WorldWideScience

Sample records for open-pit coal mines

  1. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  2. Mudstone depressurization behaviour in an open pit coal mine, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, G.; Waterhouse, J. [Golder Associates, West Perth, WA (Australia); Crisostomo, J. [PT Adaro Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    Mining activities in the Tutupan mine in Indonesia began in the mid-1990s. The open pit mine's coal seams are interbedded with fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and carbonaceous mudstones. Slope stability analyses at the pit have integrated hydrogeology with geotechnical engineering analyses to optimize slope designs and reduce the risk of slope failure. This paper discussed the impact of mining and dewatering on mudstone depressurization. Sensors were placed at key points in the mine to obtain data related to the mudstone units. Reductions in pore pressure occurred as a result of groundwater flow away from the observed zones, increases in porosity, and increases in total porosity caused by an expansion of the rock mass as a result of drainage and hydrostatic unloading. Mudstone pore pressure trends with time were interpreted by determining the thickness of the mudstone unit, the presence or absence of known thin sandstone beds, unloading from overhead mining activities, and the position of the mudstone within the sedimentary sequence. The study showed that unloading activities have a significant impact on pore pressure in thick mudstone units, regardless of the depth, thickness, or properties of the unit. Pore pressure within high wall mudstone units typically decreased to values equivalent to the elevation of the unit where it was exposed to dips in a high wall. The dewatering of sandstone units in low walls caused a decline in pore pressure within the thick mudstone units located beneath the sandstones. Differences in primary permeabilities were attributed to greater fracturing in deeper and stronger rock units. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  3. A contribution to open pit hard coal mine waste rock management : comparing sidehill fill with layered dumping

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Shakeel

    2013-01-01

    Coal mining is an important economic activity as it covers the energy demands, generates export revenues and creates employment opportunities. Mining can, however, impact the local environment. Different mining operations produce several types of waste materials and one of the major wastes produced by open-pit mines is waste rock, which is dumped at waste rock dumps. The waste rock dumps can impact the environment in several ways. For instance, in Vietnam open-pit mines have disturbed the bea...

  4. Land reclamation policy after open pit coal mining in the North Bohemian brown coal mining district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the results of land reclamation activities in the North Bohemian brown coal mining district, and the principles are outlined of the long-term plan for ecosystem restoration in that region. (J.B.)

  5. Open pit mining of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Jackpile--Paquate Mines of the Anaconda Company are on the Laguna Indian Reservation midway between Grants and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The open pit mining of uranium ore at those mines is conducted in three separate operations (stripping, mining, and ore haul)

  6. Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Izquierdo, Sebastián; González, Enrique D

    2012-01-01

    The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ∼70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm (PM₁₀) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM₁₀ emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels. PMID:22054578

  7. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  8. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092 ‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment. PMID:26370817

  9. Assessment of Rosa Majalis Herrm-Fruits Contamination with Heavy Metals in Open-Pit Coal Mine Waste Dumps

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Nikolaevna Egorova; Olga Alexandrovna Neverova; Lyubov Sergeevna Dyshlyuk

    2014-01-01

    The work studies heavy metals content in embryo-earths and Rosa majalis Herrm. Fruits in conditions of "Kedrovsky" open-pit coal mine waste dump in Kuzbass region, Russia. It has been experimentally proven that embryo-earths of the dump are characterized by significant fluctuations in heavy metal content - maximum values are typical for Mn and Fe (79.5 and 26.6 mg/kg), minimum values for Cd and Cu (0.134 and 0.27 mg/kg). It has been found that the content of biologically active elements, Cu a...

  10. Development of an on-line coal quality management system in a lignite open pit mine in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, B. [Montan Bildungs-und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Theiben, (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented a study regarding the development of a coal quality management system (CQMS) for two open pit mines located in Serbia called Tamnava West and Veliki Crljeni. The study was based on on-line measurements, and was commissioned by the public energy corporation Elektroprivreda Srbjie. The purpose of the study was to develop a CQMS that met the quality requirements of the power plants by implementing a rigorous exploration, production planning, and production monitoring system in order to control the production according to certain quality parameters. The paper provided general information and described the initial situation. It also presented an analysis of the necessity to introduce a production monitoring and control system. The setup and layout of a production monitoring and control system based on on-line measurements were outlined, with particular reference to the determination of input parameters for every excavator for the tracking of masses; the simulation of mass tracking and summation of the masses at the transfer points towards the major conveyor; and the monitoring of the output and control of the mass flow according to determined limit values. Recommendations for implementation were also discussed. It was concluded that the newly developed CQMS at Tamnava West open pit mine could be classified as uncomplicated with regard to the quality parameters to be controlled, since currently only calorific value was being controlled. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

  12. Dynamics of the ecological-functional parameters of replantozems on dumps of open-pit coal mines in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefilova, O. V.; Grodnitskaya, I. D.; Efimov, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics have been studied of the ecological-functional parameters (EFP) of replantozems formed on the dumps of the Borodinskiy open-pit coal mine in the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (55°52' N, 94°54' E) that were not involved into agricultural use during the first 30 years. The work was based on the integrated analysis of the agrochemical properties and the EFP, which characterized the state of the plant cover, the microbial cenoses, and the biochemical activity of the replantozems representing a chronological series (5, 20, and 30 years). Multicomponent plant communities were formed on the surface of the replantozems over the 30-year period. The filled horizon of the replantozems was slowly involved into the metabolic processes. The thickness of the biologically active layer did not exceed 10 cm. The microbial cenosis's functional activity was relatively stabilized, and the values of the microbial biomass and basal respiration approached the background ones only in the upper (0-5 cm) layer. The biochemical activity of the microorganisms agreed with the changes in the properties of the upper (0-10 cm) layer of the replantozems: the contents of the total nitrogen and humus increased, as well as the degree of the humic acids "maturity" and the concentration of the mobile phosphorus, while the alkalinity decreased.

  13. Monitoring hazardous open pit mine slope.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    Houten : EAGE, 2012, C038/1-C038/5. ISBN 978-90-73834-27-9. [EAGE Conference & exhibition incorporationg SPE EUROPEC 2010 /74./. Copenhagen (DK), 04.06.2012-07.06.2012] R&D Projects: GA Mk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : tiltmeter * slope monitoring * open-pit mine Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  14. Design and selection criteria of surface continuous miners for open pit mining, using Turkish coal mine as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, N.; Balci, C.; Acaroglu, O.; Tuncdemir, H.; Eskikaya, S. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1998-07-01

    The use of surface continuous miners enables the effective design of mining operations. By changing the cutting depth of the operational drums it is possible to mine seams with different characteristics, i.e. different calorific values, ash contents etc. This paper, which is the result of a research project sponsored by NATO Science for Stability programme (TU-Excavation Project), discusses the design parameters of cutting experiments carried out on coal samples taken from the Mil-Ten Coal Company. The physical and mechanical characteristics of the coal samples were first determined and the samples subjected to cutting tests in a laboratory. For various tool spacings and cutting depths tool, forces in three directions and specific energy values were measured using a shaping machine, a force dynamometer and an advance data acquisition system. The cut material was subjected to sieve analysis and the results analysed to see if a surface continuous miner could be used in a coal mine in the Istanbul area. 2 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel. The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  16. Influence of cultivation measures on the development of vegetation and nutrient ratios in spoil banks from brown-coal open-pit mining at Borken/northern Hessen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoil banks from open-pit brown-coal mining at Borken in northern Hessen are extremely acidic and depleted in nutrients. This material was mixed with neutralizing cellulose ash. For initial fertilization, N, P2O5 and K2O were applied at the same time as the seeding mixture. Seeding mixtures used were ''Dauerweide'', containing fast-growing species, and ''Boeschungssaat'', containing undermanding species. The fact that no top soil was applied resulted in increasing gaps and decreasing production rates in the plant stands. This work aimed to investigate how plant stands and the soil material develop after revegetation measures without application of topsoil. (orig.)

  17. Methodology of selecting dozers for lignite open pit mines in Serbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovic, D.; Ignjatovic, D. [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Mining and Geology; Kovacevic, S.; Bulat, S. [Public Co. State Electricity Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    Apart from the main production processes (coal and overburden mining, rail conveyors transportation and storage of excavated masses) performed by great-capacity mechanization at open pit mines, numerous and different auxiliary works, that often have crucial influence on both the work efficiency of main equipment and the maintenance of optimum technical conditions of machines and plants covering technological system of open pit, are present. Successful realization of work indispensably requires a proper and adequate selection of auxiliary machines according to their type quantity, capacity, power etc. thus highly respecting specific conditions existing at each and every open pit mine. A dozer is certainly the most important and representative auxiliary machine at single open pit mine. It is widely used in numerous works that, in fact, are preconditions for successful work of the main mechanization and consequently the very selection of a dozer ranges among the most important operations when selecting mechanization. This paper presents the methodology of dozers selection when lignite open pit mines are concerned. A mathematical model defining the volume of work required for dozers to perform at open pit mines and consequently the number of necessary dozers was designed. The model underwent testing in practice at big open pit mines and can be used in design of future open pits mines.

  18. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Silwamba C; Chileshe P R K

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the st...

  19. Effect of mining landscape history on local species diversity: a case study of the Yimin open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarula Kang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and utilization of mineral resources accelerates local economic and social development and simultaneously exacerbates the effects of climate and landscape changes, resulting in landscape fragmentation. Landscape change is widely considered as a major threat to species loss at a regional and global scale. However, how species diversity responds to landscape changes on a temporal scale has usually been ignored. In this study, we explored relationships between landscape and biodiversity (species level and functional group level during different years (1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010 at the Yimin open-pit coal mine, a mine that has been exploited for more than 30 years and that has produced obvious fragmentation effects on the landscape in Hulunbuir City. The ongoing patterns of transformation of the landscape were measured using the landscape dominance index, the habitat integral index of connectivity (IIC, and the habitat probability of connectivity (PC at seven different spatial scales. The main results were as follows: The present species diversity is significantly correlated with the landscape pattern indices of previous and earlier mining at a medium-sized spatial scale (4–8 km buffers. Different plant functional groups responded in various ways to changing landscape patterns. The species richness of perennial rhizome grasses was significantly correlated with the present small-scale landscape pattern (1–3 km, and the species richness of perennial forbs was significantly correlated with the previous and earlier mining large-scale landscape patterns (4–10 km. Perennial bunchgrasses were not significantly correlated with landscape patterns. We concluded that the time lag expressed by changes in plant species diversity occurred in response to changing patterns of construction and configurations of habitats in the landscape. The regional species pool determined the local species diversity. The connected habitat patches within a 4–8 km buffer region represented the principal species pool. The propagation strategies and dispersal traits of various functional groups were important mechanisms maintaining species diversity in a fragmented area.

  20. Identification of a Hidden Volcano in an Open-pit Coal Mine by Gravity Survey, NW Bohemia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    Houten : EAGE, 2014, Tu PA2 03/1-Tu PA2 03/5. ISBN 978-94-6282-027-2. [Near Surface Geoscience 2014 - 20th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics. Athens (GR), 14.09.2014-18.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : hidden volcano * coal mine * gravity survey Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  1. Ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, there is a detail description of ecological geology environmental assessment of open-pit mines, including method, process and results. We took ecological geology environmental assessment work on the base of the results of some open-pit mines such as extremely low content magnetite in Hebei Province, inducted and summarized the ecological geology environment quality. The results are reasonable. It provides basic data for the second mines programming in Hebei Province. (authors)

  2. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines “Kolubara”, Serbia – risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and 40K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines “Kolubara” and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. - Highlights: • Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples were determined. • Effect on population health due to the activity of these radionuclides was estimated. • All samples were collected at different locations of the open pit mines “Kolubara”. • All measured and calculated values were below the recommended limits. • There is no enhanced radiation hazard for population nearby open pit mines

  3. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silwamba C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end-of-life planning was required for the extensive district-wide infrastructure of the open pit water control system for public safety after life of mine.

  4. Economic analysis of open-pit and in situ mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, in any feasibility study of uranium properties, the project manager would be prudent to compare the economics of in situ methods with conventional surface and underground techniques. In this comparison of in situ and open-pit uranium mining, a group of hypothetical uranium deposits was evaluated, using the three most sensitive depositional characteristics of depth, size and grade. In situ mining was shown to challenge conventional open pit methods and, even at lower uranium recoveries, to yield higher profits

  5. Mineralogy and characterization of deposited particles of the aero sediments collected in the vicinity of power plants and the open pit coal mine: Kolubara (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Željko; Logar, Mihovil; Rosić, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, particular attention was paid to the presence of aerosol solid particles, which occurred mainly as a result of exploitation and coal combustion in the thermal power plants of the Kolubara basin. Not all of the particles created by this type of anthropogenic pollution have an equal impact on human health, but it largely depends on their size and shape. The mineralogical composition and particle size distribution in the samples of aero sediments were defined. The samples were collected close to the power plant and open pit coal mine, in the winter and summer period during the year 2007. The sampling was performed by using precipitators placed in eight locations within the territory of the Lazarevac municipality. In order to characterize the sedimentary particles, several methods were applied: microscopy, SEM-EDX and X-ray powder diffraction. The concentration of aero sediments was also determined during the test period. Variety in the mineralogical composition and particle size depends on the position of the measuring sites, geology of the locations, the annual period of collecting as well as possible interactions. By applying the mentioned methods, the presence of inhalational and respiratory particles variously distributed in the winter and in the summer period was established. The most common minerals are quartz and feldspar. The presence of gypsum, clay minerals, calcite and dolomite as secondary minerals was determined, as well as the participation of organic and inorganic amorphic matter. The presence of quartz as a toxic mineral has a particular impact on human health. PMID:23054761

  6. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jimnez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 ?m - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle concentrations are the highest in January and February, being the correlation between the TSP and PM10 measurements not as strong during this time period. This could be associated with the spatial and temporal variability of wet deposition as well as a larger mechanical and eolic resuspension of particles. We found that precipitation drastically reduces the levels of particulate matter. In order to describe the effect of wet deposition, a mathematical model was developed based on a first order relaxation proportional to the precipitation rate. Daily average concentrations and daily accumulated precipitation were used in this model, which showed high concentration reductions even for low precipitation levels essentially for all stations. Monthly precipitation values showed a better correlation with TSP concentrations. Finally, we found evidence of a significant decrease in global radiation due to particulate matter, particularly during the dry season, which could potentially affect farming and agricultural activities in the region.

  7. VIABILIDAD DE LA EXTRACCIN DE CARBONES A CIELO ABIERTO. CASO MINA LA MARGARITA / OPEN PIT COAL EXPLOTATION VIABILITY. MARGARITA MINE CASE OF STUDY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JULIA, VELOZA; JORGE, MOLINA; HUMBERTO, MEJIA.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artculo analiza la viabilidad, planeamiento y diseo de una nueva explotacin a cielo abierto de carbn en la mina La Margarita S.A., con recursos carbonferos superficiales calculados en 440.139,7 ton. Se logr dimensionar, disear y evaluar econmicamente con tres diferentes mtodos de explo [...] tacin: Cortas, Contorno y Terrazas. Para el mtodo de Cortas el Valor Presente Neto (VPN) fue de 817,5 de Contorno 518,5 y Terrazas 645,2 dado en millones de pesos ($) colombianos corrientes del 2004 y la Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR) para Cortas: 78,33%, Contorno 34,0% y Terrazas 38,62. Estos indicadores sirvieron para seleccionar el mtodo de Cortas, el cual fue ajustado con cierto detalle, ya que fue necesario trabajar conjuntamente dos frentes para hacerlo viable. Como valor agregado para el proyecto se hizo una evaluacin general ambiental, que es de vital importancia para la explotacin. Se dan recomendaciones para minimizar los impactos ms importantes tales como la flora, fauna, aire, suelo, aguas. De cada una de ellas se plantean medidas ya sean de mitigacin, control o prevencin. Se espera que este trabajo sirva como soporte tcnico - econmico para el desarrollo de una nueva extraccin de carbn a cielo abierto dentro de la mina La Margarita. Abstract in english This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation was possible by three exploitation methods: (Multiple bench, Open Cast [...] contour, and Terraces). Net Present Values (NVP) were calculated: $C 817,5; $C 518,5 and $C 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $C 2380 are equivalent to $US 1) and Rate of Return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. In addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. It is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the Margarita Mine

  8. A Decision Support System and Cost-Performance Analysis for Dust Control at Open-Pit Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Fugitive dust emissions from mining activities can have severe health and environmental impacts unless adequately controlled. Designing proper mine dust control strategies requires evaluation of two main aspects: dust emission levels and cost-effectiveness of control methods. These aspects can be adequately evaluated by integrating location- and activity-specific dust emission factors, reduction factors and the cost parameters of control methods. This thesis presents a decision support system...

