the basis of the analysis results the opportunities to improve the stability of the object were identified. The next issue addressed in the paper was to determine the proportion of the mixture containing mining and processing wastes, for which the waste dump remains stable. Stability calculations were carried out using Janbu method, which belongs to the limit equilibrium methods.

  12. Japanese technology development and transfer project on coal mining safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, H. [Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) (Japan). Coal Mine Safety Division, Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency

    2001-09-01

    This paper introduces Japanese experiences and some research results of the technical transfer program to the country's coal mining. The first five-year R & D project started from 1996, covering research on strata control technology; mine gas control; and integrated mine monitoring systems. From 2002, Japanese will start a new long-term technical development and transfer program on coal mining safety. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Development of Mexico`s coal resources: MICARE`s Tajo III project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutley, H.; Mendoza, R. [Northwest Mine Services Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Minera Carbonifera Rio Escondido, S.A. de C.V. (MICARE) produces 3,3 million tonnes of coal per year from two open pit mines, Tajo I and Tajo II in northern Mexico, for sale to electric power plants adjacent to the mining area. A new open pit mine, Tajo III, is being developed to replace production from Tajo I and Tajo II, which will be depleted in 1998. The Tajo III project is being developed by combined Mexican, U.S., and Canadian mining personnel. A feasibility study and a mine plan to meet the environmental assessment and permitting process have been completed. The Tajo III project and the progress made are described. 4 figs.

  14. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  15. Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carolina d. A.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Mura, José C.; Gama, Fabio F.; dos Santos, Athos R.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    Brazil has 10% of global Mn reserves with its most important mine located in the Amazon region. The Azul deposit is related to sandstones and siltstones of the Águas Claras Formation (Archean), situated in the central portion of the Carajás Strike-Slip System. Vale S.A. mining company operates the Azul mining complex with three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 and 3) conducted on rock materials of low geomechanical qualities. Mining operations are openpit, with 4-8 m-high benches and depth of 80 m. A stack of 19 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images was used for the investigation covering the period of March 20-October 4, 2012. In order to minimize the topography phase error in the interferometric process, a high resolution DEM was generated based on a panchromatic GeoEye-1 stereo pair. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) analysis was carried out using the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis) software and led to the detection of 40,193 point-wise persistent scatterers (PS), with an average density of 5,387 PS/km2. It was concluded that most of the mining area can be considered stable during the TSX coverage. High deformation rates related to settlements were mapped over a waste pile, while small deformation rates were detected along the north and south flanks of mine 1and were interpreted as cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. Despite only ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time period during the TSX coverage, and covering a sector of bench walls along the south flank of mine 1, the PSs movement patterns showed concordance with the field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that PSI technique can play in planning and risk assessment in this mining area. Monitoring of this type of deformation by PSI can usefully complement other commonly used field geotechnical measurements due to the synoptic SAR coverage over a dense grid, providing ground deformation data independently of field access and with millimeter accuracy.

  16. Update of coal pillar database for South African coal mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.N., van der Merwe; M., Mathey.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the Coalbrook disaster in 1960, research into coal pillar strength resulted in the adoption of the concept of a safety factor for the design of stable pillars in South African coal mining. At the time when the original statistical analysis was performed by Salamon and Munro in the early 19 [...] 60s, 27 cases of failed pillar workings were considered suitable for inclusion in the database of failed pillars. Pillar failure did not stop after the introduction of the safety factor formula by Salamon and Munro (1967). In the ensuing years, pillars that were created before the application of the formula deteriorated and later failed, as did ones that were created after the introduction of the formula. This means that over time, the database of failed pillar cases increased in size, allowing ever more reliable analyses to be performed. The number of failed cases in the database had grown from the original 27 in the 1960s to 86 by 2011. All the failed cases are contained in the updated database. The database of stable pillars, which is also used in the derivation of strength formulae, has now been extended from 125 to 337 cases. The new database of intact pillar cases is more complete as it bridges the time gap between the Salamon and Munro (1967) and the Van der Merwe (2006) databases. The original requirements for inclusion into the database were satisfied in the compilation of this latest collection. The characteristics of the original database of intact pillars did not change in a meaningful way. The mining depth and pillar dimensions of the new database are largely as they were in the original database. Time-related trends with regard to pillar dimensions and depth of mining could not be found, indicating that the geometrical parameters of coal mining in South Africa have not changed meaningfully in approximately a century of mining. The characteristics of cases in the updated database of failed pillars does not differ substantially from the one published by Van der Merwe (2006). The same difference between that database and the original Salamon and Munro database, namely that the average safety factor of the failed cases had increased dramatically, from 1.0 to 1.5, is still apparent. This may be due to the inclusion of more failures from specific areas that exhibit a disproportionate number of failures at higher safety factors. These areas are the Vaal Basin, Klip River, and Free State coalfields. The new database confirms yet again that there is no correlation between the safety factors of failed pillars and their time of failure. The safety factor on its own is thus not a reliable predictor of longterm stability of pillars.

  17. Investigation of the long-term behaviour of residues of brown coal upgrading processes in an underground deposit in the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining. Text volume. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residues of brown coal upgrading processes are problematic substances that require extensive monitoring. In East Germany, these residues were usually stored above ground in abandoned open pits and industrial waste dumps. In the Land of Thuringia, the most urgent poblems are posed by the ''Neue Sorge'' abandoned open pit near Rositz and the Rusendorf industrial waste dump. In both cases, large volumes of highly polluted waste materials must be disposed of. The method of choice recommended for disposal is the combustion in a hazardous-waste incinerator in accordance with the specifications of the Waste Management Technical Guide (TA Abfall). Preliminary studies are currently being made for the construction of a waste incinerating plant in this region. An alternative option for disposal would be underground storage in an abandoned salt mine. Thuringia has a number of abandoned potassium mines that appear to be well suited for this purpose. On the other hand, there have been no systematic investigations so far on the long-term behaviour of hazardous waste under the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining, so that further studies will be necessary. (orig.)

  18. Question marks of the Czech coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of brown and black coal mining in the Czech Republic is presented, and problems of the extent of coal reserves and of the profitability of deep black coal mining are discussed. Costs of coal mining in foreign countries are given. Coal mining in the Czech Republic can be expected to be loss-making unless coal prices are increased. Since coal resources in the Czech Republic are limited, additional nuclear power plants will have to be constructed or else coal for power generation will have to be imported. The environmental aspects of coal mining and burning are discussed. Medium-term and long-term solutions to reduce the environmental burden include thermal power plant desulfurization, application of the fluidized-bed combustion regime to coals with large ash and/or sulfur contents, and introduction of gas in towns and power plants. In the short run, large-scale consumers in towns and coal basins should be obliged to accumulate reserves of low-sulfur coal for later use. (J.B.). 2 tabs., 3 figs., 8 refs

  19. Nitrogen inertisation process in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enright, K. (and others) (Hunter Valley Mines Rescue Station (Australia))

    1988-09-01

    In the last decade the use of inert gases to fight mine fires and heatings has developed into a standard technique in the coalmining industry in both Western and Eastern Europe. The underlying principle of inerting as a fire fighting technique depends on the extinctive effect of an atmosphere in which the oxygen content has been reduced or displaced by the introduction of inert gases. This enables open and concealed fires to be extinguished and the risk of an explosion to be avoided. In addition fire areas may be entered or de-gassed in a safe manner using nitrogen. Finally the introduction of dry nitrogen to workings where the climatic conditions are arduous will improve working conditions for rescue team members. The aim of the research described here was to confirm the theoretical approach to characteristic flow rates through various length and diameter pipe ranges; to assess materials to be used in conjunction with injected nitrogen for containment in the area; to test existing inertisation equipment at two or more coal mines by injecting nitrogen into a contained area in the mines using existing pipe ranges, to measure effects of nitrogen injection on temperature, relative humidity and oxygen percentage in the mine atmosphere at varying flow rates; to determine safety procedures and gas monitoring requirements and document a program for use with inertisation equipment.

  20. Regulations enforcing better environment protection in Polish coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polish coal mining industry is unprofitable. In 1998 year the Council of Ministers launched the 'Reform of coal mining industry in Poland in the years 1998 - 2002'. This 'Reform' assumes a deep restructuring of the industry with the aim to make it economically efficient and sounder to environment. After one year of the 'Reform' realization it occurred that mainly because of the dramatic change in the coal market in Poland, some additional legal regulation are needed to achieve the aims of the reform. In the 'Correction' of the reform, in spite of deeper technical restructuring of the industry, including additional mines closing, a special stress is put on regulations concerning investments for environmental protection. The paper describes general regulations concerning environment protection in mineral industry and the specific solutions proposed for coal mines in restructuring process in a wide view of the present economic situation of coal mines. 4 refs

  1. Comparing the hazards of coal and uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article from a paper presented to the Uranium Institute Symposium, London, 1986. The risk calculation is based on: a) the fuel required to generate 1 GWe year of power, b) the productivity of uranium and coal mining, and c) the risk to a miner from one year of mining, and the risk to the public that results from 1 GWe year's worth of mine and mill operation. The evaluation reveals that the ratio of coal mining risk to uranium risk on a GWey basis differs from country to country, but falls in the range 10 to 30, coal being the higher. (U.K.)

  2. Recultivation of the cavity of the closed open pit Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili? Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper ore is one of the most important raw materials for industrial production. Increasing demands have been increasing its extraction generally. Shallow deposits with higher copper grade are mostly exhausted and the open pits become deeper, also the amount of overburden and the problems of its disposal are increased. In some cases large quantities of overburden can solve the problem of recultivation of degraded areas. This is the case of recultivation of degraded areas on the location of the closed open pit Bor. Here, the overburden from another open pit, Veliki Krivelj, is disposed into the cavity of the open pit Bor. In this way the overburden is disposed without further area degradation and the cavity is primarily, technically recultivated. When the filling process is finished, waste depot will have a flat top at the level K+450 [2], which is above the neighboring terrain, and the slopes height will vary. This problem was not especially considered up to date, so the experiences in this field are humble. This paper intends to be the basis for further research.

  3. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fi?ne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the coal and gas outburst event earlier.

  4. Coal Mining, Economic Development, and the Natural Resource Curse

    OpenAIRE

    Betz, Mike; Farren, Michael; Lobao, Linda; Partridge, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Coal mining has a long legacy of providing needed jobs in isolated communities but it is also associated with places that suffer from high poverty and weaker long-term economic growth. Yet, the industry has greatly changed in recent decades. Regulations, first on air, have altered the geography of coal mining, pushing it west from Appalachia. Likewise, technological change has reduced labor demand and has led to relatively new mining practices such as invasive mountain-top approaches. Thus, t...

  5. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianwei, Lan; Hongwei, Zhang; Sheng, Li; Weihua, Song; Batugin, A. C.; Guoshui, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF RAW MATERIALS' EXPLOITATION FOR THE CEMENT PRODUCTION IN THE OPEN PITS »PARTIZAN« AND »PRVOBORAC« OF THE »DALMACIJA CEMENT« COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kova?evi?

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the exploitation of mineral raw materials for the cement industry of Split from the beginning of this century till today. Geological and geomcchanical characteristic of the open pits »Partizan« and "Prvoborac«, located within the same deposit and the technological exploitation process with basic parameters of suecessibility in both pits arc detaily discussed. The works of open pits' reclamation which has to be carried out simultanouslly with the exploitation itself arc also considered, as well as the perspectives of further exploitation development, in accord with modern tendencies to the mining technology development,

  7. Soil algae and cyanobacteria of post-coal mining areas.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukešová, Alena; Frouz, Jan

    Lexington : American Society of Mining and Reclamation, 2012. s. 324. [Annual National Conference of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation /29./. 08.06.2012-15.06.2012, Tupelo] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil algae * cyanobacteria * post-coal mining areas Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Unionism and Productivity in West Virginia Coal Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, William M.

    1990-01-01

    This study presents econometric estimates of the effects of unionism on productivity in 83 West Virginia coal mines in the early 1920s. Results show that unionism significantly reduced productivity at small mines but not at large mines. The author ascribes this effect to systematic differences between small and large operations in the quality of…

  9. Environmental impacts of brown coal surface mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 9 contributions, out of which 2 have been inputted in INIS. These are concerned with the impacts of mining in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Mining District on the air quality and public health, and with the effect of mined-out land reclamation on the environment. (M.D.). 8 tabs., 5 figs., 6 refs

  10. ANÁLISIS Y DISEÑO DE LA OPERACIÓN DE PERFORACIÓN Y VOLADURAS EN MINERÍA DE SUPERFICIE EMPLEANDO EL ENFOQUE DE LA PROGRAMACIÓN ESTRUCTURADA / ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DRILLING AND BLASTING OPERATION ON OPEN PIT MINING USING FOCUS ON STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JUAN CARLOS, DÍAZ-MARTÍNEZ; MELISSA ANDREA, GUARÍN-ARAGÓN; JOVANI ALBERTO, JIMÉNEZ-BUILES.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el análisis y el diseño de la operación de perforación y voladuras en minería de superficie empleando el enfoque de la programación estructurada. El propósito de este trabajo es crear una interfaz, por medio de la cual se ingresan la densidad del explosivo, diámetro e in [...] clinación de la perforación, resistencia a la compresión de la roca y dimensiones del banco. Luego se obtiene el valor de las variables más importantes que acondicionan el diseño de la operación de perforación y voladuras, tales como: altura del banco, burden, espaciamiento, taco, carga del barreno, numero de barrenos, factor de carga, entre otras. Esta aproximación permite diseñar la operación de perforación y voladuras en menor tiempo y disminuir el error humano que se tiene por el uso repetitivo de las fórmulas para cálculos de los parámetros involucrados en el diseño de la perforación y voladura en minería de superficie. Abstract in english This article show analysis and design drilling and blasting operation on surface mining it focus on structured programming. The idea about this article a program where you can introduce different variables like, explosive density, diameter, inclination drilling, compressive strength rock and rock ma [...] ss design, after that, we get most important variables for this design like rock mass height, burden, spacing, hole charging , hole number, load factor. This article has allowed design drilling and blasting operation a lower time and get down mistake of the people that get it for repetitive use of calculation for parameter used in this design in drilling and blasting operation on surface mining.

  11. Volume activity 226Ra mine waters of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State Office for Nuclear Safety, Regional Center Kamenna administers, within the framework of supervision, an inspection on workplaces of mines and discharge radionuclides into the environment from mines of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines. Join-stock company OKD exploit coal in next mines Paskov, Darkov, Lazy and CSA. Join -stock company CMD exploit coal in mine CSM. In 2002 DIAMO, state enterprise took over a part of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines and its division ODRA pump mine waters on Water-pumping shaft Jeremenko, Water- pumping shaft Zofie and close Mine Barbora. A water samples were take on main outflow mine water of mine. The presentation summarizes results from monitoring mine waters from 1999 to 2004 years. Volume activity 226Ra mine waters of Mine Lazy-locality Dukla and Water-pumping shaft Zofie are higher then clearance level from Regulation No.307/2002 Coll. On Radiation Protection. They are comparable with mine waters of uranium mines. Volume activity 226Ra surface waters under outflow perform, without stream Petrvaldska struzka under outflow Water-pumping shaft Zofie, guidance level for contamination surface waters from Government regulation No.61/2003 Coll. Volume activity 226Ra surface waters under outflow coal mines are higher then volume in surface waters under uranium mines, because mine waters from uranium mines are decontaminate on decontamination stations. Considering that volume activities 226Ra surface water of Orlovska struzka stream are under guidance level for contamination surface waters from Government regulation No.61/2003 Coll.. don't urgency arrangement to decontamination mine waters. Mass activity 226Ra in bed sediment under outflow Mine Lazy-locality Dukla are comparable with exemption level from Regulation No.307 /2002 Coll. On Radiation Protection. (authors)

  12. Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

  13. The Three-Dimensional (3D) Numerical Stability Analysis of Hyttemalmen Open-Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ca?a, Marek; Kowalski, Micha?; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to perform the 3D numerical calculations allowing slope stability analysis of Hyttemalmen open pit (location Kirkenes, Finnmark Province, Norway). After a ramp rock slide, which took place in December 2010, as well as some other small-scale rock slope stability problems, it proved necessary to perform a serious stability analyses. The Hyttemalmen open pit was designed with a depth up to 100 m, a bench height of 24 m and a ramp width of 10 m. The rock formation in the iron mining district of Kirkenes is called the Bjornevaten Group. This is the most structurally complicated area connected with tectonic process such as folding, faults and metamorphosis. The Bjornevaten Group is a volcano-sedimentary sequence. Rock slope stability depends on the mechanical properties of the rock, hydro-geological conditions, slope topography, joint set systems and seismic activity. However, rock slope stability is mainly connected with joint sets. Joints, or general discontinuities, are regarded as weak planes within rock which have strength reducing consequences with regard to rock strength. Discontinuities within the rock mass lead to very low tensile strength. Several simulations were performed utilising the RocLab (2007) software to estimate the gneiss cohesion for slopes of different height. The RocLab code is dedicated to estimate rock mass strength using the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Utilising both the GSI index and the Hoek-Brown strength criterion the equivalent Mohr-Coulomb parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction) can be calculated. The results of 3D numerical calculations (with FLA3D code) show that it is necessary to redesign the slope-bench system in the Hyttemalmen open pit. Changing slope inclination for lower stages is recommended. The minimum factor of safety should be equal 1.3. At the final planned stage of excavation, the factor of safety drops to 1.06 with failure surface ranging through all of the slopes. In the case of a slope angle 70° for lower stages, FS = 1.26, which is not enough to provide slope stability. Another series of calculations were therefore performed taking water table lowering into consideration, which increases the global safety factor. It was finally evaluated, that for a water table level of 72 m the factor of safety equals 1.3, which is enough to assure global open-pit stability.

  14. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  15. Wetlands in the NB coal mine expansion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, K. [Gemtec Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Peck, D. [Debby Peck Botanical, Island View, NB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation outlined the requirements of the New Brunswick Wetland Conservation Policy as they relate to the NB Coal Mine Expansion Project at Albright's Corner. Issues concerning wetland delineation, functional assessment and mitigation for project area wetlands were discussed. The expansion project was initiated as a result of recent complications with the coal seam at the Salmon Harbour Western Extension Mine. The increasing depth of the cuts and high incidence of slumping was affecting coal production at the site. This presentation described the project components as well as 2 mine options as determined by the technical expertise from wetland consultants. tabs., figs.

  16. Deep cut: ground control and worker safety in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, E.R.; Bise, C.J. [Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health

    2000-06-01

    The trend in underground room-and-pillar coal mining is to employ remote-controlled, continuous-mining machines and extended cuts to depths of 12 m (40 ft) or more. This system of coal extraction, adopted by more than 435 mines, can create additional worker safety hazards. To address the ground-control-related safety hazards, a combination of statistical analysis and numerical modeling was used. Initially, the reported roof-fall incidents and fatalities were reviewed to delineate the ground- control hazards. Then, the application of the coal mine roof rating (CMRR) for estimating safe extended-cut depths was evaluated. Finally, computer modeling was completed to predict roof displacements during extended-cut mining. This paper describes the results of these studies and their impacts on the safety of extended-cut mining. 17 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  18. The role of the state coal mining enterprise in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam is now becoming one of the 3 State Mining Enterprises in Indonesia which is dealing specifically with coal minings and their developments, while the other 2 are PT Tambang Timah for tin and PT Aneka Tambang for miscellaneous minerals. However, there are actually 3 other more State Enterprises under the umbrella of the Department of Mines and Energy, namely PERTAMINA which is dealing with oil and natural gas exploitation, PLN which is the State Electricity Corporation and the State Gas Corporation. The process of merging into one State Coal Mining Enterprise was only happening on October 30, 1990 by the issuance of the Government Regulation Number 56, 1991 whereby the then called Perum Tambang Batubara was merged into PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam, which was then operating only in Tanjung Enim, South Sumatra. The new scope of operation and management of the PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam is now including not only the management of coal mines at Tanjung Enim South Sumatra, but also the coal mines at Ombilin, West Sumatra and the supervision of all contract of works in coal which up to now amount to 11, mostly spread in East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and one in West Sumatra. The amount of coal produced by PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam in 1990 was 4,854 million tons, while the coal production from all contract of works was 4,059 million tons for the same year

  19. Hydrochemical characteristics of the natural waters associated with the flooding of the Meirama open pit (A Coruna, NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vazquez, A.; Falcon, I.; Canal, J.; Hernandez, H.; Padilla, F.; Rodriguez-Vellando, P.; Delgado, J.L. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama ceased extraction of brown lignite. Since then operations have begun which will lead to the formation of a big mining lake (about 2 km{sup 2} surface and up to 180 m deep) after controlled flooding of the open pit. In the process of flooding, both surface and ground waters are involved, each with their own chemical signature. According to the information available, the diversion of surface waters towards the pit hole should lead to the formation of a water body of acceptable quality. However, all unassisted flooding process could eventually form all acidic lake.

  20. Particle toxicology: From coal mining to nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borm, P.J.A. [University of Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf (Germany). Dusseldorf Institute of Environmental Research

    2002-03-01

    Particle research has been historically closely connected to industrial activities or materials, such as coal, asbestos, man-made mineral fibers, and more recently ambient particulate matter (PM). This review combines insights and developments in particle toxicology with the historical context of exposure and organizations sponsoring such research in Europe. In supporting research on particle-induced respiratory effects and mechanisms, research programs of the European Community on Steel and Coal (ECSC) have played a tremendous role. Current particle research in Europe is dominated by PM, and funded by the World Health Organization (WHO), European Union Framework programs, and the Health Effects Institute (HEI). Differences between historical and current research in particle toxicology include the exposure concentrations, particle size, target populations, endpoints, and length of exposure. Inhaled particle effects are no longer confined to the lung, since particles are suggested to translocate to the blood while lung inflammation invokes systemic responses. Finally, the particle size and concentrations have both been reduced about 100-fold from 2-5 mg/m{sup 3} to 20-50 mg/m{sup 3} and from 1-2 {mu}m to 20-100 nm (ultrafine) as domestic fuel burning has decreased and vehicle sources have increased and attention has moved from coal mining industry to general environment. There is, however, a further occupational link to nanotechnology, which continuously produces new materials in the ultrafine range. Based on our current knowledge of particle toxicology, it is highly desirable that toxicology and technology are linked in this extremely rapid developing area, to learn more about potential risks and also to develop knowledge on the role of surface and size in particle toxicity.

  1. Coal properties and mine operational factors that impact gas drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.J.; Aziz, N.I. [Wollongong Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Areas of increased gas content, which are difficult to drain, are encountered in many underground coal mines in Australia. Several factors have the potential to influence the overall efficiency and effectiveness of gas drainage from the mined coal seam. This paper reported on a study that was conducted at an operating coal mine in the Bulli seam of Australia's Illawarra coal measures. Gas composition in the mining domain ranged from almost pure methane in the east to almost pure carbon dioxide in the west. Gas production data from many inseam gas drainage boreholes was evaluated relative to a variety of coal properties and mine operational factors to determine their impact on gas production performance. The study showed that although the design of the boreholes and the drainage time had some impact on gas production, the coal properties were found to have the greatest impact. In particular, coal rank, ash content, gas content, seam thickness and gas composition all had an influence on gas production. The total gas in place and degree of saturation had the most significant impact on coal seam gas production performance. Several recommendations were made to optimize gas drainage productivity. 3 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Open pit slope deformation monitoring by fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoquan; Xiong, Daiyu; Duan, Yun; Cao, Xiaoshuang

    2015-01-01

    With microstrain resolution and the capability to sample at rates of 2000 Hz or higher, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor offers exciting new possibilities for in situ deformation monitoring induced by blasting load in an open pit slope. Here, we are developing a new technology for measuring deformation in real time on the microstrain in an open pit slope during the blasting. A fiber optically instrumented rock mass strain sensor measured strain at 100-cm intervals along a two anchor rock bolt grouted in the slope intact rock mass. In field testing, a number of transient signals have been observed, which in some cases were large enough to trigger rapid sampling. The combination of short- and long-term observation offers new insight into the slope stability and blasting cumulative effects. Therefore, FBG sensors are a useful tool for measuring in situ strain in intact rock masses.

  3. Coal mining in communist China: report of a visit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, J.; Kokan, M.

    1982-01-01

    Apart from a two-page listing of recently published research papers, this issue of the magazine consists of an account of a two-week technical exchange visit to China, the main purpose of which was to discuss various aspects of mine safety, including prevention of gas/coal-dust explosions, forecasting and prevention of gas protrusions and spontaneous combustion, monitoring of gas concentrations, etc. A brief report of an initial conference at the Chinese Ministry of Coal is followed by an account of the Yangchuan mine (Shansi Province, 340 km south-west of Peking), one of the mines visited. The mine is outlined, with details of faces worked, equipment, production, coal and safety measures. An account of a discussion with managers from all the 16 pits belonging to this mine is given. Chungking Coal Science Research Institute and its experimental mine were visited. The main fields of research are outlined and a detailed description of the explosion test tunnel and test conditions is given. This is followed by an outline of a mine (1,200,0000 t/year) belonging to Chunkging. Next, a brief account is given of a large factory (employing 800) manufacturing oxygen respirators, automatic alarms, CO detectors, etc. Finally, the main research areas alloted to each of the 11 research institutes comprising the Chinese Central Coal Mining Research Institute are listed. These institutes have direct contacts with establishments in Germany, UK, Poland, USA, Japan, Hungary and Belgium. (In Japanese)

  4. 78 FR 58567 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...requires MSHA to update these criteria every 5 years; this requirement applies only to coal mine rescue teams. The revised instruction...activities or exercises for practice using equipment and developing teamwork. MSHA revised this instruction guide to add realistic...

  5. 78 FR 79010 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...specific annual training requirements are listed at 30 CFR 49...Guides The annual training requirements for coal mine rescue teams...Development (EPD). Under this requirement, EPD currently prescribes...equipment and developing teamwork. To update this...

  6. Barrier pillar between production panels in coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zingano, Andre Cezar; Koppe, Jair Carlos; Costa, Joao Felipe C.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    The function of the barrier pillar is to protect the mining panel in activity from the abutment load of adjacent mining panels that were mined. In the case of underground mines in Santa Catarina State, the barrier pillar has functioned to protect the main entries of the mine against pillar failure from old mining panels. The objective of this paper is to verify the application of the empirical method to design barrier pillars as proposed by Peng (1986), using numerical simulation following the mining geometry of the coal mines in Santa Catarina State. Two-dimensional numerical models were built taking into account the geometry of the main entries and mining panels for different overburden thickness, and considering the geomechanical properties for the rock mass that forms the roof-pillar-floor system for the Bonito coal vein. The results of the simulations showed that the empirical method to determine the barrier pillar width is valid for the studied coal vein and considered mine geometry. Neither did the pillar at the main entry become overstressed due to adjacent mine panels, nor did the roof present any failure due to stress redistribution. 9 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. The assessment of mine rebound and decanting in deeper coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This groundwater and monitoring study of 7 interlinked deep coal collieries in South Africa was conducted to develop analytical and numerical decant models of individual collieries suitable for integration into a single large model. The model will be used to prevent acid mine drainage after mining activities have stopped. The models considered interconnectivity between the mines, the geology of the overburden, the type of mining conducted at each mine, the topography and depth of the mining activities, and the piezometric levels of the mines and involved aquifers. The overburden formations in the studied region consisted of sandstone, shale, interbedded siltstone, mudstone and coal seams. Removal of the coal seams has resulted in the caving of the overlying strata into mined voids. The mining disruptions have resulted in subsidence and recharges of between 5 and 7 percent. The conceptual decant model predicted that piezometric levels of the mine will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. The flux from the overlying aquifers will decrease as water levels even out. Any polluted water will need to overcome 4 bar of pressure to to decant. Excess water above the weathered zone in the mines will seep out as normal unpolluted springs at lower points. Results of the numerical modelling study showed that it is unlikely that the collieries will decant, as the piezometric level of the mines will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. 5 refs., 4 figs.icient value of the mine. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Environmental pollution caused by coal mining and utilization in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the BP Statistical Review of World Energy of 2010 45.6% of coal production and 46.9% of coal consumption in the world in 2009 are accounted for China. The large-scale coal production and use cause major environmental impacts. A large environmental impact is through the emission of some unavoidable reaction products (for example waste gas, waste heat) that affect and damage the ecosystem. A steady influence can lead to long-term climate changes and medium term damage to the ecosystem. Other environmental impacts occur during mining of coal by the change in the water balance and the transformation of the landscape (surface mining, spoil tips). The environmental problems caused by coal mining and utilization can not be ignored in China.

  9. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

  10. GSM Based Flexible Calling System For Coal Mining Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Himanshu K. Patel#1, Deep H. Desai*2, Tanvi G. Badheka

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an emergency flexible calling system consists of GSM module, solar panel, vibration sensor, battery sensor and fire sensor which are connected with centralized control room by wireless communication. Proposed system may be installed near coal mine where even basic emergency services are not available. It will be totally based on GSM signal strength. In case of medical & accidental emergency happen in the coal mine, particularly when the workerdoesn’t have the mobile phone ...

  11. Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deborah Kosmack

    2008-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Mining: Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities direct and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. This is so because environmental degradation has affected especially the common property resources such as land and water on which depend the subsistence and well-being of the local community. The study area being the foremost coal producing region of the country also ranked high in the record of environmentally degraded region. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coalfield in India have become ruined due to abandoned and active mine surface and underground mines. In open cast mines, waste resources are usually stacked as huge dumps in the surroundings. These, coupled with coal dumps, cause noteworthy visual impact. Large vicinity of forest, farming land, and pasture land has been transformed into colliery colonies or into uncultivated land due to rapid expansion of the coal mines. As a result, land use pattern has been changed considerably over last three decades. This study is pursued to assess the impact of coal mining activities on local community and environment.

  13. Mine simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotou, G.N.; Sturgul, J.R. [eds.] [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    1997-12-31

    The technical sessions covered: simulation - open pit mining operations; simulation - underground mining operations; general topics; expert systems - genetic algorithms; neural networks; mine safety - training; modelling, planning and production scheduling; rock mechanics; and mine equipment. The book contains abstracts of the papers. The full papers are included on the enclosed CD-ROM.

  14. Teck Coal's reclamation research program : a synthesis of 40 years of experience in mountain mine reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); O' Brien, B.; Jones, R. [Teck Coal Limited, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Teck Coal has undertaken a project to compile data and interpretations from reclamation research conducted at the company's various open-pit metallurgical coal mining operations in British Columbia and Alberta. The reclamation research synthesis project aims to compile into a single document all the reclamation research done on Teck Coal properties, to synthesize the findings of the research in a single reference, to clearly articulate research findings and optimum reclamation practices, and to shape future reclamation and monitoring efforts according to identified challenges or high-priority issues. The implementation involves reproducing all the documents as digital appendices to the synthesis document, creating summaries of every report, and categorizing according to topic area. An in-progress sample of the summary and synthesis completed to date was presented. It focused on the reclamation of ungulate habitat in southeast British Columbia. The sample involved identification of preferred elk browse and forage species, the reclamation of preferred forage species (both grass/forb and tree/shrub), the relative advantages of native and naturalized and introduced grass and forb species, techniques for survival, and nutritional characteristics. The priorities identified were to develop seed mixes to improve performance and meet changing reclamation objectives, to replicate the benefits of individual plant protectors with less cost/effort, and to determine the quantity or proportion of ungulate browse shrub species necessary for high-quality winter-range habitat. The synthesis document is to guide future reclamation work, educate new reclamation practitioners, and contribute more widely to overall reclamation knowledge. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2013. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  16. Environmental practice in Indian coal mines - a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.P.

    1987-08-01

    This article discusses the environmental practice in Indian coal mines under the following headings, main surface fans, auxiliary ventilation system, dust control and dust sampling, heat and humidity problems, methane emission and control, mine fires and application of nitrogen for inertisation, and environmental monitoring. 9 refs.