  9. Open pit and/or underground mining: a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical analysis of the mining of an ore body by open pit and/or underground methods is discussed. A generalized case history is presented to demonstrate the application of the major factors involved in the analysis, and the effect of a two-tier market is examined. 5 figures

  10. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for

  11. Situation and development of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China is described. The main experiences in production and management are introduced. Meanwhile the suggestions about the further development of uranium open-pit mining techniques are also proposed

  12. PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT MINE HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposed, open pit mine highwalls contribute significantly to the production of acid mine drainage (AMD) thus causing environmental concerns upon closure of an operating mine. Available information on the generation of AMD from open-pit mine highwalls is very limit...

  13. Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Ha, Hong Th? Bch; Gier, Reto

    2013-11-01

    This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.1460.004, 23.30.1, and 23.50.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.0060.004, 1.90.5, and 2.41.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.20.1 to 1403 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60% with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10% was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.840.02 and 7.70.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0.090.01 and 0.100.04 mg/kg respectively in the rice grain endosperm. The adaptation of native rice plants, combined with bioaccumulation ratios of 10.6 to 1.40.7 calculated for Cd transfer to the rice grain endosperm, and maximum Cd transfer factors of 4.32.1 to the plant roots, strongly suggest a continuous input of some toxic metals from coal-mining operations to agricultural lands in the region of Cam Pha. In addition, our results imply a sustained absorption of metals by native rice plant varieties, which may lead to metal accumulation (e.g., Cd) in human organs and in turn to severe disease. PMID:23990254

  14. Measurement of unattached fractions in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary set of measurements of the unattached fraction of potential alpha energy was made at the Ranger open pit uranium uranium mine and the Nabarlek uranium mill. The measurement system, which incorporated a parallel plate diffusion battery and diffuse junction detectors, is described. Results for RaA show a wide variation in the unattached fraction. They range up to 0.76 and are higher than corresponding values for underground mining operations

  15. Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

  16. Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Cehlárová; Michal Cehlár

    2007-01-01

    Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber an...

  17. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations and production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 740 Ci/AFR during mining operations and 33 Ci/AFR/yr after abandonment of the mine

  18. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.)

  19. Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is 'deepened' in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level. (authors)

  20. Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cehlárová

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is “deepened” in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level.

  1. Dewatering of the Jenkins open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining of low grade uranium sandstones in the Jenkins open pit mine in the Shirley Basin, Wyoming was troubled by slope failures and wet conditions in the pit. Since the mine was expanding toward a river, the possibility of drainage from this river into the mine raised serious concern during the mine planning. A baseline hydrogeologic study was performed and dewatering measures were designed with the help of a numerical mathematical model. A combination of dewatering wells installed from the surface around the perimeter of the pit and horizontal drains in areas of high slope failure potential substantially improved the mining conditions and slope stability. This procedure consequently led to the successful ore recovery from the highly saturated sandstone strata. The development of drawdown during the dewatering of two separated aquifers in the overburden was close to that predicted by the model

  2. Environmental Management of the Pocos de Caldas Open Pit Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pocos de Caldas mine is located in the district of Caldas, in the southwest of the Minas Gerais state of Brazil. Prior to the startup of the Lagoa Real mine in 2001, it was the only facility in Brazil where uranium concentrate was produced. The facility is an open pit mine with a surface diameter of 1000 m and an average depth of 120 m. Some 47 million m3 of overburdened ore and waste have been mined from the pit. About 1250 tonnes of uranium concentrate were recovered. The mine was closed in 1995, and actions were undertaken by INB to restore adequate environmental conditions to the site. The treatment of water percolating the waste rock pile is placing a burden on the company. The treatment consists of neutralization of the acid water percolate with CaO, recovery of the precipitate and its dumping into the open pit. Experiments have been carried out for the covering of the waste rock pile with native vegetals. The results have been promising. The chemical installation was adapted for the production of rare earth composites from monazite ore. Production is now starting with an installed annual capacity of 450 tonnes of cerium oxide and 1800 tonnes of lantanium chloride. INB is now starting a process which calls for the contracting of a specialized entity for the establishment of a global environmental restauration programme. (author)

  3. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantity of 222Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and 226Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall

  4. Mission-Critical Mobile Broadband Communications in Open Pit Mines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzeda Garcia, Luis Guilherme; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Barbosa, Viviane S. B.; Caldwell, George; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Lima, Hernani; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2016-01-01

    The need for continuous safety improvements and increased operational efficiency is driving the mining industry through a transition towards automated operations. From a communications perspective, this transition introduces a new set of high-bandwidth business- and mission-critical applications...... that need to be met by the wireless network. This article introduces fundamental concepts behind open-pit mining and discusses why this ever changing environment coupled with strict industrial reliability requirements pose unique challenges to traditional broadband network planning and optimization...... techniques. On the other hand, unlike unpredictable disaster scenarios, mining is a carefully planned activity. Taking advantage of this predictability element, we propose a framework that integrates mine and network planning so that continuous and automated adaptation of the network becomes possible. By...

  5. Some questions on small uranium open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiences of the existing uranium open pits are summarized and the questions in design, erection and production are analyzed. It is important helpful to develop and to design such economical and reasonable small uranium open pits

  6. A maximum flow formulation of a multi-period open-pit mining problem

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah, Henry; Larsson, Torbjörn; Textorius, Björn

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding an optimal mining sequence for an open pit during a number of time periods subject to only spatial and temporal precedence constraints. This problem is of interest because such constraints are generic to any open-pit scheduling problem and, in particular, because it arises as a Lagrangean relaxation of an open-pit scheduling problem. We show that this multi-period open-pit mining problem can be solved as a maximum flow problem in a time-expanded mine graph. ...

  7. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisieleski, W.E.

    1980-06-01

    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Cost analysis of open-pit mining by heap leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs of producing uranium by an open-pit mining using a heap leaching beneficiation operation are analyzed. The selection of a heap leaching operation is dictated largely by the small size of the orebody. The uranium minerals present respond readily to the lixiviant employed permitting some 75 to 80 per cent of the 1200 to 1500 ppm of U3O8 present in the heap to be recovered. Manpower and transportation account for a large proportion of the operating costs. The capital investment employed is equivalent to $ 5 000 000 and the production cost is equivalent to a value in the range $ 10 to $ 15 per pound on U3O8. Of interest is the 11.5 per cent of the overhead costs spent on security

  9. Management of open pit mining operations with ore stockpiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An open pit mining operation consists of mining processing and refining stages. The mining stage is responsible for provision of required amount of ore of pre-defined grade to the processing plant. The heterogeneity in the ore grade in various parts of the deposit leads to the definition of cutoff grade. The material below cutoff grade is sent to the stockpiles for utilization in later years when it becomes economical. The cutoff grade optimization theory maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of a mixing operation with a declining effect as the deposit leads toward exhaustion. This declining effect of NPV defines dynamic cutoff grades i.e. higher cutoff grades in the early years of mine life and lower cutoff grades in the later years. However, this precisely defines the amount and grade of material sent to the stockpile for processing in the later years. The management i.e. supply of material from the mine to stockpile and from the stockpile to the processing plant is an issue that is addressed in this paper by developing a cutoff grade optimization algorithm with option to stockpile. The benefits of methodology are elaborated in a case study. (author)

  10. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PREVENTION OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE GENERATION FROM OPEN-PIT HIGHWALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program Activity III, Project 26, Prevention of Acid Mine Drainage Generation from Open-Pit Highwalls. The intent of this project was to obtain performance data on the ability of four technologies to prevent the gener...

  11. Caracterizacin de Partculas Suspendidas (PST y Partculas Respirables (PM 10 producidas en reas de Explotacin Carbonfera a Cielo Abierto Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10 generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C Angulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisin de la literatura sobre la cuantificacin y caracterizacin de partculas suspendidas (PST y partculas respirables (PM10 producidas en reas de explotacin carbonfera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus caractersticas fsicas (distribucin de tamao de partcula, morfologa y densidad y por sus caractersticas qumicas (compuestos orgnicos e inorgnicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios. Estas caractersticas son crticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontr que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, as como estudios de modelacin. Esta revisin bibliogrfica contribuye a una mejor comprensin y evaluacin de las tecnologas que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminacin.This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distribution, morphology and density and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants. These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  12. Caracterizacin de Partculas Suspendidas (PST) y Partculas Respirables (PM 10) producidas en reas de Explotacin Carbonfera a Cielo Abierto / Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10) generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis C, Angulo; Jos I, Huertas; Gloria M, Restrepo.

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisin de la literatura sobre la cuantificacin y caracterizacin de partculas suspendidas (PST) y partculas respirables (PM10) producidas en reas de explotacin carbonfera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus caractersticas fsicas (dis [...] tribucin de tamao de partcula, morfologa y densidad) y por sus caractersticas qumicas (compuestos orgnicos e inorgnicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios). Estas caractersticas son crticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontr que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, as como estudios de modelacin. Esta revisin bibliogrfica contribuye a una mejor comprensin y evaluacin de las tecnologas que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminacin. Abstract in english This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP) and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10) generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distr [...] ibution, morphology and density) and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants). These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  13. Use of abandoned coal/lignite open pits for waste disposal in selected European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of abandoned coal/lignite pits as disposal sites for solid waste appears to be a reasonable approach to a difficult problem, especially if they are located close to the waste source. However, a potential for groundwater and soil pollution exists. This issue was discussed by a Group of Experts on Opencast Mining of the UN Economic Commission for Europe because most of the sites are operated by mining companies. This paper contains the major topics of discussion including the significance of the problem, legal aspects, characteristics of the open pits, waste intended for disposal, investigations required to obtain a disposal permit, disposal techniques, protection measures, monitoring environmental impacts, and research trends. A few countries are used as examples

  14. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations, mine dimensions, production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 630 Ci/RRY (1 RRY one = 1000-MW(e) reactor operating for 1 year) during mining operations and 26 Ci/RRY/y after abandoment of the mine assuming 100% recovery of U3O8 from the ore, or 700 Ci/RRY and 29 Ci/RRY/y assuming 90.5% recovery

  15. Case history of controlling a landslide at Panluo open-pit mine in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zuoan; Yin, Guangzhi; Wan, Ling; Shen, Louyan

    2008-04-01

    Controlling of landsides safely and economically is a great challenge to mine operators because landslides are major geological problems especially in open-pit mines. In this paper, a case history at Panluo open-pit mine is presented in detail to share the experiences and lessons with mine operators. Panluo open-pit mine is located in the southwestern Fujian province of China. It is the largest open-pit iron mine in the Fujian province and was planned in 1965 and is in full operation from 1978. In July 1990, an earthquake of magnitude 5.3 in Taiwan Strait and big rainstorms impacted the mine slope, causing tension cracks and rather large-scale failures, and forming a U-shaped landslide. Total potential volume was estimated to be up to 1.0 × 106 m3. This directly threatened the mine production. In order to protect the mine production and the dwellers’ safety around, a dynamic comprehensive method was implemented including geotechnical investigations, in-situ testing and monitoring, stability analysis, and many mitigation and preventive measures. These measures slowed down the development and further occurrence of the landslide. The results showed that the landslides were still active, it was slowed with the control measures and moved rapidly with rainfall and mining down. However, no catastrophic accidents occurred and the pit mining was continued till it was closed at the elevation of 887 m in 2000. As a successful case of landslide control at an open-pit mine for 10 years, this paper reports the controlling measures in details. These experiences of landslide control may be beneficial to other similar mines for landslide control.

  16. Hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buvač” (Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papić Petar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Projecting of the dewatering system of the open-pit mine “Buvač” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on the use of hydrodynamic model of groundwater regime. Creating the hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buvač“ was made in phases, which began by basic interpretation of collected data, along with schematization of the groundwater flow and flow conditions, and finally, forming and calibration of model. Hydrodynamic model was created as multilayer model with eight layers. Calibration of the hydrodynamic model is the starting point for making prognosis calculation in order to create the most optimal system of open-pit mine protection from groundwater. The results of model calibration indicated that the rivers Gomjenica and Bistrica, precipitation and inflow from karstified rocks are the primary sources of recharge of the limonite ore body “Buvač”.

  17. Hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buvač” (Republic of Srpska)

    OpenAIRE

    Papić Petar; Bajić Dragoljub; Polomčić Dušan; Stojković Jana

    2013-01-01

    Projecting of the dewatering system of the open-pit mine “Buvač” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina) is based on the use of hydrodynamic model of groundwater regime. Creating the hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buvač“ was made in phases, which began by basic interpretation of collected data, along with schematization of the groundwater flow and flow conditions, and finally, forming and calibration of model. Hydrodynamic model was created as multilayer model with eight layers...

  18. The using of GPS RTK technology for creation of the Open Pit mine basic map

    OpenAIRE

    Jitka Mu?kov

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of accuracy of results of methods used for measuring of detailed points of drawing of the open pit mine map with results of the method GPS RTK is realized in the paper. The first part of the article deals with classical methods of tacheometry as wire tacheometry, reducing tacheometry or tacheometry with electronic tacheometer. In the second part of the article the selective set of coordinates of detailed points measured in the open pit mine in Jakub?ovice nad Odrou is eva...

  19. Vibration response of waste rock dump in open pit mine caused by blasting operation

    OpenAIRE

    Lednická, M. (Markéta); Kaláb, Z.

    2015-01-01

    In the open pit mine near Jarnoltowek (Poland), phyllite is excavated and rock waste is deposited on the dump directly in the mine; that is at a distance of approximately 150 m from the quarry face. Blasting operations are used as mining technology here so the rock waste dump could be influenced by these vibrations significantly. The paper presents results of experimental seismological measurement performed on four levels of the rock waste dump in the discussed mine.

  20. A Heuristic Traditional MIP Solving Approach for Long Term Production Scheduling in Open Pit Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafiee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is optimization of long term production scheduling by solving the traditional MIP formulation that the objective function and all of constrains are satisfied. The economic viability of the modern day mine is highly dependent upon careful planning and design. Appropriate planning and operation of large open pit mines are enormous and complex task. Optimization techniques can be successfully applied to resolve a number of important problems that arise in the planning and management of a mine. Optimization of long-term production planning needs correct selection of equipments and labor forces and reducing capital and operation costs. Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP methods are used for optimizing production planning in open pit mines with objective of maximizing the total discounted net present value. But MIP formulation of the production scheduling in open pit mines, particularly in large open pit with many numbers of blocks needs too many variables causing it very difficult or impossible to solve. To over come this problem a new heuristic approach by reducing schedule period and applying primary guess is developed based on mixed integer linear programming to reduce the periods of planning and decrease the number of variable and the number of constraint needed in the formulation. The results of this method compared to existing methods shows the significant reduction of binary variable in MIP formulation and higher chance to obtain the optimal Net Present Value (NPV.

  1. The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

  2. Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d = 5.46 ± 0.32 μm and σ(ln d) = 0.61 ± 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d = 3.6 ± 0.38 μm and σ(ln d) = 0.55 ± 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. - Highlights: ► Airborne particles from an opencast mining region were fully characterized. ► SEM-EDS and XPS techniques were applied to characterize airborne particles ► Particle size distributions of TSP and PM10 are lognormal ► Particles are composed of limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar ► Heavy metals content in the particles does not represent any risk to human health

  3. GPSS system applied to optimization of technological process of open-pit mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The queuing sub-system and the stored sub-system are abstracted as a composed dynamic system from the technological process of open-pit mining. Using the GPSS system the simulation models were established, and by changing the parameters of the models the optimization of the technological process was carried out

  4. Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jos I; Huertas, Mara E; Sols, Dora A

    2012-04-15

    We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d=5.46 0.32 ?m and ?(ln d)=0.61 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM(10)) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d=3.6 0.38 ?m and ?(ln d)=0.55 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. PMID:22405562

  5. A Heuristic Traditional MIP Solving Approach for Long Term Production Scheduling in Open Pit Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Rafiee; Omid Asghari

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is optimization of long term production scheduling by solving the traditional MIP formulation that the objective function and all of constrains are satisfied. The economic viability of the modern day mine is highly dependent upon careful planning and design. Appropriate planning and operation of large open pit mines are enormous and complex task. Optimization techniques can be successfully applied to resolve a number of important problems that arise in the planning...