  17. Analysis on Backfill Mining of “Under Three” Coal in Zhouyuanshan Mine and Strata Movement Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of "under three" (under railways, buildings and water bodies coal pillar mining, analysis on backfill mining and strata movement law is carried on in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine. First of all, according to the engineering geology and strata occurrence condition in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, FLAC2D software be used to establish a two-dimensional numerical model and to analyze and calculate the full caving method, strip method and backfill method and then gaining that backfill mining method is beneficial to improve the protection level of surface buildings and facilities. Then, using the theory of strata control and method of related mechanics to analyze the strata movement law and strata control principle of backfill mining, considering that supporting role of backfill body is mainly on lateral reinforcement of coal pillar and vertical supporting role of overlying strata, forming a cooperative control system of "bearing strata + coal pillar + backfill body" and deducing the equilibrium equations when it is in steady state. At last, using the numerical analysis method, respectively analyzing the surface subsidence of the corresponding important buildings of the three profiles of C-8 exploration line ,C-6 exploration line and A-A (cross section of the profile of C-8 exploration line after using backfill coal mining in 24 mining district. The results show that: the surface subsidence and horizontal deformation basically control within 30 mm and the surface deformation curvature of buildings generally in 0.1×10-3 /km in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, which accord with the relevant standards and requirements.

  18. High resolution processing of 3D seismic data for thin coal seam in Guqiao coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaoling; Peng, Suping; Zou, Guangui

    2015-04-01

    Accurate identification of small faults for coal seams is very important for coal-field exploration, which can greatly improve mining efficiency and safety. However, coal seams in China are mostly thin layers, ranging from 2-5 m. Moreover, the shallow coal seam with strong reflection forms a shield underneath thin coal seam which is only about 40 m deeper. This causes great difficulty in seismic processing and interpretation. The primary concern is to obtain high-resolution seismic image of underneath thin coal seam for mining safety. In this paper, field data is carefully analyzed and fit-for-purpose solutions are adopted in order to improve the quality of reprocessed data and resolution of target coal seam. Identification of small faults has been enhanced significantly.

  19. Plan compliance process for underground coal mines

    OpenAIRE

    Angelov, A. A.; Naidoo, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a unique method of monitoring the effectiveness of the planning process as well as the execution of mine plans. The method primarily determines the degree of deviation from the original mine plans by comparing actual mined areas to initially planned mining areas. The performance of mining operations is also measured by comparing actual and planned tonnages for a particular period. Once the degree of deviation from mine plans has been established the ca...

  20. Rockbursts provoked by destress blasting in hard coal longwall mining.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koní?ek, Petr; Sou?ek, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír

    London : CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, Balkema, 2013 - (Singh, P.; Sinha, A.), s. 193-202 ISBN 978-0-415-62143-4. - (Fragblast. 10). [International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting. New Dehli (IN), 26.11.2012-29.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102014034 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : destress blasting * rockburst hazard * mining industry Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining http://www.crcnetbase.com/doi/abs/10.1201/b13759-25

  1. Fugitive powder in mining operations of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particles in the air range from 0.005 to 500 um, where the human eye can distinguish only particles greater than 50 um. If particles ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 um are inhaled, they deposit in the thoracic region, affecting human health. Air quality standards for particulate matter in Colombia as geometric annual average should be less or equal than 100 ug/m3 and a 24-hr maximum of 400 ug/m3 as measured by high volume samplers. These standards have been designed to protect air quality and human health in urban areas, where particulate matter is mainly produced by combustion and coagulation processes and has an average diameter of 2.5 um. Mining operations at El Complejo Carbonifero el Cerrejon, Zona Norte produce particles by mechanical and grinding processes with mean diameter greater than 10 um, therefore the high volume sampler, that captures particles smaller than 40 um, is not the best measurement device to identify particulate matter impact on human health. The pm-10 respirable air sampler is very efficient in measuring particles smaller than 10 pm, representing those particles that deposit in the thoracic region. In Colombia there is not a respirable air standard. The Cerrejon north zone coal complex has tried and verified that it meets easily respirable air standards issued by the environmental protection agency of the United States

  2. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act...EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act...environmental review of Appalachian surface coal mining operations under the Clean Water...

  3. Utilization of coal ash/coal combustion products for mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Society's demand for an inexpensive fuel, combined with ignorance of the long term impacts, has left numerous scars on the Pennsylvania landscape. There are over 250,000 acres of abandoned surface mines with dangerous highwalls and water filled pits. About 2,400 miles of streams do not meet water quality standards because of drainage from abandoned mines. There are uncounted households without an adequate water supply due to past mining practices. Mine fires and mine subsidence plague many Pennsylvania communities. The estimated cost to reclaim these past scars is over $15 billion. The beneficial use of coal ash in Pennsylvania for mine reclamation and mine drainage pollution abatement projects increased during the past ten years. The increase is primarily due to procedural and regulatory changes by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). Prior to 1986, DEP required a mining permit and a separate waste disposal permit for the use of coal ash in backfilling and reclaiming a surface mine site. In order to eliminate the dual permitting requirements and promote mine reclamation, procedural changes now allow a single permit which authorize both mining and the use of coal ash in reclaiming active and abandoned pits. The actual ash placement, however, must be conducted in accordance with the technical specifications in the solid waste regulations

  4. Biodesulfurization of Subbituminous Coal by Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Coal Mine Soil of South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megga Ratnasari Pikoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal as fuel should be necessarily pre-treated by desulfurization in order to prevent excessive emissions of sulfur dioxide, a precursor of acid rain. Organic sulfur in coal can be eliminated by microbial action through the technology known as biodesulfurization. Source of microorganisms in the present study was coal mine soil in which microorganisms have been adapted to use the sulfur in coal. Coal mine in South Sumatra was choosen as source of microorganisms in this study, because it is an area in Indonesia with the largest of subbituminous coal reserves. The microorganisms were activated as mixed culture by culturing the soil sample in mineral salt medium containing subbituminous coal as the sole sulfur. Desulfurization activities were examined by using three variations of the initial coal concentration, i.e., 10, 15 and 20% weight per volume. Growth and activity of the mixed culture on the subbituminous coal were monitored by measuring of medium pH, cell concentration, sulfate and organic sulfur concentration. The result showed that desulfurization activity of the mixed culture on 15% of coal was able to reduce sulfur up to 82.36%. Isolation and identification of the mixed culture based on genotypic and phenotypic characterizations revealed that members of the mixed culture were identified as genera of Enterobacter, Lelcersia and Bacillus. Observation on growth curves showing that the culturable isolates grew in at least three overlapping stages when using coal as sulfur source suggested that the members of the consortium worked alternately on coal as substrate.

  5. Experimental Approach to Measure Stress and Stress Changes in Rock ahead of Longwall Mining Faces in Czech Coal Mines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sou?ek, Kamil; Koní?ek, Petr; Staš, Lubomír; Ptá?ek, Ji?í; Waclawik, Petr

    Wollongong : The University of Wollongong - Mining Engineering, 2013 - (Aziz, N.; Kininmonth, B.; Nemcik, J.; Ren, T.; Hoelle, J.), s. 115-123 ISBN 978-1-921522-83-3. [2013 Coal Operators´Conference. Wollongong (AU), 14.02.2013-15.02.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MV VG20102014034 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : stress in rock mass * mining geomechanics * longwall coal mining * Upper Silesian Coal Basin Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2105&context= coal

  6. Greenhouse research to curb emission from coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to David Williams, senior research scientist and member of the CSIRO Energy Technology's air quality group, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from five sources in coal mining. These include energy consumption during mining activities, fugitive emissions (coal seam gas liberated in the extraction process), oxidation of carbonaceous wastes, landuse and embodied energy. Total emissions are dominated by contributions from the first three. Both fugitive and waste oxidation emissions from opencut operations come from 'area' sources and their magnitudes are poorly known. Although there may be no measurable gas in freshly uncovered open cut coal, such mines usually emit methane that can be detected and sometimes quantified by air pollution techniques. Reporting on a recent research program into GHG emissions in the black coal mining industry commissioned by the Australian Coal Association (ACA), Williams maintains that research indicates emission rates could be 2040 times higher than the overall estimate for emissions from this source for opencut mines in Australia. The overall objective of the project is to provide methods that are supported by direct measurement to quantify the emissions of GHG and options for the disposal and /or use of methane emissions as an eligible waste-product energy source

  7. Alunites in the red beds of the “Marcel” coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Wyszomirski; Marek Muszy?ski; Ireneusz Lipiarski

    2004-01-01

    Within the so-called red beds of the “Marcel” coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB),the authors have recorded the presence of alunite and natroalunite using XRD, IR and SEM/EDS. Both ofthem contain probably isomorphic substitutions of barium, strontium, phosphorus and, possibly, thehydronium ion. These two minerals preferably occur at the bottom of the red beds, in clay laminae overlyinga partly preserved coal seam; they are cryptocrystalline: their rhombohedral crystals, with a cub...

  8. Success story of a semi-mechanised underground coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, T.K.; Bhattacharya, R.M.; Karmakar, N.C. [Eastern Coalfield Ltd. (India). Satgram Project

    2001-07-01

    Satgram Project of Eastern Coalfield Limited at present is producing 650 T of coal from the development districts deploying six LHDs which can be considered as a success in comparison to other mines with similar degree of mechanisation. This has been possible due to adoption of a planned programme at various stages of mining activity. The success achieved in Satgram Project could be considered as an exemplary one to many LHD operated mines working under similar geo-mining conditions. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Use of mine spoils from Teruel coal mining district (NE, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer, S.; Jordán, M. M.; Sanfeliu, T.

    2009-01-01

    Coal mine restoration projects increase public perception of mining companies. Spain has relatively few examples of completed opencast mine rehabilitation projects. This study seeks to obtain the use of mine spoils from coal mines in Teruel. The studied mine spoils may be used as raw material for the Spanish ceramic industry, located in the provinces of Castellon, Valencia and Teruel. This study specifically discusses the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Lower Cretaceous materials from coal deposits in Estercuel basin, around Teruel and Castellon in Spain. These provinces have a large ceramic industry. A characterization of mine spoils from coal deposits has been carried out. This characterization is based on the data of both mineral and chemical analysis. The mineralogical characterization was complemented with SEM/EDAX. The study of the chemical composition allows the evaluation of the applicability of the studied mine spoils to the following industries: refractory, fine clay, red clay for pavement and coating, and heavy clay. The clay used for refractory industry has the highest compositional demand. The positive results obtained on this set of preliminary tests lead us to envisage new research programs, focusing on testing these mine spoils on a semi-industrial scale.

  10. Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

  11. Coal deposits of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Nelson W.

    1987-01-01

    The coal fields of the Unites States can be divided into six major provinces. The Appalachian and Interior Provinces contain dominantly bituminous coal in strata of Pennsylvanian age. The coal seams are relatively thin and are mined both by surface and underground methods. Sulfyur content is low to moderate in the Appalachian Province, generally high in the Interior province. The Gulf Coastal Plain Province, in Texas and neighboring states, contains lignite of Eocene age. The seams are 3-25 ft (0.9-7.5 m) thick and are minded in large open pits. The Northern Great Plains Province has lignite and subbituminous coal of Cretaceous, Paleocene and Eocene age. The coal, largely very low in sulfur, occurs in beds up to 100 ft (30 m) thick and is strip-mined. The Rocky Mountain Province contains a great variety of coal deposits in numerous separate intermontane basins. Most of it is low-sulfur subbituminous to bituminous coal iof Creatceous and early Tertiary age. The seams range from a few feet to over 100 ft (30 m) thick. Strip-mining dominates but underground mines are important in Utah and Colorado. The Pacific Coast Province, which includes Alaska, contains enormous cola resources but has seen little mining. The coal is highly diverse in physical character and geologic setting. ?? 1987.

  12. Exploration drilling for pre-mining gas drainage in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, E. A.; Brylin, V. I.; Lukyanov, V. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    High natural gas content in coal seams and low gas drainage efficiency are the basic issues to be addressed in order to ensure coal mining safety. A great number of wells being drilled within various gas drainage techniques significantly increase the costs of coal mining and do not reduce the gas content levels within the coal beds up to the required parameters in a short period of time. The integrated approach toward exploration well spacing applied at the stage of project development could make it possible to consider coal seam data to provide more effective gas drainage not only ahead of mining but also during further gas content reduction and commercial production of methane. The comparative analysis of a closely spaced grid of exploration program compiled in accordance with the recommendations on applying mineral reserves classification and inferred resources of coal and shale coal deposits and currently effective stimulation radius proves the necessity and possibility to consider exploration well data for gas drainage. Pre-mining gas drainage could ensure the safety of mining operations.

  13. Study of radioactivity effect of mining and utilizing bone-coal mine on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and utilization of the bone-coal is a man-made activity that may bring a important effect on the environment around the mine and on radiation dose of public living in the mine area. The paper introduces investigation methods and main results about the pollution source term of bone-coal, which was caused by mining and utilizing in Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Anhui provinces. The store amount of bone-coal in five provinces is above 90% of the total store amount in our country. It was measured that the ?-radiation level and the annual average concentration of 222Rn indoors and outdoors in the bone-coal mine areas in the five provinces. The specific activities of radionuclides in the bone-coal, bone-coal cinder, bone-coal cinders brick et al. were analyzed. The additional dose to the public living in the bone-coal cinder brick house and the other people working in the bone-coal mine area was estimated. The investigation results showed that the mean specific activities of 238U, 226Ra in the bone-coal of the five provinces is 1.3 kBq/kg and 0.9 kBq/kg in the bone-coal cinder brick, respectively. The mean specific activities of 238U, 226Ra in the soil of bone-coal mine area are 0.37 kBq/kg and 0.24 kBq/kg, which are 8 times and 5 times higher than the average background value for the five provinces, respectively. The mean value of ?-radiation dose rate and the annual average concentrations of 222Rn in the bone-coal cinder brick houses in the five provinces are 0.3 ?Gy/h and 0.15 Bq/m3, respectively. The additional annual average doses, which are caused by ?-radiation and potential alpha rays of 222Rn in the bone-coal cinder brick house indoors and outdoors of the five provinces, are 1 mSv and 3 mSv, respectively. The additional collective dose (50 years), which were caused by bone-coal cinder brick house in 25 year, is some 1.5 x 105 person·Sv. Most of bone-coal cinder might not be used in constructional materials when its mass fraction is more than 20%

  14. Settlement and strength of clay-rich coal mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, David; Kho, Adrian; Daley, Andrew [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    The paper discusses the settlement and strength of clay-rich coal mine spoil material, which was sourced from Jeebropilly coal mine in south-east Queensland, Australia. The settlement consists of three components: self-weight, collapse on wetting up, and weathering-induced settlements; 80% of the self-weight settlement of initially dry spoil occurs during placement. Due to corrosion cracking at highly stressed particle contacts, collapse settlement of spoil occurs on wetting up. Weathering-induced spoil settlement occurs over a variable timeframe that depends on durability of the spoil. Laboratory tests included material characterization and geotechnical parameter testing. The characterization of testing methodologies is presented. The results of the tests have implications on the shear strength and settlement of clay-rich spoil materials such as the weathered clayrock found in the upper part of the Jeebropilly coal mine. These implications are detailed and they shed some light on the settlement and strength behavior of these materials.

  15. Radon measurements and valuation in German hard coal underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the radon concentrations by sampling in return air shafts of all hard coal mines in the area of the Chief Mines Inspectorate of the Land NW were carried out by means of a specially designed method of measurement. The dependence of radon concentrations on atmospheric pressure and fan pressure was evaluated on the basis of the measurement results available. Long-term measurements are carried out on the surface of a coal mine at return air shafts, using continuous measuring instruments. For continuous long-term measurements underground, an intrinsically-safe measuring device, which involves processing and storage of the measured values in a CMOS micro-computer, was developed. The radon concentrations which were found are low as compared with maximum levels based on dose/effect correlations put forward by the International Committee for Radiological Protection. Considering radon, the risk of the hard coal miner can therefore be regarded as negligible

  16. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  17. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Strager; Strager, Jacquelyn M.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Dunscomb, Judy K.; Kreps, Brad J.; Maxwell, Aaron E.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predict...

  18. Cavities as the sources of acid mine process in the Niwka-Modrzejow Coal Mine (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid mine process is one of the most significant sources the pollution of surface water. The intensive process was discovered in the Niwka-Modrzejow Coal Mine at the level 100-130 m. In this paper the method of prevention by the filling cavities of wastes from energy plants was proposed. (authors)

  19. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ...Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines...Appendix I to Subpart D, in the table titled Table 10--HIGH VOLTAGE TRAILING CABLE AMPACITIES AND OUTSIDE DIAMETERS, the...

  20. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. The 1st quarter 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1st quarter 2010 contains the statistical data concerning the following issues: (i) black coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade; (ii) brown coal mining: part I: production, resources, accomplishments; employees, part II: marketing and foreign trade.

  1. A study on coal mining under large reservoir areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiong; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Duan, Qing-Wei; Sun, Yan-Dong; Tian, Hong; Jia, Zhi-Xin

    2009-04-01

    At present, the easily mineable coal resources have been depleted in China, and it is very necessary and urgent to mine under hydraulic projects for continuous production and sustainable development of the society. In this paper, the coal field of Shenjiazhuang Colliery, which mostly lies under the Yuecheng reservoir area, is studied. By using a comprehensive study involving field engineering geologic survey, indoor rock mechanics test, in situ test, statistical analysis of mine well discharge, water quality analysis, theoretical calculation and numerical simulation, it is concluded that coal mining would not affect safe operation or bring any secondary geological hazard to the reservoir area. This paper provides an important scientific basis for achieving double profits for both departments of water and coal resources and helping departments related make further decisions. In addition, the research reported in the current paper can be served as a reference for similar projects, such as the coal mines under the Xiaolangdi reservoir area, under the Xifeihe Dam and under the mid-route South-to-North Water Transfer Project.

  2. Chemical and microbial sulphuric acid production from aerated mine lake sediment that was treated by different additions of NaOH (speech)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined sediment from an open pit lake that was intensively used for coal mining during the first decade of 20th. century. Today, the site (Lake 111, Lusatia, Germany) is flooded and water has extreme chemistry: low pH values (2-3), high concentrations of sulphate (up to 2000 mg/l) and elevated concentrations of Fe, Zn and Mn. As a result, anoxic sediment accumulated elevated concentrations of these elements, especially high levels of reduced sulphur compounds. (orig.)

  3. Selection of technological parameters in borehole mining production by technical deep drilling and hydroexploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrovic Vladimir

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the estimate technological parameters for borehole hydro-production of sand by technical deep drilling slim well differently diameters, where are determinate calculation of radius of jet for selects hydro-monitor, the effect of hydro-caving, caving capacity, hydro-transport of pulp and drawings of the most important parts of necessary equipment for exploitation at the mining field exemplified by experimental borerhole hydro-mining of underlying quartz sand at surface open pit mine of coal named the Polje-D in Kolubara.

  4. Pedological characteristics of open-pit Cu wastes and post-flotation tailings (Bor, Serbia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Lili& #263; ; S, Cupa& #263; ; B, Lalevi& #263; ; V, Andri& #263; ; M, Gaji& #263; -Kvaš& #269; ev.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To gain a better knowledge of mining areas and potential remediation processes, some characteristics (morphological, physical, chemical and microbiological) of soils formed on open-pit Cu mine waste (OPW) and Cu post-flotation tailings (PFT) dumps were investigated. Soil profiles and surface samples [...] were studied. In general, the investigated soils are characterized by large proportion of coarse soil particles, degraded structure, low humus content, low pH, high As and Cu concentrations, and low soil microbial activity. In all investigated profiles there is no recognizable topsoil layer containing in situ formed humus probably due to soil age, lack of plant cover and organic litter, as well as other unfavorable soil conditions. The specificity of investigated soils is an irregular distribution of some soil characteristics (porosity, humus content, microbiological activity) over depth, which is a result of their technogenic origin. By establishing correlations between the studied surface sample parameters, using principal component analysis (PCA), poorer aggregate properties of PFT than of OPW soils were found, resulting most likely from aggressive mining, i.e., flotation processes. Both OPW and PFT soils compared with control natural soils are characterized by lower clay and humus content, and poorer aggregate properties.

  5. Risk factors for the undermined coal bed mining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arad, V. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Arad, S. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The Romanian mining industry has been in a serious decline and is undergoing ample restructuring. Analyses of reliability and risk are most important during the early stages of a project in guiding the decision as to whether or not to proceed and in helping to establish design criteria. A technical accident occurred in 2008 at the Petrila coal mine involving an explosion during the exploitation of a coal seam. Over time a series of technical accidents, such as explosions and ignitions of methane gas, roof blowing phenomena or self-ignition of coal and hazard combustions have occurred. This paper presented an analysis of factors that led to this accident as well an analysis of factors related to the mining method. Specifically, the paper discussed the geomechanical characteristics of rocks and coal; the geodynamic phenomenon from working face 431; the spontaneous combustion phenomenon; gas accumulation; and the pressure and the height of the undermined coal bed. It was concluded that for the specific conditions encountered in Petrila colliery, the undermined bed height should be between 5 and 7 metres, depending on the geomechanic characteristics of coal and surrounding rocks. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  6. Run-of-mine coal/stone monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adsley, I.; Brett, M.C.; Croke, G.M.; Haines, G.J.; Hoddy, J.D.; Taylor, P.M. (British Coal Corporation, Eastwood (United Kingdom))

    1993-01-01

    A Natural Gamma Coal Quality Monitor (NGCQM) has been developed. The online monitor is capable of providing a rapid measure of run-of-mine ash content. Versions have been or are being developed for feeders and belt conveyors in both underground and surface mines. The report describes the selection of the natural gamma approach, the development of the monitor and colliery trials and field experience. By the end of the project 14 NGCQMs were in operation in collieries. 11 refs., 45 figs.

  7. Longwall Coal Mining and Soil Moisture Changes in Southwestern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Bain, D.

    2014-12-01

    Subsidence from longwall coal mining impacts the surface and sub-surface hydrology in overlying areas. During longwall mining, coal is completely removed in large rectangular panels and the overlying rock collapses into the void. Though the hydrologic effects of longwall mining subsidence have been studied in arid systems, in humid-temperate regions these effects are not well understood. In particular, it is not clear how longwall mining will impact soil moisture patterns. Utilizing simple soil water modeling frameworks (ArcGIS-based Water Balance Toolbox) and the locations of recent long wall mining, potential impacts on soil water availability were predicted at the landscape scale. For example, in areas overlying panel edges, soil available water capacities (AWC) were altered based on several scenarios of AWC change and interactions between aspect driven soil moisture regimes and the mining perturbation were explored over a five year period (2008-2013). The regular patterns of soil moisture arising from insolation contrasts, when interacting with broad-scale longwall mining impacts, are predicted to cause complicated patterns of soil moisture change. These predictions serve as a means to guide field campaigns necessary to understand longwall mining's hydrologic impacts in wetter climates

  8. AN IMPROVED INVENTORY OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM COAL MINING IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past efforts to estimate methane emissions from underground mines surface mines, and other coal mine operations have been hampered, to different degrees, by a lack of direct emissions data. Direct measurements have been completely unavailable for several important coal mining ope...

  9. Structural and stress analysis of mining practice in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Waclawik, Petr; Ptá?ek, Ji?í; Grygar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 10, ?. 2 (2013), s. 255-265. ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : horizontal stress * structural analysis * mine roadway stability * coal mining * rock burst Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2013_02/acta_170_15_Waclawik_255-265.pdf

  10. Coal-mine production history from 1984 through 1995 in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area (cpmphg)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage containing 12 years (1984 through 1995) of coal mining history in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. This layer was derived...

  11. Recent developments in coal mine inertisation in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, S.; Cliff, D.; Harrison, P.; Hester, C.

    1998-03-01

    During 1997 two different types of coal mine inertisation equipment were trailed in separate underground coal mines in Queensland, Australia. In April 1997 tests of the Polish developed GAG-3A inert gas generator were carried out at the Collinsville No. 2 Coal Mine. These demonstrations indicated that the GAG-3A device was applicable in underground coal mines and that with respect to inertisation rate the device outperformed all other currently available techniques. The unit was assembled rapidly and operated safely during surface and underground trials and no mechanical problems were encountered with the device. The GAG-3A is not suitable for every fire scenario particularly if large volumes of fresh air are being drawn into the mine (where multiple units may be required), but with respect to the selection criteria developed by the Moura Implementation Process Task Group 5 criteria, the unit performed up to the specifications required. In May 1997 tests were carried out at the Cook and Laleham Collieries using a Tomlinson diesel boiler. These demonstrations indicated that a low volume generator, such as the boiler, can proactively inert a large goaf area effectively. At Cook a volume of approximately 700,000 m{sup 3} was inerted over 10 days and at Laleham an area of approximately 70,000 m{sup 3} was inerted over two days. The boiler is not suitable for emergency use, due to the low flow rate of inert gas generated (approximately 0.5 m{sup 3}/s). There was no significant seam gas present during either trial. Both test programs were financially supported by ACARP and the Department of Mines and Energy, BHP, Shell, and MIM also contributed to the GAG-3A project and Cook Resources Mining contributed to the Tomlinson boiler project. 1 ref., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Changes in coal mining society in contemporary West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Government of India has, in recent years, taken multiple steps to encourage private sector participation, adopt a more holistic approach towards expanding its coal base, and improve efficiency in the sector as a whole. However, the existing regulatory framework in India is not adequately developed or in tune with international standards that the extractive industries sector have been putting together. It is thus crucial for the Indian coal industry to consider changes in its regulatory environment to make it a par with the international standards to meet the critical requirement for energy security. In fact coal mining society is passing though havoc changes due to Government’s newly introduced multifold policies. The industrial relation now has changed immensely than the previous practices. Coal industry, which contributes 67 percent of total energy requirements of our country. After two phases nationalization the industry witnessed certain developments, which have implications for the human recourses management and industrial relation. In the beginning of the 90s one important event was the introduction of the new economic policy and this has a great influence over the coal mine sector. Impact of the policy Change is the introduction of a number of private operators in the coal production. Broadly, new economic policy initiated the gradual withdrawal of state from the control of basic industry and infrastructure. Coal mines are no exception in this regard. So the effect of new economic policy in the consequence of globalization also falls on the coal sectors. We now see what sort of impact of policy change has taken place upon the coal sector and coal workers. This article tires to examine the changes taken place due to policy changes and changes in general outlook of the people of coal mines in which they live. Now the industrial relation as well as the mechanism of work has been changed drastically. The traditional practice of work and mental outlook is gradually replacing with global method. It was noticed that people associated in this industry has started accepting the wider scope of work culture.

  13. Vegetation development in central European coal mining sites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prach, Karel

    Boca Raton : Taylor & Francis CRC Press, 2013, s. 38-52. ISBN 978-1-4665-9931-4 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : succession * vegetation * coal mining Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. Environmental issues in coal mining: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India, among the first five coal producing countries in the world, has a coal mining history of over 220 years. The environmental problems accumulated due to yester year and current mining and other industrial activities have led to the various environmental issues related to societal development, ecology, land, water regime and air quality. There has been no definite goal of industrial activities and environmental management. The environmental status in most coal mining complexes and around is far from satisfactory. It has been located that the environmental issues be defined with reference to the desired quality of life for all. Hence, the quality of life criteria be defined for various coal mining regions based on which the actions on the environmental issues be planned. The task of environmental management is mammoth and no single agency can be expected to take care of these tasks. The planning jobs may be assigned to specially formed multi-faceted teams and the final developmental scenario be detailed with due consent of the public. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  15. GSM Based Flexible Calling System For Coal Mining Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Himanshu K. Patel#1, Deep H. Desai*2, Tanvi G. Badheka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an emergency flexible calling system consists of GSM module, solar panel, vibration sensor, battery sensor and fire sensor which are connected with centralized control room by wireless communication. Proposed system may be installed near coal mine where even basic emergency services are not available. It will be totally based on GSM signal strength. In case of medical & accidental emergency happen in the coal mine, particularly when the workerdoesn’t have the mobile phone or having no tower in coal mine, this system may be very much helpful.System has flexible timer for calling to the control room. The System will be protected from theft attempts using different alarm circuits like vibration sensor, fire sensor and battery sensor. This system will be continuously powered through a solar panel. This system will be useful even for illiterate people as well as for coal mining worker. The purpose of this project is to help people in emergency in remote location as early as possible. This system can useful in villages having no electricity.

  16. NV - Assessment of wildlife hazards associated with mine pit lakes

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several open pit mines in Nevada lower groundwater to mine ore below the water table. After mining, the pits partially fill with groundwater to form pit lakes....

  17. High radon exposure in a Brazilian underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main source of radiation exposure in most underground mining operations is radon and radon decay products. The situation of radon exposure in underground mining in Brazil is still unknown, since there has been no national regulation regarding this exposure. A preliminary radiological survey in non-uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil had high radon concentration and needed to be better evaluated. This paper intends to present an assessment of radon and radon decay product exposure in the underground environment of this coal mining industry and to estimate the annual exposure to the workers. As a product of this assessment, it was found that average radon concentrations at all sampling campaign and excavation sites were above the action level range for workplaces of 500-1500 Bq m-3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection-ICRP 65. The average effective dose estimated for the workers was almost 30 times higher than the world average dose for coal miners

  18. Research on the Factors of Fatigue of Coal Mine Workers and Its Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing-Gang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available China is the largest coal producer in the world, it play a important role in the international field of coal production, but due to the frequent occurrence of coal mining accidents, it cause a enormous damage to the state's manpower and material resources. This article on research of the cause of the coal mining accident, it describes the fatigue of the coal mine workers assignment is the main cause of the accident and the threat to the safety of workers, and points out the important factors in ergonomics. MMEC theory is introduced and using for reference MMEC theory, finding out influence the cause of the coal mine worker fatigue, and combined with the relevant laws and regulations system to control and reduce the proposed method of coal mine worker fatigue to reduce and prevent the occurrence of coal mine accidents have some guidance Significance.

  19. Small airways involvement in coal mine dust lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joshua; Stansbury, Robert C; Petsonk, Edward L

    2015-06-01

    Inhalation of coal mine dust results in a spectrum of symptoms, dysfunction, and pathological changes in the respiratory tract that collectively have been labeled coal mine dust lung disease. Recent reports from periodic health surveillance among underground and surface coal miners in the United States have demonstrated an increasing prevalence and severity of dust diseases, and have also documented that some miners experience rapid disease progression. The coal macule is an inflammatory lesion associated with deposited dust, and occurs in the region of the most distal conducting airways and proximal respiratory bronchioles. Inflammatory changes in the small airways have long been recognized as the signature lung pathology among coal miners. Human and laboratory studies have suggested oxidant injury, and increased recruitment and activity of macrophages play important roles in dust-induced lung injury. However, the functional importance of the small airway changes was debated for many years. We reviewed published literature that documents a pervasive occurrence of both physiologic and structural abnormalities in small airways among coal miners and other workers exposed to airborne particulates. There is increasing evidence supporting an important association of abnormalities in the small peripheral airways with the development of respiratory symptoms, deficits in spirometry values, and accelerated declines in ventilatory lung function. Pathologic changes associated with mineral dust deposition in the small airways may be of particular importance in contemporary miners with rapidly progressive respiratory impairment. PMID:26024344

  20. Coal Mining-Related Respiratory Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are exposed to rock dust, such as roof bolters in underground mines and drillers in surface ... Safety and Health Respiratory Diseases Surveillance Related Topics Asbestos Asthma and Allergies Cancer (Occupational) Chest Radiography Pneumoconioses ...

  1. Drainage from coal mines: Chemistry and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the research on coal-mine drainage chemistry was conducted a decade ago, and now increased environmental awareness has brought about renewed interest in the findings. Consideration of the trace minerals and elements in coal points to the possible generation of acidic waters upon weathering, especially when pyrite is present. When pyrite weathers, it produces H+ and Fe3+ which catalyze the incongruent weathering of other carbonates and sulfides. In this weathering mechanism, catalysis by bacteria is important. Of the environmental problems in coal mine drainage, the mineral acidity of the water is the most serious. This is caused not only by the H+, but also by Mn4+, Fe3+, and Al3+ that are found or generated within the drainage. Case studies in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Colorado show that the abundance and form of pyrite in the deposit and in the overburden determines the level of acidity and the concentration of heavy metal pollutants in the drainage. Recent trends in environmental enforcement that emphasize integrated stream water standards and biotoxicity assays point to the possibility that the concentrations of heavy metals in coal mine drainages may cause environmental concern

  2. Residential damage in an area of underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to estimate the potential for future subsidence-related residential damage, a statistical analysis of past residential damage in the Boulder-Weld, Colorado, coal field was performed. The objectives of this study were to assess the difference in damage severity and frequency between undermined and non-undermined areas, and to determine, where applicable, which mining factors significantly influence the severity and frequency of residential damage. The results of this study suggest that undermined homes have almost three times the risk of having some type of structural damage than do non-undermined homes. The study also indicated that both geologic factors, such as the ratio of sandstone/claystone in the overburden, and mining factors, such as the mining feature (room, pillar, entry, etc.), can significantly affect the severity of overlying residential damage. However, the results of this study are dependent on local conditions and should not be applied elsewhere unless the geologic, mining, and residential conditions are similar

  3. Correlation of Risk Analysis Method Results with Numerical and Limit Equilibrium Methods in Overall Slope Stability Analysis of Southern Wall of Chadormalu Iron Open Pit Mine-Iran / Korelacja wyników analizy ryzyka z wynikami oblicze? numerycznych oraz wynikami uzyskanymi w oparciu o metod? równowagi granicznej zastosowanych do badania stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego na po?udniowej ?cianie odkrywkowej kopalni rud ?elaza w chadormalu w Iranie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Kaveh; Paji, Arman Gholinezhad; Behdani, Alireza Siami

    2013-06-01

    Slope stability analysis is one of the most important factors in designing open pit mines. Therefore an optimal slope design that supports both aspects of economy and safety is very significant. There are many different methods in slope stability analysis including empirical, limit equilibrium, block theory, numerical, and probabilistic methods. In this study, to analyze the overall slope stability of southern wall of Chadormalu iron open pit mine three numerical, limit equilibrium and probabilistic methods have been used. Software and methods that is used for analytical investigation in this study are FLAC software for numerical analysis, SLIDE software and circuit failure chart for limit equilibrium analysis and qualitative fault tree and semi-quantitative risk matrix for probabilistic analysis. The results of all above mentioned methods, was a circular failure occurrence in Metasomatite rock zone between 1405 to 1525 m levels. The main factors of failure occurrence in this range were heavily jointing and existing of faults. Safety factors resulted from numerical method; Circular chart method and SLIDE software are 1.16, 1.25 and 1.27 respectively. Regarding instability and safety factors in Metasomatite rock zone, in order to stabilize the given zone, some considerations such as bench angle and height reduction should be planned. In results of risk matrix method this zone was mentioned too as a high risk zone that numerical and limit equilibrium methods confirmed this. Badanie stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego jest jednym z najwa?niejszych czynników uwzgl?dnianych przy projektowaniu kopalni odkrywkowych. Optymalne zaprojektowanie wyrobiska pochy?ego z uwzgl?dnieniem czynników ekonomicznych oraz bezpiecze?stwa jest niezmiernie wa?ne. Istnieje wiele metod badania stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego, mi?dzy innymi metody empiryczne, metoda równowagi granicznej, teoria bloków oraz metody numeryczne i probabilistyczne. W pracy tej omówiono zastosowanie trzech spo?ród tych metod: metody numerycznej, równowagi granicznej oraz metody probabilistycznej, do analizy stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego na po?udniowej ?cianie kopalni rud ?elaza w Chadormalu w Iranie. Oprogramowanie wykorzystane w badaniach analitycznych to pakiet FLAK przy metodzie numerycznej, oprogramowanie SLIDE oraz wykresy ko?owe przy metodzie równowagi granicznej oraz jako?ciowe drzewa okre?laj?ce wyst?powanie uskoków i pó?-jako?ciowe macierze ryzyka przy metodzie probabilistycznej. Wyniki uzyskane w oparciu o trzy wy?ej wymienione metody wykaza?y wyst?pienie zawalenia si? ska? metasomatycznych na poziomie od 1405 do 1525 m. G?ównymi czynnikami warunkuj?cymi zawalenie si? ska? w tym regionie by?a obecno?? licznych p?kni?? oraz uskoków. Wska?niki bezpiecze?stwa uzyskane przy pomocy metod numerycznych, wykresu ko?owego oraz oprogramowanie SLIDE wynios?y kolejno: 1.16, 1.25, 1.27. W odniesieniu do niestabilno?ci w rejonie ska? metasomatycznych, aby uczyni? t? stref? bardziej stabiln? nale?y uwzgl?dni? takie czynniki jak k?t nachylenia ?awy oraz obni?enie wysoko?ci. Analiza przeprowadzona w oparciu o macierze ryzyka wykaza?a, ?e strefa ta jest stref? wysokiego ryzyka, za? wyniki analizy numerycznej oraz wyników uzyskanych przy pomocy metody równowagi granicznej w pe?ni ten wniosek potwierdzi?y.

  4. Coal Mine Roadway Stability in Soft Rock: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Baotang

    2014-11-01

    Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines where the surrounding rock strata and coal seams are weak and the in situ stresses are high. Under the high overburden and tectonic stresses, roadways could collapse or experience excessive deformation, which not only endangers mining personnel but could also reduce the functionality of the roadway and halt production. This paper describes a case study on the stability of roadways in an underground coal mine in Shanxi Province, China. The mine was using a longwall method to extract coal at a depth of approximately 350 m. Both the coal seam and surrounding rock strata were extremely weak and vulnerable to weathering. Large roadway deformation and severe roadway instabilities had been experienced in the past, hence, an investigation of the roadway failure mechanism and new support designs were needed. This study started with an in situ stress measurement programme to determine the stress orientation and magnitude in the mine. It was found that the major horizontal stress was more than twice the vertical stress in the East-West direction, perpendicular to the gateroads of the longwall panel. The high horizontal stresses and low strength of coal and surrounding rock strata were the main causes of roadway instabilities. Detailed numerical modeling was conducted to evaluate the roadway stability and deformation under different roof support scenarios. Based on the modeling results, a new roadway support design was proposed, which included an optimal cable/bolt arrangement, full length grouting, and high pre-tensioning of bolts and cables. It was expected the new design could reduce the roadway deformation by 50 %. A field experiment using the new support design was carried out by the mine in a 100 m long roadway section. Detailed extensometry and stress monitorings were conducted in the experimental roadway section as well as sections using the old support design. The experimental section produced a much better roadway profile than the previous roadway sections. The monitoring data indicated that the roadway deformation in the experimental section was at least 40-50 % less than the previous sections. This case study demonstrated that through careful investigation and optimal support design, roadway stability in soft rock conditions can be significantly improved.

  5. Recent developments in coal mine inertisation in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, S.; Cliff, D.; Harrison, P.; Hester, C. [Safety in Mines Testing and Research Station, Redbank, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    During 1997 two different types of coal mines inertisation equipment were trialed in separate underground mines in Queensland. In April 1997 tests of the Polish developed GAG-3A inert gas generator were carried out at the Collinsville No 2 Coal Mine. These demonstrations indicated that the GAG-3A device was applicable in underground coal mines and that with respect to inertisation rate the device outperformed all other currently available techniques. The unit was assembled rapidly and operated safety during surface and underground trials and no mechanical problems were encountered with the device. The GAG-3A is not suitable for every fire scenario particularly if large volumes of fresh air are being drawn into the mine but with respect to the selection criteria developed by the Moura Implementation Process Task Group 5 criteria, the unit performed up to the specifications required. In May 1997 tests were carried out at the Cook and Laleham Collieries using a Tomlinson diesel boiler. These demonstrations indicated that a low volume generator, such as the boiler, can proactively inert a large goaf area effectively. At Cook a volume of approximately 700 000 m{sup 3} was inerted over 10 days and at Laleham an area of approximately 70 000 m{sup 3} was inerted over 2 days. The boiler is not suitable for emergency use, due to the low flow rate of inert gas generated (approximately 0.5 m{sup 3}/s). There was no significant seam gas present during either trial. Both test programs were financially supported by ACARP and the Department of Mines and Energy. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Textural and mineralogical characteristics of SPM in coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of air pollution assessment and control effort is to mitigate the effect of pollutants on environment. The effects may be on health, various other biological systems, and physical quality of environment. The severity of impact of airborne suspended particulate matter may depends upon its physico-chemical properties. Opencast mining operation of ten generates high percentage of airborne Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) which gets dissipated into the atmosphere around the mine and leads to serious disruption to the quality of the life. In this paper, a study of air quality monitoring in terms of SPM in an opencast coal mine has been presented. Among the various mining activities drilling, coal crushing and handling operations and movement of dumpers on the haul roads are the main sources of dust generation in an opencast coalmine. The concentration of SPM is variable throughout the year. It shows wide variation in summer and winter seasons in mining areas. The mineral constituents present in the SPM also vary considerably. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Corrosion of rock anchors in US coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylapudi, Gopi

    The mining industry is a major consumer of rock bolts in the United States. Due to the high humidity in the underground mining environment, the rock bolts corrode and loose their load bearing capacity which in turn reduces the life expectancy of the ground support and, thus, creates operational difficulties and number of safety concerns[1]. Research on rock anchor corrosion has not been adequately extensive in the past and the effects of several factors in the mine atmosphere and waters are not clearly understood. One of the probable reasons for this lack of research may be attributed to the time required for gathering meaningful data that makes the study of corrosion quite challenging. In this particular work underground water samples from different mines in the Illinois coal basin were collected and the major chemical content was analyzed and used for the laboratory testing. The corrosion performance of the different commercial rock anchors was investigated by techniques such as laboratory immersion tests in five different corrosion chambers, and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated ground waters based on the Illinois coal basin. The experiments were conducted with simulate underground mining conditions (corrosive). The tensile strengths were measured for the selected rock anchors taken every 3 months from the salt spray corrosion chambers maintained at different pH values and temperatures. The corrosion potential (Ecorr ), corrosion current (Icorr) and the corresponding corrosion rates (CR) of the selected commercial rock bolts: #5, #6, #6 epoxy coated and #7 forged head rebar steels, #6 and #7 threaded head rebar steels were measured at the solution pH values of 5 and 8 at room temperature. The open circuit potential (OCP) values of the different rock anchors were recorded in 3 selected underground coal mines (A, B & C) in the Illinois coal basin and the data compared with the laboratory electrochemical tests for analyzing the life of the rock anchors installed in the mines with respect to corrosion potential and corrosion current measured. The results of this research were statistically validated. This research will have direct consequence to the rock related safety. The results of this research indicate that certain corrosive conditions are commonly found in mines but uniform corrosion (around 0.01-0.03mm loss per year across the diameter) is generally not considered a serious issue. From this study, longer term research for longterm excavation support is recommended that could quantify the problem depending on the rock anchor used and specific strata conditions.

  8. Raptor use of revegetated coal strip mine spoils in interior Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raptors associated with reclaimed coal strip mine spoils on the Usibelli Coal Mine in southcentral Alaska were observed in 1981 and 1982. Of the 10 raptor species identified on the mine, 6 (red-tailed hawk, golden eagle, Northern harrier, American kestrel, hawk owl, and short-eared owl) were observed hunting on the reclaimed areas

  9. Long-hole destress blasting for rockburst control during deep underground coal mining.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koní?ek, Petr; Sou?ek, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Singh, R.

    -, ?. 61 (2013), s. 141-153. ISSN 1365-1609 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Ostrava - Karvina Coal basin * longwall mining * rockbursts * destress blasting Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 1.424, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1365160913000348

  10. Ambient environment in the coal mining complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment is all pervading and therefore associated with all individuals. The ambient environment with respect to any activity lies a little outside and the receiving body outside the active zone denotes ambient environment. Basically, air quality and noise level are two physical ingredients whose assessment gives an idea of impact on the ambience. Though largely blamed for polluted conditions, the general ambient conditions in the coal fields do not show a tardy image. Being a low level dispersion industry, its impact remains concentrated in the active core zone. This has been brought out here. The paper presents the status of air quality, and noise level in some coal fields in India. It also discloses a brighter future and sustainable development due to increased concern for environment. (author)

  11. Mechanism of Reinforcement on Inwall of Coal Mine Shaft Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of elasticity, the analytic solution of temperature stress on shaft wall of coal mine with reinforcement on inwall is deduced. It is shown that with the increment of reinforcement stress Pa, the radial compressive stress &sigmar become larger, the vertical compressive stress &sigmaz become less, while the circumferential stress &sigma &theta changed from compressive stress to tensile stress. The stability of shaft wall enhanced with vertical stress reduced by reinforcement on inwall of shaft wall. Compressive steel plate could be used to reinforce the inwall, characterized with low-cost, short time and construction easy. While the intelligent equipment should be developed further to provide everlasting and greater reinforcement on in wall of coal mine shaft wall.

  12. Coal mine subsidence: effects of mitigation on crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsidence from longwall underground coal mining adversely impacts agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas. While most subsided areas show little impact, some localized places, usually less than 1.5 ha in size, may experience total crop failure. Coal companies mitigate subsidence damaged cropland by installing drainage waterways or by adding fill material to raise the grade. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring corn and soybean yields to pre-mined levels. Fourteen sites in southern Illinois were selected for study. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields from mitigated and nearby undisturbed areas were compared for four years. Results varied due to differing weather and site conditions. Mean corn yields overall, however were significantly (?0.05) lower on mitigated areas. There was no significant difference in overall mean soybean yields. Soil fertility levels were similar and did not account for yield differences. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  13. Optimization of hydraulic haulage systems in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevim, H.

    1984-01-01

    This study is a comprehensive attempt to develop and test procedures for optimization of equipment configuration, system layout, and operating parameters of underground coarse-coal slurry haulage systems. Previous efforts in this area have been limited to either specific configurations or suboptimal solutions of general problems. The need for a versatile tool, that is not limited to specific system layouts, mining methods, or equipment configurations, but capable of adaptation to new developments in slurry transport technology and of obtaining global optimum solutions, is satisfied in this study. The optimization tool, a haulage system model, developed after a thorough systems analysis, is based on a stochastic dynamic programming formulation. The stochastic aspects of underground coal production activities are represented by semi-Markov processes. The formulation and the structure of the model are general enough to handle design problems involving slurry transport systems fed by multiple face and multiple mining methods.

  14. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  15. A study of back injuries in underground coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stobbe, T.J.; Plummer, R.W. [West Virginia University, WV (United States). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Preventing job related back injuries requires an in-depth understanding of the factors underlying their occurrence. This information is not generally present on the accident reports and workers` compensation forms used in industry and government. This project was designed to obtain in-depth information about back injuries which occurred in underground coal mining. The information was obtained through structured interviews covering 137 back injury incident-related variables with injured miners and incident-related personnel. 7 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Mechanism of Reinforcement on Inwall of Coal Mine Shaft Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Jinlong Liu; Luwang Chen; Jili Wang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of elasticity, the analytic solution of temperature stress on shaft wall of coal mine with reinforcement on inwall is deduced. It is shown that with the increment of reinforcement stress Pa, the radial compressive stress &sigmar become larger, the vertical compressive stress &sigmaz become less, while the circumferential stress &sigma &theta changed from compressive stress to tensile stress. The stability of shaft wall enhanced with vertical stress reduced by reinforcement...

  17. On the Ecological Reconstruction of the Coal Mining Area Based on the Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiping Meng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The coal is the most important disposable energy in our country. Coal resources play a strategic role in our country's economic and social development, but there are a series of ecological environment problems about the mining and the utilization of coal resources. These problems in the coal mining area have already become an obstacle to the sustainable development and also a major hidden danger to the regional ecological security. On the analysis of ubiquitous problems of the ecological environment in the coal mining area and supported by the theory of the sustainable ecological development, the thesis penetrates the characteristics and laws of the mine ecosystem succession and reconstructs the mine ecological industrial chain. To change the traditional thoughts of "development- pollution- governance", new ideas and ways of the sustainable development of the coal mining area have been put forward in order to achieve the harmonious development of economy, society and environment.

  18. Tannery and coal mining waste disposal on soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kray, C.H.; Tedesco, M.J.; Bissani, C.A.; Gianello, C.; da Silva, K.J. [CEFET BG, Goncalves (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    Tannery residues and coal mine waste are heavily polluting sources in Brazil, mainly in the Southern States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. In order to study the effects of residues of chrome leather tanning (sludge and leather shavings) and coal waste on soybean and maize crops, a field experiment is in progress since 1996, at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Experimental Station, county of Eldorado do Sul, Brazil. The residues were applied twice (growing seasons 1996/97 and 1999/00). The amounts of tannery residues were applied according to their neutralizing value, at rates of up to 86.8 t ha{sup -1}, supplying from 671 to 1.342 kg ha{sup -1} Cr(III); coal waste was applied at a total rate of 164 t ha{sup -1}. Crop yield and dry matter production were evaluated, as well as the nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn) and Cr contents. Crop yields with tannery sludge application were similar to those obtained with N and lime supplied with mineral amendments. Plant Cr absorption did not increase significantly with the residue application. Tannery sludge can be used also to neutralize the high acidity developed in the soil by coal mine waste.

  19. Quality of coal - base for optimal electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitola Mines Plant and Energy Combine is the largest electric power producer in the Republic of Macedonia. It is established on two separately production units: coal (lignite) open pit mine 'Suvodol' and the power plants 'Bitola'. The lignite from the mine is used only for electric power generation in the thermal power plants. The coal quality is the first, basic point in the production line, while the electric power, transformed to the high tension transmission system is the last , final production point. Between the two points, there are all equipment, production units, materials and very hard work to get optimal and economical solutions as well as production. This material gives a short explanation between that two points. (Author)

  20. Moving up down in the mine: Sex segregation in underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study employs both individualist theories of human capital and sex-role spillover and structuralist theories from the socialist feminist perspective, emphasizing the formal and informal organizational factors operating within a patriarchal capitalist society to explain job-level sex segregation among underground coal miners. Both quantitative and qualitative data on women in coal mining are used to evaluate these theories. A logistic regression analysis performed on data obtained in 1986 by the US Bureau of Mines demonstrates that while human capital variables are predictive of a miner's job rank, variation in job rank attributed to gender is even greater. For men, training and experience in mining combine to increase the probability of being in a more skilled job in a coal mine. Age and seniority are curvilinearly related to the variation in men's job rank. For women, only age accounts for their advancement such that younger, not older women who have slightly more mining experience, occupy the more skilled positions in the work place. These findings suggest that, in terms of job advancement, men enjoy a greater return on their human capital investments than women, and that factors other than those representing a miner's human capital are affecting women's positions underground more than men's

  1. Theory simulation of coal mining activity planning based on human-computer conversation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, X. [Shandong Institute of Business and Technology, Yantai (China)

    2007-07-01

    The affecting features and characteristics of coal mining activity planning in coal enterprises were analyzed, and a theoretical simulation model based on human-computer conversation was presented. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Yampa coal field combined leased areas and mined-out areas, Colorado Plateau (yam*leasg)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and coverages that represent areas of combined State and Federal coal leases and mined-out areas in the Yampa coal field. Yamaleasg contains...

  3. Dust problems in mechanised underground coal mines: a critical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, V.R.; Vardhan, H. [Karnataka Regional Engineering College, Mangalore (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-12-01

    Mechanised mining systems offer high production and higher percentage of recovery with improved productivity. Mechanised mining systems are becoming increasingly popular in Indian coal mines, due to these advantages. However, several inherent operational problems are associated with the operation of these systems, mainly with respect to the human component of the systems. Effective and efficient ventilation system is extremely important, as mechanisation always leads to production of gases and dust raised. Poor environmental conditions lead to undesirable health hazards for the personnel working in such panels and also explosions in some extreme cases. Controlling of not only gases and heat, but also the dust is one of the notable problems in longwall and other mechanised panels underground. Personnel working in mechanised districts are always exposed to higher dust concentrations, without proper personal protection equipment, exposing them to many health hazards. An airborne dust survey was, therefore, conducted in a coal mine, as a part of ventilation survey, for evaluating the environmental conditions underground. The survey was designed to assess the respirable dust concentration at several stations in the underground min. An attempts has been made through this paper to highlight the problems associated with high dust concentrations in underground workings, level of dust concentrations and importance of proper ventilation planning in overcoming the problems. 47 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Geomorphological Analysis of Gare Pelma Sector – III for the Environmental Impact Assessment due to Coal Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava K. Iyengar*; Dr. Ninad Bodhankar2

    2014-01-01

    The land use in the Gare pelma sector III will undergo gradual changes during mine life due to mine development. The associated activities of coal extraction, storage, washing, loading/ unloading, transportation, reclamation and rehabilitation , needs space beyond the mining area . It is the need of the hour to analyze the landscape usages and the need in future perspective of the environmental impact assessment. Raigarh area has abundant coal and the extraction of coal deposi...

  5. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.H. [Aquatech Services, Inc., Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  6. Joint research project lignite: development and testing of methods for in-situ-monitoring for problems in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines as well as for other endangered and dangerous sites. Pt. 2: technical prooftesting. Final report; Verbundvorhaben Braunkohle: Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden zur In-situ-Langzeitueberwachung fuer Probleme der Folgelandschaften des Braunkohlenbergbaus sowie fuer andere gefaehrdete und gefaehrliche Standorte. Teilvorhaben 2: Grosstechnische Erprobung. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoedel, K.; Koenig, F.

    2002-06-27

    Starting point of this project was a preceding project by BMBF under FZK 1460990, where a concept and prototypes have been developed and tested for an automatic, computer-based monitoring of sites suspected to be hazardous in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. The monitoring system is based on local measurements with milieuparameter probes and an optical sensor system in observation wells combined with measurements between the wells using an electromagnetic system. Methods were developed for monitoring the vadose and saturated zones. In future these monitoring systems will be needed to understand the processes connected with the considerable changes due to redistribution and aeration of the sediments during removal of the overburden, due to disposal of solid and liquid wastes in the mine area, as well as to the re-establishment of normal groundwater levels. Precautionary and remedial measures must also be monitored as well as natural attenuation of pollutants. Aim of this follow-up project was to prove the applicability and efficiency of this monitoring system at a testing site. For this the monitoring system was technically improved, with a remote data transmission equipped and built as a small-scale production. The system was successfully tested under extreme conditions at the Concordia dump in Stassfurt. (orig.) [German] Ausgangspunkt dieses Projektes war das vom BMBF unter FKZ 1460990 gefoerderte Vorlaeufervorhaben, in dem ein Konzept fuer die vollautomatische, rechnergestuetzte Langzeitueberwachung (Monitoring) von Altlastenstandorten in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften entwickelt und getestet wurde. Das Monitoringsystem basiert auf der Kombination lokaler Messungen mit Milieuparametersonden sowie einem Optosensorsystem und raeumlichen Ueberwachungsmethoden mit einem elektromagnetischen Ueberwachungssystem. Dabei wurden Loesungen sowohl fuer ein Monitoring in der wassergesaettigten als auch in der ungesaettigten Zone entwickelt. Derartige Ueberwachungssysteme werden kuenftig benoetigt, um zu einem besseren Verstaendnis und zur Loesung der Probleme in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften zu kommen, die durch die Belueftung und Umstrukturierung der Gesteinsschichten, durch das Einbringen und Ablagern fester und fluessiger Abfaelle sowie durch den Wiederanstieg des Grundwassers verursacht werden. Ausserdem dient die Monitoringtechnologie zur Kontrolle der Wirksamkeit von Sicherungs- uns Sanierungsmassnahmen sowie zur Untersuchung der Prozesse der natuerlichen Selbstreinigung (Natural Attenuation) in diesem Gebieten. Ziel dieses Folgevorhabens war es, die Anwendbarkeit und Effektivitaet des Monitoringkonzeptes an einem Teststandort nachzuweisen. Dafuer musste das Monitoringsystem technisch ueberarbeitet, mit einer Datenfernuebertragung versehen und in einer Kleinserie gebaut werden. Das System wurde am Standort Concordiahalde in Stassfurt unter extremen Bedingungen erfolgreich getestet. (orig.)

  7. The effects of coal mining on the landscapes of the Ostrava Region.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinec, Petr; Schejbalová, Božena; Hortvík, Karel; Maní?ek, J.

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 13, ?. 2 (2005), s. 13-26. ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Ostrava region * coal mining * methane emission * mine waters Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  8. Research on the Factors of Fatigue of Coal Mine Workers and Its Control Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jing-Gang; Wu Lei

    2013-01-01

    China is the largest coal producer in the world, it play a important role in the international field of coal production, but due to the frequent occurrence of coal mining accidents, it cause a enormous damage to the state's manpower and material resources. This article on research of the cause of the coal mining accident, it describes the fatigue of the coal mine workers assignment is the main cause of the accident and the threat to the safety of workers, and points out the important factors ...

  9. Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power's (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP's Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site

  10. Deformation Failure Characteristics of Coal Body and Mining Induced Stress Evolution Law

    OpenAIRE

    Zhijie Wen; Guanglong Qu; Jinhao Wen; Yongkui Shi; Chuanyang Jia

    2014-01-01

    The results of the interaction between coal failure and mining pressure field evolution during mining are presented. Not only the mechanical model of stope and its relative structure division, but also the failure and behavior characteristic of coal body under different mining stages are built and demonstrated. Namely, the breaking arch and stress arch which influence the mining area are quantified calculated. A systematic method of stress field distribution is worked out. All this indicates ...

  11. Distribution of sulfur and pyrite in coal seams from Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia): Implications for paleoenvironmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widodo, Sri [Department of Mining Engineering, Moslem University of Indonesia, Jln. Urip Sumoharjo, Makassar (Indonesia); Oschmann, Wolfgang [Institute of Geosciece, J.W. Goethe-University, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Bechtel, Achim; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F. [Department of Applied Geoscience and Geophysics, University of Leoben, Peter-Tunner-Str.5, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Anggayana, Komang [Department of Mining Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jln. Ganesa 10, I-40132 Bandung (Indonesia); Puettmann, Wilhelm [Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Dapartment of Analytical Enviromental Chemistry, J.W. Goethe-University, Altenhoeferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    Thirteen Miocene coal samples from three active open pit and underground coal mines in the Kutai Basin (East Kalimantan, Indonesia) were collected. According to our microscopical and geochemical investigations, coal samples from Sebulu and Centra Busang coal mines yield high sulfur and pyrite contents as compared to the Embalut coal mine. The latter being characterized by very low sulfur (< 1%) and pyrite contents. The ash, mineral, total sulfur, iron (Fe) and pyrite contents of most of the coal samples from the Sebulu and Centra Busang coal mines are high and positively related in these samples. Low contents of ash, mineral, total sulfur, iron (Fe) and pyrite have been found only in sample TNT-32 from Centra Busang coal mine. Pyrite was the only sulfur form that we could recognize under reflected light microscope (oil immersion). Pyrite occurred in the coal as framboidal, euhedral, massive, anhedral and epigenetic pyrite in cleats/fractures. High concentration of pyrite argues for the availability of iron (Fe) in the coal samples. Most coal samples from the Embalut coal mine show lower sulfur (< 1 wt.%) and pyrite contents as found within Centra Busang and Sebulu coals. One exception is the coal sample KTD-38 from Embalut mine with total sulfur content of 1.41 wt.%. The rich ash, mineral, sulfur and pyrite contents of coals in the Kutai Basin (especially Centra Busang and Sebulu coals) can be related to the volcanic activity (Nyaan volcanic) during Tertiary whereby aeolian material was transported to the mire during or after the peatification process. Moreover, the adjacent early Tertiary deep marine sediment, mafic igneous rocks and melange in the center of Kalimantan Island might have provided mineral to the coal by uplift and erosion. The inorganic matter in the mire might also originate from the ground and surface water from the highland of central Kalimantan. (author)

  12. Construction of Safety Performance Management System for Coal Mine Enterprises in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-jun WU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The bad coal mine natural environment, safety investment deficiency, insufficiency safety performance management system are the main causes leading to the coal mining accident frequently nowadays, building-up safety performance management system is importance to coal enterprises safety work. This paper analyses the security status and the reasons of coal mine enterprises, the important role played by safety performance management system during the course of safe production, and the problems existing in the performance management system. It also puts forward a plan for the establishment of the performance management system in order to create a safe environment for the coal mine enterprises and promote its healthy development.Keywords: Coal mine enterprise; Safety performance; Performance management system

  13. Statistical Analysis of Sino-U.S. Coal Mining Industry Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiling Wei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Both China and the United States are large countries in coal production and consumption, however, the safety conditions of coal mining production in China are much worse than that of the U.S.. Although the Chinese Administration of Coal Mine Safety improved safety measures to tighten control on coal mining industry, the number of accidents, death toll and fatality rate per million tons were much higher than those of the U.S. in recent years. Based on the statistical analysis of Sino-U.S. coal mining accidents, the paper first came up with the caution from the comparison of Sino-U.S. coal mining industry accidents, then analyzed the reasons for China’s coal mining industry being accident-prone, and then pointed out that the Chinese government should learn from the management experience of American coal mining industry. At last, it brought forward some conclusions and prospects for the development of China’s coal mining industry.

  14. Purification of mine water of radium - The implementation of the technology in a coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In underground coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin there are inflows of highly mineralised waters containing radium isotopes. These waters cause radioactive pollution of the natural environment in mining areas. Therefore cleaning of saline waters of radium is very important. Two types of radium-bearing waters were distinguished - one type containing radium and barium ions, but no sulphates (type A) and another one in which radium and sulphate ions are present but no barium (type B). A very efficient and inexpensive method of purification of saline waters, of Ba2+ and Ra2+ ions was developed and implemented in two coal mines. As the result of used technology, based on application of phosphogypsum as the cleaning agent, a significant decrease of radium discharge was achieved - daily of about 120 MBq of 226Ra and 80 MBq of 228Ra. Another type of radium waters does not contain barium ions, but contains sulphate ions SO42-. There is no carrier for co-precipitation of radium so radium is transported with discharged waters to main rivers. Different method of purification from radium must be applied for such waters. Laboratory and field experiments were performed, and a cleaning method was chosen. For purification of saline waters - waste products from other industrial processes are applied. The method of purification have been applied in full technical scale in coal mine with very good results - of about 6 m3/min of radium-bearing waters is cleaned. Whole this process takes place in underground old workings without any contact of mining crew with radioactive deposits, which are produced during the process. As a result radium amount released to the natural environment was significantly diminished - approximately of about 90 MBq of 226Ra per day and 150 MBq of 228Ra. (author)

  15. Dust collection capacity of plants growing in coal mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant can act as living filter of dust pollution in coal mining areas, where the amount of suspended particulate matter and dust fall rate is very high. Therefore, plant species growing in coal mining areas are classified as evergreen or deciduous with simple and compound leaf basis. The dust arresting capacity of each leaf is measured and expressed in g/m2. The study indicated that evergreen plants with simple, pilose surface, like - Alstonia, Ficus cunea, F. benghalensis and Mangifera indica are good dust catcher than evergreen compound leaves of Cassia siamea, Acacia arabica and Leucaena leucocephala. Deciduous with simple leaves, such as Zizyphus mauritiana, F. religiosa, Psidium guyava are also good dust collectors. Suitable plant species also help in quick reclamation of mined out areas; one practical difficulty for establishment of trees as green belts or reclamation purpose, has been incidence of cattle grazing. This study suggested a systematic way of selecting plant species on the basis of their efficiency in dust control and resistance to cattle grazing. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  16. The long-term prospects of German black coal mining - Ruhrkohle AG manager Dr. H. Horn on the severe crisis of black coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of German black coal mining and the anxiety among the miners are increasing. This is not only revealed by the statements made by managers in the traditional districts but is also evident regarding the masses of unemployed workers - everybody is alarmed and worried. The long-term prospects of black coal mining were outlined during the 1991 black coal meeting which took place under the chairmanship of the Federal Minister for Economic Affairs. For the sake of reliable supplies through 2005, 50 million tons of black coal will be provided each year for electric power generation and for use by the Western German steel industry. (orig.)

  17. Development of approaches to studying of reliability of ventilation system of coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asainov, S.T. [Scientific Engineering Center of Mine Rescue Men, Karaganda (Kazakhstan); Koketayev, A.I. [Center of Engineering and Transfer of Technologies, Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2009-07-01

    Coal mines are complicated technological systems with constantly changing structures. Emergency situations in coal mines in the Karaganda coal fields, located in Kazakhstan have been linked with underground methane explosions. It is important to determine the causes of such explosions in order to increase mine safety. This paper presented an analysis of facts regarding the gassing of mine workings at the Karaganda coal field as well as their causes. The paper discussed investigations that were conducted regarding the aerodynamics and processes of air filtration in worked-out space and massifs above mine workings for specific mining and geological conditions. The approach was one of the methods available for forecasting methane emissions and prevention of mine gassing. The paper presented the details of the study as well as a schematic presentation of the solid aerodynamic model. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  18. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4(2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself. PMID:25800369

  19. Coal Mining vis-â-vis Agriculture in India: A Question of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. It is important to conduct suitable assessment studies to learn the potential adverse impact of mining on agriculture. In the subsequent discussions an attempt has been made to clarify the coal mining activities and its residual impact on environment and agricultural activities.The leaseholds for the underground mines are procured from the land lords who grant mining authority the right for underground coal mining. The land for houses, dwellings and the associated activities are purchased piecemeal from different sources while large portion of the surface right remained under the control of farmers and landlords. Underground mining in these areas is conducted with full responsibility of the surface protection by the operators who normally maintain pillars as the natural support to the surface features. Increasing demand for open caste mining process requires huge land. These lands sometime are acquired at the cost of cultivable land. Coal mining has direct impact over agriculture in the study region and residual impacts of mining bring far reaching consequences. The present study is explanatory in nature based on empirical facts collected from various formal sources from Coal India office. The task is to bring out the issues related to coal mining activities and their impact on vegetation and agriculture in adjoining areas in Raniganj and Jharia coalfields in India through this study.