  6. Variation of radon daughter concentrations in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to quantify the WL variations for open pit mine conditions, a series of measurements was made at the Ranger uranium mine over a two week period. The parameters measured were temperature, wind speed, radon and radon daughter concentration and WL. A preliminary analysis of the data shows a correlation between WL and the reciprocal wind speed but no apparent correlation between wind speed and the equilibrium factor

  7. Robust models for simultaneous open pit and underground mines

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Mining planning is a central problem in the mining business with the goal of setting high revenued exploitation agendas. However, current models lack robustness: they do not consider uncertainty of the future, so the plans are, indeed, recalculated every year according to the new information. This work presents some approaches to solve the above-mentioned problem: at first the current models are exposed, stochastic programming is used then to set up new models considering uncertainity. As a s...

  8. Engineering application of thrust block analysis in slope stability problems in open pit mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karparov, K.N.; Handley, M.F.

    2009-05-15

    The classical limit equilibrium methods are suspected to be ineffective in predicting the potential for highwall failure in many instances in coal mines around the world. Slope engineers have for many years recognized a block thrust failure mechanism for slope failures, but little work had been done before 2000 to explain the actual mechanisms which must be responsible for the failure. The main reason for this is that limit equilibrium methods implicitly assume rigid blocks, and the resulting force equations must be satisfied everywhere simultaneously for them to have any meaning. This paper will show that the material involved in the slope failure is not rigid; indeed it undergoes considerable permanent deformation during failure. This observation allows the authors to treat the block boundaries independently, because they need not maintain a constant spatial relationship with one another, as is assumed in other methods. To enable analysis of this type the authors assume that the weight of the blocks is evenly distributed. This is reasonable, because the slope material is not strong enough to be self-supporting without some sort of constraint, or strong enough to be able to apply point loads to the surrounding material. The purpose of this paper is to extend the practical application of the analytical method developed from mechanism studies to provide an objective assessment of the risk of slope failure, and therefore guidelines for more stable slope designs. This work is based on studies carried out on two failures in an open pit coal mine in South Africa, and provides a methodology to assess the potential for failure more objectively than is possible with currently accepted methods, while at the same time remaining sufficiently simple to allow a back of the cigarette box, assessment by geotechnical engineers on site.

  9. Engineering application of thrust block analysis in slope stability problems in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K.N., Karparov; M.F., Handley.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical limit equilibrium methods are suspected to be ineffective in predicting the potential for highwall failure in many instances in coal mines around the world. Slope engineers have for many years recognized a block thrust failure mechanism for slope failures, but little work had been done [...] before 2000 to explain the actual mechanisms which must be responsible for the failure. The main reason for this is that limit equilibrium methods implicitly assume rigid blocks, and the resulting force equations must be satisfied everywhere simultaneously for them to have any meaning. This paper will show that the material involved in the slope failure is not rigid; indeed it undergoes considerable permanent deformation during failure. This observation allows the authors to treat the block boundaries independently, because they need not maintain a constant spatial relationship with one another, as is assumed in other methods. To enable analysis of this type the authors assume that the weight of the blocks is evenly distributed. This is reasonable, because the slope material is not strong enough to be self-supporting without some sort of constraint, or strong enough to be able to apply point loads to the surrounding material. The purpose of this paper is to extend the practical application of the analytical method developed from mechanism studies to provide an objective assessment of the risk of slope failure, and therefore guidelines for more stable slope designs. This work is based on studies carried out on two failures in an open pit coal mine in South Africa, and provides a methodology to assess the potential for failure more objectively than is possible with currently accepted methods, while at the same time remaining sufficiently simple to allow a 'back of the cigarette box' assessment by geotechnical engineers on site.

  10. Technical parametrization of uranium reserves to be mined by open-pit method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous technical parameters must be dealt with in calculating grade-tonnage relationships: some refer to ore selection criteria in the ore zone (for example the cut-off grade, the size of the standard mining unit, the blast-holes grid available when mining), others relate to geometrical constraints depending upon the mining method (for example the stripping ratio). Achieving the technical parametrization of the recoverable reserves is somewhat challenging when there is an excessive number of parameters: the example of an uranium deposit to be mined by open-pit method shows that the solution can be reached by a sequence of adequately interrelated studies

  11. Radiation safety aspects of occupational areas at a Brazilian open-pit mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the radiation safety aspects of open-pit mining in Brazil and presents results of exposure rate measurements at points located at different work-front sites, primary crushing, static leaching sites and ore storage patio. Results of surface contamination and air monitoring in the hauling trucks and area control cabs are presented. Routine difficulties in trying to comply with the radiation safety procedures required is discussed and suggestions presented

  12. Development of new metaheuristic tools for long term production scheduling of open pit mines

    OpenAIRE

    Khan,Asif,

    2016-01-01

    Long term production scheduling of open pit mines is a large scale and complex optimization problem that has been extensively discussed in the technical literature since 1960s. It seeks to specify such an extraction sequence of ore and waste materials from the ground that maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of the operation while satisfying a set of physical and operational constraints. Block model representation of the orebody is commonly used as a basic input for this purpose. The block m...

  13. AN ANOTHER WAY FOR OPEN PIT MINE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION – FLOATING SLOPES METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Galić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors of the work presents main principles of a new method of design the ultimate pit which is primarily applicable for bedded formations, but also can be acceptable for other types of deposits. On the basis of main criteria of optimum design (profitability and slope stability, the authors have tested theirs procedure and proposed a new method for optimum design of open pit mines, for which the most suitable name would be the Floating Slopes Method.

  14. Production Scheduling of Open Pit Mines Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Asif Khan; Christian Niemann-Delius

    2014-01-01

    Determining an optimum long term production schedule is an important part of the planning process of any open pit mine; however, the associated optimization problem is demanding and hard to deal with, as it involves large datasets and multiple hard and soft constraints which makes it a large combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper a procedure has been proposed to apply a relatively new and computationally less expensive metaheuristic technique known as particle swarm optimization (P...

  15. Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

  16. Optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation in combined mining using (0-1) integer programming

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Bakhtavar; K., Shahriar; A., Mirhassani.

    Full Text Available There are many near-surface deposits with considerable vertical extent that have the potential to be mined by a combined method of open-pit and underground methods. In this regard, there is often a point called 'transition depth' where a decision has to be made whether to continue deepening the pit [...] or change to underground methods. Recently, optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation has become an important challenge in mining engineering. Optimally, to model the transition problem on the basis of maximization of the profit from open-pit and underground mining, (0-1) integer programming has been used. In this method, block economic values of open-pit and underground methods should be imported to the transition model. A hypothetical example is presented in order to assess the model in detail.

  17. Pb-210 growth in water in an open pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an open pit uranium mine, pluviometric precipitation may fill the pit with water. Pb-210 concentration grows in this water due to Rn-222 emanation from the submerse ore. The results of this model are compared with the numerical calculation of Pb-210 growth, from a constant value of 1 Bq of Rn-222. An independent determination of Rn-222 concentration equilibrium value, that is the value of Rn-222 concentration dissolved in water, is also necessary, in order to confirm the results of the model. Results of experiments made in the uranium mine at 'Caetite', BA, Brazil, have confirmed this model predictions, with good accuracy

  18. Analysis of open-pit mines using high-resolution topography from UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Among the anthropogenic topographic signatures on the Earth, open-pit mines deserve a great importance, since they significantly affect the Earth's surface and its related processes (e.g. erosion, pollution). Their geomorphological analysis, therefore, represents a real challenge for the Earth science community. The purpose of this research is to characterize the open-pit mining features using a recently published landscape metric, the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC) (Sofia et al., 2014), and high-resolution DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) derived from drone surveyed topography. The research focuses on two main case studies of iron mines located in the Beijing district (P.R. China). The main topographic information (Digital Surface Models, DSMs) was derived using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric technique. The results underline the effectiveness of the adopted methodologies and survey techniques in the characterization of the main geomorphic features of the mines. Thanks to the SLLAC, the terraced area given by multi-benched sideways-moving method for the iron extraction is automatically depicted, and using some SLLAC derived parameters, the related terraces extent is automatically estimated. The analysis of the correlation length orientation, furthermore, allows to identify the terraces orientation respect to the North, and to understand as well the shape of the open-pit area. This provides a basis for a large scale and low cost topographic survey for a sustainable environmental planning and, for example, for the mitigation of environmental anthropogenic impact due to mining. References Sofia G., Marinello F, Tarolli P. 2014. A new landscape metric for the identification of terraced sites: the Slope Local Length of Auto-Correlation (SLLAC). ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2014.06.018

  19. igm Robots with laser measurement for an economic repair welding of equipment components of open-pit minings; igm-Roboter mit Laservermessung zum wirtschaftlichen Reparaturschweissen von Tagebauausruestungsteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wihsbeck, Martin [igm Robotersysteme AG, Wiener Neudorf (Austria); Wache, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Spremberg (Germany). Schwarze Pumpe; Springfeld, Peter

    2012-08-15

    In the Lusatian area,Vattenfall Europe AG prosecutes four open-pit minings whose lignite directly is supplied to power stations. A quarter of Germany's total electricity supply is based on lignite. The lignite mining in the area of the Lusatian open-pit minings is particularly efficient due to the horizontal orientation of the Lusatian coal seams. The movable components of the overburden conveyor bridges as well as the bucket wheel excavators and bucket ladder dredgers are subject to a tremendous wear. It is not economically feasible to refurbish certain wear parts. Such parts include Turas corners. In order to refurbish such Turas corners nevertheless, the Austrian company igm robot system AG (Wiener Neudorf, Austria) offers a welding robot.

  20. Optimal cut-off grade determination based on variable capacities in open-pit mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Abdollahisharif; E., Bakhtavar; M., Anemangely.

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Optimal cut-off grade is one of the most critical parameters in open-pit mine design because it defines the ore and waste and thus determines the maximum net present value possible from the mining operation. Although the algorithm presented by Lane (Choosing the optimum cut-off grade. Color [...] ado School of Mines Quarterly, vol. 59, no. 4, 1964. pp. 811-829) is the most common one in the literature, it does assume constant capacities of the mine, processing, and refinery. In this paper, Lane's original algorithm has been modified to consider variable processing capacities in order to determine the optimal cut-off grade in open-pit mines. The new algorithm proposed here is compared to both Lane's original algorithm and to a previous modification that incorporated rehabilitation costs into the cut-off grade estimation. The algorithm proposed here that permits variable processing capacities is shown to be superior for the determination of optimal cut-off grade to both these previous versions. In addition, a computer-based program was developed in Microsoft Office Excel to calculate the optimal cut-off grade as proposed here.

  1. Combining Multiple Surveying Techniques to Accelerate Surveys of Open Pit Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, János; Schimmer, Christoph; Herkommer, Martin; Kutschera, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial Lidar Scanning (TLS) is well-accepted as the most precise tool for surveying open pit mines, collecting ultra-dense measurements drastically faster than traditional land surveying with a GNSS receiver. However, while a TLS can capture the most important parts of a mine in only a few surveys, the remaining occluded areas of the mine require several additional surveys, extending the survey time. To drastically reduce the time required for a TLS survey while still providing good quality data, we have adopted an approach that augments TLS data with UAV-based aerial triangulation. First, we identify a handful of positions from which the TLS can survey the vast majority of the mine, paying particular attention to the most important areas of the mine and the areas that an airborne scanner would have difficult accessing, such as the walls. We then survey the mine with a UAV-mounted camera and collect several ground control points (GCPs) in areas spread across the mine. During post-processing, we use aerial triangulation to derive a point cloud from the overlapping images captured by the UAV and matched the TLS and UAV data with the GCPs. Generally, the aerial-triangulation data is less dense and precise than the TLS data so we only used it to fill in areas we did not cover with the TLS. To minimize the impact of any loss of detail, we plan surveys so that the TLS covers the most important parts of the mine and so the UAV data is only needed for less important areas. The result is a georeferenced topographic map of the entire mine with high-quality data in the most important areas, all collected within hours rather than days. As proof of this concept, geo-konzept surveyed a mid-sized German open pit mine with a goal of spending only half a day surveying on-site. With an Optech ILRIS TLS and a geo-konzept Geo-Copter X-8000 UAS, we met this goal by surveying the entire 500-m×500-m mine in only 3 hours. Post-processing and georeferencing only required another 4 hours, meaning the entire survey could be done in a single day of work. We conclude that this multi-instrument approach greatly accelerates the rate at which surveyors can scan open-pit mines while still collecting dense and precise data.

  2. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of a uranium mine in Guangxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close-out of projects of a mine in Guangxi province of China includes open pit,east and west waste rock piles, ore transfer station, industrial fields, buildings, ore transporting road, and equipment and conduits. The following remediation limits are introduced: environment penetrating radiation dose rate and 222Rn flux of open pit and waste rock piles, 226Ra specific activity of soil and individual dose. Remediation objective and programme are discussed in details. Remediation effects are evaluated. (authors)

  3. Radiation monitoring program for an open pit uranium mine and uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the radiation monitoring program for an open pit uranium mine and uranium mill. Background monitoring was done before any ore was removed from the pit area and during mill construction. To establish base-line data radon concentrations, radiation dose using thermoluminescent dosimetry, radon flux and other parameters were routinely measured. This paper also describes the monitoring program set up for environmental and personnel monitoring during milling operations. Included are the selection of instruments, the frequency of sampling and quality control of the monitoring program. (author)

  4. Estimation of resuspension of radioactive aerosols in equipment cab of open-pit uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In open-pit mining of high grade ores, operators of mining equipment in a pressurized cab are protected from inhaling radioactive aerosols by the use of filtered air through a pre-impactor and a HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter. At present, a limited amount of scientific information is available on the worker exposure to airborne alpha emitters in the mining of high-grade ores. Four series of field samplings were conducted during the fall of 1980 and the summer of 1981 at a mining site in northern Saskatchewan to investigate the extent of protection an equipment operator has against cab internal exposure to airborne alpha emitters with short and long half-life radionuclides. The variation in the breathing zone concentration of aerosols as a result of resuspension is discussed, however no attempt was made to isolate and investigate the factors and the associated parameters of the aerosol resuspension phenomenon

  5. A stochastic simulation framework for truck and shovel selection and sizing in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.R., Dindarloo; M., Osanloo; S., Frimpong.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Material handling in open pit mining accounts for about 50% of production costs. The selection and deployment of efficient, safe, and economic loading and haulage systems is thus critical to the production process. The problems of truck and shovel selection and sizing include determination of the op [...] timal number and capacities of haulage and loading units, as well as their allocation and operational strategies. Critical survey and analysis of the literature has shown that deterministic, stochastic, and experimental approaches to these problems result in considerably different outputs. This paper presents a comprehensive simulation framework for the problem of truck and shovel selection and sizing based on the random processes underlying the network-continuous-discrete event nature of the mining operation. The framework builds on previous research in this field and attempts to address limitations of available methodologies in the form of a comprehensive algorithm. To test the validity of the framework a large open pit mine was evaluated. The stochastic processes governing the uncertainties underlying the material loading and haulage input variables were defined and built into the stochastic model. Discrete event simulation was used to simulate the stochastic model. The proposed model resulted in several modifications to the case study.

  6. Integration of UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for the Three-Dimensional Mapping and Monitoring of Open-Pit Mine Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohua Tong; Xiangfeng Liu; Peng Chen; Shijie Liu; Kuifeng Luan; Lingyun Li; Shuang Liu; Xianglei Liu; Huan Xie; Yanmin Jin; Zhonghua Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a practical framework for the integration of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) with application to open-pit mine areas, which includes UAV image and TLS point cloud acquisition, image and cloud point processing and integration, object-oriented classification and three-dimensional (3D) mapping and monitoring of open-pit mine areas. The proposed framework was tested in three open-pit mine areas in southwestern China. (1) ...

  7. A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs

  8. Mining and technological characteristics of future open-pit mine at Brod-Gneotino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development program of Electric Power Company of Macedonia includes to open several pits of coal with aim to prolongate the working period of TPP Bitola, of which one is the bed Brod-Gneotino. This coal bed is characterized with some characteristic mining and technological parameters described in thi paper. (Author)

  9. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of Daxin uranium mine of China - 59073

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Daxin Uranium Mine is an small open pit mine. Its contaminated facilities include open pit 87620 m2, East waste rock pile 71710 m2, west waste rock pile 57828 m2, ore transfer station and industrial fields 9370 m2, building and structure 26600 m2, equipment 246 pieces, plastic conduit 3000 m. steel conduit 2500 m2 and road for transporting ores 1020 m. The integrated decommissioning programmes are presented: uranium extraction, slope stabilization, clear-up, backfill, reshape, covering, re-vegetation, dismantlement/ demolishment, decontamination, re-smelting, waste water treatment. (authors)

  10. MINE - A Game for the Analysis of Regional Water Policies in Open-Pit Lignite Mining Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Weigkricht, E.; Kaden, S.