  20. Coal mining and the resource community cycle: A longitudinal assessment of the social impacts of the Coppabella coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two social impact assessment (SIA) studies of Central Queensland's Coppabella coal mine were undertaken in 2002-2003 and 2006-2007. As ex post studies of actual change, these provide a reference point for predictive assessments of proposed resource extraction projects at other sites, while the longitudinal element added by the second study illustrates how impacts associated with one mine may vary over time due to changing economic and social conditions. It was found that the traditional coupling of local economic vitality and community development to the life cycle of resource projects-the resource community cycle-was mediated by labour recruitment and social infrastructure policies that reduced the emphasis on localised employment and investment strategies, and by the cumulative impacts of multiple mining projects within relative proximity to each other. The resource community cycle was accelerated and local communities forced to consider ways of attracting secondary investment and/or alternative industries early in the operational life of the Coppabella mine in order to secure significant economic benefits and to guard against the erosion of social capital and the ability to cope with future downturns in the mining sector.

  1. Coal mining and the resource community cycle: A longitudinal assessment of the social impacts of the Coppabella coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockie, S.; Franettovich, M.; Petkova-Timmer, V.; Rolfe, J.; Ivanova, G. [CQUniversity of Australia, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). Inst. of Health & Social Science Research

    2009-09-15

    Two social impact assessment (SIA) studies of Central Queensland's Coppabella coal mine were undertaken in 2002-2003 and 2006-2007. As ex post studies of actual change, these provide a reference point for predictive assessments of proposed resource extraction projects at other sites, while the longitudinal element added by the second study illustrates how impacts associated with one mine may vary over time due to changing economic and social conditions. It was found that the traditional coupling of local economic vitality and community development to the life cycle of resource projects - the resource community cycle - was mediated by labour recruitment and social infrastructure policies that reduced the emphasis on localised employment and investment strategies. and by the cumulative impacts of multiple mining projects within relative proximity to each other. The resource community cycle was accelerated and local communities forced to consider ways of attracting secondary investment and/or alternative industries early in the operational life of the Coppabella mine in order to secure significant economic benefits and to guard against the erosion of social capital and the ability to cope with future downturns in the mining sector.

  2. Geomechanical phenomenon of the fatal accident produced in the top coal caving mining face, No. 431, Petrila Mine (Romania)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onica, I.; Cozma, E. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania); Jujan, C. [Hard Coal Co., Petrosani (Romania)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that investigated the main causes of an accident that occurred in the Petrila Mine in Romania in November 2008. The Petrila mine has been in operation since 1868. It is a part of the Petrosani hard coal basin, the most important hard coal deposit in Romania. The basin contains over 80 million tonnes of coal reserves in 19 coal seams, of which only 8 seams are currently exploitable. A methane gas deflagration that occurred on November 15, 2008 caused a serious accident at the mine's starting point panel. This paper presented the chronology of the workings and operations before the accident as well as the main factors that influenced the roof rocks geomechanical behaviour. The factors included the coal seam thickness; the dip coal seam; the mining depth; and the direct roof rocks. The minimum distance between coal face no. 433 and no. 431 were checked in order to establish the reciprocal influence rate of the coal faces. Last, the paper discussed the main causes of the accident as well as preventive measures recommended for similar cases. It was recommended that the minimum horizontal distance between the top coal caving faces, should be 60 metres, in order to avoid the reciprocal interaction of the coal faces and for a good continuous performing of the mud filling operation, from the ventilation level. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Improving rockbolt installations in US coal mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.J.S., Spearing; B., Greer; M., Reilly.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the roughly 100 million rock anchors installed in mines in the USA each year use resin cartridges1. About 4.5 million of these bolts are installed using a mechanical shell in addition to the resin to create an active (pre-tensioned) bolt. Over 1 million of the bolts are passive [...] cable bolts and typically have an effective grout length of 1.2 m, regardless of the cable length, which could be as long as 6 m. The successful performance of the resin grouted bolts depends on several parameters, including the annular gap between the bolt and hole wall, which should be relatively small, ideally from 3 mm to 5 mm. This requirement, combined with the high viscosity of the resin, produces a high back-pressure that can cause the bolt being installed to buckle or not be installed to standard. It is this back-pressure that limits the effective grout length with passive cable bolts and causes the mechanically anchored bolt failures (typically called 'spinners' where the mechanical shell does not anchor). This creates potentially unsafe conditions and wastes time and money. A purpose, built rig was used to mimic underground installations and record the back pressures during full scale applications in the laboratory. This information was used, and is still being used, to reduce the failures and sub-standard installations by producing improved designs. In addition, a flow model was calibrated that can act qualitatively to estimate the back-pressures and can be used as a crude screening process before full scale prototypes are built and tested. To date, the results obtained have been used to stop the use of a mechanical shell due to the proven higher rate of failures. A new, improved mechanical shell is being field tested and another system is under development. The use of the rig is therefore ongoing to develop improved mechanical anchor systems. It is too early for real data; however, anecdotal evidence seems to indicate that significant improvements can and will be made.

  4. Methane emissions to the global atmosphere from coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and their contribution to a potential future warming of the Earth's lower atmosphere, are well documented. In this chapter, the authors report the results of a detailed assessment of coal mining and use as a source for atmospheric CH4. The results of their study have important implications for the policy process for mitigating the global warming potential from CH4. CH4 is a greenhouse gas which also partially controls the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Ambient air measurements indicate that CH4 is increasing at an annual rate of about 1%. Future growth in atmospheric CH4 concentrations is likely to contribute more to a greenhouse warming effect than any other gas except CO2. Historical records of atmospheric CH4 indicate that preindustrial concentrations varied over a range of approximately 0.30 to 0.70 ppM, compared to the present average concentration of 1.7 ppM. Contemporary atmospheric CH4 concentrations and the currently observed rates of increase are unprecedented. There is a strong correlation between increasing atmospheric CH4 and human population growth during the past 150 years. CH4 is emitted to the atmosphere from flood soils, ruminant animals, fires, termites, natural gas ext animals, fires, termites, natural gas exploitation, and coal mining. Annual CH4 release from these sources has been estimated to be 400 to 640 x 1012 g (1012 g = Tg). The annual emission rates for individual sources of atmospheric CH4 are highly uncertain by factors of 2 to 25. If annual CH4 emissions from coal mining are approximately 25 to 45 Tg, as suggested by preliminary estimates, they may represent one of the CH4 sources potentially most amenable to control in any future program to stabilize the composition of the atmosphere

  5. One year water chemistry monitoring of the flooding of the Meirama open pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vázquez, A.; Fernández-Bogo, S.

    2009-04-01

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama finished the extraction of brown lignite. Starting in April 2008, the flooding of the open pit has started and this is leading to the formation of a large mining lake (~2 km2 surface and up to 180 m depth) in which surface (river and rain water) and ground waters are involved. Since the beginning of the flooding, lake waters are weekly sampled and analyzed for temperature, pH, redox, EC, TDS, TSS, DO,DIC, DOC, turbidity, alkalinity/acidity as well as nearly 40 inorganic chemical components. Stable water isotopes (deuterium and oxygen) are also being recorded. In order to better understand the dynamic chemical evolution of lake waters, the chemical characteristics of rain water as well as a series of lake tributaries and ground waters are also being measured. Since the beginning of the flooding process, the chemical quality of lake water has experienced an interesting evolution that obeys to a variety of circumstances. The silicic geologic substratum of the catchment determines that both ground and surface waters have a rather low alkalinity. Moreover, the presence of disseminated sulfides (mainly pyrite) within the schistous materials of the mine slopes and internal rock dumps provokes a significant acidic load. From April to October 2008, the lake waters had only the contribution of rain and ground waters. Since the beginning of October, a significant volume of surface waters has been derived to the mine hole. Taking pH as indicator, the first water body had a rather acidic pH (~3) which was progressively amended with the addition of a certain amount of lime to reach an upper value of ~8 by late August. The diminution in the addition of lime up to its elimination, in December, has conducted to the progressive acidification of the lake. At present, an instrumented floating deck is being deployed in the lake. This device will serve as a base point where it is planned to locate a series of instrumentation (complete weather monitoring station, multiparametric probe, sediment trap line) that will complement with depth profiles the surficial sampling performed so far.

  6. Mathematical model for water quality impact assessment and its computer application in coal mine water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a mathematical model to assess the Water Quality Impact in coal mine or in river system by accurate and rational method. Algorithm, flowchart and computer programme have been developed upon this model to assess the quality of coal mine water. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Socio-Economic Impact of Coal Mining Industry in Assam (1826-1947)- A Historical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Sen

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on both primary and secondary sources which highlight the origin and growth of coal mining industry in Assam and also highlight the socio-cultural and economic changes due to industrialization in coal sector during colonial period. Key words: Mining Industry, Industrial Revolution, Legacies, agency, Naga-Patkai belt.

  8. Gas migration from closed coal mines to the surface. Risk assessment methodology and prevention means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French law as regards renunciation to mining concessions calls for the mining operator to first undertake analyses of the risks represented by their underground mining works. The problem of gas migration to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate to the earth's surface, then present significant risks: explosion, suffocation or gas poisoning risks. As part of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national mining operator Charbonnages de France, a general methodology for assessing the risk linked to gas in the context of closed coal mines. This article presents the principles of this methodology. An application example based on a true case study is then described. This is completed by a presentation of the preventive and monitoring resources recommended and usually applied in order to manage the risk linked to gaseous emissions. (authors)

  9. The application of geophysics in South African coal mining and exploration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., van Schoor; C.J.S., Fourie.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal remains South Africa's most abundant and cheapest source of energy, and there is an ever-increasing necessity for optimal and safe extraction of the remaining reserves. Increasing focus on cost-effective mining and zero harm to the environment and miners has resulted in a shift in attitude towa [...] rds the application of geophysics in local coal mining and exploration. Furthermore, technological advances have contributed to geophysics being embraced more readily by the coal mining industry, compared to a decade or two ago. Predictably, the growing interest in geophysical technologies has also created a need for education and training in the basic principles and application of geophysical methods, as local coal mining companies generally do not have in-house geophysicists. Consequently, the Coaltech Research Organisation's Geology and Geophysics working group forum compiled a textbook aimed at addressing this need: to produce a guide for applying geophysics to coal mining problems in South Africa. The target audience for such a book would be coal geologists, mine surveyors, mine planners, and other mining staff with limited or no geophysics background. This paper provides a very brief overview of the book by summarizing key sections and selected examples. In doing so, the value of geophysics to solving a range of coal mining and exploration problems is highlighted.

  10. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez; María B. Díaz-Aguado

    2014-01-01

    Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as we...

  11. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  12. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 3: Western Coal Provinces. [More than 1000 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, L.K.; Boyd, C.A.; Daniels, T.F.; Kann, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Western Coal Provinces. This bibliography contains more than 1000 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  13. The external costs of coal mining : the case of colleries supplying Kusile power station

    OpenAIRE

    Nkambule, Nonophile P.; Blignaut, James Nelson

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to quantify the external costs of mining and transporting coal to the Kusile coal-fired power station in eMalahleni. Monetary values were estimated for a number of impacts including its contribution to climate change, human health effects of classic air pollutants, mortality and morbidity, impacts of water pollution and water consumption. The results of the study disclosed that coal mining and transportation will inflict costs to both the e...

  14. First aid to miners suffering from overheating in deep coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makartsev, V.I.; Tsepurdei, A.A.; Zabolotnii, V.N.; Mozhaev, G.A.; Gridin, V.S. (Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut Gornospasatel' nogo Dela (Russian Federation))

    1993-03-01

    Describes the symptoms of hyperthermia and approaching thermal shock in coal miners working in deep coal mines. First aid is given to miners suffering from hyperthermia and thermal shock. It is pointed out that prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures at workplaces can result in thermal exhaustion with a deficit of body fluids and minerals. Thermal exhaustion is characterized by general weakness, headaches, insomnia, sleepiness, choleric mood, emotional upset, tremulous pulse and labored breathing. Preventive measures against overheating in deep coal mines are listed.

  15. Reclamation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field studies were carried out to restore the fertility and productivity of coal mine spoil using primary clarifier sludge from paper mill effluent treatment plant and use of specialised culture of biofertilizers and mycorrhizal fungi. Plants namely Tectona grandis, Delbergia sissoo, Gmelina arporea, Emblica officinalis and Cassia seamea were grown. Sludge amendment enhanced the survival rate of plants to 80% compared to 20% in unamended spoil. Plants grown on unamended spoil showed stunted growth. Growth of plants increased by 188-484% when sludge was applied at the rate of 100 tonnes per hectare. At 100 tones per hectare sludge amendment, biofertilizer and mycorrhizae treatment there were 83.7 nodules in shishum as against only 4.6 nodules in case of spoil alone. Further root length was 276% and 281% more respectively in case of shishum and teak. Inoculation of plant saplings with respective biofertilizers and mycorrhizae further increased the plant growth by 144-198%. At Durgapur coal mine, 56,000 saplings of Tectona grandis, Gmelina arporea, Delbergia sissoo, Emblica officinalis, Azadirachta indica, Acacia ariculiformis, Prosopis etc were successfully planted on spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. 10 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Forecast and Prevention of Coal and Gas Outbursts in the Case of Application of a New Mining Method - Drilling of a Coal Pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hude?ek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal and gas outbursts are one of risk factors accompanying the mining of coal in low seams in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield.At the use of the method of longwall mining, all coal reserves have not been mined out owing to tectonic faults. For mining outthe residual reserves, the application of a new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar was proposed.The method of mining of a coal seam utilizing long large diameter boreholes is verified in the Paskov Mine (company OKD, JSC –Czech Republic under conditions of rock mass with hazard of rock and gas outbursts in localities of residual pillars left in seams afterfinishing the mining operations performed with using the classical method of longwall working along the strike. [5]Forecast and preventive measures applied to the verification of the new method were based on previous experience withthe mining of seams with hazard of coal and gas outbursts. They accepted fully valid legislation, i.e. Ordinance of Ostrava RegionalMining Authority No. 3895/2002 and supplementary materials (Instructions and Guidelines. The proposed measures respectedthe character of the method being verified. [4]For all areas being mined, projects containing also chapters specifying the problems of ensuring the safety of mining worksand operation under conditions of hazard of coal and gas outbursts were prepared.In the contributions, basic proposals for the principles of coal and gas outburst forecast and prevention when applying the newmining method – drilling of a coal pillar are presented

  17. Strengthening of longwall gate support against dynamic effects of rockbursts in coal mines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horyl, P.; Š?upárek, Richard; Havaj, J.

    Vol.2. London : Taylor and Francis, 2007 - (Ribeiro e Sousa), s. 1189-1191 ISBN 978-0-415-45085-0. [Congress of the International Society for Rock Mechanics/11./. Lisbon (PT), 09.07.2007-13.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA ?BÚ AACBU34-03; GA ?R GA105/07/1265 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : coal mines * rockbursts * dynamic effects Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  18. Lean Manufacturing And Productivity Improvement In Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Ade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic reforms- Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization, (LPG started in 1991 in India. The main objective of the government was to achieve high economic growth and industrialize the nation for the well-being of Indian citizens. Thus Indian market became Global and open market. Coal industry was not an exception to this phenomena of globalization. The improvement in productivity has become need of coal industry to take the competitive advantage of global market.The challenge to the coal Industry is to identify the wastes and meet the market price by maintaining a good profit. The only solution is to reduce total production cost. Lean manufacturing is a systematic approach to identify and eliminate the waste through continuousimprovements and synchronizing the production process to obtain manufacturing excellence. This can be achieved by Lean thinking (to identify and eliminate wastes and Lean production (to improve efficiency and effectiveness of equipment. Earlier the lean manufacturing concept was limited to manufacturing organizationnow it is used invariably in operation industries.In this paper researcher has applied lean manufacturing concept in order to increase productivity and to minimize the production cost of mining.

  19. Marketing of coal mining equipment. Evaluation of present techniques: suggestions to aid commercialization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-19

    This report is an examination of the equipment preferences and decision-making methodology of the coal industry. The prime purpose is to indicate directions in which equipment research might proceed and also to indicate methods by which investment in new, more productive mining equipment could be encouraged. In addition to this, an investigation of the research and development decisions of major mining equipment manufacturers was conducted. The findings can best be condensed into three categories: needs for equipment in underground mining, needs for equipment in surface mining, and the purchase decision by coal mine operators.

  20. Study on structuring the supervision system of coal mine associated with radionuclides in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinjiang is one of China's rich coal provinces (areas) and it accounts for about 40% national coal reserves. In the long-term radioactive scientific research, monitoring and environmental impact assessment works, we found parts of Yili and Hetian's coal was associated with higher radionuclide, and parts of coal seam even reached nuclear mining level. However the laws and regulations about associated radioactive coal mine supervision were not perfect, and the supervision system is still in the exploration. This article mainly started with the coal mine enterprises' geological prospecting reports, radiation environmental impact assessment and monitoring report preparation for environment acceptance checking and supervisory monitoring, controlled the coal radioactive pollution from the sources, and carried out the research of building Xinjiang associated radioactive coal mine supervision system. The establishment of supervision system will provide technical guidance for the enterprises' coal exploitation and cinders using on the one hand, and on the other hand will provide decision-making basis for strengthening the associated radioactive coal mine supervision for Xinjiang environmental regulators. (authors)

  1. Methodology of Estimation of Methane Emissions from Coal Mines in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paty?ska, Renata

    2014-03-01

    Based on a literature review concerning methane emissions in Poland, it was stated in 2009 that the National Greenhouse Inventory 2007 [13] was published. It was prepared firstly to meet Poland's obligations resulting from point 3.1 Decision no. 280/2004/WE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004, concerning a mechanism for monitoring community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol and secondly, for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Kyoto Protocol. The National Greenhouse Inventory states that there are no detailed data concerning methane emissions in collieries in the Polish mining industry. That is why the methane emission in the methane coal mines of Górno?l?skie Zag??bie W?glowe - GZW (Upper Silesian Coal Basin - USCB) in Poland was meticulously studied and evaluated. The applied methodology for estimating methane emission from the GZW coal mining system was used for the four basic sources of its emission. Methane emission during the mining and post-mining process. Such an approach resulted from the IPCC guidelines of 2006 [10]. Updating the proposed methods (IPCC2006) of estimating the methane emissions of hard coal mines (active and abandoned ones) in Poland, assumes that the methane emission factor (EF) is calculated based on methane coal mine output and actual values of absolute methane content. The result of verifying the method of estimating methane emission during the mining process for Polish coal mines is the equation of methane emission factor EF.

  2. 77 FR 43721 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB75...Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION:...

  3. 76 FR 11187 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB75...Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION:...

  4. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  5. Accurate thermodynamic characterization of a synthetic coal mine methane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Accurate density data of a 10 components synthetic coal mine methane mixture are presented. • Experimental data are compared with the densities calculated from the GERG-2008 equation of state. • Relative deviations in density were within a 0.2% band at temperatures above 275 K. • Densities at 250 K as well as at 275 K and pressures above 10 MPa showed higher deviations. -- Abstract: In the last few years, coal mine methane (CMM) has gained significance as a potential non-conventional gas fuel. The progressive depletion of common fossil fuels reserves and, on the other hand, the positive estimates of CMM resources as a by-product of mining promote this fuel gas as a promising alternative fuel. The increasing importance of its exploitation makes it necessary to check the capability of the present-day models and equations of state for natural gas to predict the thermophysical properties of gases with a considerably different composition, like CMM. In this work, accurate density measurements of a synthetic CMM mixture are reported in the temperature range from (250 to 400) K and pressures up to 15 MPa, as part of the research project EMRP ENG01 of the European Metrology Research Program for the characterization of non-conventional energy gases. Experimental data were compared with the densities calculated with the GERG-2008 equation of state. Relative deviations between experimental and estimated densities were within a 0.2% band at temperatures above 275 K, while data at 250 K as well as at 275 K and pressures above 10 MPa showed higher deviations

  6. What Were the Reasons for the Rapid Landslide Occurrence in "Piaseczno" Open Pit? - Analysis of the Landslide Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakóbczyk, Joanna; Ca?a, Marek; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Landslides are major natural hazards occurring in opencast mining. The problem of slope stability failure in the existing open pit mines as well as in those which are at a stage of technical closure is current issue in Poland and all over the world. This problem requires conducting in-depth and meaningful analysis which will identify the causes of processes characterized by a very rapid course and large extent. The paper presents the analysis of the landslide causes, which took place on May 11, 2011 on the western slope of the internal dump in "Piaseczno" sulphur mine (at a stage of technical closure). It was the first native sulphur open pit mine in Poland in which the exploitation was carried out from 1958 untill 1971. Reclamation works have been ongoing since 2005. The aim of these works is to create water body which will be used for recreational purposes. During the reclamation works on the western slope of "Piaseczno" reservoir the landslide processes were activated. A detailed description of geology and preliminary analyses of landslide processes are given in [1]. The development of landslide took place in a very violent manner. Moreover, the occurrence of the landslide caused the movement of the reservoir shoreline by about 350 meters and created a bay with the area of approximately 6 hectares. Displacement of 600 000 m3 of soil masses under the water resulted in its level rising by 56 cm. The total volume of ground masses was over 1 million m3. The analysis of the landslide process activation was carried out for two representative cross-sections of the internal dump. Numerical calculations were performed using the Limit Equilibrium Method (SLOPE/W GeoStudio) and the Finite Difference Method using the Shear Strength Reduction Method (FLAC Slope). They were aimed at determining the shape and extent of potential slip surface, which would correspond to the observed landslide. The purpose of the analysis, the results of which are presented in the article, was to define how the process proceeded and what factors contributed to its activation.

  7. Practice and prospects of fully mechanized mining technology for thin coal seams in China

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Wang; S., Tu; Q., Bai.

    Full Text Available In China, thin coal seams are rich in resources but are technically challenging. The mineable reserves in these seams account for 20.4% of the total coal resources, while the current production accounts for only 10.4% of the total annual production. Characteristics such as narrow mining space, low l [...] evel of mechanization, poor working environment, and high cost of mining, restrict the development of mining safety and efficiency. Recently, fully mechanized mining technology has developed rapidly for thin coal seams, the level of yield and efficiency has reached or exceeded the international standard, and some state-owned key coal mines are considering automation of their mining process. In thin coal seams with hard stone bands that contain concentrations of pyrite, a specialized software, LS-DYNA, is used to calculate the rational blasting parameters that are used in the deep-hole pre-splitting blasting. Using this method the hard stone bands are fractured effectively, and hence increasing the coal productivity. In addition, mining advance rate were increased by enhancing the level of fully mechanized equipment and safety improved by increasing gas drainage from the gas outburst prone seam located some 7 m below the coal horizon. At present, thin coal seam mining technology faces many challenges, including the low level of equipment automation, the low advance rate in mixed coal-rock ground, and the large number of the mine personnel underground. By lowering the labour intensity and improving efficiency through automation and other measures, more efficient working faces can be implemented in thin coal seams.

  8. Genotoxic effects in wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) in an open coal mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Grethel; Pérez, Lyda Espitia; Linares, Juan Carlos; Hartmann, Andreas; Quintana, Milton

    2007-06-15

    Coal is a mixture of a variety of compounds containing mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to coal is considered as an important non-cellular and cellular source of reactive oxygen species that can induce DNA damage. In addition, spontaneous combustion can occur in coal mining areas, further releasing compounds with detrimental effects on the environment. In this study the comet assay was used to investigate potential genotoxic effects of coal mining activities in peripheral blood cells of the wild rodents Rattus rattus and Mus musculus. The study was conducted in a coal mining area of the Municipio de Puerto Libertador, South West of the Departamento de Cordoba, Colombia. Animals from two areas in the coal mining zone and a control area located in the Municipio de Lorica were investigated. The results showed evidence that exposure to coal results in elevated primary DNA lesions in blood cells of rodents. Three different parameters for DNA damage were assessed, namely, DNA damage index, migration length and percentage damaged cells. All parameters showed statistically significantly higher values in mice and rats from the coal mining area in comparison to the animals from the control area. The parameter "DNA Damage Index" was found to be most sensitive and to best indicate a genotoxic hazard. Both species investigated were shown to be sensitive indicators of environmental genotoxicity caused by coal mining activities. In summary, our study constitutes the first investigation of potential genotoxic effects of open coal mining carried out in Puerto Libertador. The investigations provide a guide for measures to evaluate genotoxic hazards, thereby contributing to the development of appropriate measures and regulations for more careful operations during coal mining. PMID:17419090

  9. Financial Incentives to Restructure Coal Mining Industry. Comparative Case Study Romania and State of Michigan, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger HAMLIN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Former coal mining sites have always raised environmental and economic challenges for the areas where they were located, especially for those communities that were highly dependent on the coal mining industry. The present paper will explore the factors leading to the decline of coal mining industry in Romania and State of Michigan, U.S., the social, economic and environmental impact that occurred after closing coal extractions and the approaches that the two states took to reconstruct the economy of the former mining areas. The paper attempts to make recommendations of financial incentives that can be used to foster the economic redevelopment of former coal mining sites in Romania.

  10. Petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of mined coals, western Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Gonzalez, Eligio [INGEOMIN, Torre Oeste Parque, Central Piso 8, Caracas 1010 (Venezuela)

    2005-07-20

    Upper Paleocene to middle Miocene coal samples collected from active mines in the western Venezuelan States of Tachira, Merida and Zulia have been characterized through an integrated geochemical, mineralogical and petrographic investigation. Proximate, ultimate, calorific and forms of sulfur values, major and trace element, vitrinite reflectance, maceral concentrations and mineral matter content have been determined for 16 channel samples from 14 mines. Ash yield generally is low, ranging from <1 to 17 wt.% (mean=5 wt.%) on a dry basis (db). Total sulfur content is low to moderate, ranging from 1 to 6 wt.%, db (average=1.7 wt.%). Calorific value ranges from 25.21 to 37.21 MJ/kg (10,840-16,000 Btu/lb) on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis (average=33.25 MJ/kg, 14,300 Btu/lb), placing most of the coal samples in the apparent rank classification of high-volatile bituminous. Most of the coal samples exhibit favorable characteristics on the various indices developed to predict combustion and coking behavior and concentrations of possible environmentally sensitive elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Th and U) generally are similar to the concentrations of these elements in most coals of the world, with one or two exceptions. Concentrations of the liptinite maceral group range from <1% to 70 vol.%. Five samples contain >20 vol.% liptinite, dominated by the macerals bituminite and sporinite. Collotelinite dominates the vitrinite group; telinite was observed in quantities of |1 vol.% despite efforts to better quantify this maceral by etching the sample pellets in potassium permanganate and also by exposure in an oxygen plasma chamber. Inertinite group macerals typically represent <10 vol.% of the coal samples and the highest concentrations of inertinite macerals are found in distantly spaced (>400 km) upper Paleocene coal samples from opposite sides of Lago de Maracaibo, possibly indicating tectonic controls on subsidence related to construction of the Andean orogen. Values of maximum reflectance of vitrinite in oil (R{sub o max}) range between 0.42% and 0.85% and generally are consistent with the high-volatile bituminous rank classification obtained through ASTM methods. X-ray diffraction analyses of low-temperature ash residues indicate that kaolinite, quartz, illite and pyrite dominate the inorganic fraction of most samples; plagioclase, potassium feldspar, calcite, siderite, ankerite, marcasite, rutile, anatase and apatite are present in minor or trace concentrations. Semiquantitative values of volume percent pyrite content show a strong correlation with pyritic sulfur and some sulfide-hosted trace element concentrations (As and Hg). This work provides a modern quality dataset for the western Venezuela coal deposits currently being exploited and will serve as the foundation for an ongoing coal quality research program in Venezuela.

  11. Alunites in the red beds of the “Marcel” coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wyszomirski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the so-called red beds of the “Marcel” coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB,the authors have recorded the presence of alunite and natroalunite using XRD, IR and SEM/EDS. Both ofthem contain probably isomorphic substitutions of barium, strontium, phosphorus and, possibly, thehydronium ion. These two minerals preferably occur at the bottom of the red beds, in clay laminae overlyinga partly preserved coal seam; they are cryptocrystalline: their rhombohedral crystals, with a cube-like habit,are below 1 m. The sulphates coexist mainly with clay minerals (illite, halloysite, kaolinite-D, smectite andhematite, while quartz, siderite and sphalerite are subordinate or occur in traces. The genesis of the aluniteand natroalunite has been linked to the final stage of the alteration of Carboniferous rocks and coal into thered beds in complex weathering and diagenetic-epigenetic processes. Both minerals must have been formedby metasomatosis of a clay precursor, affected by sulphuric acid resulting from supergenic oxidation ofsulphides (mainly pyrite dispersed in the Carboniferous strata.

  12. Head pillar burst in the mechanized stops of coal mines in Novaky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal was, and still is a prime power source of human. In world-wide values up to 36 % of generated electric energy comes from this stock. The biggest producer of brown coal in Slovakia is the Hornonitrianske bane Prievidza, Inc., with the Bana Novaky branch. The present coal output of Novaky is rendered from longwall faces. The stability issues of head pillars associated with the introduction of mechanized stops in the coal mines in Novaky are described in this paper. (authors)

  13. Possibilities for briquetting the coal fines from the lignite of the 'Brik-Berovo' mine (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results from the laboratory examinations of the coal fines from the mine 'Brik-Berovo' (Macedonia), carried out in order to evaluate the coal briquetting ability. Also, technological parameters of the briquetting process are determined. The characteristics of the obtained briquets are compared to the criteria of JUS-B.H1.031 standard. The conclusion is that coal fines briquetting will be successful if the coal granulation is -3mm

  14. Head pillar burst in themechanized stopes of coal mines in Novaky

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslav Schvandtner

    2006-01-01

    Coal was, and still is a prime power source of human. In world-wide values up to 36 % of generated electric energy comes from this stock. The biggest producer of brown coal in Slovakia is the Hornonitrianske bane Prievidza, Inc., with the Ba?a Nováky branch. The present coal output of Novaky is rendered from longwall faces. The stability issues of head pillars associated with the introduction of mechanized stopes in the coal mines in Novaky are described in this paper.

  15. Black coal mining in the Ruhr area - development, political framework, regional involvement and diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whenever mention is made of public budget cost cutting measures by reducing subsidies, the German black coal industry also attracts attention. The ensuing discussions general consist of at least two explosive aspects: Energy policy, because hard coal-along with brown coal - is the only energy source largely available in the Federal Republic of Germany; regional policy, because the nature of coal mining makes is very concentrated in certain areas. The resolutions made in November 1991 towards a new concept of coal mining are secure grounds enough to take stock of the meaning of hard coal mines in the largest German coal reserve - The Ruhr Area. There are four main aspects: Firstly, the development of the Ruhr mines since the end of the war is sketched out (Section I); the related political implications will be explored in Section 2; due to the particular importance of coal mines in the Ruhr area, Section 3 is concerned with the sector's regional relationship; the final section (No. 4) explores the question of diversification in the production programme at Ruhrkohle AG, one of the several Ruhr mining industry businesses. (orig.)

  16. The natural radioactivity in vicinity of the brown coal mine Tusnica - Livno, BiH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal mine Tusnica is located in South-West part of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the municipality Livno. Coal mine Tusnica consists of two surface coal mines. The first one is brown coal surface deposit called Drage and second one is lignite deposit called Table. The brown coal deposit shows increased levels of natural radionuclides. The highest absorbed dose rate is recorded in the center of the surface coal mine Tusnica-Drage (500 nGy h-1) as result of the increased content of uranium and radium in coal (average specific activity of U-238 is 623 ± 23 Bq kg-1 and Ra-226 is 1191 ± 5 Bq kg-1). Levels of natural radionuclides in the vicinity of the surface deposit Drage in agricultural soil (about 3 km of the centre mine) are slightly increased due to the use of the coal ash and coal dust for fertilization of the land (U-238 is 142 ± 11 Bq kg-1 and Ra-226 is 197 ± 2 Bq kg-1). Obtained results in soil-plant-animal products chain does not show significantly increased levels of natural radionuclides due to the fact that mentioned radionuclides, in general, have a low transfer factors in soil-plant-animal products chain. (author)

  17. The mining and burning of coal: effects on health and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleden, William M; Shearman, David; Crisp, George; Finch, Philip

    2011-09-19

    Australia's coal conundrum is that all political parties say they are concerned about climate change while sanctioning an unprecedented expansion of coalmining and coal seam gas extraction in Australia. Australia's coal contributes to climate change and its global health impacts. Each phase of coal's lifecycle (mining, disposal of contaminated water and tailings, transportation, washing, combustion, and disposing of postcombustion wastes) produces pollutants that affect human health. Communities in which coalmining or burning occurs have been shown to suffer significant health impacts. The health and climate costs of coal are unseen, and when costs to health systems are included, coal is an expensive fuel. PMID:21929497

  18. Coal Seams in the Horna Nitra Valley – the Cigel Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Fazekaš

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics data, coal will become with no doubt the most important energy source in the 21-st century. The HornaNitra Valley represents one of the main fuels – energy centre of Slovakia. Deposits of caustobioliths – brown coal and lignite presentsignificant raw material potential. The mining companies, along with run-in extraction methods of coal reserves, are giving their timeto a research of untraditional coal processing technologies. An in-situ monitoring of coal seams geo-technological propertiescontributes in a significant way to obtain some complex knowledge on interactions of certain determining factors which influencethe coal gases formation underground.

  19. Post mining hazard assessment in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In North Rhine-Westphalia, large areas are affected by mining legacies endangering the ground surface and public safety. The problems arising and the current risk management are demonstrated at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district. Hazards especially result from outcrops of coal seams mined at shallow depths and shafts whilst galleries usually seem to be rather unperilous due to their depth and small dimension. In this paper, the design of hazard zones and the assignment of hazard classes are described. Recent scientific developments related to the size of hazard areas are described and an outlook on future procedures is given. (authors)

  20. Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Mechanical State of a Coal Pillar During Longwall Mining Panel Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Jiang, Yaodong; Zhao, Yixin; Zhu, Jie; Liu, Shuai

    2013-09-01

    This study presents a numerical investigation on the dynamic mechanical state of a coal pillar and the assessment of the coal bump risk during extraction using the longwall mining method. The present research indicates that there is an intact core, even when the peak pillar strength has been exceeded under uniaxial compression. This central portion of the coal pillar plays a significant role in its loading capacity. In this study, the intact core of the coal pillar is defined as an elastic core. Based on the geological conditions of a typical longwall panel from the Tangshan coal mine in the City of Tangshan, China, a numerical fast Lagrangian analysis of continua in three dimensions (FLAC3D) model was created to understand the relationship between the volume of the elastic core in a coal pillar and the vertical stress, which is considered to be an important precursor to the development of a coal bump. The numerical results suggest that, the wider the coal pillar, the greater the volume of the elastic core. Therefore, a coal pillar with large width may form a large elastic core as the panel is mined, and the vertical stress is expected to be greater in magnitude. Because of the high stresses and the associated stored elastic energy, the risk of coal bumps in a coal pillar with large width is greater than for a coal pillar with small width. The results of the model also predict that the peak abutment stress occurs near the intersection between the mining face and the roadways at a distance of 7.5 m from the mining face. It is revealed that the bump-prone zones around the longwall panel are within 7-10 m ahead of the mining face and near the edge of the roadway during panel extraction.

  1. Neuronet Modelling of the Processes of Budgeting and Use of Labour Resources at Coal Mining Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hl?nska Olha M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues of efficient budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises. It proves expediency of use of modern neuronet, namely, multilayer perceptron, for solution of tasks of modelling the process of budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises. It shows that Statistika is the best software package for creation of neuronets of the multilayer perceptron architecture. On the basis of analysis and comparative characteristic the article selects the topology and builds a neuronet model of budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises.

  2. Safety Psychology Applicating on Coal Mine Safety Management Based on Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baoyue; Chen, Fei

    In recent years, with the increase of intensity of coal mining, a great number of major accidents happen frequently, the reason mostly due to human factors, but human's unsafely behavior are affected by insecurity mental control. In order to reduce accidents, and to improve safety management, with the help of application security psychology, we analyse the cause of insecurity psychological factors from human perception, from personality development, from motivation incentive, from reward and punishment mechanism, and from security aspects of mental training , and put forward countermeasures to promote coal mine safety production,and to provide information for coal mining to improve the level of safety management.

  3. Control of rockburst risk in hard coal longwall mining – A case study.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koní?ek, Petr; Kukutsch, Radovan; Ptá?ek, Ji?í; Sou?ek, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Waclawik, Petr

    London : CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group, Balkema, 2013 - (Kwa?niewski, M.; ?yd?ba, D.), s. 745-750 ISBN 978-1-138-00080-3. [EUROCK 2013 - Rock Mechanics for Resources, Energy and Environment. Wroclaw (PL), 23.09.2013-26.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MV VG20102014034 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : rockburst risk * Upper Silesian Coal Basin * hard coal deposit * destress blasting * longwall mining Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  4. Identification of Security Status of Production Logistics System in Coal Mine Based on RS–SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of security status of production logistics system in coal mine is important to analyze the weak links and improve the safety level of coal mine safety production. Combining with the particularity and complexity of production logistics system of coal mine, this paper established an identification model of safe state by using the rough set theory (RS and support vector machine method (SVM. It selected key safety index with the theory of rough set, and used SVM to identify safety status. It showed that identification model of security state based on RS-SVM simplified the computational complexity and improved the identification accuracy of security state.

  5. Geomorphological Analysis of Gare Pelma Sector – III for the Environmental Impact Assessment due to Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava K. Iyengar*

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The land use in the Gare pelma sector III will undergo gradual changes during mine life due to mine development. The associated activities of coal extraction, storage, washing, loading/ unloading, transportation, reclamation and rehabilitation , needs space beyond the mining area . It is the need of the hour to analyze the landscape usages and the need in future perspective of the environmental impact assessment. Raigarh area has abundant coal and the extraction of coal deposit is going on rampantly at the stake of environment.

  6. Coal mining in the Netherlands: The need for a proper assessment:

    OpenAIRE

    Jong, T. P. R.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands several billion tonnes of mineable coal remained after closure of all mines in 1974. Mining activities in Dutch Limburg were suspended relatively early in comparison to surrounding basins, of which only DSK’s Ruhr mines are still producing. In retrospective this saved the costs of uneconomic exploitation and limited further depletion. On the other hand, associated knowledge base and mining expertise virtually disappeared from the Netherlands. Almost 30 years later this ma...

  7. Technological innovations in deep coal mine power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, T. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Kohler, J.L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Engineering

    1998-01-01

    Various innovations and changes have occurred to underground coal mine power systems during the past ten years. Some of thee are the use of higher utilization and distribution voltages and associated switchgear, the use of programmable logic controllers (PLC`s) for control, monitoring, and diagnostic applications, improved protective relaying with built-in test circuitry, power-factor correction near loads for improved voltage regulation, and modifications to power-system component arrangement. Many of the innovations were necessitated by significant increases in power requirements of face equipment, particularly longwall equipment, while others are the result of improved technology. In either case, improved power-system operating characteristics, as well as enhanced levels of safety, have resulted. This paper describes many of the major innovations that have evolved during recent years.

  8. Behaviour of radium isotopes released from coal mines in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper results of measurements of radium isotopes concentrations in river waters - 226Ra from uranium series and 228Ra from thorium series - have been described. The radioactive contamination is caused by waste waters, released from coal and copper mines. Samples were taken from main Polish rivers, Vistula and Odra and it's tributaries. In such way, part of rivers with enhanced concentrations of natural radioisotopes have been determined and investigated. We found, that in small rivers concentration of radium isotopes may exceed value 0.7 kBq/m3 - which is a limit set by Polish national regulations. Above this limit, water should be treated as a liquid radioactive waste. (author). 5 refs, 5 tabs, 3 figs

  9. Landslide rehabilitation with geo synthetics in open coal mine Oslomej

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2002 stability is violated and landslides are registered in open coal mine Oslomej, Republic of Macedonia. Around the profile IV existing open irrigation channel was interrupted and landslide was extended to the regional way R421 Kicevo - Oslomej. The landslide was classified like big and dangerous, including danger for disruption of the regional road and pipeline Studencica - Oslomej for supplying of thermal power plant Oslomej with technical water. According to the proposed solution, main project design for landslide rehabilitation was prepared with using geo synthetics Stabilenka 200/45. In fill is local soil material which had been placed and compacted in layers, it had formed a composite construction. Stabilenka acts as a reinforcement due to its ability to absorb tensile forces. With the design solution two retaining walls of reinforced soil and complete drainage system of geo composite materials had been constructed This paper deals with details of the design and the construction. (Author)

  10. Optimization of shuttle car utilization at an underground coal mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.R., Segopolo.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the project is to convert current shuttle car utilization on an underground coal mine to best practice by focusing on change-out points and tramming routes, which have a major influence on shuttle car away times. Time studies were an integral part of the project as these enabled the d [...] etermination of shuttle car away times. An indirect proportional relationship between shuttle car away times and productivity is established. Through the time studies, it is deduced that a third shuttle car will make an insignificant contribution to production when there is only one split open. During this time, maintenance on the third car can be optimized. In order to satisfy the mine's key performance indicator of keeping shuttle car away times less than 75 seconds, a belt extension must be scheduled after the third split is open. It is established that at any given time, a minimum of two shuttle cars should be used. When cutting on the left-hand-side of the belt road with only two shuttle cars available, the centre and left (left of the feeder breaker) shuttle cars should be used for coal hauling. When cutting on the right-hand-side, the centre and the right-hand-side cars should be used. If only one shuttle car is available, the centre car is the most efficient to use. Alternative anchoring configurations can be employed so as to enable cars (left or right, especially) to reach the opposite extremities of the panel and hence minimize cable length restrictions.

  11. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM streams containing high levels of nitrogen, as is now the case at the Federal No.2 Mine. Even lacking the CPSA pipeline delivery demonstration, the project was successful in laying the groundwork for future commercial applications of the integrated system. This operation can still provide a guide for other coal mines which need options for utilization of their methane resources. The designed system can be used as a complete template, or individual components of the system can be segregated and utilized separately at other mines. The use of the CMM not only provides an energy fuel from an otherwise wasted resource, but it also yields an environmental benefit by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The methane has twenty times the greenhouse effect as compared to carbon dioxide, which the combustion of the methane generates. The net greenhouse gas emission mitigation is substantial.

  12. A quarter century of coal mining and hydrogeologic research in southeastern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two valuable natural resources coexist in eastern Montana--coal and ground water. Water related issues are the major concerns during coal mine permit decisions. Due to the concerns about mining related impacts, ground water in the vicinity of coal mines has been continuously monitored since 1970. The continuity and duration of the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology monitoring program under a variety of geologic, mining, and post-mining conditions have provided a fundamental knowledge on impacts to water levels and water quality. Coal beds are among the most dependable and utilized aquifers in eastern Montana, due to their lateral continuity and fracture-related transmissivity. In response to coal strip mining, water levels in coal-bed aquifers have dropped at distances as far as 2 miles away from mines near Colstrip, and as far as 15 miles from mines near Decker. Water levels typically return to pre-mining levels within several years after pits are backfilled. Mining-induced drawdown in stratigraphically deeper aquifers exceed those in mined aquifers in some areas, and relate to inadequately plugged boreholes from older exploration drilling programs. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water in the spoils aquifers have increased by 50 to 200% due to the dissolution of newly available salts of calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. However, in some sites freshening of the water appears to be occurring as initial salt loads are flushed through the systems. Water-qualit flushed through the systems. Water-quality impacts are expected in off-site and deeper aquifers due to normal ground-water flow, and in deeper aquifers due to poorly plugged exploration drill holes. However, downgradient impacts to water quality are rarely observed. Future ground-water monitoring should document stable water levels and improving water quality as spoils aquifers reach equilibrium with local undisturbed hydrologic systems

  13. Origin and influence of coal mine drainage on streams of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Degradation of water quality related to oxidation of iron disulfide minerals associated with coal is a naturally occurring process that has been observed since the late seventeenth century, many years before commencement of commercial coal mining in the United States. Disturbing coal strata during mining operations accelerates this natural deterioration of water quality by exposing greater surface areas of reactive minerals to the weathering effects of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Degraded water quality in the temperate eastern half of the United States is readily detected because of the low mineralization of natural water. Maps are presented showing areas in the eastern United States where concentrations of chemical constituents in water affected by coal mining (pH, dissolved sulfate, total iron, total manganese) exceed background values and indicate effects of coal mining. Areas in the East most affected by mine drainage are in western Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, western Maryland, West Virginia, southern Illinois, western Kentucky, northern Missouri, and southern Iowa. Effects of coal mining on water quality in the more arid western half of the United States are more difficult to detect because of the high degree of mineralization of natural water. Normal background concentrations of constituents are not useful in evaluating effects of coal mine drainage on streams in the more arid West. Three approaches to reduce the effects of coal mining on water quality are: (1) exclusion of oxygenated water from reactive minerals, (2) neutralization of the acid produced, (3) retardation of acid-producing bacteria population in spoil material, by application of detergents that do not produce byproducts requiring disposal. These approaches can be used to help prevent further degradation of water quality in streams by future mining. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  14. Recent advances in remote coal mining machine sensing, guidance, and teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralston, J.C.; Hainsworth, D.W.; Reid, D.C.; Anderson, D.L.; McPhee, R.J. [CSIRO Exploration & Minerals, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    2001-10-01

    Some recent applications of sensing, guidance and telerobotic technology in the coal mining industry are presented. Of special interest is the development of semi or fully autonomous systems to provide remote guidance and communications for coal mining equipment. The use of radar and inertial based sensors are considered in an attempt to solve the horizontal and lateral guidance problems associated with mining equipment automation. Also described is a novel teleoperated robot vehicle with unique communications capabilities, called the Numbat, which is used in underground mine safety and reconnaissance missions.

  15. Mining with caving of coal seams 2. 5 to 4. 5 m thick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, O.; Drimal, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper evaluates longwall mining with caving in Namurian B coal seams in the Ostrava-Karvina basin. Coal seam thickness fluctuates from 2.5 to 5.0 m, tectonics is complicated, seams are prone to rock bursts, compression strength of coal seams ranges from 1.5 to 3.5 MPa, compression strength of rock partings from 4.0 to 6.5 MPa. Mining equipment used for longwall mining at the full seam height is reviewed: shearer loaders (KWB 3 RDU, KWB 6), chain conveyors (Rybnik 73 and Rybnik 76), powered supports (DVP 9, PIOMA 24/25, VOEST-ALPINE F4/4500), shield supports (VOB HP/103), the KRUK 800 coal crusher, hoists and other auxiliary equipment. Methods for equipment transport in underground workings, construction of a chamber for assembling equipment, assembling powered supports and shearer loaders, and operation of mining equipment used under complicated mining conditions are discussed. Methods for coal cutting, strata control, ventilation and mine haulage are described. Economic aspects of mining medium and thick coal seams at the whole height with caving using equipment produced in Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary and Austria are also evaluated. (In Czech)

  16. Recovery of Stream Communities Following Surface Coal Mine Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Hall

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Watershed, riparian zone, and in-stream habitat reclamation activities were implemented following surface coal mining in a headwater stream watershed. A three-year post-reclamation assessment was conducted of water quality, habitat, and biological communities. Water quality in reclaimed reaches was generally similar to that of the reference reach. Stream habitat assessments indicated “suboptimal” conditions for reference and reclaimed reaches. Fish index of biotic integrity scores indicated “fair” biotic status for reference and re-claimed reaches. Benthic macroinvertebrate riffle and multi-habitat community metrics indicated slight or no impairment in the reclaimed reaches as compared to the reference reach, and a mussel community was quickly established in reclaimed reaches despite its pre-mining absence. Overall, water quality, habitat, and biological conditions in reclaimed stream reaches were similar to those of the reference reach, demonstrating that small headwater streams can quickly recover following reclamation techniques suitable to the ecological setting. However, the recovery may have been a function of the quality of the biological communities being somewhat limited by the flat topography of the local and regional watershed.

  17. Response of surface springs to longwall coal mining Wasatch Plateau, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-extraction longwall coal mining creates zones in the overburden where strata bend, fracture, or cave into the mine void. These physical alterations to the overburden stratigraphy have associated effects on the hydrologic regime. The US Bureau of Mines (SBM) studied impacts to the local hydrologic system caused by longwall mining in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Surface springs in the vicinity of two coal mines were evaluated for alterations in flow characteristics as mining progressed. Fourteen springs located above the mines were included in the study. Eight of the springs were located over longwall panels, four were located over barrier pillars and mains, and two ere located outside the area disturbed by mining. Flow hydrographs for each spring were compared to climatic data and time of undermining to assess if mining in the vicinity had influenced flow. Heights of fracturing and caving in the overburden resulting from seam extraction were calculated using common subsidence formulas, and used in conjunction with elevations of springs to assess if fracturing influenced the water-bearing zones studied. One spring over a panel exhibited a departure from a normally-shaped hydrograph after being undermined. Springs located over other mine structures, or outside the mine area did not show discernible effects from mining. The limited response of the springs was attributed to site-specific conditions that buffered mining impacts including the elevation of the springs abovncluding the elevation of the springs above the mine level, and presence of massive sandstones and swelling clays in the overburden materials

  18. Optimization of shovel-truck system for surface mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.G., Ercelebi; A., Bascetin.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In surface mining operations, truck haulage is the largest item in the operating costs, constituting 50 to 60% of the total. In order to reduce this cost, it is necessary to allocate and dispatch the trucks efficiently. This paper describes shovel and truck operation models and optimization approach [...] es for the allocation and dispatching of trucks under various operating conditions. Closed queuing network theory is employed for the allocation of trucks and linear programming for the purpose of truck dispatching to shovels. A case study was applied for the Orhaneli Open Pit Coal Mine in Turkey. This approach would provide the capability of estimating system performance measures (mine throughput, mean number of trucks, mean waiting time, etc.) for planning purposes when the truck fleet is composed of identical trucks. A computational study is presented to show how choosing the optimum number of trucks and optimum dispatching policy affect the cost of moving material in a truckshovel system.

  19. Methodology for monitoring land reclamation of coal mining dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of reclaiming coal mining dumps is to create a stable and self-sustaining land surface that can, in the long term, be put to some productive use. The relationship that is established between the soil and vegetation is the starting point for the newly created ecosystem to enter into a dynamic evolution. In order to know this evolution, it is necessary to develop a methodology for monitoring systematically the reclaimed surfaces. This monitoring methodology should make it feasible to continuously evaluate the obtained results and serve to clarify the potential uses of the reclaimed lands. This paper explains a monitoring methodology implemented at the mining waste dump at the Puentes Mine in Spain. It consists of the selection of 11 plots on the basis of the time the spoils have been exposed to weathering, the type of reconstructed soils, the reclamation system applied, and the revegetation success. Furthermore, an attempt was made to include every possible situation in the dump. Over a period of 3 years, the evolution of the physicochemical conditions of the reconstructed soils, the soil organisms, the herbaceous species, mycorrhizae, tree species, and vertebrates in these plots were studied. The paper also defines the parameters that need to be controlled within each phase of the study. The results obtained reveal the necessity to place the spoils selectively in the dump, the possibilities offered by the ashes as amendments, and the importance of apes as amendments, and the importance of applying organic fertilizers, seeding herbaceous species as a first phase, selecting tree species, and introducing the vertebrates, soil organisms, and mycorrhizae gradually

  20. Proceedings of the fourth WVU conference on coal mine electrotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, M.D. (ed.)

    1978-10-01

    Thirty-nine papers from the Proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered included mine power systems, mine instrumentation, mine illumination, mine communications, automatic control and monitoring, regulations, power distribution instrumentation, power distribution equipment, electrical systems for mine trolleys, on-line computer control of mines and monitoring using microprocessors. (LTN)

  1. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  2. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs

  3. Mineralogy and geochemistry of coal from the Liupanshui mining district, Guizhou, south China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, X. [Institute of Sedimentary Basin, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan (China); Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F. [Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Zeng, R.; Xu, W. [Institute of Geology, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China)

    2000-11-01

    This study focuses on the geochemistry and mineralogy of 23 coal seams from the Shuicheng and Luizhi coal fields from the Late Permian Liupanshui coal mining district, in the west of Guizhou province in southern China. Coal rank ranges widely from high volatile bituminous to low volatile bituminous and anthracite. Major mineral phases present in the Liupanshui coal are kaolinite, quartz, pyrite, and calcite. Traces of other primary minerals are marcasite, gypsum, and dolomite. The Shuicheng coal usually has higher kaolinite and quartz contents than the Luizhi coal. Marcasite occurs indiscriminately in the different coal seams without a clear distribution pattern. The presence of other minerals, such as rutile, anatase, tourmaline, zircon, and phosphates, was also noted.The total sulphur content of Liupanshui coals is higher in the marine-influenced coal seams (up to 7.5% dry), and lower in the nonmarine-influenced coals (as low as 0.3%). In the Luizhi coal field, the coal is characterised by a high sulphur and iron content, whereas in the Shuicheng coal field, contents varied from low to high, depending on the coal seams. An inverse geochemical distribution was detected for the mean contents of Ca-Mn-Ge, with lower contents in the Luizhi coal field. The Liupanshui coals are characterised by relatively high contents of Mn, V, Cu, Li, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, Tl, Th, and U, when comparing with the usual concentration ranges in bituminous coals. Trace elements in coals from Liupanshui showed narrow variations in their concentrations among coal seams and coal. Three major trace element affinities (aluminium-silicates, sulphides, and carbonates) accounted for the occurrence and distribution of most of the elements studied were determined.

  4. Feasibility study on underground coal gasification of No. 15 seam in Fenghuangshan Mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W.G., Huang; Z.T., Wang; L., Xin; T.H., Duan; G.J., Kang.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To recover the coal resources of high-sulphur anthracite in Jincheng Mining Area, underground coal gasification (UCG) of No.15 seam in Fenghuangshan Coal Mine was proposed. The feasibility of the project was confirmed by investigations of occurrence conditions, coal properties, and roof conditions, [...] as well as experimental studies and theoretical analysis. It was found that UCG technology is appropriate to be adopted in the mining of the No. 15 seam, due to the stable rock conditions, simple geological structure and hydrogeology, the high carbon content of the coal, non-cohesiveness, medium-thermal stability, high ash fusion temperature, and weak reactivity with CO2. Further factors are the characteristics of the immediate roof, which consists of 9.11 m of limestone and mudstone with a compact structure and low permeability, and 4.27 m of dominantly mudstone with low permeability.

  5. 14C tracing in water from deep coal mines of Rybnik coal region and Legnica-Glogow copper fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are shown of measuring 14C in coal mine and copper mine ground water, and CO2 sample preparation from carbonates dissolved in the water is described. In 1964 to 1967, 14 samples were measured from boreholes in the Legnica-Glogow copper basin. The results of 14C content measurements are shown as are the general characteristics of geological structure of the Rybnik coal field northern region. In 69 samples taken in 15 places of the Rybnik coal field, the activity of 14C samples taken in a depth of 400 m in an area of major tectonic disturbances was low, amounting to only 1.8+-0.3%; sample activity in the coal exploitation region showed considerable variability. The results show that flooding of the exploited bed and its contact with shallow waters may yield information needed for exploitation control. (J.P.)

  6. VRLane: a desktop virtual safety management program for underground coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Chen, Jingzhu; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Pengpeng; Wu, Daozheng

    2008-10-01

    VR technologies, which generate immersive, interactive, and three-dimensional (3D) environments, are seldom applied to coal mine safety work management. In this paper, a new method that combined the VR technologies with underground mine safety management system was explored. A desktop virtual safety management program for underground coal mine, called VRLane, was developed. The paper mainly concerned about the current research advance in VR, system design, key techniques and system application. Two important techniques were introduced in the paper. Firstly, an algorithm was designed and implemented, with which the 3D laneway models and equipment models can be built on the basis of the latest mine 2D drawings automatically, whereas common VR programs established 3D environment by using 3DS Max or the other 3D modeling software packages with which laneway models were built manually and laboriously. Secondly, VRLane realized system integration with underground industrial automation. VRLane not only described a realistic 3D laneway environment, but also described the status of the coal mining, with functions of displaying the run states and related parameters of equipment, per-alarming the abnormal mining events, and animating mine cars, mine workers, or long-wall shearers. The system, with advantages of cheap, dynamic, easy to maintenance, provided a useful tool for safety production management in coal mine.

  7. Technological and economical problems in exploitation of coal stripe mines in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into consideration the restructure of the mining-energetic industry into the new economic conditions, financial, technical and technological problems are analysed, as well as their influence on the economic effects of the coal production in Bulgaria. Ecological standards for environmental policy are noticed. Perspectives for development of the coal production industry are pointed out, especially in the mining/power complex Maritsa East, one of the most important region for power generation in Bulgaria

  8. Economic efficiency of brown coal mine ''Konin'' in market economy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic situation of ''Konin'' brown coal mine located in Central Poland is analysed. The main problem of the mine is the coal price which is still regulated despite market economy. It causes many difficulties and therefore a change of energy policy is postulated. The basic economic results for 1993 as well as prognosis of investment costs up to 2020 are given. The changes of management system and the strategy planning training are also described. 2 ills, 1 tab

  9. Schedule Control of Coal Mine Construction Projects Based on Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lingling Fan; Hui Zhang; Xiao Li

    2013-01-01

    Schedule management is the crucial capability for large-scale coal mining investors to successful finish the construction project, which could get by the accumulation of the long-time institutional executive force and ability training. By using factor analysis and validation analysis, extracted control factors of schedule management from data have been made in large coal mine construction companies. Some control factors have a greater influence on the schedule management which are the system ...

  10. Dust exposure and respiratory health problems in a labour-intensive coal mine in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mamuya, Simon H. D.

    2006-01-01

    Dust exposure and respiratory health problems were studied among randomly selected workers in a coal mine in Tanzania. The aim of the study was to assess the personal respirable dust and quartz exposure and the prevalence of respiratory problems and to present recommendations on how to improve the situation. An epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out at the Kiwira Coal Mine in Tanzania. Dust exposure was measured during two periods in 2003 and 2004. In total, 2...

  11. Comparative study on efficiency performance of listed coal mining companies in China and the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continually rising energy prices in global markets highlights a serious concern about the need to improve energy efficiency and the efficiency in energy sector in many countries. China, as one of the fastest growing countries in the world and the largest coal producer, has high coal consumption but a low recovery rate of coal utilization. Coal efficiency and the efficiency in coal industry have therefore attracted a great deal of attention from Chinese policy makers, coal firms and academics. This study attempts to compare the relative technical efficiency performance of listed coal mining companies in China and the US using CCR and BCC models in the advanced DEA linear programming. The results show that the level of relative efficiency in Chinese coal mining enterprises, regardless of total technical efficiency or decomposed pure technical and scale efficiency, is much lower than in American coal firms. The study also highlights the input resources that cause the inefficiency of Chinese coal mining companies. Furthermore, in-depth discussion and analysis of how the institutional environments of the two countries could cause the differences are provided. (author)

  12. Comparative study on efficiency performance of listed coal mining companies in China and the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continually rising energy prices in global markets highlights a serious concern about the need to improve energy efficiency and the efficiency in energy sector in many countries. China, as one of the fastest growing countries in the world and the largest coal producer, has high coal consumption but a low recovery rate of coal utilization. Coal efficiency and the efficiency in coal industry have therefore attracted a great deal of attention from Chinese policy makers, coal firms and academics. This study attempts to compare the relative technical efficiency performance of listed coal mining companies in China and the US using CCR and BCC models in the advanced DEA linear programming. The results show that the level of relative efficiency in Chinese coal mining enterprises, regardless of total technical efficiency or decomposed pure technical and scale efficiency, is much lower than in American coal firms. The study also highlights the input resources that cause the inefficiency of Chinese coal mining companies. Furthermore, in-depth discussion and analysis of how the institutional environments of the two countries could cause the differences are provided.

  13. The coal mining industry in Vietnam and its challenges; Steinkohlenbergbau in Vietnam und seine Herausforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Per Nicolai; Pateiro Fernandez, Jose B.; Ahmad, Shakeel [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbaukunde I; Cramer, Thomas; Deissmann, Guido [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Fuchsschwanz, Marcus [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geotechnik

    2010-04-15

    The province of Quang Ninh in the north of Vietnam is the most important coal mining region in the country. The NBCC (Nui Beo Coal Company) operates several open-cast mines. Large quantities of overburden have to be removed and dumped in the immediate environment. The creation of these heaps up to 300 m high is accompanied by many environmental problems. In particular ground and surface waters are contaminated by ''acid mine drainage''. Furthermore, large emissions chiefly in the form of dust occur as a result of the working and dumping depending on the season. In addition the stability of the heaps is sometimes greatly endangered. In the German-Vietnamese Research Association Mining and Environment in Vietnam (RAME) the aspects of coal mining with an effect on the environment are dealt with in various sub-associations and protective measures worked out jointly. (orig.)

  14. A study of trends in occupational risks associated with coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal industry is well known as a major source of specific types of risk and harmful effects including, for instance, harm to the environment, pollution from various surface installations and hazards associated with the actual task of mining. We shall confine our attention to the third group and discuss only the occupational risks facing miners and ex-miners. Unlike the nuclear and oil industries, coal-mines employ very large work-forces, and the risks associated with mining therefore have a considerable impact. Mining is also a highly integrated industry: a mine's own work-force carries out all the underground engineering work (preparatory excavations, installation work, etc.) as well as maintenance. In this narrow field, a distinction should immediately be drawn between two main areas: industrial accidents; and occupational diseases, which include silicosis or, more precisely, coal-miner's pneumoconiosis

  15. A computational fluid dynamics model for investigating air flow patterns in underground coal mine sections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.D, Ndenguma; J, Dirker; N.D.L, Burger.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation compares the results from an experimental and numerical study of air flow in a scaled-down underground coal mine model. This was done in order to determine if numerical analysis can be relied upon when searching for ventilation solutions to control high concentration of coal dust [...] and methane gas in underground coal mines. Steady state analyses were used to identify flow patterns and recirculation regions within the mining section while transient state analyses were used to determine the time taken to extract the initial air from the model. The agreement between the experimental and numerical results indicates that numerical modelling is useful in this regard. The study went further to devise a method of determining the optimum position of the jet fan that is responsible for mine-gas dilution at different stages of mining.

  16. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening...MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1721 Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening...reopened or reactivated, shall prior to opening, reopening or reactivating the...

  17. Hydraulic fracturing technology for improving permeability in gas-bearing coal seams in underground coal mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B.X, Huang; C.M, Huang; Q.Y, Cheng; C.H, Huang; W.C, Xue.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing technology is presented as a solution to improve permeability and thus solve the extraction problem of coal seam gas in low-permeability gas-bearing coal seams. Given an existing group of original cracks, the propagation of main hydraulic cracks and hydraulic wing cracks was sim [...] ulated using realistic failure process analysis software. The process represents the structural transformation of hydraulic fracturing and permeability improvements caused by it. In addition, a field test for improving the permeability of gassy coal seams by hydraulic fracturing was also conducted. The propagation of the main cracks and wing cracks by hydraulic fracturing forms a network of original joint cracks, hydraulic wing cracks, and main hydraulic cracks, which improve the permeability of the coal seam. High-pressure water in the drill hole and in the main hydraulic cracks permeates the two flanks of the hole, forming the permeating water pressure. With an increase in drill water pressure and an extension of the main hydraulic cracks, the permeating water pressure on both sides of the main hydraulic cracks in the coal mass also increases. Hydraulic cracks tend to form connections through rock bridges. The extension of hydraulic wing cracks through connections in the rock bridges between the cracks transforms the rock mass to a fractured structure and improves its permeability. Hydraulic fracturing technology for improving permeability in underground conditions can increase the amount of gas drainage by a factor of 15. A stress relief area develops at a radial distance of 10-20 m from the hydraulic fracturing drill hole, while an area of rising stresses, called the pressurized area, develops a further 15 m away from the pressurized hole. Practice has proved the existence of the stress transfer phenomenon and the high stress area after fracturing. This kind of hydraulic fracturing technology is more effective in holes drilled from underground than in surface drill holes, with respect to costs and controllability, and is therefore the major trend in gas drainage development in coal mines.