    1985-01-01

    The game MINE has been developed for the analysis of regional water policies in open-pit lignite mining areas. It is implemented for a GDR test area. The purpose of the game is above all to teach decision makers and their staff in mining regions in order to get a better understanding of the complex interrelated socio-economic processes with respect to water management in such regions. The game is designed to be played by five groups of players representing municipal and industrial water suppl...

  11. Public exposure to hazards associated with natural radioactivity in open-pit mining in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, E O; Faanu, A; Awudu, A R; Emi-Reynolds, G; Yeboah, J; Oppon, O C; Akaho, E H K

    2010-01-01

    The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 +/- 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana. PMID:19767601

  12. Public exposure to hazards associated with natural radioactivity in open-pit mining in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies carried out on public exposure contribution from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) in two open-pit mines in the Western and Ashanti regions of Ghana are reported. The studies were carried out under International Atomic Energy Agency-supported Technical Co-operation Project GHA/9/005. Measurements were made on samples of water, soil, ore, mine tailings and air using gamma spectrometry. Solid-state nuclear track detectors were used for radon concentration measurements. Survey was also carried out to determine the ambient gamma dose rate in the vicinity of the mines and surrounding areas. The effective doses due to external gamma irradiation, ingestion of water and inhalation of radon and ore dusts were calculated for the two mines. The average annual effective dose was found to be 0.30 ± 0.06 mSv. The result was found to be within the levels published by other countries. The study provides a useful information and data for establishing a comprehensive framework to investigate other mines and develop guidelines for monitoring and control of NORMS in the mining industry and the environment as a whole in Ghana. (authors)

  13. Study on the Law of the Movement and Damage to Slope with the Combination of Underground Mining and Open-Pit Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Xingkui Fang; Gaofeng Ren

    2010-01-01

    Under circumstances in which both underground mining and open-pit mining are employed, the mining effects of two approaches will be superposed and the mining slope will receive several induced stress fields, which makes the sliding mechanism and deformation law of slope rock mass more complicated. This paper, targeting at the east slope of Antaibao Mine with the joint employment of underground mining and open-pit mining, aims to study the moving law of the slope rock mass and the damage mecha...

  14. Stochastic Modeling Approach for the Evaluation of Backbreak due to Blasting Operations in Open Pit Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mehmet; Ghasemi, Ebrahim; Ataei, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Backbreak is an undesirable side effect of bench blasting operations in open pit mines. A large number of parameters affect backbreak, including controllable parameters (such as blast design parameters and explosive characteristics) and uncontrollable parameters (such as rock and discontinuities properties). The complexity of the backbreak phenomenon and the uncertainty in terms of the impact of various parameters makes its prediction very difficult. The aim of this paper is to determine the suitability of the stochastic modeling approach for the prediction of backbreak and to assess the influence of controllable parameters on the phenomenon. To achieve this, a database containing actual measured backbreak occurrences and the major effective controllable parameters on backbreak (i.e., burden, spacing, stemming length, powder factor, and geometric stiffness ratio) was created from 175 blasting events in the Sungun copper mine, Iran. From this database, first, a new site-specific empirical equation for predicting backbreak was developed using multiple regression analysis. Then, the backbreak phenomenon was simulated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The results reveal that stochastic modeling is a good means of modeling and evaluating the effects of the variability of blasting parameters on backbreak. Thus, the developed model is suitable for practical use in the Sungun copper mine. Finally, a sensitivity analysis showed that stemming length is the most important parameter in controlling backbreak.

  15. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

  16. A study of radiation parameters in an open-pit mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation parameters associated with the open pit mining of a small (10,000 tonnes) but high grade (2%) uranium deposit at Nabarlek, N.T., have been investigated in detail. External radiation levels, radon emanation rates and radon daughter levels were measured systematically during the development of the mine, and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, usually during the night and were invariably associated with thermal inversions. The mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated from the measured levels to be 0.065 Working Level Months for employees working in the pit for the entire four and a half months of mining. The mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure for the same employee group was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters to be 2.3 mSv (230 mrem). For most other employees, however, exposures were much lower. Data on long lived radionuclides in dust and on particle size distribution are also presented. (author)

  17. Formation of the composition and properties of dumps on the open-pit mines of Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesin, Y. V.; Luk'yanova, S. Y.; Tyuleneva, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    In 2012 the total volume of coal mining in the Kuzbass was about 200 million tons, including 116 million tons (60.3%) produced open way, Figure 1. In 2014, it was produced more than 203 million tons of coal. In addition, there is no reason to believe that in the near future volume of coal will decline. Accordingly, the volume of wastewater discharged by enterprises will increase. So, from 2006 to 2009 there was an increase of polluted water discharge coal mines from 217 to 245 million m3. Therefore, the problem of water pollution mines governmental waters and career is very important.

  18. Optimal synthesis of energy supply systems for remote open pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary motivation underlying the proposal of polygeneration systems for mine sites is to increase the efficient use of natural resources by combining different technologies and energy resources while satisfying energy service demands. For many mineral producers, particularly in Canada's mining extremes of climate and depth, energy in support of mineral production can be the second largest cost center after labor. A generic methodology is proposed for the design of energy supply systems in mine sites, based on a search for the minimum discounted cost of energy supplied for all feasible different plant configurations. These configurations can be represented within a connectivity matrix which corresponds to a network representation. A Mixed Integer Programming formulation is set out for the multiperiod synthesis and operational planning problem. This is characterized by i) binary variables for the selection of technologies, ii) integer variables for the determination of the number of units installed, and iii) by continuous variables for the representation of energy and economic flows. Through the integration of particular energy supply strategies matching specific mine circumstances (on-grid, remote, degree days, etc) and consideration of technologies that improve energy efficiency, hitherto not considered new technologies and demand management systems or new perspectives on optimal mine site energy supply can be investigated. Some of these investigations identify the economic conditions through which biomass energy feedstocks should be used, for direct heat production, for gasification and providing for Fischer–Tropsch syndiesel manufacture. As well as integrating demand from mobile diesel-fueled plant into an optimization procedure this analysis shows how the techniques can be used to explore economic conditions of threshold prices for biomass (purpose-grown biomass and peat are considered herein) and trucked-in diesel. The methodology also allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. Within the paper the energy demands for a remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario are considered as a case study to illustrate the technique and investigations. As expected, for mines close to electricity, natural gas, and diesel distribution infrastructures, the optimal choice is to connect. When a constraint is applied specifying that connection is not possible, as would be for the case exemplified, the optimal choice includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply. - Highlights: •Optimal mine site energy supply methodology is established. •Methodology permits innovative, lower cost, energy supply solutions to be identified. •The methodology allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. •A remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario is considered as a case study. •The optimal solution includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply

  19. Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background

  20. Modelling financial risk in open pit mine projects: Implications for strategic decision-making

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.A., Abdel Sabour; G., Wood.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Strategic decisions in the mining industry are made under multiple technical and market uncertainties. Therefore, to reach the best possible decision, based on information available, it is necessary to integrate uncertainty about the input variables and model financial risk of the project's merit me [...] asures. However, this rovides few useful insights to decision-makers unless accompanied by modeling management responses to uncertainty resolutions. It is widely acknowledged that conventional decision-support methods based on static, no-change, discounted cash flow (DCF) techniques such as net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) tend to provide inaccurate value estimates. This could mislead the strategic decision-making process and result in significant value losses. This paper aims to model financial risk related to uncertainty about market variables such as metal prices and foreign exchange rates. Other sources of risk that are related, for example, to geology and production costs are not considered in this work. The article outlines a flexible financial model that integrates uncertainty about market variables and management flexibility to react to uncertainty resolutions into mine project valuation using a real-options valuation technique based on Monte Carlo simulation. Significance of information generated from this simulation-based flexible valuation model to the strategic decision-making process is tested using an illustrative case study of a Canadian mining project. The project is a typical multi-metal, open pit mine that produces copper and gold. In this case, there are three uncertain market variables, which are: copper and gold prices and US$/CAN$ exchange rate. Financial valuations are carried out using both the conventional static DCF method and a flexible real-options model. In the flexible model, management flexibility to decide whether to go ahead with the next expansion or terminate production operations is integrated. Results show how the flexible financial model can enhance the decision-making process.

  1. Gamma radiation at coal mines and sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radiation background in coal miner and open pits conditioned by γ-radiation of coals and enclousing rocks containing natural radioactive isotopes (40K, 226Ra, 232Th) is analyzed. The data are presented on average content of the above isotopes in coals, hard rocks and earth crest; γ-dose rate in mines and open pits as well as on possible limits and average values of external γ-radiation in mines. It is shown that external γ-radiation is an insignificant factor of radiation hazard in mines and open pits. Systematic monitoring of and accounting for external radiation dose of the personnel are required only in mines where average concentration of 226Ra exceeds 200 Bqxkg-1, and that of 232Th - 150 Bqxkg-1

  2. Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on ground water under several operating conditions. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1:1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

  3. Automatic monitoring system for high-steep slope in open-pit mine based on GPS and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunmei; Li, Xianfu; Qin, Sunwei; Qiu, Dandan; Wu, Yanlin; Xiao, Yun; Zhou, Jian

    2008-12-01

    Recently, GPS has been more and more applicative in open pit mine slope safety monitoring. Daye Iron Mine open pit high-steep slope automatic monitoring system mainly consists of three modules, namely, GPS data processing module, monitoring and warning module, emergency plans module. According to the rock mass structural feature and the side slope stability evaluation, it is arranged altogether to seven GPS distortion monitoring points on the sharp of Fault F9 at Daye iron Mine, adopted the combination of monofrequent static GPS receiver and data-transmission radio to carry on the observation, the data processing mainly uses three transect interpolation method to solve the questions of discontinuity and Effectiveness in the data succession. According to the displacement monitoring data from 1990 to 1996 of Daye Iron Mine East Open Pit Shizi mountain Landslide A2, researching the displacement criterion, rate criterion, acceleration criterion, creep curve tangent angle criterion etc of landslide failure, the result shows that the landslide A2 is the lapse type crag nature landslide whose movement in three phases, namely creep stage, accelerated phase, destruction stage. It is different of the failure criterion in different stages and different position that is at the rear, central, front margin of the landslide. It has important guiding significance to put forward the comprehensive failure criterion of seven new-settled monitoring points combining the slope deformation destruction and macroscopic evidence.

  4. Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5 × 10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5.3 for inflow and from 2.16 to 3.5 for hydraulic head predictions). The analytical solutions underestimated the inflow compared to the numerical model for the time period of 2-19 weeks. The results presented in this paper can be used for developing an effective dewatering program. PMID:25186026

  5. The continuous excavating technique system parameters optimization and economic assessment simulation model in open-pit mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, B. [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). College of Business Administration

    2001-12-01

    Based on the fundamental simulation theories and methods, this paper studies as truck dispatching, discrete processing of belt system continuous haulage, belt system interlock, and economic assessment methods. On the basis of above studies, the paper establishes a simulation model for open-pit mine semi-continuous production technique system. The paper applies GPSS language to construct a simulation program, and the program has been successfully applied in a certain coalmine. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  6. A comparison of limit equilibrium and numerical modelling approaches to risk analysis for open pit mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.T., Chiwaye; T.R., Stacey.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis is an important step in the design of rock slopes in open pit mining. Risk is defined as the product of the probability of slope failure and the consequences of the failure, and is generally evaluated in terms of safety and economic risk. Most of the risk analysis done at present is ba [...] sed on the use of limit equilibrium (LE) techniques in evaluating the probability of failure (POF) of the slopes. The approach typically makes use of full Monte Carlo simulations of the limit equilibrium models, with all uncertain variables randomly varied. The number of required simulations is generally over a thousand, at times as high as 20 000, in order to produce statistically valid results of the POF. Such an approach is clearly not practical when using numerical modelling programs due to the high computational effort required. This paper explores the impact of using numerical modelling instead of the traditional LE techniques in evaluating the probability of slope failure. The difference in the overall assessed risk, in terms of economic impact, for the mining operation is then evaluated. With numerical models, approximate methods are used in the calculation of the probability of failure instead of full Monte Carlo simulations. This paper will use a method called the response surface methodology (RSM) for estimating the POF from numerical analyses. Simple slope models were used to verify the accuracy of the RSM method by comparing the results with those obtained from full Monte Carlo simulations. It is shown that there is good agreement between the POF values computed using full Monte Carlo simulation and those obtained using the RSM method. Finally, the use of numerical modelling in the assessment of risk is shown to bring a significant difference in the result compared with that from LE methods. One of the reasons for the difference is that LE models tend to underestimate the failure volumes and hence the consequences of slope failure.

  7. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: → Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. → Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. → Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. → Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  8. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jinyoung Song; Yosoon Choi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV) systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for install...

  9. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, L I

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. PMID:21195454

  10. Assessment and modelling of heavy metal contamination from Madneuli open-pit mine, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchelidze, T.; Melikadze, G.; Leveinen, J.; Kaija, J.; Kumpalainen, S.

    2003-04-01

    Acid mine drainage from banked waste rocks (150 million m^3) and sulfide ore tailings of the Madneuli Cu-Au open-pit mine have created major environmental pollution problem in Bolnisi district, Georgia. Intensive leaching of exposed rocks and direct discharge of mine waters to nearby watercourses have lead to strong heavy metal pollution of groundwater and Rivers Kazretula, Poladauri and Mashavera. Increased concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Cd and Hg exceeding maximum permissible values by 3-2000 times, are registered almost everywhere. Polluted surface waters are used intensively for irrigation. Besides, contaminated groundwater is pumped for irrigation and drinking water supply in alluvial deposits along the rivers. Because the spread of contamination is a slow process, the adverse health effects may not yet have emerged in the investigation area. The transport modelling was used in the framework of risk assessment to estimate the direction, rate and extent of chemical migration in the contaminated site in order to support environmental management and decisionmaking involving identification of high-risk areas, protection from pollutants, and planning of remediation work. Geochemical and contamination transport modelling conducted in this study suggest that the present contamination levels will eventually reach the total investigation area causing serious health risks to the local population in long terms. Mineral lifetime estimates suggest that the contamination might continue for centuries with current pollution loads. Furthermore, geochemical modelling showed that there is no reason to expect the natural attenuation of the contamination. The potential impacts of preventive actions were studied by preparing a model scenario where the present heavy metal contamination level was lowered to 0.1 mg/l in two streams entering the model area. The model results suggest that within 5 years, already significant reduction of concentrations can be reached. The adverse effects on human health could be mitigated by redirecting the extraction of drinking water in the Bolnisi mining region to areas locating at a sufficient distance from the polluted stream. High investment in preventive actions will become exclusively cheaper than remediation of contaminated groundwater. With out preventive remediation, the situation can be expected only to get worse.

  11. A GIS-based, confined aquifer, hypothetical model of ground-water seepage into a former mining open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater seepage into a former mining site in Egypt is proposed for simulation. This site was used for basalt extraction. After the mining activities had stopped a large open pit was left over and groundwater seeped into the pit forming a lake. The pit has a dimension of approximately 1200 x 600 x 30 m. Because of the lack of field data, several scenarios may be hypothesized to explain the filling of these open pits with water. In this paper, one of these scenarios is studied. It is suggested that this water comes from an underneath confined aquifer. Through fractures in the host rock, water seeped upwards into the open pit. To estimate the rate at which water seeps into the lake, numerical study based on the finite element method is performed. Firstly, geo-referencing of the site was performed using GIS. The boundary of the lake was then digitized and elevation contours was defined. These data was then imported into grid-builder software to generate a two-dimensional triangular mesh which was then used by hydro-geosphere software to build the three-dimensional mesh and solve the problem. It was found that the set of discrete fractures was insufficient to fill the lake in the time span that was actually elapsed to fill up the lake which is on the order of two to three years.