  18. Lightweight monitoring and control system for coal mine safety using REST style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Cheng, Xin; Chen, Junliang

    2015-01-01

    The complex environment of a coal mine requires the underground environment, devices and miners to be constantly monitored to ensure safe coal production. However, existing coal mines do not meet these coverage requirements because blind spots occur when using a wired network. In this paper, we develop a Web-based, lightweight remote monitoring and control platform using a wireless sensor network (WSN) with the REST style to collect temperature, humidity and methane concentration data in a coal mine using sensor nodes. This platform also collects information on personnel positions inside the mine. We implement a RESTful application programming interface (API) that provides access to underground sensors and instruments through the Web such that underground coal mine physical devices can be easily interfaced to remote monitoring and control applications. We also implement three different scenarios for Web-based, lightweight remote monitoring and control of coal mine safety and measure and analyze the system performance. Finally, we present the conclusions from this study and discuss future work. PMID:25109543

  19. Effects of late Paleozoic foreland deformation on underground coal mine ground instability, Illinois and Appalachian Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillipson, S.E. [Mine Safety and Health Administration, Roof Control Division, Pittsburgh Safety and Health Technology Center, P.O. Box 18233, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)

    2005-10-17

    Slickensides are commonly associated with potentially hazardous ground conditions in underground coal mines. Investigations by the Mine Safety and Health Administration's Roof Control Division indicate that slickensided drag folds in the immediate roof of Pennsylvanian-age coal seams represent instances of ground instability of various scales, from skin control hazards to roof falls that block travelways and belt entries. The occurrence of features in the roof of the Illinois Basin's Springfield coal seam that are identical to structures interpreted as drag folds in Pennsylvanian-age coal measure rocks of the Appalachian Basin suggests that tectonic stress associated with the late Pennsylvanian-Permian Alleghanian orogeny was transmitted into the mid-continent. This paper relates slickenside occurrences in the Pennsylvanian-age Springfield coal seam to local structural geologic features that are associated with the late Pennsylvanian-Permian Alleghanian orogeny. Because the slickensides discussed are interpreted to have formed in response to regional tectonic stress, small-scale controls on coal mine ground instability can be related to large-scale, regional tectonic processes. Field investigations indicate that mine-wide geologic mapping of structural geologic features can be used to project zones of subtle, yet problematic, structural weakness in advance of face positions. By incorporating this style of structural geologic hazard mapping in mine planning and operation, miners can be prepared to install appropriate supplemental support, or reduce the effects of structural weaknesses with local modifications to mine design. (author)

  20. Modelling and determining the technical efficiency of a surface coal mine supply chain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.D., Budeba; J.W., Joubert; R.C.W., Webber-Youngman.

    1001-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining the efficiency of a surface coal mine operation is an essential activity, which can help in deciding on the optimal use of input resources, including effective capital allocation, in generating a desired quantity of coal of a specific quality. Mines operate today in challenging condition [...] s, with diminishing reserves of high-quality coal, remote location of new coal deposits, infrastructure problems, environmental legislation, and the effects of climate. All these have an impact on the performance of a mine. Given such challenges, a company has to be technically efficient compared to other existing coal producers in order to generate profits. It can use the measurement of its efficiency to evaluate its productivity, benchmarking this against the best-performing mines and determining optimal variables in order to minimize slack and achieve the desired outputs. This paper discusses the use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in evaluating the efficiency of a surface coal mine supply chain for the coal export market. The supply chain is considered to be composed of sub-processes that are modelled as a multistage system. Numeric examples will be used to illustrate the application of DEA.

  1. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  2. Undue diligence: the mine-it-or-lose-it rule for federal coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.M.

    Federal ownership of coal amounts to a pocket of domestic socialism and, because of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920, imposes production requirements on companies leasing federal lands that exploit resources faster than the companies prefer. This was meant to eliminate speculation in which private interests would be unable to hold resources for higher value in the future, but is contrary to resource-conservation goals. Central planning for western coal production has proved too imprecise and inefficient. Coal-mining companies can get around the regulations to some extent by cutting back production at non-federal sites or stockpiling the mined coal in order to protect their lease. These and other exploration and production problems suggest the need to replace command-and-control strategies with financial incentives, to replace deadlines with uniform fixed-minimum price, to simply lease without diligence restrictions enough land to meet coal requirements, or to sell coal deposits outright. (DCK)

  3. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strager, Michael P.; Strager, Jacquelyn M.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Dunscomb, Judy K.; Kreps, Brad J.; Maxwell, Aaron E.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2) gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts. PMID:26090883

  4. A fuzzy linear programming model for production planning in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendharkar, P.C. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses how fuzzy linear programming may be used to solve production scheduling problem in the coal industry. After presenting a fuzzy linear programming model, the proposed model is then tested on a hypothetical problem developed by using production cost estimates from independent coal mines in the states of Virginia, Illinois and Pennsylvania.

  5. Assessment of contaminant load changes caused by remining abandoned coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of contaminant loading changes caused by remining of abandoned coal mines requires knowledge of the characteristics of the hydrologic data before and after remining. Under an approved remining program, a coal mine operator can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming treatment responsibilities of the previously degraded water, as long as these discharging waters are not further degraded. Normality tests performed on the hydrologic data from 57 mine discharges from 24 remining operations indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness (toward the smaller values). Analysis of the differences among medians indicates that the water quality of underground mines was more highly degraded than that of surface mines. Analyses of pre- and post-remining mine discharge water quality and flow rates of the 57 discharges illustrate that most the sites exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in contaminant rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining pollution load was observed to be significantly better or worse than the pre-remining load, as was shown with the correlation and other analyses. Generally, when the mine discharges were degraded as a result of remining, this was caused by short-term changes in flow and/or concentration that occurred shortly after reclamation. Reduction of recharge from the surface and adjacent unmined strata should decrease the mine dischined strata should decrease the mine discharge flow rate and in turn the contaminant load

  6. Seasonal factors controlling mineral precipitation in the acid mine drainage at Donghae coal mine, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring over a 12 month period in the Sanae creek flow in acid mine drainage, Donghae coal mine area, demonstrates that the concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate are highest during autumn when water flow in the creek is at its lowest. The highest pH values of the stream were measured in April and May, whereas the lowest pH was recorded in October. The Fe concentration of stream water rapidly decreased downstream due to the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxide and/or oxyhydroxysulfate phases in the stream. Mineral precipitates in the creek in the Donghae mine area show various colours such as brownish yellow (Munsell colour 9.5 YR hues), reddish brown (Munsell colour 3.5 YR hues) and white depending on seasons and distance from the pollution source in the creek. Such phenomena are attributed to the variation in pH and chemical composition of stream water caused by seasonal factors. The measured pH ranges in stream water of the brownish yellow, white and reddish brown precipitates are pH 3.2-4.5, 4.5-6.0 and 5.3-6.9, respectively

  7. Method for Prediction of Coal and Gas Outburst Based on Data Mining Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Zhai; Xu Yu; Bai-Quan Lin; Wei Yang

    2013-01-01

    Coal and gas outburst is one of the main disasters in coal mine, the outburst forecasting is the main part of prevention work which affects the prevention measures establishment and production plan directly. However, only several factors such as ground stress, gas pressure or coal structure is taken into account, the forecasting results can not be very accurate. It’s urgent to get more kinds of parameters into consideration and enhance the outburst foreca...

  8. Situation of coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2012; Zur Lage des Kohlenbergbaus in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Jahr 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-21

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2012. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, and employees.

  9. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2013; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2013. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  10. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2010; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2010. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  11. Proceedings of the twenty-second annual institute on coal mining health, safety and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings of the 22nd Annual Institute on Coal Mine Health, Safety, and Research. Topics covered include: air quality, control of toxic materials, job safety analysis, diesel emission control and monitoring, risk assessment for cancer prevention, and longwall mining

  12. Development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems. Technical progress report, October 1- October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, D. G.

    1979-11-19

    A bibliography on various aspects of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems is included. Relevant federal and state legislation and regulations have been identified. Mines of interest to the project have been identified and listed for field visits. Seven regions of different climates, hydrology, geology, etc., are being studied individually. (LTN)

  13. Study on ecological characteristic and reclamation in Xiangshui coal mining area, Guizhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Ge; Yin Yi; Xianke Yang; Lichang Yang; Di Su; Liying Ma [Guizhou Normal University, Guizhou (China). School of Life Sciences and Technology

    2010-03-15

    This article proposes eco-protective countermeasures that may serve as theoretical reference for post-mining eco-rehabilitation of the Xiangshui coal mining area, Guizhou, China. These countermeasures were developed from baseline survey and assessment data for the eco-environment including plant communities, soil types, physical and chemical properties, water and soil loss, status quo, etc.

  14. The Expansion of Coal Mining in the Depression Areas - A Way to Development?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinát, Stanislav; Navrátil, J.; Dvo?ák, Petr; Klusá?ek, Petr; Kulla, M.; Kunc, J.; Havlí?ek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 8, ?. 1 (2014), s. 5-15. ISSN 1843-6587 R&D Projects: GA TA ?R(CZ) TD020259 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : coal mining * perception of mining * Karviná * Orlová * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http:// human geographies.org.ro/articles/81/8_1_14_1_martinat.pdf

  15. FY 2000 report on the coal resource development basic survey (information collection analysis project). Cooperative project on the open-cut coal mine rehabilitation technology; 2000 nendo sekitan shigen kaihatsu kiso chosa (joho shushu kaiseki jigyo) hokokusho. Rotenbori sekitan saikutsu atochi shufuku gijutsu kyoryoku jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    At the Ensham open-cut mine in Australia, an investigational survey was conducted of a new rehabilitation technology which can contribute also to securing CO sink with the aim of preventing global warming, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. In the survey, the surface soil, sand silt layer, brown rock layer, gray sandstone layer and coal seam were moved from open pits, the goaf was embanked, and the experimental section was set up. As to the place for test, conducted were collection of information on adaptive plant species, bacterium species, meteorology and precipitation pattern, soil analysis, etc. Concerning the bacteria, bacteria were newly separated and tested at the survey site, besides the species to be tested. After planting, measurement of the growth amount of plants, etc. were conducted grasping the meteorology and the water-pouring state during cultivation. For the basement, three kinds of spoils were used, and permeability is different in each spoil. Permeability is an important factor to plants. Too good permeability and too bad permeability are both not good. A future follow-up survey will make what kind of spoil is suitable for eucalypti possible. (NEDO)

  16. A coal mine multi-point fiber ethylene gas concentration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yubin; Chang, Jun; Lian, Jie; Liu, Tongyu

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous combustion of the coal mine goaf is one of the main disasters in the coal mine. The detection technology based on symbolic gas is the main means to realize the spontaneous combustion prediction of the coal mine goaf, and ethylene gas is an important symbol gas of spontaneous combustion in the coal accelerated oxidation stage. In order to overcome the problem of current coal ethylene detection, the paper presents a mine optical fiber multi-point ethylene concentration sensor based on the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Based on the experiments and analysis of the near-infrared spectrum of ethylene, the system employed the 1.62 ?m (DFB) wavelength fiber coupled distributed feedback laser as the light source. By using the wavelength scanning technique and developing a stable fiber coupled Herriot type long path gas absorption cell, a ppm-level high sensitivity detecting system for the concentration of ethylene gas was realized, which could meet the needs of coal mine fire prevention goaf prediction.

  17. The external costs of coal mining: The case of collieries supplying Kusile power station

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nonophile P, Nkambule; James N, Blignaut.

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to quantify the external costs of mining and transporting coal to the Kusile coal-fired power station in eMalahleni. Monetary values were estimated for a number of impacts including its contribution to climate change, human health effects of classic air pollutants, mortalit [...] y and morbidity, impacts of water pollution and water consumption. The results of the study disclosed that coal mining and transportation will inflict costs to both the environment and humans of between R6 538 million and R12 690 million per annum, or between 20.24 c/kWh and 39.3 c/kWh sent out. The external effect of water consumption (opportunity costs of water) constitutes over 90% of the total cost, followed by global warming damage costs and ecosystem services lost due to coal mining. The estimated externality cost is approximately between 50% and 100% of the current average electricity price.

  18. Investigation and coal fines briquetting technologies elaboration for the 'Brik-Berovo' lignite (Coal mine in Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological possibilities for the coal fines briquetting from the mine 'Brik-Berovo' (Macedonia) were Investigated. The paper presents the results from the laboratory and industrial examinations in order to evaluate the optimal briquetting conditions, as well as the basic quality indicators of the obtained briquets

  19. Analysis of development of surface subsidence at Indian coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this paper is to establish an understanding of the influence of lithology on the development of surface subsidence at Indian coal mines. The number of surface subsidence studies show that the development of subsidence is not a continuous, but a rather discontinuous process because of presence of competent sandstone strata in the overlying strata. Further it was observed that the development of surface subsidence is negligible up to certain length of face advance and significant visible surface subsidence is only taking place suddenly after initiation of failure in the competent strata. Thus, this sort of subsidence phenomenon leads to the formation of visible subsidence on the surface in the form of steep slopes over the first break zone and cantilevers over the abutments with its hanging parts jutting towards the center of the goaf. Therefore, here an attempt has been made to develop a heuristic subsidence model to identify and estimate approximately the location of significant subsidence zone on the surface for reducing damage through proper planning as well as to predict the subsidence profile for discontinuous stratum's movement. 11 refs., 11 figs

  20. Phosphorus minerals in tonstein; coal seam 405 at So?nica-Makoszowy coal mine, Upper Silesia, southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokowska-Paw?owska, Magdalena; Nowak, Jacek

    2013-06-01

    Kokowska-Paw?owska, M. and Nowak, J. 2013. Phosphorus minerals in tonstein; coal seam 405 at So?nica- Makoszowy coal mine, Upper Silesia, southern Poland. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 271-281. Warszawa. The paper presents results of research on tonstein, which constitutes an interburden in coal seam 405 at the So?nica- Makoszowy coal mine, Makoszowy field (mining level 600 m), Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The mineral and chemical compositions of the tonstein differ from the typical compositions described earlier for tonsteins from Upper Silesia Coal Basin area. Additionally, minerals present in the tonsteins include kaolinite, quartz, kaolinitised biotite and feldspars. The presence of the phosphatic minerals apatite and goyazite has been recognized. The presence of gorceixite and crandallite is also possible. The contents of CaO (5.66 wt%) and P2O5 (6.2 wt%) are remarkably high. Analysis of selected trace elements demonstrated high contents of Sr (4937 ppm) and Ba (4300 ppm), related to the phosphatic minerals. On the basis of mineral composition the tonstein has been identified as a crystalline tonstein, transitional to a multiplied one.

  1. Analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons in overburden from coal mines: Assessment of the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bituminous coals are known to contain significant amounts of petroleum-like hydrocarbons trapped in the pore system of the macromolecular network. With increasing thermal stress acting upon coals under the particular conditions in their deposits, the relative amount of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons within the trapped bitumen increases until the coal reaches the rank of medium-volatile bituminous coals. Coking coals particularly are rich in compounds such as benzene, biphenyl, naphthalene, and their alkylated derivatives. Potential hazardous environmental impact of these hydrocarbons has to be considered when mining or reclaiming overburden because approximately 10% overburden material related to coal mining is coal. Exposure to long-term weathering destroys the pore system of coals, which might result in a release of highly volatile bituminous coal constituents into the atmosphere. This view is supported by analyses of coals present in overburden material. In the present study, the on-line combination of thermodesorption coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is shown to be an appropriate tool for the detection and quantitation of hydrocarbons of a wide boiling temperature range present in solid sample material. The method is preferentially suitable for the analysis of highly volatile constituents such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, which are not quantitatively analyzed using conventional solvent-extraction methodsthods

  2. Oil sands mining and reclamation cause massive loss of peatland and stored carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, Rebecca C.; Bayley, Suzanne E.; Schindler, David W.

    2012-01-01

    We quantified the wholesale transformation of the boreal landscape by open-pit oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada to evaluate its effect on carbon storage and sequestration. Contrary to claims made in the media, peatland destroyed by open-pit mining will not be restored. Current plans dictate its replacement with upland forest and tailings storage lakes, amounting to the destruction of over 29,500 ha of peatland habitat. Landscape changes caused by currently approved mines will release betwe...

  3. Australian coal mine methane emissions mitigation potential using a Stirling engine-based CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane, a major contributor to global warming, is a greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines. Abundance of coal mines and consequently a considerable amount of methane emission requires drastic measures to mitigate harmful effects of coal mining on the environment. One of the commonly adopted methods is to use emitted methane to fuel power generation systems; however, instability of fuel sources hinders the development of systems using conventional prime movers. To address this, application of Stirling engines may be considered. Here, we develop a techno-economic methodology for conducting an optimisation-based feasibility study on the application of Stirling engines as the prime movers of coal mine CHP systems from an economic and an environmental point of view. To examine the impact of environmental policies on the economics of the system, the two commonly implemented ones (i.e. a carbon tax and emissions trading scheme) are considered. The methodology was applied to a local coal mine. The results indicate that incorporating the modelled system not only leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but also to improved economics. Further, due to the heavy economic burden, the carbon tax scheme creates great incentive for coal mine industry to address the methane emissions. -- Highlights: •We study the application of Stirling engines in coal mine CHP systems. •We develop a thermo-economic approach based on the net present worth analysis. •We examine the impact of a carbon tax and ETS on the economics of the system. •The modeled system leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. •Carbon tax provides a greater incentive to address the methane emissions

  4. Radium balance in discharge waters from coal mines in Upper Silesia region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saline waters from underground coal mines in Poland often contain natural radioactive isotopes, mainly 226Ra from the uranium decay series and 228Ra from the thorium series. Approximately 60% of the radium remains underground as radioactive deposits, but 120 MBq of 226Ra and 200 MBq of 228Ra are released daily into the rivers along with the other mine effluents from all Polish coal mines. Technical measures such as inducing the precipitation of radium in gobs and decreasing the amount of meteoric water flowing into underground workings have been undertaken in several coal mines, and as a result of these measures the total amount of radium released to the surface waters has diminished by about 60% during the last 5-6 years. Mine water can have a severe impact on the natural environment, mainly due to its salinity. However associated high levels of radium concentration in river waters, bottom sediments and vegetation have also been observed. Sometimes radium concentrations in rivers exceed 0.7 Bq/L, which is the permitted level for waste waters under Polish law. The extensive investigations described here were carried out for all coal mines and on this basis the total radium balance in effluents was calculated. Measurements in the vicinity of mine settling ponds and in rivers have given us an opportunity to study radium behaviour in river waters and to assess the degree of contamination. (author)n. (author)

  5. Geochemical characterization of acid mine lakes in northwest Turkey and their effect on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Deniz Sanliyuksel; Baba, Alper

    2013-04-01

    Mining activity generates a large quantity of mine waste. The potential hazard of mine waste depends on the host mineral. The tendency of mine waste to produce acid mine drainage (AMD) containing potentially toxic metals depends on the amounts of sulfide, carbonate minerals, and trace-element concentrations found in ore deposits. The acid mine process is one of the most significant environmental challenges and a major source of water pollution worldwide. AMD and its effects were studied in northwest Turkey where there are several sedimentary and hydrothermal mineral deposits that have been economically extracted. The study area is located in Can county of Canakkale province. Canakkale contains marine, lagoon, and lake sediments precipitated with volcanoclastics that occurred as a result of volcanism, which was active during various periods from the Upper Eocene to Plio-Quaternary. Can county is rich in coal with a total lignite reserve >100 million tons and contains numerous mines that were operated by private companies and later abandoned without any remediation. As a result, human intervention in the natural structure and topography has resulted in large open pits and deterioration in these areas. Abandoned open pit mines typically fill with water from runoff and groundwater discharge, producing artificial lakes. Acid drainage waters from these mines have resulted in the degradation of surface-water quality around Can County. The average pH and electrical conductivity of acid mine lakes (AMLs) in this study were found to be 3.03 and 3831.33 ?S cm(-1), respectively. Total iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) levels were also found to be high (329.77 and 360.67 mg L(-1), respectively). The results show that the concentration of most elements, such as Fe and Al in particular, exceed national and international water-quality standards. PMID:23223936

  6. Identifying woody vegetation on coal surface mines using phenological indicators with multitemporal Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, A. J.; Li, J.; Wynne, R. H.; Donovan, P. F.; Zipper, C. E.

    2014-11-01

    Surface mining for coal has disturbed large land areas in the Appalachian Mountains. Better information on mined lands' ecosystem recovery status is necessary for effective environmental management in mining-impacted regions. Because record quality varies between state mining agencies and much mining occurred prior to widespread use of geospatial technologies, accurate maps of mining extents, durations, and land cover effects are often not available. Landsat data are well suited to mapping and characterizing land cover and forest recovery on former coal surface mines. Past mine reclamation techniques have often failed to restore premining forest vegetation but natural processes may enable native forests to re-establish on mined areas with time. However, the invasive species autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellate) is proliferating widely on former coal surface mines, often inhibiting reestablishment of native forests. Autumn olive outcompetes native vegetation because it fixes atmospheric nitrogen and benefits from a longer growing season than native deciduous trees. This longer growing season, along with Landsat 8's high signal to noise ratio, has enabled species-level classification of autumn olive using multitemporal Landsat 8 data at accuracy levels usually only obtainable using higher spatial or spectral resolution sensors. We have used classification and regression tree (CART®) and support vector machine (SVM) to classify five counties in the coal mining region of Virginia for presence and absence of autumn olive. The best model found was a CART® model with 36 nodes which had an overall accuracy of 84% and kappa of 0.68. Autumn olive had conditional kappa of 0.65 and a producers and users accuracy of 86% and 83% respectively. The best SVM model used a second order polynomial kernel and had an overall accuracy of 77%, an overall kappa of 0.54 and a producers and users accuracy of 60% and 90% respectively.

  7. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, Emil D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  8. Development of tools for managing the impacts on surface due to changing hydrological regimes surrounding closed underground coal mines (ECSC Coal RTD programme, contract 7220-PR-136)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates how box model approach and FE and box mixed model approach allow to better understand and model water flows in complex mined coal measures and interactions between shallow aquifers and flooded coal measures. Benefits of these approaches are illustrated on the basis of case studies in Liege and Ruhr coal basins. (authors)

  9. Head pillar burst in themechanized stopes of coal mines in Novaky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Schvandtner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal was, and still is a prime power source of human. In world-wide values up to 36 % of generated electric energy comes from this stock. The biggest producer of brown coal in Slovakia is the Hornonitrianske bane Prievidza, Inc., with the Ba?a Nováky branch. The present coal output of Novaky is rendered from longwall faces. The stability issues of head pillars associated with the introduction of mechanized stopes in the coal mines in Novaky are described in this paper.

  10. A New Model for Coupled Rock-coal Deformation and Gas Leak Flow in Mining Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peide Sun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal seams are mostly distributed in adjacent multi-layers in most countries of the world, especially in China. Many problems in mining engineering and rock engineering remain unsolved and these problems, in essence, are linked with rock mass deformation and gas leak flow by Sun. From the viewpoint of interaction mechanics for solid and gas, a coupled mathematical model is presented for coal/rock visco-elastic-deformation and gas leak flow in parallel deformable coal seams. The new mathematical model consists of equations for gas leak flow, equations for solid coal/rock mass visco-elastic-deformation and boundary/initial conditions.

  11. The abandoned undergound Cherno more coal mine (SE Bulgaria) - a source of low grade geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flooded abandoned coal mines are a potential source of geothermal energy, which could be used for heating and cooling of energy efficient buildings. Cherno More Coal Mine is located in SE Bulgaria and has been closed for more than 20 years. It represents a large human-induced subsurface reservoir which consists of three interconnected coalfields (“Brigadir”, “9.IX.” and “Blagoev”). Their total volume of about 2.0x106 m3 has been calculated considering the size of the stone drifts. The mine water temperature is measured to be about 16°C in the only accessible vertical shaft (“9.IX.” coalfield). This is the first study of an abandoned coal mine in Bulgaria aiming at assessing its low-valued energy potential and evaluating the opportunity for heating and cooling buildings. The geological and hydrogeological characteristics of Cherno More Mine have been analyzed by using existing archive data and conducting additional chemical analysis of water samples and temperature measurements in the mine. The obtained data were used to develop a regional groundwater model of the area and a local hydrothermal model for a thermally-insulated furniture factory located in the vicinity of the vertical shaft. The simulated temperature distribution in the mine during exploitation showed no impact on the production temperature by reinjected water under defined steady state conditions, which created a reliable basis for mine water energy use

  12. Environmental impacts of coal mining and coal utilization in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Mamurekli

    2010-01-01

    Coal has remained the main source of energy in the UK from 1700 to the end of 1970s, and it still plays an important rolein the power generation. The paper discusses the current coal consumption in the UK together with environmental impacts of coalmining, coal processing and coal utilisation for power generation. Since coal remains the single biggest contributor to greenhouse gasesworldwide, methods for minimising environmental impacts of coal combustion are described in this paper including ...

  13. The safety regulation of small-scale coal mines in China: Analysing the interests and influences of stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small scale coal mines (SCMs) have played an important role in China’s energy supply. At the same time, they also suffer from many social, economic, environmental, and safety problems. The Chinese government has made considerable efforts to strengthen the safety regulation of the coal mining industry. Yet, few of these efforts have proven to be very effective. This paper analyzes the interests and influences of key stakeholders in the safety regulation of SCMs, which includes the safety regulator, the local government, the mine owner, and mineworkers. We argue that the effective regulation of coal mine safety must both engage and empower mineworkers. - Highlights: ? Small scale coal mines have played an important role in China's energy supply. ? We analyze the interests and influences of key stakeholders in the safety regulation of small coal mines. ? The mineworkers have the strongest interest but least influence. ? An effective regulation must engage the mineworkers, organize, and empower them.

  14. Selection of the open pit mining cut-off grade strategy under price uncertainty using a risk based multi-criteria ranking system / Wybór strategii okre?lania warunku op?acalno?ci wydobycia w kopalniach odkrywkowych w warunkach niepewno?ci cen w oparciu o wielokryterialny system rankingowy z uwzgl?dnieniem czynników ryzyka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Yousue; Osanloo, Montza; Esfahanipour, Akbar

    2012-12-01

    Cut-off Grade Strategy (COGS) is a concept that directly influences the financial, technical, economic, environmental, and legal issues in relation to exploitation of a mineral resource. A decision making system is proposed to select the best technically feasible COGS under price uncertainty. In the proposed system both the conventional discounted cash flow and modern simulation based real option valuations are used to evaluate the alternative strategies. Then the conventional expected value criterion and a multiple criteria ranking system were used to rank the strategies based on the two valuation methods. In the multiple criteria ranking system besides the expected value other stochastic orders expressing abilities of strategies in producing extra profits, minimizing losses and achieving the predefined goals of the exploitation strategy are considered. Finally, the best strategy is selected based on the overall average rank of strategies through all ranking systems. The proposed system was examined using the data of Sungun Copper Mine. To assess the merits of the alternatives better, ranking process was done at both high (prevailing economic condition) and low price conditions. Ranking results revealed that at different price conditions and valuation methods, different results would be obtained. It is concluded that these differences are due to the different behavior of the embedded option to close the mine early, which is more likely to be exercised under low price condition rather than high price condition. The proposed system would enhance the quality of decision making process by providing a more informative and certain platform for project evaluation.

  15. A STUDY ON PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS IN COAL MINE WORKERS IN KHAMMAM DISTRICT, TELANGANA-INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annepaka Eliya Raju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory system, representing an important adjunct to the various lung imaging studies. It also measures the function of lung capacity and chest wall mechanics to determine whether or not the patient has a lung problem. Spirometry gives an important clue in terms of respiratory chronic airway disorders and can predict early damage to pulmonary system. Occupational exposures to coal dust affect the different systems of the body. The present study has focused on the workers mined in coal workers (drilling and digging who are continuously exposed to air pollutants such as coal dust during duty hours in Khammam population. Thirty healthy non – smoker male working in coal mines for more than fifteen years formed the study group, while thirty healthy non–smoker males who are not exposed to air dust pollutants from hospital staff served as control group. The pulmonary function test was assessed using computerized spirometer. The pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, FEF25 – 75% and PEFR were significantly decreased in coal mine workers. The results suggest that there in a need to improve control measures and the health status of workers engaged in coal mine dust Pulmonary Function Testing (PFTs is a valuable tool for evaluating the particles.