  12. Nonomuraea indica sp. nov., novel actinomycetes isolated from lime-stone open pit mine, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Syed Raziuddin; Tian, Xin-Peng; Zhang, Jing; Li, Jie; Nie, Guo-Xing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Al Ruwaili, Jamal; Agsar, Dayanand; Li, Wen-Jun; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile actinomycete strain designated DRQ-2(T) was isolated from the soil sample collected from lime-stone open pit mine from the Gulbarga region, Karnataka province, India. Strain DRQ-2(T) was identified as a member of the genus Nonomuraea by a polyphasic approach. Strain DRQ-2(T) could be differentiated from other members of the genus Nonomuraea on the basis of physiology and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strain DRQ-2(T) showed highest sequence similarity to Nonomuraea muscovyensis DSM 45913(T) (99.1%), N. salmonea DSM 43678(T) (98.2%) and N. maheshkhaliensis JCM 13929(T) with 98.0%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic properties showing predominant menaquinones of MK-9 (H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H6), major polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmono methyl ethanolamine (PME), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), hydroxy-PME (OH-PME), hydroxy PE (OH-PEE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipid and unknown phospholipid, fatty acids with major amounts of i-C16:0, ai-C15:0 and ai-C17:0 supported allocation of the strain to the genus Nonomuraea. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain DRQ-2(T) from closely related species. The genomic DNA G+C content of the organism was 72.5 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotypic and molecular characteristics, strain DRQ-2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name N. indica sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain DRQ-2(T) (=NCIM 5480(T)= CCTCC AA 209050(T)). PMID:25783226

  13. Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on groundwater under several operating conditions. The slope stability of a clay liner was analyzed at three stages of operation: (1) near the beginning of construction, (2) when the pit is partially filled with tailings, and (3) at the end of construction. Both clay lined and unlined pits were considered in the fluid flow modeling. Finally, the seepage of tailings solutions through the clay liner was analyzed. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1 : 1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

  14. Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nastup Tusimice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the open cast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa) area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper. (authors)

  15. Open pit blasting in uranium ore mining of SDAG Wismut. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports blasting work in the abandoned open pits at Culmitzsch and Lichtenberg, dealing primarily with the techniques of so-called detonation-wave-shielded blasting, blasting at elevated rock temperatures, and blasting at site with fractured rock. (orig./HP)

  16. Mining in open pits - state-of-the art and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzodka, K.; Kraus, P.; Sagner, R. (Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany). Geotechnology and Mining Section)

    1993-05-01

    Describes equipment used for the surface mining of soft rock, e.g., coals and compacted rock. Continuously operating mining machines in conjunction with continuous down-stream conveyor transport are being used more and more. Whilst bucket wheel excavators are primarily used for soft rock, those of a compact design can be found in compacted rock. Continuous surface miners in particular can be used for selective mining in compacted rock. In hard rock, other processes have to be applied. In-pit crusher systems offer clear operating cost advantages. Two large semi-mobile crushing plants at two copper mines, namely at Chuquicamata, Chile, and Kolwezi, are presented here. 20 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. PLANEAMIENTO DE MINAS A CIELO ABIERTO MEDIANTE OPTIMIZACIN ESTOCSTICA / PLANNING OF OPEN PIT MINES THROUGH STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovanni, Franco Seplveda; John Willian, Branch Bedoya; Patricia, Jaramillo lvarez.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de planificacin minera en los depsitos a cielo abierto en Colombia, se han realizado utilizando herramientas deterministas, que excluyen la evaluacin de riesgos y las incertidumbres del negocio minero y en algunos casos dejan de maximizar los beneficios en trminos monetarios. Es nec [...] esario desarrollar modelos alternativos de planificacin minera que mejoren las condiciones de competitividad y productividad en trminos de los siguientes factores: Aumento de la vida de la mina - LOM; Extraccin y explotacin de recursos de menor calidad; Obtencin de mayores beneficios del negocio minero; Disminucin del riesgo y la incertidumbre del proceso de planificacin minera, entre otros. Dentro de los procesos de planificacin minera de los yacimientos minerales a cielo abierto en Colombia no hay evidencia de la utilizacin de herramientas para la toma de decisiones bajo escenarios de incertidumbre que permiten llevar a cabo estos procesos con tcnicas meta heursticas tales como recocido simulado; algoritmos genticos; bsqueda tab; redes neuronales, entre otros. En este trabajo se hace nfasis en los algoritmos genticos y su aplicacin a los procesos de planificacin minera para explotaciones a cielo abierto. Se pretende que este trabajo sirva de base para realizar una aproximacin al planeamiento minero estocstico, desde los algoritmos genticos, y que su aplicacin se lleva a cabo en las empresas que explotan los recursos minerales en Colombia, con el objetivo de mejorar la cadena productiva del proceso minero. Abstract in english Mine planning processes in open-pit deposits in Colombia, have been performed using deterministic tools, which excludes the assessment of risks and uncertainties in the mining business and in some cases fail to maximize the benefits in monetary terms. We need to develop alternative models for mine p [...] lanning to improve the competitiveness and productivity in terms of the following factors: Increased mine of life- LOM; Extraction and exploitation of lower quality resources; Obtaining more benefits from the mining business; Reduced risk and uncertainty in the mine planning process, among others. Within the planning processes of mineral mining in the open pit mine in Colombia there is no evidence of the use of tools for decision making under uncertainty scenarios that allow these processes to perform metaheuristic techniques such as simulated annealing; genetic algorithms; tabu search; neural networks; among others. In this paper we focus on genetic algorithms and its application to mine planning for open pit. This paper is intended to serve as the basis for a stochastic approach to mine planning, from the genetic algorithm and its implementation is carried out in companies that exploit the mineral resources in Colombia, with the aim of improving the production chain mining process.

  18. Modelling of the large scale redox front evolution in an open pit uranium mine in Pocos de Caldas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an open pit uranium mine at Pocos de Caldas in Brazil, the upper portions of the rock have been oxidized by infiltrating oxidizing groundwater. The redox front is very uneven and fingering is in evidence to depths ranging down to several hundred meters. The redox fingers are found in fractures and fractures zones. An attempt has been made to model the development of such redox fingerings along flow channels and to relate the structure to independent observations of flow channels in other crystalline rocks. 5 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  19. Uranium in mining waters of kaolin open pit in Zarow (Lower Silesia); methodology of determination and genetic remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a method of determination of uranium 238 and 234 in mining waters of Andrzej kaolin open pit in Zarow (Lower Silesia) is presented. The method is based on independent measurements of alpha and beta radiation intensities by means of a liquid scintillation spectrometer α/β. The initial volume of water sample was 3 dm3, then it was diminished by chemical preparation to 6 cm3, and then 12 cm3 of scintillator was added. The lower limit of detection (for the measurement time of 8 h) for both 234U and 238U amounted to 0.02 Bq/dm3. For determination of the uranium content in ferruginous sediments precipitating from mining waters of the above-mentioned open pit, gamma ray spectrometry was used. The obtained results may be viewed as a contribution to studies on anomalous uranium concentration within this kaolin deposit. The elevated uranium content, in comparison with its average concentration in the Earth crust, is characteristic for parent rocks of Andrzej kaolin deposit, which are granitoids of Strzegom-Sobotka massif. In connection with it, the high uranium content can be observed not only in kaolin and weakly kaolinised granitoids from the deposit in question, but also in mining waters genetically related with them

  20. 30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... according to the following criteria: (1) Excavation of the mine pit takes place on a relatively limited site for an extended period of time. For the purposes of this section, mine pit means an open-pit mine in... extract coal from seams dipping 15 degrees or more from the horizontal. (2) Excavation of the mine...

  1. The planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines: proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Pretoria, 9-13 April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book records the proceedings of the second international conference on the theme of planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines. The conference was held in Pretoria during April 1984. The major portion of South African iron ore and copper is mined in open-pit mines. The rapid expansion of the open-pit and strip mining industry has led to the thriving industry of today. Notable areas of growth have been the introduction of capital-intensive machinery such as walking drag-lines, large capacity shovels, in-pit crushers, extensive use of conveyor belts, large haul tracks and ore-dressing plants. Among other areas where corresponding progress has been made are blasting techniques, maintenance planning, computer applications, and large-scale stock-piling of bulk materials. The conference touched on all these subjects under four main headings: mine planning, mining operations, equipment selection and maintenance, and new developments. One paper looks at open-pit production control at Rossing Uranium Limited

  2. MINE-NEC - A Game for the Analysis of Regional Water Policies in Open-Pit Lignite Mining Areas: An Improved Implementation for the NEC PC-8201A

    OpenAIRE

    Kaden, S.; Varis, O.

    1986-01-01

    The game MINE was developed for the analysis of regional water policies in open-pit lignite mining areas. It is implemented for a GDR test area. The purpose of the game is above all to teach decision makers and their staff in mining regions in order to get a better understanding of the complex interrelated socio-economic processes with respect t o water management in such regions. The game is designed to be played by five groups of players representing municipal and industrial water supply, a...

  3. Project solution for land reclamation and spatial arrangement of the 'Srebro' open pit mine at the Fruka Gora National Park

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Vuji& #263; ; J., Cveji& #263; ; I., Miljanovi& #263; ; A., Petrovski.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of stone (trachyte) at the 'Srebro' open pit mine, located on the northern slopes of the Fruka Gora National Park (Serbia) central area begun in 1964. Stone exploitation in this locality does not endanger the environment in an ecological sense, does not pose a threat to plants and [...] animals, and apart from the terrain configuration changes, it did not leave behind permanent consequences to the environment. Projects for permanent cessation of mining operations and for land reclamation and spatial arrangement were completed in these circumstances. The paper gives a short review of the condition at the open pit mine; furthermore, the key problems and basic demands are presented, together with a concept of technical and biological land reclamation and the spatial arrangement of the mining complex.

  4. Tanacetum vulgare as a Bioindicator of Trace-Metal Contamination: A Study of a Naturally Colonized Open-Pit Lignite Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appe...

  5. Development of generalized cutoff grade optimization algorithm for open pit mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of optimum cutoff grade is influenced by the economic parameters (price of metal, mining and processing costs, etc.),The capacities of stages (mine, mill, and refinery) in the mining operation, and the grade distribution of the deposit. The cutoff grade changes with the influence of these parameters, sometimes widely, during the life of a mining operation. The theory of optimum cutoff grades is complex. However, this problem can be solved by the availability of algorithms, which could be implemented by the computer programs. This paper presents a cutoff grade optimization algorithm, which maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of the mining operation subject to mining, milling and refining constraints, the benefits of the methodology developed are demonstrated in a case study. (author)

  6. Consequences of coal mining and burning in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (2). Territorial consequences of coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of the 1450 km2 of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin, the area of the coal-bearing territory is 850 km2. The area occupied by the open pits, spoil banks and mines is nearly 27O km2, out of which over 90 km2 have already been recultivated. Predicted mining development scenarios for the region till 2035 are outlined. The extent of mining will decrease gradually, and land will be reclaimed. The abandoned pits will be filled with water and employed for recreation purposes. The specific features of the individual open pit mines are given. The ways to reduce the adverse environmental impacts of mining are outlined; these include, in particular, desulfurization of existing power plants on the one hand, and energy savings associated with a reduction in mining and power generation activities on the other hand. (J.B.)

  7. Bacterial community composition in the water column of a lake formed by a former uranium open pit mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Frida; Andersson, Anders F; Holmström, Sara J M

    2012-11-01

    Mining of pyrite minerals is a major environmental issue involving both biological and geochemical processes. Here we present a study of an artificial lake of a former uranium open pit mine with the aim to connect the chemistry and bacterial community composition (454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes) in the stratified water column. A shift in the water chemistry from oxic conditions in the epilimnion to anoxic, alkaline, and metal and sulfide-rich conditions in the hypolimnion was corresponded by a strong shift in the bacterial community, with few shared operational taxonomic units (OTU) between the water layers. The epilimnetic bacterial community of the lake (~20 years old) showed similarities to other temperate freshwater lakes, while the hypolimnetic bacterial community showed similarity to extreme chemical environments. The epilimnetic bacterial community had dominance of Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The hypolimnion displayed a higher bacterial diversity and was dominated by the phototrophic green sulphur bacterium of the genus Chlorobium (ca. 40 % of the total community). Deltaproteobacteria were only represented in the hypolimnion and the most abundant OTUs were affiliated with ferric iron and sulfate reducers of the genus Geobacter and Desulfobulbus, respectively. The chemistry is clearly controlling, especially the hypolimnetic, bacterial community but the community composition also indicates that the bacteria are involved in metal cycling in the lake. PMID:22622763

  8. Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of 238U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional 'sticky vinyl' passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained

  9. Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, H B; Koperski, J

    1991-05-01

    Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of 238U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional "sticky vinyl" passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained. PMID:2019500

  10. Mitigation of the environmental impacts of open pit and underground uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological and nonradiological environmental impacts of uranium mining on air, water and land are discussed. Methods of reducing impacts are covered with emphasis on Exxon's practices and experience. The message is that uranium mining environmental impacts are relatively small, but they do require good planning to avoid the need for expensive solutions later

  11. In situ characterization at limestone open pit mine using prompt gamma neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) in situ characterization of blast holes in Atocongo and Pucara open cut mines from Cementos Lima S.A. has been performed. This method collects information about the ore surrounding the bore hole and gives a real time and representative results for a geophysical model of the mine. The PGNAA system gives an in situ estimation of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, and SO3. The field trials have been proved that the system could be used to characterize the limestone open cut mines. (orig.)

  12. Open-pit project management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roumpos, C.P.; Spanidis, F-M.P. [Power Corporation S.A. (Greece)

    2003-04-01

    The paper presents a project management approach to open-pit lignite mine planning and exploitation. Key elements of an exploitation project management system are availability of resources, investment cost and organization of resource allocation. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab., 5 photos.

  13. Multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data for the analysis of open-pit mining earth surface dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zengwen; Chen, Jianping; Li, Ke; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Open-pit mining activities can affect the earth surface processes inducing soil erosion, landslides, and subsidence. The recognition and the analysis of mining induced Earth surface changes and the related processes represent, therefore, a challenge for a sustainable environmental planning for those regions affected by an intense mining activity. The purpose of this study is to monitor the effects of open-pit mining and the associated landform processes using multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing data. The study area consists in an open-pit mine located in Miyun county, northern Beijing. For the study area different datasets are available for different years: a GeoEye image (2011, res. 1m/pix), two pairs of Cartosat - 1 stereo pairs (2009, 2012, res. 2.5m/pix) from which we extracted two DSMs (res. 5m/pix), an UAV aerial photograph (2014, res. 0.07m) and the derived DSM (2014, res. 0.1m). We also obtained a DTM (2014, res. 1m) from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) and a DSM (2014, res. 0.5m) using the Structure from Motion (SfM) technique by a camera. These data served as the basis to recognize, through the application of morphometric indicators, the areas subject to erosion and landsliding. A volumetric estimate of soil loss from 2009 to 2014 has been also quantified using the multiple DSMs provided by the multi-platform. The recognition and the analysis of earth surface dynamics using low-cost multi-temporal and multi-platforms remote sensing such as SfM and UAVs represents a useful tool to mitigate the environmental consequences open-pit mining, and to mitigate the related natural disaster and risk.

  14. Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest uranium mining and milling operations in Australia has been carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived uranium series radionuclides and their origin (mining and milling operations versus natural radiation background) have been studied. Air concentration, horizontal flux and dry and wet deposition of the radionuclides were investigated along 45 km transect, in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region

  15. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Badri; Sylvie Nadeau; Andr Gbodossou

    2011-01-01

    Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS) and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San Jos mine last collapse near Copiap, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new appro...

  16. Ambient airborne radioactivity measurements in the vicinity of the Jackpile open pit uranium mine New Mexico. Technical note (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the results of several radiological surveys conducted in the vicinity of the Jackpile Open Pit Uranium Mine in New Mexico. During June 1976, ambient radon-222 concentrations were measured at eleven locations, seven of which appear to have been at representative background radon levels - averaging 0.50 + or - 0.033 pCi/l. The other four locations had average radon levels in excess of this typical background level; however, the highest measured radon concentration was 2.7 pCi/l. The arithmetic average ambient radon progeny working level obtained indoors at the Laguna Tribal Building appeared to be at a representative background level of 0.0049 + or - 0.00045 WL. The arithmetic average ambient working levels obtained at the Paguate Community Center and the Jackpile Housing were 0.035 + or - 0.0038 and 0.015 + or - 0.0025 WL, respectively. Ambient airborne particulate radioactivity concentrations measured outdoors at Old Laguna appear to be at typical background levels; however, other locations exhibited higher annual average concentrations for the naturally-occurring radionuclides

  17. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Badri; Sylvie Nadeau; André Gbodossou

    2011-01-01

    Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS) and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new appro...

  18. Efficient using of automobile transport for the deep open-pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastan MAHAMBETOV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the method is proposed of substantiation of the major parameters for zones of effective use of automobile transport of different load-carrying capacity by open cast development of the deep deposits. An efficient ratio is determined between the mining and transport equipment by zone-to -zone use.

  19. Determination of the radioactive aerosols transport coefficients generated in open pit uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical atmospheric transport model is applied to uranium mining operations. Among the transport parameters there is one concerned with radioactive decay, but it does not include the radioactive decay series which is the specific case for uranium. Therefore, an extension of the transport theory is developed and tested, giving results greater than the ones obtained with the classical model, as expected. (author)

  20. Efficient using of automobile transport for the deep open-pit mines

    OpenAIRE

    Dastan MAHAMBETOV; Bayan RAKISHEV; Galymzhan SAMENOV; S?adkowski, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    In the paper the method is proposed of substantiation of the major parameters for zones of effective use of automobile transport of different load-carrying capacity by open cast development of the deep deposits. An efficient ratio is determined between the mining and transport equipment by zone-to -zone use.

  1. Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

    2013-10-01

    The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote Sensing Systems Department at Space Research and Technology Institute thematically oriented spectrometric system TOMS working in the 0.4-0.9 μm range of the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS). For proper comparison between the data obtained from the different sources mentioned spectral transformations such as normalized difference and rationing data for two wavelengths were applied in order to avoid misinterpretation. Statistically significant dependence between the various spectral transformations and the quantitative content of the iron in the different type of compounds was established. The achieved results provided evidence that methodology used could be extended to other regions of the country polluted by the mining activities and should be also tested in the region of the copper and zinc extraction. In the next step of our research we intend to use the results obtained by the multitemporal analysis of the satellite and ground-based multispectral data for the same and the similar regions of interest.

  2. Atmospheric dispersion of radon gas from open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships between atmospheric stability and radon concentration at Nabarlek (Northern Territory) and Yeelirrie (Western Australia) were investigated. The present atmospheric dispersive approach developed from experimental work in the Northern Hemisphere cannot be used to adequately predict the near ground concentrations of radon and its daughters during stable atmospheric conditions which are encountered in open-cut uranium mines and over tailings areas in the desert regions of Australia

  3. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos E. Hartwig; José C. Mura; Waldir R. Paradella

    2013-01-01

    Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI) represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection an...

  4. The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine

    OpenAIRE

    Marikie Pelser; Z. C. Bergh; Deléne Visser

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administere...

  5. Analytical data for waters of the Harvard Open Pit, Jamestown Mine, Tuolumne County, California, March 1998-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, R.P.; Savage, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Jamestown mine is located in the Jamestown mining district in western Tuolumne County, California (see Fig. 1). This district is one of many located on or near the Melones fault zone, a major regional suture in the Sierra Nevada foothills. The districts along the Melones fault comprise the Mother Lode gold belt (Clark, 1970). The Harvard pit is the largest of several open pits mined at the Jamestown site by Sonora Mining Corporation between 1986 and 1994 (Fig. 2; Algood, 1990). It is at the site of an historical mine named the Harvard that produced about 100,000 troy ounces of gold, mainly between 1906 and 1916 (Julihn and Horton, 1940). Sonora Mining mined and processed about 17,000,000 short tons of ore, with an overall stripping ratio of about 4.5:1, yielding about 660,000 troy ounces of gold (Nelson and Leicht, 1994). Most of this material came from the Harvard pit, which attained dimensions of about 2700 ft (830 m) in length, 1500 ft (460 m) in width, and 600 ft (185 m) in depth. The bottom of the pit is at an elevation of 870 ft (265 m). Since mining operations ceased in mid-1994, the open pit has been filling with water. As of November, 2000, lake level had reached an elevation of about 1170 ft (357 m). Water quality monitoring data gathered after mine closure showed rising levels of arsenic, sulfate, and other components in the lake, with particularly notable increases accompanying a period of rapid filling in 1995 (County of Tuolumne, 1998). The largest potential source for arsenic in the vicinity of the Harvard pit is arsenian pyrite, the most abundant sulfide mineral related to gold mineralization. A previous study of weathering of arsenian pyrite in similarly mineralized rocks at the Clio mine, in the nearby Jacksonville mining district, showed that arsenic released by weathering of arsenian pyrite is effectively attenuated by adsorption on goethite or coprecipitation with jarosite, depending upon the buffering capacity of the pyrite-bearing rock (Savage and others, 2000). Although jarosite would be expected to dissolve in water having the composition of the developing pit lake, iron oxyhydroxide species (ferrihydrite and goethite) would be stable, and strong partitioning of arsenic onto suspended particles or bottom sediments containing these iron phases would be expected. Arsenic release to the lake would not be expected until stratification develops, producing a reducing, non-circulating hypolimnion in which the iron phases would be destroyed by dissolution. The fact that arsenic concentrations increased rapidly before the pit lake was deep enough to stratify shows that arsenic may not be attenuated in the ways that the earlier Clio mine area study indicated, and suggested that our understanding of release and transport of arsenic in this environment is incomplete. Therefore, in 1997 we decided to study the chemical evolution of the Harvard pit lake as part of a project on environmental impacts of gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, and in early 1998 we developed a cooperative study with several of the investigators in the Stanford University Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences who had done the Clio study. The U.S. Geological Survey portion of the project has been funded by the Mineral Resources Program. It is anticipated that a better understanding of the release and transport of arsenic into the Harvard pit lake and its accumulation there will contribute to more accurate predictions of arsenic release from weathering of sulfide-bearing rocks exposed by mining or other activities or events, and to better forecasts of pit lake evolution in this and similar environments, leading to more effective monitoring and mitigation strategies. An accurate predictive model is needed for the Harvard pit lake to forecast trends in metal concentrations, particularly arsenic, and also concentrations of major cations and anions. As the lake approaches pre-mining groundwater levels the lake water could move down the hydrologic gradient to the southeast into domestic wells, and could also affect the surface water of Woods Creek (see Figures 1-3). This report presents data for water samples collected from March, 1998 through September, 1999. Selected preliminary data for the pit lake for the 1998 calendar year have been reported (Savage and others, 2000).

  6. Integrating geological uncertainty in long-term open pit mine production planning by ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Seyed-Omid; Sattarvand, Javad

    2016-02-01

    Meeting production targets in terms of ore quantity and quality is critical for a successful mining operation. In-situ grade uncertainty causes both deviations from production targets and general financial deficits. A new stochastic optimization algorithm based on ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is developed herein to integrate geological uncertainty described through a series of the simulated ore bodies. Two different strategies were developed based on a single predefined probability value (Prob) and multiple probability values (Pro bnt), respectively in order to improve the initial solutions that created by deterministic ACO procedure. Application at the Sungun copper mine in the northwest of Iran demonstrate the abilities of the stochastic approach to create a single schedule and control the risk of deviating from production targets over time and also increase the project value. A comparison between two strategies and traditional approach illustrates that the multiple probability strategy is able to produce better schedules, however, the single predefined probability is more practical in projects requiring of high flexibility degree.

  7. Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

  8. A mineral quantification method for wall rocks at open pit mines, and application to the Martha Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pit lakes that result from open pit mining are potential water resources or potential environmental problems, depending on lake water quality. Wall rock mineralogy can affect lake chemistry if surface water inputs and/or groundwater inputs and/or lake water in contact with submerged wall rocks react with the wall rock minerals. This study presents a mineral quantification method to measure the distribution and concentration of wall rock minerals in open pit mines, and applies the method to the Martha epithermal Au-Ag mine, Waihi, New Zealand. Heterogeneous ore deposits, like Martha, require a large number of wall rock samples to accurately define mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction analyses of 125 wall rock samples identified the most abundant minerals in the wall rocks as quartz, adularia, albite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Distribution maps of these minerals defined 8 relatively homogenous areas of wall rock referred to as 'mineral associations': weakly-altered, propylitic, fresh-argillic, weathered-argillic, oxidized, potassic, quartz veins, and post-mineralization deposits. X-ray fluorescence, Leco furnace, and neutron activation analyses of 46 representative samples produced the geochemical dataset used to assign quantities of elements to observed minerals, and to calculate average mineral concentrations in each association. Thin-section petrography and calcite concentrations from Sobek acid-digestions confirm the calculated mineralogy, providing validation for the method. Calcite and pyrite concentrations allowed advanced acid-base accounting for each mineral association, identifying 3 potential acid-producing associations and one potential acid-neutralizing association. The results target areas, where detailed hydrologic and kinetic tests would be valuable in the next stage of pit lake evaluation. Detailed understanding of wall rock mineralogy will help strengthen predictions of pit lake water quality

  9. Analysis of the Potential for Use of Floating Photovoltaic Systems on Mine Pit Lakes: Case Study at the Ssangyong Open-Pit Limestone Mine in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mining industry has introduced renewable energy technologies to resolve power supply problems at mines operating in polar regions or other remote areas, and to foster substitute industries, able to benefit from abandoned sites of exhausted mines. However, little attention has been paid to the potential placement of floating photovoltaic (PV systems operated on mine pit lakes because it was assumed that the topographic characteristics of open-pit mines are unsuitable for installing any type of PV systems. This study analyzed the potential of floating PV systems on a mine pit lake in Korea to break this misconception. Using a fish-eye lens camera and digital elevation models, a shading analysis was performed to identify the area suitable for installing a floating PV system. The layout of the floating PV system was designed in consideration of the optimal tilt angle and array spacing of the PV panels. The System Advisor Model (SAM by National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA, was used to conduct energy simulations based on weather data and the system design. The results indicated that the proposed PV system could generate 971.57 MWh/year. The economic analysis (accounting for discount rate and a 20-year operational lifetime showed that the net present value would be $897,000 USD, and a payback period of about 12.3 years. Therefore, we could know that the economic effect of the floating PV system on the mine pit lake is relatively higher than that of PV systems in the other abandoned mines in Korea. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was analyzed and found to be 471.21 tCO2/year, which is twice the reduction effect achieved by forest restoration of an abandoned mine site. The economic feasibility of a floating PV system on a pit lake of an abandoned mine was thus established, and may be considered an efficient reuse option for abandoned mines.

  10. Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nástup Tušimice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vrubel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently the opencast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper.

  11. Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nstup Tuimice

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Vrubel; Stanislav Dejl

    2007-01-01

    Recently the opencast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa) area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper.

  12. Integration of UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for the Three-Dimensional Mapping and Monitoring of Open-Pit Mine Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Tong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical framework for the integration of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS with application to open-pit mine areas, which includes UAV image and TLS point cloud acquisition, image and cloud point processing and integration, object-oriented classification and three-dimensional (3D mapping and monitoring of open-pit mine areas. The proposed framework was tested in three open-pit mine areas in southwestern China. (1 With respect to extracting the conjugate points of the stereo pair of UAV images and those points between TLS point clouds and UAV images, some feature points were first extracted by the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT operator and the outliers were identified and therefore eliminated by the RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC approach; (2 With respect to improving the accuracy of geo-positioning based on UAV imagery, the ground control points (GCPs surveyed from global positioning systems (GPS and the feature points extracted from TLS were integrated in the bundle adjustment, and three scenarios were designed and compared; (3 With respect to monitoring and mapping the mine areas for land reclamation, an object-based image analysis approach was used for the classification of the accuracy improved UAV ortho-image. The experimental results show that by introduction of TLS derived point clouds as GCPs, the accuracy of geo-positioning based on UAV imagery can be improved. At the same time, the accuracy of geo-positioning based on GCPs form the TLS derived point clouds is close to that based on GCPs from the GPS survey. The results also show that the TLS derived point clouds can be used as GCPs in areas such as in mountainous or high-risk environments where it is difficult to conduct a GPS survey. The proposed framework achieved a decimeter-level accuracy for the generated digital surface model (DSM and digital orthophoto map (DOM, and an overall accuracy of 90.67% for classification of the land covers in the open-pit mine.

  13. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcs river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Corua (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of Meirama.

  14. Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

    2013-02-01

    Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

  15. Composition and properties of SS coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.G. Gagarin; T.M. Bronovets [Institute of Mineral Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    State Standard coal, predominantly from open-pit mines, is regarded as an oxidized analog of valuable (KO, K, OS) isometamorphic coals from underground mines. The options for modifying SS coal are discussed.

  16. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment. PMID:23858994

  17. FUNCTIONS OF HYDROLOGICAL OBJECTS IN THE AREAS OF POST-MINING OPEN PIT “WŁADYSŁAWÓW”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Maria Gilewska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Operated by lignite mine “Adams” coal deposits are located in the upland area of ​​the Turkish, belonging to the South Plains macro-region of Wielkopolska. A feature of this region are not only low rainfall, but also the lack of water reservoirs and large rivers. Mining activity has caused major changes in the hydrological network, not just for liquidation, postpone or reconstruction of riverbeds, but also the creation of new objects that collect water. These include settling the waters “dirty”, as well as reservoirs formed in excavation voids as part of a water reclamation. After the end of coal mining operation of these facilities is dependent on hydrology and hydraulic engineering conditions. This problem will be shown on the example of dirty water clarifier and final excavation undergoing water reclamation opencast mining areas Władysławów. Outcrop ended its activities in 2013. The final excavation is no outflow basin with a capacity of 42 million m3, located within the river basin Topiec constituting the left-hand tributary of the Warta.

  18. Dispersion and bioaccumulation of elements from an open-pit olivine mine in Southwest Greenland assessed using lichens, seaweeds, mussels and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated dispersion and bioaccumulation of mining-related elements from an open-pit olivine mine at Seqi in Southwest Greenland (64° N) using lichens (Flavocetraria nivalis), seaweeds (Fucus vesiculosus), mussels (Mytilus edulis) and fish (Myoxocephalus scorpius). The mine operated between 2005 and 2009, and samples were taken every year within a monitoring area 0-17 km from the mine during the period 2004-2011. A total of 46 elements were analysed in the samples. After mining began, highly elevated metal concentrations, especially nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co), were observed in lichens relative to pre-mining levels (up to a factor of 130) caused by dust dispersion from the mining activity. Elevated metal concentrations could be measured in lichens in distances up to ~5 km from the mine/ore treatment facility. Moderately elevated concentrations of Ni and Cr (up to a factor of 7) were also observed in seaweeds and mussels but only in close vicinity (mine. Analyses of fish showed no significant changes in element composition. After mine closure, the elevated metal concentrations in lichens, seaweeds and mussels decreased markedly, and in 2011, significantly elevated metal concentrations could only be measured in lichens and only within a distance of 1 km from the mine. PMID:23315154

  19. The theoretical principles of dealing with allochthonous disruptions during the mining of minerals in open-pit mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembecki, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Disruptions of the mineral mining process are associated with the rock massif, the climate and the placement of the production equipment and the receptacle of the finished product. The influence of the physiomechanical properties of the rock massif may be reduced by the corresponding selection of overburden and mine workings. Warnings of disruptions caused by climatic phenomena may be produced by studying their periodicity and comparing them to the periodicity of mine operations using a mathematical model. It is recommended that differential monthly schedules for mining be established or that measures be taken to produce a constant monthly volume of specific product. A comparison of the production cycles to the final product receipt cycles using a deviation analysis makes it possible to determine the minimum consumption with maximum productivity. All the problems were solved using a theory of stochastic processes.

  20. Investigating continuous time open pit dynamics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Askari-Nasab; S., Frimpong; J., Szymanski.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Current mine production planning, scheduling, and allocation of resources are based on mathematical programming models. In practice, the optimized solution cannot be attained without examining all possible combinations and permutations of the extraction sequence. Operations research methods have lim [...] ited applications in large-scale surface mining operations because the number of variables becomes too large. The primary objective of this study is to develop and implement a hybrid simulation framework for the open pit scheduling problem. The paper investigates the dynamics of open pit geometry and the subsequent material movement as a continuous system described by time-dependent differential equations. The continuous open pit simulator (COPS) implemented in MATLAB, based on modified elliptical frustum is used to model the evolution of open pit geometry in time and space. Discrete open pit simulator (DOPS) mimics the periodic expansion of the open pit layouts. Function approximation of the discrete simulated push-backs provides the means to convert the set of partial differential equations (PDEs), capturing the dynamics of open pit layouts, to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Numerical integration with the Runge-Kutta scheme yields the trajectory of the pit geometry over time with the respective volume of materials and the net present value (NPV) of the mining operation. A case study of an iron ore mine with 114 000 blocks was carried out to verify and validate the model. The optimized pit limit was designed using Lerchs-Grossman's algorithm. The best-case annual schedule, generated by the shells node in Whittle Four-X yielded an NPV of $449 million over a 21-year mine life at a discount rate of 10% per annum. DOPS best scenario out of 2 500 simulation iterations resulted in an NPV of $443 million and COPS yielded an NPV of $440 million over the same time span. The hybrid simulation model is the basis for future research using reinforcement learning based on goal-directed intelligent agents.