  16. Behaviour of radium isotopes released with brines and sediments from coal mines in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saline waters occurring in underground coal mines in Poland often contain natural radioactive isotopes, mainly 226Ra from uranium series and 228Ra from thorium series. Approximately 40% of total amount of radium remains underground in a form of radioactive deposits, but 225 MBq of 226Ra and 380 MBq of 228Ra are released daily to the rivers with mine effluents. Technical measures as spontaneous precipitation of radium in gobs, decreasing of amounts of water inflowing into underground working etc. have been undertaken in several coal mines and in the result total amount of radium released to the surface waters diminished by about 60% during last 5-6 years. Mine waters can cause a severe impact on the natural environment. The enhancement of radium concentration in river waters, bottom sediments and vegetation is observed. Sometimes radium concentration in rivers exceeds 0.7 kBq/m3, which is due to Polish law a permissible level for liquid radioactive waste. It was necessary to undertake investigations for development the methods of the purification of mine waters from radium. The radium balance in effluents has been calculated and a map of radioactive contamination of river waters have been prepared. Solid wastes with enhanced natural radioactivity have been produced in huge amounts in energy and coal industries in Poland. There are two main sources of these waste products. As a result of combustion of coal in power plants low radioactive waste materials are produced, with 226Ra concentration seldom exceeding few hundreds of Bq/kg. Different situation is be observed in coal mines, where as a result of precipitation of radium from radium-bearing waters radioactive deposits are formed. Sometimes natural radioactivity of such materials is very high, in case of scaling from coal mines radium concentration may reach 4x105 Bq/kg - similar activity as for 3% uranium ore. Therefore maintenance of solid waste with technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENR) is also a very important subject. (author)

  17. Understanding the salinity issue of coal mine spoils in the context of salt cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofang; Park, Jin Hee; Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Coal mine spoils (CMSs), the solid wastes originated from the rock formations and soil cover overlying or interbedded with coal seams, are a worldwide environmental management challenge. Previous studies have shown that salinity is of most concern among the CMSs' environmental impacts, especially in Australia. With increasing concerns from both the governments and communities, there is a real need for the coal mining industry to understand the source, dynamics and management options of CMS salinity. We reviewed the general properties of CMSs from coal mine sites worldwide and the current understanding of the CMS salinity, which are in a limited number of available published reports. Properties (e.g., pH, electrical conductivity and hydraulic conductivity) of studied CMSs varied largely due to its complex lithological origination. A conceptual model was proposed to illustrate the origin, dispersion paths and transformations dynamics of salts in spoils, taking the scenario of a coal mine in Australia as an example. The major factors governing the salt dynamics in CMSs are summarized as mineral weatherability and salt leachability of the spoils. Management of CMS salinity is still a vague area awaiting more extensive studies. Three topics related to the management were explored in the review, which are pre-mining planning, spatial variability of spoil properties and remediation including electrokinetics and phytoremediation. Particularly, based on the geological classification of CMSs and the leachate chemistry of spoils of various sources, a clear relationship between salinity and geounits was established. This association has a potential application in pre-mining planning for the management of salinity from coal mine spoils. PMID:24096942

  18. Application of Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting Model for Indian Underground Coal Mining Fatal Accident Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Anant Kher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Director General of Mines Safety under Ministry of Labour, Government of India, published several annual reports, which included safety statistics of Indian mines. A collective / integrated record is created from these reports in the form of mining accident database for detailed analysis. Yearly data on underground coal mining accidents was combined to obtain a unified database, which was utilised in the application of forecasting models based on time series modelling. Fuzzy time series forecasting model was applied in the present study. The predictions and forecasts are presented here with discussions on the results

  19. Mapping and monitoring coal mine subsidence using LiDAR and InSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froese, C.R.; Mei, S. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Energy Resources Conservation Board

    2008-07-01

    In the early 1900s, the abandonment of coal mines in Alberta was not regulated and closure documentation was poor. Although the general locations of mines are known, the locations of the specific adits and shafts are not. As such, there are many cases in southwestern Alberta where infrastructure was built on top of old coal mine workings without any detailed records of the abandoned mine or displacement monitoring. The crowns of these workings have been subject to ongoing strain that is reflected at the surface. The rate at which the strain is progressing prior to collapse is not well understood. Mitigation of collapse events is site specific and reactive. This paper demonstrated that airborne LiDAR and spaceborne InSAR technologies can provide valuable information on the distribution of abandoned underground coal mine workings. Both remote sensing techniques were used on Turtle Mountain in the Crowsnest Pass to obtain quantitative information on landslide mechanics, including the patterns and rate of ground movement and subsidence. These techniques can be used to map the location of surface collapse and delineate the location of the coal mine workings that were not previously documented. It was concluded that these technologies will likely become more readily available in the future and incorporated into geo-engineering practices for use in ground hazard detection, monitoring and management. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Chelyabinsk airburst shockwave characteristics from Korkino coal mine seismic records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Olga; Rybnov, Yurij; Shuvalov, Valery; Jenniskens, Peter; Kharlamov, Vladimir; Usoltseva, Olga; Dyagilev, Ruslan

    The Chelyabinsk airburst of 15 February 2013, was exceptional because of the large kinetic energy of the impacting body and the airburst that was generated, creating significant damage and injuries in a densely populated area. The butterfly-shape of the damaged area (Popova et al., 2013) was explained from the fact that the energy was deposited over a range of altitudes. Some uncertainty remains about the source energy because it is not known precisely at what pressure glass is expected to break. Reasonable results were obtained for energies of 300-520 kt TNT and over pressures of 500-1000 Pa under assumption that energy release follows the light curve (Popova et al., 2013). There were no any instrumental records of overpressure in the damaged area. However, the coal mine at Korkino is situated in the damage area close to the meteoroid trajectory, almost immediately below the region of highest energy deposition. Its seismic control system with three-component geophones 3G4.5 recorded the blast wave from the meteoroid entry indirectly from its coupling to the ground. This is the only instrumental record of the airburst close to the meteoroid trajectory. Analysis of these records is presented, which allowed us to determine the source location and strength. The direction of the blast wave arrival coincides with the shortest distance to the trajectory. The amplitude of shock wave is evaluated and the measured values are in agreement with estimates of the source energy based on our numerical modeling of the glass damage area. Popova O.,Jenniskens P., Emel’yanenko V. et al. (the Chelyabinsk Airburst Consortium) Chelyabinsk Airburst, Damage Assessment, Meteorite Recovery, and Characterization, Science, 2013, 342, 1069-1073

  1. Relocating Mining-Induced Seismicity at the Trail Mountain Utah Coal Mine With a Three-Dimensional Seismic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, M.; Pankow, K. L.; McCarter, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    Mining-induced seismicity (MIS) occurs when rock fractures as a result of stresses being redistributed when rock is removed. These events are usually small and are a common occurrence in most underground coal mines in Utah. Accurate locations of these events are helpful for mine planning, which may lead to improved mine safety. Unfortunately, getting accurate hypocenters for MIS is difficult. These events are shallow and generally small in magnitude. In an experiment conducted from October 2000 through April 2001 (Arabasz et al., 2002) a local array of 14 seismograph stations was deployed to locate MIS from the Trail Mountain mine (TMM), an underground longwall coal mine located in Emery County, Utah. The array included one underground station located at the level of mining and three stations located on the surface, but because of local topography, at elevations below mining. This local array was embedded within the larger-scale Utah Regional Seismic Network, and almost 2000 small MIS events were recorded during the 7-month extent of the experiment. At that time, the routine location code (Hypoinverse) could not properly use stations located below mining, and the four lower elevation stations were not used in generating locations. In this study, we reanalyze this dataset first with double-difference techniques and the same stations used in the original study, and then the exercise was repeated using the program Hypoellipse both with and without station corrections. The advantage of Hypoellipse is the ability to incorporate the full three-dimensional array. The initial study and the double-difference locations produced good epicentral locations, but had poor depth resolution. The relocations from Hypoellipse with the three-dimensional array significantly improved the depth resolution and revealed structure that was not seen previously. Many of the well-located seismic events appear to have occurred in the roof above the longwall panel in horizontal layers, which might delineate potential geologic features. These results are relevant to determining where stress is concentrating in the rock mass during mining operations, and may potentially be used to improve mine design in underground coal mining.

  2. Environmental impacts of coal mining and coal utilization in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Mamurekli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal has remained the main source of energy in the UK from 1700 to the end of 1970s, and it still plays an important rolein the power generation. The paper discusses the current coal consumption in the UK together with environmental impacts of coalmining, coal processing and coal utilisation for power generation. Since coal remains the single biggest contributor to greenhouse gasesworldwide, methods for minimising environmental impacts of coal combustion are described in this paper including systematicapplication of the principles of clean coal technologies financed by the private sector.

  3. Development of an atmospheric data-management system for underground coal mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Z., Agioutantis; K., Luxbacher; M., Karmis; S., Schafrik.

    1059-10-01

    Full Text Available With increasing demand for real-time monitoring of mine parameters, the requirement for appropriate data management in many mining applications is also increasing. This includes atmospheric monitoring in underground coal and metal mines. Although a number of different (real-time) monitoring systems [...] have been installed in underground mines, they all typically share the same systems or sub-systems, where each sub-system may include both custom hardware and/or software components. In addition, monitoring components installed in underground coal mines in the USA should also be intrinsically safe and approved by the US Mine Safety and Health Administration. Real-time analysis adds complexity to the system since data validation and storage should be completed independently of filtering, data reduction operations, or visualization. Real-time processing may include statistical evaluation, trending, cross-correlation, and real-time alarm or warning generation. This paper presents the concept and design of an integrated system under development for atmospheric monitoring in US coal mines.

  4. Assessing metal pollution in ponds constructed for controlling runoff from reclaimed coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Chinchilla, Leticia; González, Eduardo; Comín, Francisco A

    2014-08-01

    Constructing ponds to protect downstream ecosystems is a common practice in opencast coal mine reclamation. As these ponds remain integrated in the landscape, it is important to evaluate the extent of the effect of mine pollution on these ecosystems. However, this point has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. The main objective of this work was to explore the metal pollution in man-made ponds constructed for runoff control in reclaimed opencast coal mines over time. To do so, we evaluated the concentration of ten heavy metals in the water, sediment, and Typha sp. in 16 runoff ponds ranging from 1 to 19 years old that were constructed in reclaimed opencast coal mines of northeastern Spain. To evaluate degree of mining pollution, we compared these data to those from a pit lake created in a local unreclaimed mine and to local streams as an unpolluted reference, as well as comparing toxicity levels in aquatic organisms. The runoff ponds showed toxic concentrations of Al, Cu, and Ni in the water and As and Ni in the sediment, which were maintained over time. Metal concentrations in runoff ponds were higher than in local streams, and macrophytes showed high metal concentrations. Nevertheless, metal concentrations in water and sediment in runoff ponds were lower than those in the pit lake. This study highlights the importance of mining reclamation to preserve the health of aquatic ecosystems and suggests the existence of chronic metal toxicity in the ponds, potentially jeopardizing pond ecological functions and services. PMID:24781304

  5. ACID MINE DRAINAGE AND SUBSIDENCE: EFFECTS OF INCREASED COAL UTILIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increases above 1975 levels for acid mine drainage and subsidence for the years 1985 and 2000 based on projections of current mining trends and the National Energy Plan are presented. No increases are projected for acid mine drainage or waste since enforcement under present l...

  6. Accurate TOA-Based UWB Localization System in Coal Mine Based on WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangliang

    Over the last years, there has been a great deal of interest in Ultra Wideband (UWB) wireless communication and Wireless Sensor Networks(WSN), especially following the proposing of the internet of things by the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) in 1999, hich is also result in an increasing research on UWB and WSN applications. This article mainly introduced the accurate UWB Localization System based on WSN in coal mine. Firstly, we briefly introduced UWB and WSN Localization technology. Secondly, the advantages and disadvantages of the previous personnel localization technology in coal mine was analyzed and contrasted, and then the suitable personnel localization system in coal mine based on UWB signal and TOA estimate positioning scheme are presented. At last the rationality and feasibility of this scheme was proved through the simulation results.

  7. Natural Radioactivities due to Coal Mining in Gabal El-Maghara, North Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radioactivity concentrations due to the coal mining in Gabal El-Maghara, North Sinai, Egypt, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Coal, water and soil samples were investigated in this study. The 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations for coal before extraction were 18.5±0.5, 29.5±1.2 and 149.0±8.4 Bq/kg, respectively. These concentrations were reduced to 18-22% after extraction due to the clay subtraction from the ore. The activity contents of the water and soil samples collected from the surrounding area did not show any evidence of enhancement due to the mining activities. Absorbed dose rate and effective dose equivalent in the mine environment were 29.4±1.0 n Gy/h and 139.2±4.7 mSv/y, respectively

  8. Calculation Model of Safety Level of Production Logistics System in Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Xue-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors affecting the safety of production logistics system of coal mine and the impact of these factors on the safety degree is not consistent, this study determines the safety indicators from five aspects, such as, the personal quality, mechanical equipment, environment, safety management and emergency rescue, etc. This study fitted the interaction of safety indicator and safety level by using the polynomial model and constructing security level calculation model through the analysis of regression model and its coefficient. This article proposes a method of calculating the safety production level of coal mine by using polynomial model, this method helps to indicate direction for analyzing safety production status and raising safety level of coal mining enterprise.

  9. Export of detritus and invertebrate from headwater streams: linking mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining to downstream receiving waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining has resulted in large scale alteration of the topography, reduced forest productivity, and burial of headwater streams in the U.S. Central Appalachians. Although MTR/VF coal mining has occurred for several decades and the ...

  10. 78 FR 26739 - Notice of Final Action on Petition From Earthjustice To List Coal Mines as a Source Category and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2013-0358...List Coal Mines as a Source Category and To Regulate...Emissions From Coal Mines AGENCY: Environmental Protection...111 list of stationary source categories. The agency denied the...

  11. Coal-mine wastes. January 1980-October 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data Base). Rept. for Jan 80-Oct 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the characterization, environmental aspects, and engineering studies of coal mining refuse. Topics include disposal strategies, materials usage, and revegetation and reclamation programs. Appropriate legislation, and surveys performed at specific mining sites are also presented. Water pollution aspects of coal wastes are not covered in the report. (Contains 155 citations with title list and subject index.)

  12. Theory and test research on permeability of coal and rock body influenced by mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qing-xin Qi; Hong-yan Li; You-gang Wang; Zhi-gang Deng; Hang Lan; Yong-wei Peng; Chun-rui Li [China Coal Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    2009-06-15

    Stress distribution rules and deformation and failure properties of coal and rock bodies influenced by mining were analyzed. Experimental research on permeability of coal and rock samples under different loading conditions was finished in the laboratory. In-situ measurement of coal permeability influenced by actual mining was done as well. Theory analysis show that permeability varied with damage development of coal and rock under stress, and the influence of fissure on permeability was greatest. Laboratory results show that under different loading conditions permeability was different and it varied with stress, which indicated that permeability was directly related to the loading process. In-situ tests showed that permeability is related to abutment stress to some degree. The above results may be referenced to gas prevention and drainage. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Final report on dust monitoring near Kellingley coal mine, North Yorkshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust deposition was monitored at a residential location near Kellingley Coal Mine over two four-weekly periods (November/December 1991 and March/April 1992) using a wet Frisbee dust deposit gauge. The mean rates of dust deposition for both periods (696.4 and 415.5 mg m-2 day-1 respectively) were well in excess of a proposed acceptable upper limit (195 mg m-2 day-1) for residential conditions. Mean estimated coal dust content during both periods (80.9 and 49.7 per cent) was also high. It is concluded that coal dust from Kellingley Coal Mine gave rise to excessively high levels of dust deposition at the monitoring site, especially during the first four-weekly period. The situation would appear to have deteriorated since a similar monitoring exercise was carried out in 1989. 4 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Benefaction from Carbonation of Flue Gas CO2 as Coal Mining Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y?ld?r?m ?. Tosun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available CO2 capturing, transport and sequestration by pressurized water dissolution and reacting by natural alkali lime and magnesia in coal fly ash or other sources become an industrial advantageous sequestration option resulting in green waste solutions or solid fines. Mg and Ca containing minerals are reacting with CO2 to form carbonates. Various types of fly ash materials may react with CO2 to form carbonate regarding ash composition and reaction parameters. Mineral sequestration of CO2 will also allow using the products in cement industry or as cement material in constructions with low cost. This paper discussed progress on coal mining filling by carbonation method using coal fly ash of Soma, Yatagan, Afsin Elbistan Power Stations. Other filler materials containing coal mine waste shale, fly ashes and foam concrete, and additives were searched for pretreatment methods to enhance cement reactivity; and in analyzing the structural changes to identify reaction paths and potential barriers.

  15. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Fdez- Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Castro, Kepa [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development – IPADH, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H.; Brum, Irineu A.S. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Leão, Felipe B. de; Taffarel, Silvio R. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro 92010-000, Canoas, RS (Brazil); Madariaga, Juan M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of the Basque Country (EHU/UPV), P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ? Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ? Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ? The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements.

  16. Study of environmental pollution and mineralogical characterization of sediment rivers from Brazilian coal mining acid drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid drainage from coal mines and metal mining is a major source of underground and surface water contamination in the world. The coal mining acid drainage (CMAD) from mine contains large amount of solids in suspension and a high content of sulphate and dissolved metals (Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, etc.) that finally are deposited in the rivers. Since this problem can persist for centuries after mine abandonment, it is necessary to apply multidisciplinary methods to determine the potential risk in a determinate area. These multidisciplinary methods must include molecular and elemental analysis and finally all information must be studied statistically. This methodology was used in the case of coal mining acid drainage from the Tubarao River (Santa Catarina, Brazil). During molecular analysis, Raman Spectroscopy, electron bean, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been proven very useful for the study of minerals present in sediment rivers near this CMAD. The obtained spectra allow the precise identification of the minerals as jarosite, quartz, clays, etc. The elemental analysis (Al, As, Fe, K, Na, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ti, V, Zn, Ag, Co, Li, Mo, Ni, Se, Sn, W, B, Cr, Cu, Pb and Sr) was realised by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis (Principal Component Analysis) of these dates of concentration reveals the existence of different groups of samples with specific pollution profiles in different areas of the Tubarao River. Highlights: ? Increasing coal drainage sediments geochemical information will increase human health information in this area. ? Brazilian coal mining information will increase recuperation planning information. ? The nanominerals showed strong sorption ability to aqueous hazardous elements

  17. A Simulation of the Illegal Coal Mining in Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam using Vensim

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Tuan

    2008-01-01

    Using Vensim PLE, this paper provides a simulation of the illegal coal mining in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam. Examining the three main loops including need for income effect, government enforcement and coal management effects and other effects (illegal density, technology, community and psychological effects), the paper sketches several scenarios under different levels of the key variables. Obtaining these results, the paper suggests a better scene in terms of socio-economic and environmenta...

  18. Efficiency Measurement in Turkish Coal Enterprises Using Data Envelopment Analysis and Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Fehim Bakirci; Emre Yakut; Ayhan Demirci; Murat Gündüz

    2014-01-01

    Gradual population growths, skyrocketing technological developments and inter-State competitions increase the energy demands continuously. Although the countries try to diverse their energy sources in order to sustain their developments, they also have to pay attention to protect their energy independences. Thus, it is very important to develop their self-resources. Coal is the most common natural source which can meet our energy needs. However, coal mine enterprises have to be administrated ...

  19. Origin of brines from the coal mine Silesia inferred from stable isotope and hydrochemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deepest brines in the Carboniferous formations of the Coal Mine Silesia can be identified as the oldest infiltration in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Two types of brines can be related to some infiltration periods before the last marine transgression. One of them is discovered for the first time in the Carboniferous formation. The three brine types of different origin are characterized by subtle differences in chemical composition. (author). 19 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. Land use change analysis and ecological restoration plan in coal mine areas of MTG, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L. [Capital Univ. of Economics and Business, Beijing (China). City College; Hu, Z. [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    The coal mining areas in China are predominantly farmland or forestland. Coal exploitation in Mentougou District, in Beijing, China (MTG) began approximately 1,000 years ago and covers more than 700 square kilometres. This mining area is one of the 5 largest anthracite producing areas in China, and is also an important energy base of Beijing. Many coal mines in this area closed in the last century as coal resources were exhausted. Environmental and economic development in MTG has still not improved, and has become even worse. As a result, the decision makers in the MTG and Beijing City want to know the level and conditions of environmental destruction. A scientific and reasonable environmental restoration plan is needed. This paper analyzed the land use change in MTG as one aspect of the environment. The study used geographic information systems (GIS) methods to determine the land use damage quantity and distribution. The paper described the study area and presented the land use change matrix and land use damage analysis. A landscape restoration plan was also described and presented. It was concluded that the process of land use change analysis is useful to ecological restoration in coal mine areas. Based on GIS, this process is easily executed. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. Schedule Control of Coal Mine Construction Projects Based on Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Schedule management is the crucial capability for large-scale coal mining investors to successful finish the construction project, which could get by the accumulation of the long-time institutional executive force and ability training. By using factor analysis and validation analysis, extracted control factors of schedule management from data have been made in large coal mine construction companies. Some control factors have a greater influence on the schedule management which are the system factor, measures factor, economic controlling factor, behavioral factor, process factor, organization factor, thus the enterprise schedule management system should include the terms of the above factors.

  2. Safety Production Monitoring Schemes and Terminal Software Based on TD-SCDMA in Coal Mine

    OpenAIRE

    xiaobing han

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the application of 3G wireless communication system, 3G industrial chain and users' requirement of new services, In order to monitor the production condition exactly and real-timely in underground and surface of coal mine, a new mobile application solutions scheme based on TD-SCDMA in coal mine is proposed. According to the high speed data service of third generation mobile communication systems, the wireless network of surface scheme was designed by the C/S structure, whi...

  3. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  4. Key performance indicators - a tool to assess ICT applications in underground coal mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Dauber; M., Bendrat.

    1017-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementing new technologies in industrial operations entails the challenge of measuring the improvements gained by the applied technology. Nevertheless, it is absolutely essential to assess the technical and economic benefits in objective and comprehensible numbers to create a platform for further [...] management decisions. Underground coal mines are characterized by numerous, quite complex procedures which make it difficult to determine the specific economic benefit of a new machine, technique, or method. In the OPTI-MINE Project funded by the European Union's RFCS programme, five underground coal mines applied the latest information and communication technologies (ICTs) to improve efficiency, mine safety, occupational health, and environmental im-pacts. An integral part of the project is the assessment of these technologies by using key performance indicators (KPIs). The paper will describe some examples of the selected KPIs and the preliminary findings.

  5. Mixed approach (numerical modeling / equilibrium analysis) for slope stability analysis: development and application to the dams and open pit mining; Une approche mixte (numerique/equilibre limite) pour le calcul de stabilite des ouvrages en terre: developpement et application aux barrages et talus miniers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourdey, A.

    2002-09-15

    The determination of the sliding surface of slope (dam, slope natural..) is one of the important and complicated problems in geotechnics. The Analyze of stability by the methods of Limit Equilibrium like the method of slices are the most used methods. They are able to determine a safety factor for a geometrically defined failure surface. These methods well adapted to the homogeneous mediums, have been developed a lot but they do not integrate the basic relations of mechanics (stress-strain). The numerical methods are better adapted to mediums having more complexity (effect of water, seismicity, fracturing,..). But, they are seldom used to determine a sliding surface and a safety factor. Each family offers appreciable advantages in the analysis of slope stability. For that purpose, we have developed a method that combines the advantages of the numerical methods as well as those of Limit Equilibrium allowing obtaining a slip surface determined by the calculated constraints. This slip surface may be imposed or better optimized, thus providing a minimal safety factor. Methods of operation research are used to obtain this surface. They are search methods by level, dynamic research.. or both at the same time. We integrated these developments in an existing computer code based on the method of Finite Differences known as FLAC. The stresses are determined for a linear behavior and for nonlinear. Interfaces and graphic tools are also produced to facilitate the analysis of stability. The validity of this approach was carried out for a standard case of slope, we analyzed and compared the results with the methods of Limit Equilibrium. The parametric study shows that this approach takes account of different parameters, which influences stability. We also kept a particular place for the application on real cases presenting slopes of different nature (dams, mining slops,...). (author)

  6. INFLUENCE OF THE TECTONIC FABRIC ON THE OPEN PIT DESIGN IN THE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Dravec-Braun

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available In the »Zapreši?ki Ivanec« dolomite open pit near Zagreb, exploitation is carried out according to data obtained by analysis of the tectonic fabric of the rock massif, by measurement of the longitudinal seismic waves velocity, and effects of the seismic waves provoked blasting. In this article the fundamental data obtained by structural analysis and measurements with their influence on the pit design and the optimization of blasting conditions, are reviewed. Results of the longtime exploitation verify such complex aproach to deposit work-out.

  7. Safety Production Monitoring Schemes and Terminal Software Based on TD-SCDMA in Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    xiaobing han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the application of 3G wireless communication system, 3G industrial chain and users' requirement of new services, In order to monitor the production condition exactly and real-timely in underground and surface of coal mine, a new mobile application solutions scheme based on TD-SCDMA in coal mine is proposed. According to the high speed data service of third generation mobile communication systems, the wireless network of surface scheme was designed by the C/S structure, which can provide mobile communication and information synthesized service application. Wireless distance unit and the special Base Station were used to achieve effective covering of special environment of coal mine according to the different environment of underground tunnel. The wireless interface standard are studied based on the structure of digital mine, the workflow in application server is suggested too, it studies J2ME application development intergraded with J2EE, then devises workflow in server. It realized the expected functionality using MVC model based on J2ME development platform in terminal.which can provides the technical basis of 3G in coal mine safety production

  8. Coal mine ventilation air emissions : project development planning and mitigation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, J.M. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Coalbed Methane Outreach Program; Schultz, H.L. [BCS Inc., Laurel, MD (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Deep coal seams may contain large quantities of explosive methane gas that, when released into underground mines during coal extraction, can pose a serious safety hazard for underground coal miners. Ventilation air methane (VAM) is the largest coal mine methane (CMM) source and has been difficult to capture and use. However, the global carbon market now offers an incentive for mitigating these emissions in the form of carbon credits. For that reason, the Coalbed Methane Outreach Program (CMOP) is currently investigating VAM mitigation, despite the many technical challenges. VAM is very dilute and energy conversion is difficult. This presentation described an array of technologies that can be used to destroy VAM, including catalytic and thermal oxidation, gas turbines and hybrid waste coal/VAM rotary kilns. In particular, it described MEGTEC's thermal flow-reversal reactor (TFRR) system known as the VOCSIDIZER; Biothermica's VAMOX technology; Durr System's rotary oxidizer; the Gulf Coast Environmental VAM model oxidizer; CANMET's catalytic flow-reversal reactor (CFRR) known as the CH{sub 4}MIN; and the Sheng Dong Group's TFRR design. This study showed that if thermal oxidation using flow-reversal reactor technology were employed globally at active underground coal mines, there is a potential to mitigate significant quantities of methane emissions. The oxidizers also have the ability to tap any excess heat to produce steam for thermal uses or electric power generation. 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  9. Evaluation of Coal Mining Safety Management Information Sytem Based on the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Jianjun; Li Mingxing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we put forward three-level indicators and 13 secondary indicators via Delphi method. We improved the new fuzzy synthetic evaluation method from the aspect of coal-mining information management. After a comprehensive evaluation, 72.28% of people believed that security levels of Huaibei Mining Group belonged to good & moderate one, and 27.72% of people held that security status of Group was poor & very poor condition on the basis of comprehensive evaluation. Therefore, se...

  10. Improving productivity in mining sector - future visions with special reference to coal sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, R.B. [CMPDIL (India)

    2001-07-01

    The paper discusses the topic of productivity of underground and surface coal mining in India - faced with a large indispensable work force this is a challenge for mine managers. The measures of labour force productivity and wage force productivity are outlined. Trends in opencast technology globally and those adopted in India are discussed. Suggestions are made for improving man and machine productivity. These are related to equipment maintenance, time management, and operations.

  11. Possibilities of mine gases outflow prediction during pressure drops considering abandoned shaft located in old coal mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrona, P. [Silesian University of Technology, Gleiwitz (Poland). Inst. of Geotechnology, Mining Geophysics and Ecology of Industrial Areas

    2005-09-01

    There are abandoned mine shafts, small shafts and drifts located in an old, shallow coal mining area at the slope of Zabrze Dome. Creation of voids and connections with abandoned excavations hasn't been avoided during liquidation of these constructions. Mine gas outflow can create a hazard for people's safety, so it may be helpful to be able to predict volume flow of out flowing gases. One of the abandoned shafts has been selected to conduct extensive measurements of volume flow of mine gases during pressure drops. One case has been selected to perform a comparison between measured and calculated results. Calculated results have been obtained with application of Torricelli's model of gas outflow phenomena from a tank. Pressure drops are considered as the external input functions (the extortions) with quantity of volume flow in the abandoned shaft as the response. The coal shaft must have sufficient volume of voids and a leaky lock. The case of the extortion which is built of pressure drop and pressure buildup is discussed, too. The loop characteristic as the result of the extortion may indicate the existence of volume flow in a hysteresis curve. Mine gases volume flow from abandoned mine shaft depends on time of pressure drop and pressure changes rate. Concentration of CO{sub 2} in mine gases out flowing from abandoned mine shafts located at the slope of Zabrze Dome exceeded 10%. Concentration of CO{sub 2} depends on time of pressure drop, too. The model could be a useful and very simple tool to perform predictions for gas hazard estimations. (orig.)

  12. Body ion loss as a bioindicator of water quality impaired by coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of surface waters receiving discharges from coal mines is currently based on performance standards set by the EPA after passage of the Clean Water Act. These standards were technology-driven and reflect the Best Achievable Control Technology (BAT) available at the time of promulgation. Changes proposed as part of the upcoming reauthorization of the US Clean Water Act suggest that such technology-based standards may be reevaluated in light of more recent information on the toxicological effect of mine discharges on aquatic biota. The authors present here a physiological-based method for evaluating the site-specific toxicity of mine-derived discharges into receiving waters. They tested the usefulness of the body ion loss rate bioassay by exposing fathead minnows, brook charr and stoneflies to coal mine-impacted waters (elevated acidity and trace metals) in the field and to artificial mine water (AMW) in the laboratory. Body ion loss rate was significantly correlated with levels of mine pollution in the field. Body ion loss measured in AMW revealed strong interactions between metals and acid. Because the test animals exhibited differing levels of sensitivity to mine discharge, the selection of an appropriate organism for the body ion loss bioassay may vary depending on the (1) physical characteristics, (2) chemical characteristics and (3) pre-existing level of mine impact of the receiving waters

  13. Speeding up the development of Wangjialing mining area as a centre of high-quality lean coal production in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. [Ministry of Coal Industry (China). Xian Design Research Institute

    1997-03-01

    The situation of short supply of lean coking coal in China is analyzed in general. The importance of speeding up the development of the Wangjialing mining area as a centre of high-quality lean coal production is expounded. Proposals are made for speeding up the construction in light of the favourable conditions of the mining area and the situation of serious wasting of the scarce coal resources there.

  14. Optimisation of the Process of Formation of Production Expenses When Doing Excavation at a Coal Mining Enterprise ??????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????????????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashenko Yelena A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to solution of a topical problem of increase of competitiveness of coal mining enterprises on the basis of improvement of management of the process of formation of production expenses. It proves that correlation of production expenses directed at construction and use of timbering for mines, with other equal expenses in cost of mining, influences the level of profitability of an enterprise in general. It is established that distribution of the said expenses in the process of construction and exploitation of mines identifies the planning level of the ratio of repairing of mine timbering by criterion of profit maximisation. It develops optimisation models of correlation of operating expenses and expenses on mine construction for the case when cost of excavated coal in a certain mine of the coal mining enterprise grows by a non-linear function depending on the ratio of repairing of mine timbering and for the case when cost of excavated coal of the coal mining enterprise grows by a polynomial function depending on the ratio of repairing of mine timbering.?????? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ????????????????????? ??????????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????????? ??????. ??????????, ??? ??????????? ???????????????? ??????, ???????????? ?? ????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ????????????? ??????, ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????????? ??????????? ? ?????. ???????????, ??? ????????????? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ????????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????????? ???????. ??????????? ??????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????, ????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ? ???????????? ????????? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????, ? ??? ??????, ????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ???????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????????.

  15. Disposing of coal combustion residues in inactive surface mines: Effects on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) in surface and underground coal mines can provide a stable, low-maintenance alternative to landfills, benefiting the mining and electric power industries. The material may be able to improve water quality at acid generating abandoned or reclaimed coal mine sites. Most combustion residues are alkaline, and their addition to the subsurface environment could raise the pH, limiting the propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reducing the rate of acid generation. Many of these CCR are also pozzolanic, capable of forming cementitious grouts. Grouts injected into the buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. Both mechanisms, alkaline addition and water diversion, are capable of reducing the amount of acid produced at the disposal site. The US Bureau of Mines is cooperating in a test of subsurface injection of CCR into a reclaimed surface mine. Initially, a mixture of fly ash, lime, and acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge was injected. Lime was the source of calcium for the formation of the pozzolanic grout. Changes in water quality parameters (pH, acidity, anions, and trace metals) in water samples from wells and seeps indicate a small but significant improvement after CCR injection. Changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the water flowing across the site were apparently influenced by the presence of flyash

  16. Appraisal of air borne radon activity in coal mines of Kotli and Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several epidemiological studies conducted on miners have demonstrated that sustained exposure of radon and its progeny cause carcinogenic effects on mine workers. These effects are not only related with uranium but also with coal mining as well. This article presents the results obtained for radon concentration measurement in coal mines of Kotli and Muzaffarabad. Passive-time integrated method was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39). The measurements were performed on a total of 60 points in four mines. Obtained radon concentration was utilized for assessment of annual effective dose, lifetime fatality risk and in calculations of excessive relative risk for lung cancer. These parameters were estimated from (based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas) models proposed in UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 reports. The radon concentration varied from 187 to 447 Bq m-3 in the coal mines under study. These values are well below the action level of 500-1500 Bq m-3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (1993). The result shows that protection against radiological hazards would not be necessary for workers of these mines. (author)

  17. Interpretation of groundwater origin in the Velenje coal mine on the basis of isotope composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Urbanc

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to determine the isotopic properties of cave waters from the Velenje coal mine and define the recharge areas of individual aquifers. With regard to the oxygen isotope composition, groundwater in the Velenje coal mine can beclassified into three types. Typical d18O values of the first type are around -9 ‰ and are found in surface waters in the vicinity of the mine, therefore it is supposed that these waters are recharged locally. The second type is represented mainly by waters from thelower part of the pliocene aquifer. The average oxygen composition of these waters is about -11 ‰. This isotope composition is considerably different from the isotope composition of recent waters from the mine’s vicinity, which leads to the conclusion that these are older, fossile waters. These waters also have a very high degree of mineralization and consequently conductivity. Waters of the third type have average ?18O values around -10 ‰ and originate mainly from triassic dolomites. These waters could be a mixture of recentand old waters, but it is also possible that they flow into the coal mine from the higher areas of Paški Kozjak.

  18. The Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR)-a decade of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, C.; Molinda, G.M. [National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, P.O. Box 18070, Pittsburgh, PA, 15236 (United States)

    2005-10-17

    The Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR) was developed 10 years ago to fill the gap between geologic characterization and engineering design. It combines many years of geologic studies in underground coal mines with worldwide experience with rock mass classification systems. Like other classification systems, the CMRR begins with the premise that the structural competence of mine roof rock is determined primarily by the discontinuities that weaken the rock fabric. However, the CMRR is specifically designed for bedded coal measure rock. Since its introduction, the CMRR has been incorporated into many aspects of mine planning, including longwall pillar design, roof support selection, feasibility studies, extended cut evaluation, and others. It has also become truly international, with involvement in mine designs and funded research projects in South Africa, Canada, and Australia. This paper discusses the sources used in the development of the CMRR, describes the CMRR data collection and calculation procedures, and briefly presents a number of practical mining applications in which the CMRR has played a prominent role. (author)

  19. Detection and monitoring of high stress concentration zones induced by coal mining using numerical and microseismic method

    OpenAIRE

    Senfaute, Gloria; Al Heib, Marwan; Josien, Jean-Pierre; Noirel, J.-F.

    2001-01-01

    Zones of high stress concentration induced by coal mining at a depth of 1250 meters in the Lorraine Collieries are detected and monitored using a combination of numerical and microseismic methods. Changes in the stress state induced by coal mining are estimated by means of numerical simulations. The areas of high stress concentration are located and monitored by local microseismic network. The study of microseismic activity recorded during mining made it possible to localise the zones of high...

  20. Characterization of a coal tailing deposit for zero waste mine in the Brazilian coal field of Santa Catarina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal tailings deposits in Brazil are occupying large areas of land while also generating acid mine drainage (AMD) that includes heavy metals. This paper described an analytical study of a typical coal tailings deposit. The study objective was to separate low density, intermediate density, and high density fractions for future reuse. Particle size analysis, disymmetric studies, X-ray diffraction, and tests conducted to determine ash, total sulphur, and acid bases were conducted in order to characterize the coal tailings samples. Results of the study demonstrated a size distribution of 67 percent coarse, 14 percent fine, and 19 percent ultra-fine particles. The gravimetric concentration method was used to recover 34.2 percent of the total deposit for future energy use. Approximately 9.2 percent of the remaining deposit was a pyrite concentrate. The acid generating potential of the remaining materials was reduced by approximately 60 percent. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  1. Weathering behaviour of overburden-coal ash blending in relation to overburden management for acid mine drainage prevention in coal surface mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentially acid forming (PAF) materials are encapsulated with non-acid forming materials (NAF) in order to prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) in surface coal mines. NAF compaction techniques with fly and bottom ashes from coal-fired power plants are used in mines with limited amounts of NAF materials. This study investigated the weathering behaviour of blended overburden and coal combustion ash in laboratory conditions. Free draining column leach tests were conducted on different blending schemes. The weathering process was simulated by spraying the samples with de-ionized water once per day. The leachates were then analyzed using X-ray diffraction and fluorescence analyses in order to identify the mineral composition of the samples over a 14 week period. Results of the study indicated that the weathering process plays a significant role in controlling infiltration rates, and may increase the capability of capping materials to prevent infiltration into PAF materials. Fly- and bottom-ash additions improved the performance of the encapsulation materials. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Environmental impact of coal mining on the natural environment in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saline waters occurring in underground coal mines in Poland often contain natural radioactive isotopes, mainly 226Ra from uranium series and 228Ra from thorium series. Approximately 40% of total amount of radium remains underground in a form of radioactive deposits, but 225 MBq of 226Ra and 400 MBq of 228Ra are released daily to the rivers with mine effluents. Technical measures as spontaneous precipitation of radium in gobs, decreasing of amounts of water inflows into underground working etc. have been undertaken in several coal mines and as the result total amount of radium released to the surface waters diminished of about 60% during last 5-6 years. Mine waters can cause a severe impact on the natural environment, mainly due to its salinity. But also the enhancement of radium concentration in river waters, bottom sediments and vegetation is observed. Sometimes radium concentration in rivers exceeds 0.7 kBq/m3, which is due to Polish law a permissible level for waste waters. The extended investigations were performed in all coal mines and on this basis the radium balance in effluents has been calculated. Measurements done in the vicinity of mine water's settling ponds and in rivers gave us an opportunity to survey radium behaviour in river waters and the range of contamination. Solid waste materials with enhanced natural radioactivity have been produced in huge amounts in power and coal industries in Poland. There are two main sources of these waste products. As a result of combustion of coal in power plants low radioactive waste materials are produced, with 226Ra concentration seldom exceeding few hundreds of Bq/kg. Different situation is observed in coal mines, where as a result of precipitation of radium from radium-bearing waters radioactive deposits are formed. Sometimes natural radioactivity of such materials is very high, in case of scaling from coal mines radium concentration may reach 400 000 Bq/kg - similar activity as for 3% uranium ore. Therefore maintenance of solid waste with technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENR) is also a very important subject. (author)

  3. Use of water hyacinth to consolidate coal dust on surface coal mine roadways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, A.K.; Ghosh, A.K. (Central Mining Research Station, Dhanbad (India))

    1990-08-01

    A novel method of consolidating coal dust on roadways is by spreading a layer of green water hyacinth collected from nearby ponds or other water places. Subsequent vehicle movement presses them and helps to embed coal dust to form a pasty mass. Periodic raking is advisable. After several months the coal dust hyacinth pulp may be collected up, dried and used as fuel.

  4. Parallel coal supply from several coal mines for stable long-term operation of TPP Bitola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cases when the coal beds are situated on location far from the user, one of the main problems is the transportation of coal to the users. In this paper will be presented some characteristic solutions of control system for coal transportation from locations Zhivojno and Brod-Gneotino to TPP Bitola. (Author)

  5. Development and utilization strategies for recovery and utilization of coal mine methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrer, C.W.; Layne, A.W.; Guthrie, H.D.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been involved in natural gas research since the 1970`s. DOE has assessed the potential of gas in coals throughout the U.S. and promoted research and development for recovery and use of methane found in minable and unminable coalbeds. DOE efforts have focused on the use of coal mine methane for regional economic gas self-sufficiency, energy parks, self-help initiatives, and small-power generation. This paper focuses on DOE`s past and present efforts to more effectively and efficiently recover and use this valuable domestic energy source. The Climate Change Action Plan (CCAP) (1) lists a series of 50 voluntary initiatives designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, such as methane from mining operations, to their 1990 levels. Action No. 36 of the CCAP expands the DOE research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) efforts to broaden the range of cost-effective technologies and practices for recovering methane associated with coal mining operations. The major thrust of Action No. 36 is to reduce methane emissions associated with coal mining operations from target year 2000 levels by 1.5 MMT of carbon equivalent. Crosscutting activities in the DOE Natural Gas Program supply the utilization sectors will address RD&D to reduce methane emissions released from various mining operations, focusing on recovery and end use technology systems to effectively drain, capture, and utilize the emitted gas. Pilot projects with industry partners will develop and test the most effective methods and technology systems for economic recovery and utilization of coal mine gas emissions in regions where industry considers efforts to be presently non-economic. These existing RD&D programs focus on near-term gas recovery and gathering systems, gas upgrading, and power generation.

  6. Sedimentology and lithofacies of the Eocene Skookumchuk Formation in the Centralia coal mine, southwest Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, R.M.; Johnson, S.Y. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The late middle to late Eocene Skookumchuck Formation is well exposed in highwalls of the Centralia mine, southwest Washington. Three coal zones and intervening sandstone-rich successions occur in a 220-m-thick interval that extends from below the Smith to above the Tono No. 1 coal beds. The Smith-Big Dirty, Lower-Upper Thompson, and Tono No.`s. 1-2 coal zones contain coal beds that range from 0.5 to 15 m thick. The coal beds are interbedded with coarsening-upward units of mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone that are burrowed, flaser-and lenticular-bedded, mud-draped in their lower part, and rippled, wavy bedded, and tabular crossbedded (with reactivation surfaces) in their upper part. These coarsening-upward units are commonly overlain erosionally by fining-upward beds of trough-crossbedded, rippled, burrowed, and rooted sandstones. Coal formed in low-lying peat mires above mean high tide levels. Two discrete facies occur in the sandstone-rich successions between the coal zones. The first facies consists of very fine to coarse grained sandstones that have sharply defined bases and tops and are heavily bioturbated, horizontally bedded, trough crossbedded, hummocky bedded, and rippled. The second facies of the sandstone-rich successions consists of sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone beds with common ripple lamination, lenticular and flaser bedding, trough crossbedding, biotrubation, bivalve fossils, and root marks. Upward thinning of coal beds is consistent with deposition during a major transgression. These coals formed in mires of the tidally influenced coastal plain in the Centralia mine area, in contrast to coals elsewhere in Washington that accumulated in mires of the fluvial- and distributary-channel-influenced coastal plain. The Northcraft volcanic center to the east probably deflected fluvial drainages of the coastal plain to the north and south.

  7. EXPLOITATION OF GLASS SAND ON THE OPEN PIT »VRTLINSKA« (MOSLAVINA, CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Vujec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of glass sand in Slavonia and Moslavinahas a long tradition. The open-pit »Vrtlinska« is-accordirtg toits dimensions and production capacity the biggest one in this regions. Exploitation reserves within this open pit amount about 1 000 000 t glass sand of a very good quality, and the production capacity is 200 000 t yearly according to real needs during design and opening the pit, i. e. before the war. This article discusses geological and geomechanical characteristics of the deposit, as well as the exploitation process, which is considerably matching natural characteristics of the deposit. A more detailed description is given of the planned exploitation phase I above groundwater level which is carried out according to discontinuous system. For the exploitation of the depth part under groundwater level in the phase II, the necessity of further examination of hydrogeological characteristics of the deposit is presented, in order to acquire necessary information on groundwater regime and drainage conditions. Such knowledge will influence the choice of the most appropriate solutions in the exploitation of the depth part of the deposit.

  8. 78 FR 48593 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...each mine and periodically update the ERP to reflect changes in the mine, advances...or other relevant considerations. An ERP must provide for the evacuation of...shelter. Please share your experiences with implementation of in-place shelters, e.g.,...

  9. Coal mine methane in China: a budding asset with the potential to bloom - an assessment of technology, policy and financial issues relating to CMM in China, based on interviews conducted at coal mines in Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    The paper identifies and examines policies, technologies and practices in China for coal mine methane (CMM) recovery and use, focusing on the unique challenges and opportunities of medium- and smaller-sized coal mines. Research for this report was conducted through a series of meetings and interviews with coal mine stakeholders in China, including national and provincial authorities, local officials, coal mining companies, financiers, international experts, and on-site interviews and visits to a number of coal mines in Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces conducted in 2008. These provinces have strong coal resources and related potential for greater recovery and use of CMM. The most common project type is CMM power generation. There are many other uses in China, including town gas and vehicle fuel. Coal mines are also working to expand their CMM utilisation technology applications to make beneficial use of lower-quality CMM as well as oxidising the very dilute ventilation air methane for power and/or heat generation. Demonstration projects have been developed to test these emerging technologies and the results are promising. Today, China has a number of large commercial projects in operation, including some funded under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol, and more are planned. This report recommends that the national government prioritise CMM recovery and utilisation by improved implementation of policies, particularly at the provincial level. Some suggested next steps include improving capacity of provincial and local government authorities to deal with CMM issues; more active engagement of key stakeholders like the China State Power Network Group Corporation in CMM subsidy development; improving the capacity at smaller coal mines for CMM recovery and utilisation; and providing incentives to qualified engineers and skilled workers to run CMM recovery and utilisation projects in coal mines, particularly in smaller mines. 16 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. RESIDENCE TIME OF CONTAMINANTS RELEASED IN SURFACE COAL MINES: A WIND TUNNEL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate and modify, as required, existing dispersion models for the prediction of dispersion of dust from surface coal mines. he application of mathematical air pollution dispersion models to th...

  11. Soil algae and cyanobacteria in post-coal mining sites in Europe and USA.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukešová, Alena; Hr?ková, Kristýna

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 46, Supplement 1 (2011), s. 102. ISSN 0967-0262. [European Phycological Congress /5./. 04.09.2011-09.09.2011, Rhodes] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil algae * cyanobacteria * post-coal mining sites Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. Deep subsurface microflora in Miocene clay and claystones of the Sokolov coal mining district.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kahounová, Ludmila; Chro?áková, Alica; Krišt?fek, Václav; Elhottová, Dana; Frouz, Jan

    Bratislava : ?eskoslovenská spolo?nos? mikrobiologická, 2010. s. 121. ISBN 970-80-970477-8-8. [Mikroorganizmy a kvalita života. Kongres ?eskoslovenskej spolo?nosti mikrobiologickej /25./. 15.09.2010-18.09.2010, Stará Lesná] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : deep subsurface microflora * Miocene clay * Sokolov coal mining district Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Soil rotifers during primary succession on brown-coal post mining dumps.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav

    Berlin : Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, 2009. s. 54. [Rotifera XII. International Symposium on Rotifers. 16.08.2009-21.08.2009, Berlin] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : soil rotifers * primary succession * brown-coal post mining dumps Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  14. 77 FR 26046 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 85 (Wednesday, May 2, 2012...of the information collection for 30 CFR 77.1000-1. OMB last approved this information...of a coal mine is required under 30 CFR 77.1000 to establish and follow a...

  15. An Overview of Two Years of Continuous Energy Optimization at the Velenje Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Medved

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Velenje Coal Mine (VCM is one of the largest and the most modern underground coal mines in Europe. Although the coal mining industry produces coal as an energy source, it is also uses a lot of energy for its own operation and support processes. At this time of volatile energy prices and more and more strict environmental emission requirements, optimizing energy consumption plays an important role in good business performance. To track the consumption of electricity, district heating, drinking water and compressed air at the VCM a detailed energy monitoring methodology was developed and established in July 2010. The essential element of the presented monitoring system is a software application named “Central System for Regulation of Energy” (CSRE. The purpose of the CSRE is to control energy processes from a distance, take measures for economical and efficient use of energy, as well as to assist in maintenance. Such monitoring allows extensive comparisons between different energy sources consumption and enables correct measures to be taken to reduce the difference between the target and actual consumption of energy in VCM. With established real-time monitoring system, it is possible to look at mining processes and see where energy is being used inefficiently.

  16. Incorporating uncertainty associated with prediction of geological attributes in coal mine planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, J.F.; Koppe, J.C.; Dimitrakopoulos, R.; Zingano, A.C. [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    Coal mine planning is traditionally developed using a geological model built by discretising relevant geological attributes such as seam thickness into small blocks. Coal quality properties such as geochemical characteristics and washability are rarely incorporated in models used for planning. Interpolation techniques such as kriging are used in building block models with less variability than the input data set and referred as smooth models. Spatial variability shown by the data set is not reproduced by kriging methods. Conditional simulation is a class of Monte Carlo techniques that can be used to generate equally probable representations of in-situ orebody variability. Contrary to the traditional smooth orebody models generated by estimating techniques, conditionally simulated orebodies provide the tools to address uncertainty associated with geological attributes of coal deposits and the resulting effects on various aspects of mine planning and production scheduling. This paper outlines the sequential Gaussian conditional simulation algorithm. An example illustrates the use of simulated models in mine planning and scheduling at Candiota Coal Mine, Brazil. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Organized labour and restructuring: coal mines in the Czech Republic and Romania.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Br?ha, Jan; Ionascu, D.; Jeong, Byeongju

    Heidelberg, DE : Physica-Verlag, 2010, s. 49-72. ISBN 978-3-7908-2163-5. - (AIEL Series in Labour Economics). [Annual Conference of the Italian Association of Labour Economists /22./. Naples (IT), 13.09.2007-14.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : organized labour * restructuring * coal mines Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  18. Organized labor and restructuring: coal mining in the Czech Republic and Romania.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Br?ha, J.; Ionascu, D.; Jeong, Byeongju

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 57, 5-6 (2007), s. 272-291. ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : coal mining * organized labor * transition Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.382, year: 2007 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1076_fau_5_6_2007_00000000074.pdf

  19. Organized labor and restructuring coal mines in the Czech Republic and Romania.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Br?ha, Jan; Ionascu, D.; Jeong, Byeongju

    -, ?. 228 (2004), s. 1-27. ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KSK8002119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : organized labor * restructuring coal mines * Czech Republic and Romania Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp228.pdf

  20. Electrical techniques for fault diagnosis of induction motors used in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, T.K.; Mittra, D.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

    2001-07-01

    The paper reports a novel on-line condition monitoring and fault diagnosis technique for induction motors used in underground coal mines by using current and axial leakage flux. The method is non-invasive and it is capable of detecting a variety of faults that usually develop in induction motors. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  1. LANDSAT remote sensing: observations of an Appalachian mountaintop surface coal mining and reclamation operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential benefits of using LANDSAT remote sensing data by state agencies as an aide in monitoring surface coal mining operations are reviewed. A mountaintop surface mine in eastern Kentucky was surveyed over a 5 year period using satellite multispectral scanner data that were classified by computer analyses. The analyses were guided by aerial photography and by ground surveys of the surface mines procured in 1976. The application of the LANDSAT data indicates that: (1) computer classification of the various landcover categories provides information for monitoring the progress of surface mining and reclamation operations, (2) successive yearly changes in barren and revegetated areas can be qualitatively assessed for surface mines of 100 acres or more of disrupted area, (3) barren areas consisting of limestone and shale mixtures may be recognized, and revegetated areas in various stages of growth may be identified against the hilly forest background

  2. Research on radon concentration and radioactivity levels of part coal mine in Guizhou province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To research and assess radon concentration and radioactivity level of part coal mine in Guizhou province. Methods: To measur the radon concentration in well, analyze the content of nature radionuclide, measure -y radiation levels, survey 13 underground coal mine in 4 county of Guizhou province. Results: In this survey, radon concentration between 31.7 and 351.7 Bq/m3; content of nature radionuclide in coal, 226Ra is between 14.1 and 1 573.5 Bq/kg, 232Th is between 13.8 and 40.2 Bq/kg, 40K is between less than LLD (lower limit of detection ) and 497.2 Bg/kg, ? radiation levels is between 4 and 48 (x 10-8 Gy/h). Conclusion: By using mechanical ventilation facility, there is good ventilated rate in the well of coal mine, therefore the radon concentration is lower using. Coal with high radioactivity level and residue will be harmful to environment of storing site, affective the reuse of residue. (authors)

  3. Present status and challenges ahead of underground coal mine mechanisation in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, R.M.; Karmakar, N.C. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Over the past few years, there has been quantum jump in coal production level, but it was mostly due to high percentage share from the opencast sector. With fast depletion of shallow depth deposits, there is no other way but to go for high level mechanisation of underground mines to meet the country's demand. With this foresight, large-scale mechanisation was deployed during the past few years to boost underground production. Unfortunately, barring a few isolated cases, most of these attempts have cut sorry figures on the coal mining industry as a whole. It is now high time to ponder what went wrong in these attempts. Keeping the above view in mind, the paper discusses the various level of mechanisation attempted and being practised in underground coal mining. Though coverage has been given to bord and pillar/room and pillar technology, more emphasis has been given to longwall technology which is thought to be the only way out to meet the present crisis. Finally, the paper suggests some actions to be taken by the coal industry and the Government in consortium to face the challenges ahead of the coal industry. 9 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. 59 FR- Safety Standards for Underground Coal Mine Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-19

    ...demonstrated history of spontaneous combustion or those located in coal...determined to be susceptible to spontaneous combustion. Although the Agency believes...areas increases the risk of spontaneous combustion by supplying oxygen to...

  5. Effects of coal mining on the water resources of the Tradewater River Basin, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Hayes F.; Ryder, Paul D.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of coal-mine drainage on the water resources of the Tradewater River basin, in the Western Coal Field region of Kentucky, were evaluated (1) by synthesis and interpretation of 16 years of daily conductance data. 465 chemical analyses covering an 18-year period, 28 years of daily discharge data, and 14 years of daily suspended-sediment data from the Tradewater River at Olney and (2) by collection, synthesis, and interpretation of chemical and physical water-quality data and water-quantity data collected over a 2-year period from mined and nonmined sites in the basin. Maximum observed values of 13 chemical and physical water-quality parameters were three to 300 times greater in the discharge from mined subbasins than in the discharge from nonmined subbasins. Potassium, chloride, and nitrate concentrations were not significantly different between mined and nonmined areas. Mean sulfate loads carried by the Tradewater River at Olney were about 75 percent greater for the period 1955-67 than for the period 1952-54. Suspended-sediment loads at Olney for the November-April storm-runoff periods generally vary in response to strip-mine coal production in the basin above Olney. Streamflow is maintained during extended dry periods in mined subbasins after streams in nonmined subbasins have ceased flowing. Some possible methods of reducing the effects of mine drainage on the streams are considered in view of a geochemical model proposed by Ivan Barnes and F. E. Clarke. Use of low-flow-augmenting reservoirs and crushed limestone in streambeds in nonmined areas seems to be the most promising method for alleviating effects of mine drainage at the present time. Other aspects of the water resources such as variability of water quantity and water quality in the basin are discussed briefly.

  6. Organic geochemical investigation and coal-bed methane characteristics of the Guasare coals (Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, K.; Martinez, M.; Hackley, P.; Marquez, G.; Garban, G.; Esteves, I.; Escobar, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to carry out a geochemical study of channel samples collected from six coal beds in the Marcelina Formation (Zulia State, western Venezuela) and to determine experimentally the gas content of the coals from the Paso Diablo mine. Organic geochemical analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and isotopic analyses on-line in coalbed gas samples were performed. The results suggest that the Guasare coals were deposited in a continental environment under highly dysoxic and low salinity conditions. The non-detection of 18??(H)-oleanane does not preclude that the organic facies that gave rise to the coals were dominated by angiosperms. In addition, the presence of the sesquiterpenoid cadalene may indicate the subordinate contribution of gymnosperms (conifers) in the Paleocene Guasare mire. The average coalbed gas content obtained was 0.6 cm3/g. ??13C and D values indicate that thermogenic gas is prevalent in the studied coals. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Lean Manufacturing And Productivity Improvement In Coal Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Ade; Deshpande, Dr V. S.

    2012-01-01

    The economic reforms- Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization, (LPG) started in 1991 in India. The main objective of the government was to achieve high economic growth and industrialize the nation for the well-being of Indian citizens. Thus Indian market became Global and open market. Coal industry was not an exception to this phenomena of globalization. The improvement in productivity has become need of coal industry to take the competitive advantage of global market.The challenge to th...

  8. Utilization of Atikokan coal fly ash in acid rock drainage control from Musselwhite Mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is the greatest environmental liability facing the mining industry. Mines produce acidic effluents that are generated from the chemical reaction of sulphide containing minerals and atmospheric oxygen. The effluents have a pH value as low as 2 to 4 and their movement is accompanied by heavy metals which damage the ecosystem. This paper described some of the ARD-preventing technologies that are under investigation. In particular, it examined the feasibility of using Atikokan coal fly ash (AFA) as a buffering material to control and mitigate the generation of ARD from reactive Musselwhite Mine gold mine tailings. Coal fly ash is the residue resulting from the combustion of coal at electric generating plants. It consists of organic and inorganic matter, including silica, alumina, iron and calcium oxide with various amounts of carbon. More than 40,000 tons of fly ash is generated each year from the Atikokan Generating Station located 190 km west of the mine, of which 80 per cent is used for concrete manufacturing. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of both the fly ash residue and mine tailings. Six kinetic column permeation tests were then performed to monitor the leaching properties of the fly ash and the coal fly ash-mine tailings mixtures to determine the hydraulic conductivities resulting from pozzolanic reactions. The potential impacts of the disposal of AFA and mine tailiacts of the disposal of AFA and mine tailings were also assessed. The study showed that the hydraulic conductivities of high-calcium AFA and the ash-tailings mixtures were greatly reduced upon contact with ARD. The pH of the pore fluid increased from acidic to alkaline. The concentration of regulated elements in the leachate from the ash-tailings mixtures were also below the limits set by the Ontario Ministry of Environment. The results indicate that AFA could mitigate the generation of ARD from reactive Musselwhite Mine gold mine tailings. 1 ref., 6 tabs., 10 figs., 1 appendix

  9. Detecting voids in coal seams in surface mining by means of a biophysical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bek, E.

    1985-07-01

    Soviet research institutes, in cooperation with research intitutes from other countries, developed the Radar 1 system for detecting abandoned workings in coal seams in surface mines. The system will be used for detecting voids in seams at depths to 50 m. The Academy of Sciences of Czechoslovakia tested use of dowsing for detecting abandoned workings in the Pohranicni straz, the Brezova and the Medard coal surface mines. The workings were situated at depths from 2 to 12 m from the ground surface (dowser position). The dowser was not informed of position or dimensions of the workings. Accuracy of determining position of abandoned workings in coal seams was high. Results of dowsing were checked by drilling. 4 references.

  10. Efficiency Measurement in Turkish Coal Enterprises Using Data Envelopment Analysis and Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehim Bakirci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gradual population growths, skyrocketing technological developments and inter-State competitions increase the energy demands continuously. Although the countries try to diverse their energy sources in order to sustain their developments, they also have to pay attention to protect their energy independences. Thus, it is very important to develop their self-resources. Coal is the most common natural source which can meet our energy needs. However, coal mine enterprises have to be administrated cost-effectively in order get minimum energy costs. In this study, the efficiency of Turkish coal enterprises between the years 2003-2010 is measured by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. Then, indicators which are the most important in estimating the efficiency were determined by using the efficiency scores obtained by DEA in the Data Mining technique.

  11. Induced caving by blasting: innovative experiments in blasting gallery panels of underground coal mines of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.P.; Sawmliana, C.; Bhagat, N.K.; Madhu, M. [CMRI, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

    2003-04-01

    Induced caving by blasting during depillaring of panels in underground coal mines has received limited attention. This technique has become an integral part of a mining operation known as the blasting gallery (BG) method in India. Systematical deep hole (16-30 m) blasting has been successfully carried out from underground split galleries in BG panels. A study of drilling and blasting parameters, gas hazards, strata behaviour and ground vibration was undertaken as part of a research project for the Indian Ministry of Coal and Mines. Strata behaviour during blasting and ground movements were critically investigated. All experiments were conducted using newly developed explosive and detonating cord systems. A new blast damage index is proposed for damage assessment of the underground roof and pillars of BG panels. Useful mathematical formulas are described as an aid to future design.

  12. Residual subsidence analysis after the end of coal mine work. Example from Lorraine Colliery, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the residual movements associated with the deep coal mines. The studied case relates to works located into Lorraine coal basin. The paper is divided into two sections. The first one describes subsidence phenomena, especially the residual phase in terms of amplitude, duration and localization. The second one focus on Morsbach case: the total and residual subsidence measurements will be analyzed and compared to the state of the art as well as the currant knowledge. The results of the analysis show that the duration of residual movements does not exceed 24 months and their amplitude is about 5% of total subsidence. We analyze also the declarations of the mining damage during and after the mining period. Damages occur, after this period are probably due to late observations. (authors)

  13. Graphic scheduling of independent tasks for repair and maintenance crews in a coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starzyczny, L.; Dusza, K.; Marecki, F.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical models are used for optimizing maintenance and repair operations in underground coal mines. A repair crew consists of 'm' miners. The crew should repair 'n' machine failures during a shift. It is assumed that order of machine repair at various mine sections does not play a role. Sequence of repair and maintenance operations is selected considering only duration of transport from one section to another. Minimizing repair and transport time is used as the optimization criterion. Algorithm based on dynamic programming (formulation of the M - salesman travelling salesman problem) is used. Algorithm use is explained on one example. Practical use of the method for optimizing repair operation in coal mines is evaluated. (10 refs.)

  14. Possible Boundaries of the Reservation in the Coal Mines Development Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Rozhko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The features of the modeling coal mines development in the current conditions of the variable demand for coal product are discussed.The questions of the cost price calculation questions in the places of expenditure are considered. In this respect postulate is formulated: increase in the cost price extraction of the coal due to the decrease of goods traffic can not be greater than the parts of the cost which corresponds to the replace­ment or refined elements of the production. The need to access the structure of the production cost for the six processes of coal extraction (cleaning and prepa­ra­tion work, underground transport, repair of the excavation, and other underg­round processes (lifting, pumping, ventilation, repair of equipment, electricity, mining surface and etc. flows directly from this assumption.The problem of defining the possible boundaries of the reservation in the process of coal mines development is being paid attention to. Following the logics of reservation that is increasing of the flexibility in loads planning on the production units of the mine means that in the model must be necessarily present the conditions of the restrictions on the possibilities of purification equipment (including spare parts, and by the limits on the production resources (including natural of the enterprise. Two-step formulation of the task of modeling of the loads on the main chains of the mine in view of ensuring flexibility to the management of productive resources is proposed.The proposed method allows visually trace the dependence between the degree of utilization of production resources and production efficiency.

  15. Determination of intensity functions for predicting subsidence from coal mining, potash mining, and groundwater withdrawal using the influence function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triplett, T.; Yurchak, D. [Twin Cities Research Center, Bureau of Mines, US Dept. of the Interior, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents research, conducted by the Bureau of Mines, on modifying the influence function method to predict subsidence. According to theory, this technique must incorporate an intensity function to represent the relative significance of the causes of subsidence. This paper shows that the inclusion of a reasonable intensity function increases the accuracy of the technique, then presents the required functions for case studies of longwall coal mining subsidence in Illinois, USA, potash mining subsidence in new Mexico, USA, and subsidence produced by ground water withdrawal in California, USA. Finally, the paper discusses a method to predict the resultant strain from a simply measured site constant and ground curvatures calculated by the technique. (orig.)

  16. Slope aspect affects geomorphic dynamics of coal mining spoil heaps in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyssen, Jan; Vermeersch, Dominiek

    2010-11-01

    After the abandonment of coal mining in Belgium in the 1960s-1980s, many coal tips have been left to themselves. Increasingly, these coal tips are regarded as socio-cultural heritage and protected for their environmental value. This research analyses the spatial distribution of the main geomorphic processes (sheet and rill erosion, landsliding, rock fragment movement and root throw) occurring on coal tips in Belgium, through mapping of the processes and their causal factors. Five spoil heaps spread over the major coal basins were studied in detail. The spoil heaps were subdivided in homogeneous land units, especially with regard to slope gradient, vegetation cover and slope aspect. Qualitative and quantitative observations were done on processes and potential causal factors. Regressions showed that generally, the expression of slope processes on the studied coal tips is (1) strongly dependent on westerly aspect of the slopes, (2) independent of slope gradient (which presents a narrow range), (3) impeded by grass cover, and (4) not fully predictable due to variability in type and age of dumped mine spoil.

  17. From Capstan to Coal Mine with a Bean Can.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Ruth; Challinor, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Describes simple experiments to explore the variables and links to a theoretical approach. Using genuine data, develops an application to the drive mechanism for a lift in a deep mine shaft; poses follow-up questions. (ASK)

  18. The Chelyabinsk coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryleev, V.S.; Kornilkov, V.N. (Proizvodstvennoe Obedinenie Chelyabinskugol' (Russian Federation))

    1993-05-01

    Discusses coal mining in the Chelyabinsk coal basin in the Urals. The following aspects are evaluated: position of the Chelyabinsk basin, its coal reserves, properties of brown coal (calorific value of run-of-mine coal ranges from 4,000 to 4,500 kcal, carbon content from 72% to 74%), coal seam thickness, depth, coal seams prone to spontaneous combustion, underground coal mining (10 mines constructed from 1933 to 1969), schemes for coal deposit development and mining (schemes without leaving coal support pillars), coal losses, thin seam mining, problems associated with strata control, prevention of endogenous fires, equipment for underground coal mining. Selected aspects of surface coal mining in 3 surface mines of the Chelyabinsk basin are also discusssed: coal output, mining conditions, economic aspects of surface coal mining.

  19. The Navajo Nation's Mine Land Reclamation and Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides a brief overview of the activities of the Navajo nation's work in remediating former uranium mining and processing sites on their lands. The Navajo Abandoned Mine Lands Reclamation (Navajo AML) and Navajo Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (Navajo UMTRA) manage the environmental programs pursuant to the federal and Navajo Nation Laws. The Navajo AML has the authority and responsibility to provide and conduct reclamation of abandoned coal and non coal mines (uranium, copper, and sand/gravel) within the jurisdiction of the Navajo Nation pursuant to the Public Law 95-87, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), as amended, and the Navajo Reclamation Code/Plan. The Navajo land is located within the exterior boundaries of the States of Arizona, New Mexico and Utah. It is located on approximately 25 000 square miles, equal to 62 750 square kilometres. 62 750 million acres are equal to 6 480 000 hectares. Nearly 1300 abandoned mine sites have been identified and most sites about 90% have been completed. Mine features include open pits, rimstrips, vertical and incline shafts, open portals, associated radioactive mine waste and structures. (author)

  20. Flow dependent water quality impacts of historic coal and oil shale mining in the Almond River catchment, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Haunch, Simon; Macdonald, Alan M.; Brown, Neil; Mcdermott, Christopher I.

    2013-01-01

    The Almond River catchment in Central Scotland has experienced extensive coal mining during the last 300 years and also provides an example of enduring pollution associated with historic unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation from oil shale. Detailed spatial analysis of the catchment has identified over 300 abandoned mine and mine waste sites, comprising a significant potential source of mine related contamination. River water quality data, collected over a 15 year period from 1994 to 2008, ...