  1. Numerical Study on an Applicable Underground Mining Method for Soft Extra-Thick Coal Seams in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nay Zarlin; Takashi Sasaoka; Hideki Shimada; Kikuo Matsui

    2012-01-01

    The EGAT Mae Moh Mine is the largest open pit lignite mine in Thailand and it produces lignite about 16 million tons annually. In the near future, the pit limit of the mine will be reached and underground mine will then be developed through the open pit in the depth of 400 - 600 m from the surface. However, due to the challenges for underground mining such as poor geological conditions, extra thickness (20 - 30 m) of coal seams, and weak mechanical properties of coal seams and the surrounding...

  2. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  3. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ''ground truth'', from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions

  4. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone. PMID:23748998

  5. Anlise comparativa de metodologias utilizadas no despacho de caminhes em minas a cu aberto / Comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lsara Fabrcia, Rodrigues; Luiz Ricardo, Pinto.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma anlise comparativa das metodologias utilizadas para o despacho de caminhes em minas a cu aberto. Comparaes entre essas metodologias contam com poucos trabalhos publicados na literatura. Metodologias baseadas em programao linear e programao dinmica e em [...] heurstica foram implementadas. Essas metodologias constituem as bases dos algoritmos de alguns dos sistemas de despacho comercializados no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido um modelo de simulao, a fim de se reproduzir o comportamento das operaes de lavra de forma a avaliar o impacto das decises de despacho em cada uma das metodologias estudadas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o desempenho dos algoritmos, utilizando-se essas metodologias sob diferentes condies em minas a cu aberto. Porm no se pode, atravs dos resultados obtidos, concluir pela superioridade de uma delas. Abstract in english In the present study a comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines has been carried out. There is a lack of studies comparing these methodologies in literature. Methodology based on linear and dynamic programming, as well as a heuristics-based methodology, hav [...] e been implemented. These methodologies serve as the basis of algorithms used in some of the dispatch systems sold in Brazil. A simulation model was developed to reproduce the behavior of mining operations in order to evaluate the impact of dispatch decisions in each of the methodologies studied. Results show the performance of algorithms that have used these methodologies under different conditions in open pit mining. However, from results obtained in the present study, it is not possible, to state the superiority of any of them.

  6. The open pit of Garzweiler II. Authorisation secures energy supply and economic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In end-March 1995 the North-Rhine-Westphalian Government granted an authorisation for the open pit of Garzweiler II thus permitting brown coal mining in the Rheinish mining region to continue at the same pace as before. At that time the decision was supported by a large majority across parties which made itself felt not only in parliament but also in the Brown Coal Committee and its subcommittees. The author describes the open pit mining project and the course of the authorisation procedure and explains this view he shares of the energy-economic necessity of Garzweiler II. It should be added that in the meantime a red-green coalition has come to power in the Land and the project may be defeated after all. (orig./HP)

  7. New software for visualizing 3D geological data in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungjae; Choi, Yosoon

    2015-04-01

    This study developed new software to visualize 3D geological data in coal mines. The Visualization Tool Kit (VTK) library and Visual Basic.NET 2010 were used to implement the software. The software consists of several modules providing functionalities: (1) importing and editing borehole data; (2) modelling of coal seams in 3D; (3) modelling of coal properties using 3D ordinary Kriging method; (4) calculating economical values of 3D blocks; (5) pit boundary optimization for identifying economical coal reserves based on the Lerchs-Grosmann algorithm; and (6) visualizing 3D geological, geometrical and economical data. The software has been applied to a small-scale open-pit coal mine in Indonesia revealed that it can provide useful information supporting the planning and design of open-pit coal mines.

  8. Applying persistent scatterer interferometry for surface displacement mapping in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Amazon region) with TerraSAR-X StripMap data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde Pinto, Carolina de; Paradella, Waldir Renato; Mura, José Claudio; Gama, Fabio Furlan; Ribeiro dos Santos, Athos; Silva, Guilherme Gregório; Hartwig, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The Azul mining complex, located in the Carajás Mineral Province, Amazon region, encompasses the most important manganese mine in Brazil. Vale S.A. company operates three simultaneous open pit excavations (mines 1, 2, and 3) in the area, which are conducted on rock alteration products of low geomechanical quality related to sandstones, siltstones, and a lateritic cover. In order to monitor ground deformation, 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) StripMap images covering the period of March 2012-April 2013 were used in the investigation. An advanced differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (A-DInSAR) approach based on persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) using an interferometric point target analysis algorithm was applied, and the results showed that most of the area was considered stable during the time span of the synthetic aperture radar acquisitions. However, persistent scatterers (PS) with high deformation rates were mapped over a waste pile, probably related to settlements, and also along the north flank of mine 1, indicative of cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. A spatial relationship of geological structures with PS was observed for this sector of the mine, given by PS showing deformation rates concentrated along a structural corridor with faults, fractures, and folds related to the Carajás fault system. Though only ground-based radar measurements for wall benches of mine 1 were available for a short time period of the TSX-1 coverage, the PS movement patterns showed concordance with geotechnical field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that satellite-based A-DInSAR can play for deformation monitoring and risk assessment in this kind of mining area.

  9. Uma heurstica para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocao dinmica de caminhes / A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Csar Rodrigues de, Arajo; Marcone Jamilson Freitas, Souza.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a cu aberto com alocao dinmica de caminhes. Esse problema consiste em determinar o nmero de viagens que cada caminho deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sort [...] e a atender as metas de produo e qualidade requeridas para o minrio a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veculos disponvel. Dada sua complexidade combinatria, o problema resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurstico baseado na metaeurstica Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados so comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programao matemtica. Abstract in english This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and qua [...] lity targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

  10. Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under different aged refuse dumps at the Heidaigou opencast coal mine

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Lei; Zhang Peng; Hu Yigang; Zhao Yang

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under five different restoration models of refuse dumps including different-aged revegetated sites (1995, 1998, 2003 and 2005) in the northern, eastern and western open-pit coal mine dump and a reference site with native vegetation, which had never been damaged by coal mining activities on the Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine were studied. Changes in the plant species, soil properties and infiltration rates were evaluated at the differen...

  11. Evaluation of ecological consequences of coal mine closure in Kuzbass coal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemerovo region (otherwise called Kuzbass) is the most industrially developed and urbanized region of Siberia, Russia. The main industrial branch of Kuzbass is coal output. Open pits and underground mines of Kuzbass produce about 40% of total amount of coal in Russia and more than 70% of coking coal. In the current process of the coal industry's restructuring, the closing of many unprofitable coal enterprises is associated with radical changes in their influence on the environment. The task to provide a probable forecast of ecological consequence of mine closure is both practically significant and complicated. In order to find some scientific approach to solve named problem the authors made in the paper the first attempts to analyze of accessible closed mines data in Kuzbass, to classify coal mines (working and closed) with respect to there negative influence on soil, water and atmosphere and to obtain some numerical estimates of possible bounds of this influence. 7 refs

  12. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E. Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  13. Extracting of Gypsum Reserves from Markusovce - Safarka Open Pit

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer Viliam; Rybár Pavol; Cehlár Michal

    1998-01-01

    Mining company elba a.s. Spiská Nová Ves, plant Rudòany has decided to open new resources of gypsum, which will be extracted mainly like open pit mine. According to geological prospecting was chosen extracting method, which is combination of two classical method. At first it will by open pit mine, and depending on depth of reserves from surface is possible to change this extraction to one of undergroung exploration methods.

  14. A case study of a large open pit uranium AML [Abandoned Mine Land] Project Gas Hills, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Abandoned Mine Lands Program (AML), authorized under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 provides funding for the abatement of health and safety hazards on lands disturbed by mining prior to enactment of the Act. A good example of the implementation of the AML Program in Wyoming is the A-8 Pit. The reclamation site is located in the East Gas Hills Uranium Mining District of Wyoming. Reclamation activities include selective handling of 3.5 million cubic yards of backfill, controlling pit dewatering and water treatment, installing second order drainage channel and riprap control structures, and salvaging sufficient coversoils and topsoils for site revegetation

  15. Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km2. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  16. Real -time dispatching modelling for trucks with different capacities in open pit mines / Modelowanie w czasie rzeczywistym przewozw ci??arwek o r?nej ?adowno?ci w kopalni odkrywkowej

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangaran, Daryoush Kaveh; Yasrebi, Amir Bijan; Wetherelt, Andy; Foster, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Application of fully automated systems for truck dispatching plays a major role in decreasing the transportation costs which often represent the majority of costs spent on open pit mining. Consequently, the application of a truck dispatching system has become fundamentally important in most of the world's open pit mines. Recent experiences indicate that by decreasing a truck's travelling time and the associated waiting time of its associated shovel then due to the application of a truck dispatching system the rate of production will be considerably improved. Computer-based truck dispatching systems using algorithms, advanced and accurate software are examples of these innovations. Developing an algorithm of a computer- based program appropriated to a specific mine's conditions is considered as one of the most important activities in connection with computer-based dispatching in open pit mines. In this paper the changing trend of programming and dispatching control algorithms and automation conditions will be discussed. Furthermore, since the transportation fleet of most mines use trucks with different capacities, innovative methods, operational optimisation techniques and the best possible methods for developing the required algorithm for real-time dispatching are selected by conducting research on mathematical-based planning methods. Finally, a real-time dispatching model compatible with the requirement of trucks with different capacities is developed by using two techniques of flow networks and integer programming.

  17. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining...

  18. Open-pit construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual design of a nuclear power plant accordingly to SR 136, situated in deep open pits in rock near the brink of a plateau and accessible from above as well as horizontally from the receiving stream, was further worked out. The increased backfill covering enables the reactor building to withstand heavier external forces and higher internal pressure caused by contaminated atmosphere in the event of severe hypothetical internal accidents. The leakage of this atmosphere is to be collected in special condensation rooms and another part of it is to be cooled down in these rooms. An outer safety barrier and leakage extraction fans keep this atmosphere substantially enclosed. By that means the consequences of a core melt accident will be reduced considerably. (orig.)

  19. Image analysis applied to quantitative evaluation of chromatic impact generated by open-pit quarries and mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Victor; Font, Xavier; Salgot, Miquel; Tapias, Jose; Ma, Tomas

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important environmental impacts resulting from opencast mining, and especially quarries, is the visual impact. Evaluation of this impact considers two aspects: first, the area occupied by the quarry as seen by an observer from a specific place, and, second, the chromatic contrast existing between landscape and exploitation. In this study we develop a methodology to assess the chromatic impact in an objective and comparable form. To assess this impact we developed a method based on image analysis that allows us to obtain from a picture or image its equivalent as a function of chromatic impact, according to the sensibility of the human eye to different wavelengths. The methodology was applied to the Martinenca limestone quarry (Alcanar, Tarragona) and to Cerro Kori Kollo mine, La Joya district (Bolivia).

  20. [Comparison of soil fertility among open-pit mine reclaimed lands in Antaibao regenerated with different vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Jin-chuan; Yue, Jian-ying; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Guo, Chun-yan; Lu, Ning; Wang, Yu-hong; Yang, Sheng-quan

    2013-09-01

    Re-vegetation is mainly applied into regeneration in opencast mine to improve the soil quality. It is very important to choose feasible vegetation types for soil restoration. In this study, three typical forest restoration types were studied at Antaibao mine, namely, Medicago sativa, mixed forests Pinus taebelaefolius-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii and Elaeagnus angustifolia-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii-Hipophae rhamnoides, to determine the nutrient contents and enzyme activities in different soil layers. The results showed that re-vegetation markedly increased soil nutrient contents and the enzyme activities during the restoration process. The nutrient content of soil in the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest field was significantly higher than those in other plots. It was found that the soil of the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest had the highest integrated fertility index values. In conclusion, the restoration effects of the P. zaebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. Korshinskii mixed forest was better than that of E. angustifolia-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii-H. rhamnoides, while M. sativa grassland had the least effect. PMID:24289011

  1. Designing an advanced RC drilling grid for short-term planning in open pit mines: three case studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Ortiz; E.J., Magri.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS This paper shows the usefulness of geostatistical conditional simulation combined with the quantification of sampling errors obtained from the analyses of fundamental errors - validated from duplicate data - to assess the relevance of the quality and quantity of the information, for short-t [...] erm mine planning purposes. Traditional blast-hole drilling equipment has been designed for efficient drilling, but not for obtaining high-quality samples. Furthermore, blast-hole sampling interferes with production, and thus usually produces poor-quality results. These results are the basis of short-term plans, where the grades of selective mining units are estimated and used for distinguishing between ore and waste. Under these conditions, misclassification (ore blocks sent to the waste dump and waste blocks processed at the plant) is inevitable, leading to significant hidden losses that can amount to millions of dollars per annum. Reverse circulation drilling with the latest automated sampling technology improves significantly the quality of the information used for short-term planning, and thus reduces misclassification, improving the financial returns of the operation. In this paper, we present the general methodology for assessing the effect of poor blast-hole sampling, as compared to advanced reverse circulation drilling grids at several spacings, in order to arrive at the most appropriate grid for short-term planning. This plan can be prepared well in advance using several additional variables that are usually not available when the plan is based on blast-hole samples. Furthermore, blending options can be analysed in order to optimize plant recovery, minimize the use of sulphuric acid, etc. Three case studies are presented, namely a typical porphyry copper deposit, an exotic oxide copper deposit, and a complex gold deposit, where mineralization is controlled by structures and lithology. This paper shows that in all cases, advanced reverse circulation drilling grids provide good-quality information that, coupled with the use of geosta-tistics for short-term mine planning, significantly improve the financial returns of the operation.

  2. Geostatistical modeling of facies, bitumen grade and particle size distribution for the Joslyn oil sand open pit mine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babak, Olena; Insalaco, Enzo; Mittler, Andreas [Total EandP Canada Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Joslyn North Mine Project is currently in the pre-development stage; the aim of this study is to use different available data to draw a geological model of facies, bitumen grade, full particle size distribution (PSD) and ore/waste discrimination. The study was conducted with the database of around 800 wells, stochastic, indicator and Gaussian simulations were performed along with a sensitivity study. Results demonstrated the importance of some parameters for evaluating grade cases including variogram uncertainty, sampling limitations and errors in geostatistical workflow. In addition, modeling the full PSD dataset was shown to be useful. This study demonstrated how to use available database through an overall workflow to develop case scenarios for bitumen in place in ore and characterize the ore material.

  3. Change detection over Sokolov open-pit mining area, Czech Republic, using multi-temporal HyMAP data (2009-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojik, P.; Kopackov, V.; Zelenkova, K.; Misurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanus, J.; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben Dor, E.

    2011-11-01

    Two HyMap images acquired over the same lignite open-pit mining site in Sokolov, Czech Republic, during the summers of 2009 and 2010 (12 months apart), were investigated in this study. The site selected for this research is one of three test sites (the others being in South Africa and Kyrgyzstan) within the framework of the EO-MINERS FP7 Project (http://www.eo-miners.eu). The goal of EO-MINERS is to "integrate new and existing Earth Observation tools to improve best practice in mining activities and to reduce the mining related environmental and societal footprint". Accordingly, the main objective of the current study was to develop hyperspectral-based means for the detection of small spectral changes and to relate these changes to possible degradation or reclamation indicators of the area under investigation. To ensure significant detection of small spectral changes, the temporal domain was investigated along with careful generation of reflectance information. Thus, intensive spectroradiometric ground measurements were carried out to ensure calibration and validation aspects during both overflights. The performance of these corrections was assessed using the Quality Indicators setup developed under a different FP7 project-EUFAR (http://www.eufar.net), which helped select the highest quality data for further work. This approach allows direct distinction of the real information from noise. The reflectance images were used as input for the application of spectral-based change-detection algorithms and indices to account for small and reliable changes. The related algorithms were then developed and applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to map spectral changes over the space of a year. Using field spectroscopy and ground truth measurements on both overpass dates, it was possible to explain the results and allocate spatial kinetic processes of the environmental changes during the time elapsed between the flights. It was found, for instance, that significant spectral changes are capable of revealing mineral processes, vegetation status and soil formation long before these are apparent to the naked eye. Further study is being conducted under the above initiative to extend this approach to other mining areas worldwide and to improve the robustness of the developed algorithm.

  4. Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto Haul roads structural design in open pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de Sousa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µε. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais.An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µε. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

  5. The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marikie Pelser

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administered to 128 experienced haul truck operators. The job performance criteria used were spotting in time, corrected tons hauled and supervisor ranking. The concurrent validity of the learning potential and psychomotor ability measures was partially supported. An exploratory factor analysis provided relatively convincing evidence for a general cognitive ability factor (g underlying performance on the learning potential and several psychomotor measures. The existence of a general psychomotor factor was not substantiated in the current study. Suggestions were made for improving design and criterion shortcomings. Opsomming Die doel van die ondersoek was om die saamvallende geldigheid van leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings vir die voorspelling van die werkprestasie van sleepvragwabestuurders in ’n oopgroefmyn te beoordeel. Addisionele doelwitte was om die aard van die verwantskap tussen leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese vermoëns te gepaal en om die relatiewe bydraes van hierdie veranderlikes as voorspellers te bepaal. Die voorspellers was die TRAM 1 Leerpotensiaaltoets en die Vienna Test System subtoetse wat toegepas is op 128 ervare sleepvragwabestuurders. Die werkprestasiekriteria was inteikentyd, gekorrigeerde tonmaat gesleep en toesighouerbeoordeling. Die saamvallende geldigheid van die leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings is gedeeltelik ondersteun. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het die bestaan van ’n algemene kognitiewe vermoëfaktor (g, wat onderliggend aan die leerpotensiaal en verskeie psigomotoriese metings is, redelik oortuigend gestaaf. ’n Algemene psigomotoriese faktor is nie in die huidige ondersoek gevind nie. Voorstelle is gemaak om die ontwerp- en kriteriumtekortkominge te verbeter.

  6. Extracting of Gypsum Reserves from Markusovce - Safarka Open Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Viliam

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining company Želba a.s. Spišská Nová Ves, plant Rudòany has decided to open new resources of gypsum, which will be extracted mainly like open pit mine. According to geological prospecting was chosen extracting method, which is combination of two classical method. At first it will by open pit mine, and depending on depth of reserves from surface is possible to change this extraction to one of undergroung exploration methods.

  7. Reliability Analysis of Drilling Operation in Open Pit Mines / Analiza niezawodności urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalniach odkrywkowych

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimdel, M. J.; Ataei, M.; Kakaei, R.; Hoseinie, S. H.

    2013-06-01

    Considering the high investment and operation costs, reliability analysis of mining machineries is essential to achieve a lean operation and to prevent the unwanted stoppages. In open pit mining, drilling, as the initial stage of the exploitation operations, has a significant role in the other stages. Failure of drilling machines causes total delay in blasting operation. In this paper, the reliability of drilling operation has been analyzed using the Markov method. The failure and operation data of four heavy rotary drilling machines in Sarcheshme copper mine in Iran have been used as a case study. Failure rate and repair rate of all machines have been calculated using available data. Then, 16 possible operation states have been defined and the probability of being of drilling fleet in each of the states was calculated using Markov theory. The results showed that there was 77.2% probability that all machines in fleet were in operational condition. It means that, considering 360 working days per year, drilling operation will be in a reliable condition in 277.92 days. Biorąc pod uwagę wysokość kosztów inwestycyjnych a także eksploatacyjnych, przeprowadzenie analizy niezawodności maszyn i urządzeń górniczych jest sprawą kluczową dla zapewnienia sprawnego działania i dla wyeliminowania niepożądanych przestojów. W kopalniach odkrywkowych prace wiertnicze prowadzone w początkowych etapach eksploatacji mają ogromne znaczenie również w późniejszych fazach działalności przedsięwzięcia. Awaria urządzeń wiertniczych powoduje opóźnienia przy pracach strzałowych. W pracy tej przeanalizowano niezawodność urządzeń wiertniczych w oparciu o metodę Markowa. Jako studium przypadku wykorzystano dane zebrane w trakcie eksploatacji i awarii czterech obrotowych urządzeń wiertniczych wykorzystywanych w kopalni rud miedzi Sarcheshme w Iranie. Awaryjność maszyn i zakres oraz częstość napraw obliczono na podstawie dostępnych danych. Zdefiniowano 16 możliwych stanów działania, a prawdopodobieństwa znalezienia się jednego z urządzeń wiertniczych w każdym z podanych stanów obliczono z wykorzystaniem teorii Markowa. Wyniki pokazują, że poziom prawdopodobieństwa tego, że wszystkie urządzenia wiertnicze znajdować się będą w stanie gwarantującym ich właściwe działanie wynosi 77.2%. Biorąc pod uwagę 360 dni roboczych w roku, oznacza to, że prace wiertnicze prowadzone być mogą w warunkach niezawodności przez 277.92 dni w roku.

  8. Change Detection over Sokolov Open-Pit Mining Area, Czech Republic, Using Multi-Temporal HyMAP Data (2009-2010).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojk, P.; Kop?kov, V.; Zelenkov, K.; Miurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanu, Jan; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben-Dor, E.

    Bellingham : SPIE, 2011 - (Bruzzone, L.), 81800T ISBN 9780819488077. ISSN 0277-786X. - (Proceedings of SPIE. 8180). [Conference on Image and Signal Processing for Remote Sensing XVII. Prague (CZ), 19.09.2011-21.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/09/1989 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : spectral change * coal mining * change detection * HyMap Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Technical and environmental aspects of Coal mining,a case study on Maamba Collieries,Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the general flow chart of stripping, mining, processing and handling of coal at Maamba Collieries. Major sources of environmental degradation starting from the Open Pit, Coal Preparation Plant(CCP), Aerial Ropewayup to the Screening Plantand dispatch facilities located some eleven kilometres away at Masuku Rail Terminalare pointed out. Past and on-going efforts by Maamba Collieries at ameliorating and, where feasible, mitigating of adverse environmental impact of mining, processing and handling of coal as well as limitations of these measures as applied at Maamba are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Determining the open pit to underground transition: A new method

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, D.; Brazil, M.; Grossman, P. A.; Rubinstein, J. H.; D. A. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Many Ore Reserves are harvested by a combination of open pit and underground mining methods. In these cases there is often material that could be mined by either method, and a choice has to be made. The area containing this material is referred to as the transition zone. Deciding where to finish the open pit and start the underground is referred to as the transition problem and it has received some attention in the literature since the 1980s. In this paper we provide a review of existing appr...

  11. Underground Coal Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Computer program models coal-mining production, equipment failure and equipment repair. Underground mine is represented as collection of work stations requiring service by production and repair crews alternately. Model projects equipment availability and productivity, and indicates proper balance of labor and equipment. Program is in FORTRAN IV for batch execution; it has been implemented on UNIVAC 1108.

  12. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  13. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  14. Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings

  15. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  16. Coal mine subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts

  17. Exploration on feasibility of using in-situ leaching after explosion on the bottom of Huangfengling open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the situation of mining and the faced problems in Huangfengling open pit, it was proposed to use in-situ leaching after explosion to recover uranium in order to overcome the difficulties with open mining of the deposit and high mining cost. The feasibility and necessity of using in-situ leaching after explosion in Huangfengling open pit was explored

  18. Coal Car in Pocahontas Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Eight on car of bituminous coal on exhibit in West Virginia's world famed Pocahontas Exhibition Mine. Although the mine is well lighted, all machinery is painted a luminous white to further aid vision.

  19. Modelling and Optimizing an Open-Pit Truck Scheduling Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Yonggang Chang; Huizhi Ren; Shijie Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses a special truck scheduling problem in the open-pit mine with different transport revenue consideration. A mixed integer programming model is formulated to define the problem clearly and a few valid inequalities are deduced to strengthen the model. Some properties and two upper bounds of the problem are proposed. Based on these inequalities, properties, and upper bounds, a heuristic solution approach with two improvement strategies is proposed to resolve the problem and th...

  20. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  1. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  2. Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Notesco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at λ = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

  3. Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco César Rodrigues de Araújo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sorte a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática.This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and quality targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

  4. Proposal of an environmental sustainability index for open-pit mines using landscape fragmentation indicators / Proposta de um ndice de sustentabilidade ambiental para minas a cu aberto com o uso de indicadores de fragmentao de paisagem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe Vargas E, Silva; Rodrigo, Peroni.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A percepo dos impactos ambientais das atividades econmicas pela sociedade subjetiva e muitas vezes afeta negativamente a imagem de certos setores econmicos como a minerao. Para no ser subjetiva, a avaliao de impactos ambientais deve se embasar em indicadores ambientais claros e criteriosa [...] mente selecionados. Para demonstrar que a sustentabilidade da minerao a cu aberto comparvel a outras atividades econmicas, foi criado um ndice de sustentabilidade ambiental composto do consumo de gua e energia combinado com um indicador de fragmentao de paisagem construdo com o uso de sensoriamento remoto e geoprocessamento. Para ilustrar a metodologia, foi realizado um estudo comparativo em um perodo de 10 anos entre a maior mina de minrio de ferro brasileira, N5W, com o maior municpio produtor de soja, Sorriso, no Mato Grosso. Abstract in english The perception of the environmental impacts caused by economic activities is subjective and usually negatively affects the image of an extractive sector such as mining. In order to avoid this, the environmental impact assessment must be supported by clear and well-selected environmental indicators. [...] An index of sustainability was created to demonstrate that open-pit mining is comparable to other economic activities. The index is composed by of environmental indicators like water and energy consumption combined with an indicator of landscape fragmentation, using remote sensing data and geoprocessing. A comparative study considering a ten-year period was carried out with the biggest iron ore mine in Brazil, N5W, and the largest Brazilian soybean producer, the Sorriso County, in the Mato Grosso State to illustrate the methodology.

  5. Project design of an open pit colliery in Terkidag, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this manuscript, first of all, the status of Turkey in terms of energy production and consumption is given and the need to rely on domestic sources, namely lignite deposits, is emphasized rather than importing fuels from abroad. Then, a thorough literature work concerning open pit design and production planning is explained in detail. On this basis, the project design and production planning of Tekirdag-Saray open pit colliery are conducted. According to the selected production technique, machinery-equipment that will be utilized in the coal winning system is determined and in the final part, the investment cost and unit production cost regarding the project are computed and the importance of constructing a power plant in the region operating with domestic fuels is expressed. (authors)

  6. Project design of an open pit colliery in Terkidag, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kose

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, first of all, the status of Turkey in terms of energy production and consumption is given and the need to relyon domestic sources, namely lignite deposits, is emphasized rather than importing fuels from abroad. Then, a thorough literature workconcerning open pit design and production planning is explained in detail. On this basis, the project design and production planningof Tekirdag-Saray open pit colliery are conducted. According to the selected production technique, machinery-equipment that willbe utilized in the coal winning system is determined and in the final part, the investment cost and unit production cost regardingthe project are computed and the importance of constructing a power plant in the region operating with domestic fuels is expressed.

  7. Software development for geologic information management system on open-pit production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Tian, A.; Ren, Z.; Pang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technomogy, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2001-09-01

    A software, including geological data gathering and processing, deposit modelling, reserves calculating and mine map plotting, for geologic information management of open-pit production was developed. Based on the interactive technique, CAD, the object-oriented simulation, and the characteristics of geologic structures, all the geologic information databases and geologic mapping sub-systems have been established for open-pit production, planning and management. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2007-09-15

    Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  9. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Alvarado; Felipe Gonzalez; Andrew Fletcher; Ashray Doshi

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more pr...

  10. Slope modification of open pit wall using a genetic algorithm - case study: southern wall of the 6th Golbini Jajarm bauxite mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K., Goshtasbi; M., Ataei; R., Kalatehjary.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a genetic algorithm is used in a heavily jointed rock mass in order to investigate the critical circular slip surface and modification of slope surface. This method was applied to the southern wall of the 6th Golbini Jajarm bauxite mine. The mine is the largest bauxite deposit in Iran, [...] located to the northeast of the town of Jajarm in the Khorasan province. Estimated reserve of bauxite in this deposit is about 160 million tonnes. Field and laboratory investigations were conducted in order to determine rock mass behaviour. A genetic algorithm code that uses the Simplified Bishop method as an objective function was developed for finding the safety factor of circular slip surfaces. Sensitivity analysis was applied to determine the optimum values of the genetic algorithm variables, such as population size, selection method, crossover and mutation rates. After finding the critical circular slip surface, slope modification is carried out by removing unstable sections from marked critical slip surfaces, and this process is repeated until the last unsafe section is removed. Based on this code, modification occurred during 7 steps, by reaching a safety factor of 1.3 in the last step. Finally, the modified slope angle of the southern wall of the 6th Golbini Jajarm bauxite mine was determined to be 48.44 degrees.

  11. Coal mine subsidence and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underground coal mining has occurred beneath 32 x 109m2 (8 million acres) of land in the United States and will eventually extend beneath 162 x 109m2 (40 million acres). Most of this mining has taken place and will take place in the eastern half of the United States. In areas of abandoned mines where total extraction was not achieved, roof collapse, crushing of coal pillars, or punching of coal pillars into softer mine floor or roof rock is now resulting in sinkhole or trough subsidence tens or even hundreds of years after mining. Difference in geology, in mining, and building construction practice between Europe and the United States preclude direct transfer of European subsidence engineering experience. Building damage cannot be related simply to tensile and compressive strains at the ground surface. Recognition of the subsidence damage role played by ground-structure interaction and by structural details is needed

  12. Automated Coal-Mining System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangal, M. D.; Isenberg, L.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed system offers safety and large return on investment. System, operating by year 2000, employs machines and processes based on proven principles. According to concept, line of parallel machines, connected in groups of four to service modules, attacks face of coal seam. High-pressure water jets and central auger on each machine break face. Jaws scoop up coal chunks, and auger grinds them and forces fragments into slurry-transport system. Slurry pumped through pipeline to point of use. Concept for highly automated coal-mining system increases productivity, makes mining safer, and protects health of mine workers.

  13. Calibration of Numerical Model Applied to a Shear Zone Located on a Slope in an Open Pit MineCase History

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Moraes da Gama; Bruno C. R. da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The instability of a pit mine slope diagnostic caused by the slipping of a localized deep shear zone is described. The slope was designed on ultra basic, serpentine and metabasite rock formations with an angle varying from 40 to 45 de- grees. The perturbed slope zone was classified as RMR 12 and the non-perturbed zone as RMR 75. The boundary of these zones is defined as the shear zone. The pit slope was field mapped in detail and the mechanical properties of the rock were obtained through a l...

  14. Mining technology and policy issues 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents conference papers on advances in mineral processing, coal mining, communications for mining executives, environmental laws and regulations, exploration philosophy, exploration technology, government controls and the environment, management, mine finance, minerals availability, mine safety, occupational health, open pit mining, the precious metals outlook, public lands, system improvements in processing ores, and underground mining. Topics considered include coal pipelines and saline water, an incentive program for coal mines, sandwich belt high-angle conveyors, the development of a mining company, regulations for radionuclides, contracts for western coal production for Pacific Rim exports, and the control of radon daughters in underground mines

  15. Electric traction in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibble, J.D.

    1980-03-01

    Underground transport in coal mines is described, dealing mainly with battery rail locomotives. Requirements for underground vehicles and their batteries are given. Finally the author looks at future prospects, the exploitation of battery traction, battery safety and transmission. 3 refs.

  16. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine...Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This extension...Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA...

  17. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine...Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published...Systems on Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Due to...

  18. Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under different aged refuse dumps at the Heidaigou opencast coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation succession and soil infiltration characteristics under five different restoration models of refuse dumps including different-aged revegetated sites (1995, 1998, 2003 and 2005 in the northern, eastern and western open-pit coal mine dump and a reference site with native vegetation, which had never been damaged by coal mining activities on the Heidaigou Open Cut Coal Mine were studied. Changes in the plant species, soil properties and infiltration rates were evaluated at the different refuse dumps. The results indicated that the number of herbaceous species, plant cover, biomass, fine particles, and total N, P and SOM increased significantly with increasing site age. However, the number of shrub species decreased since revegetation, its cover increased from 17% to 41% initially and subsequently decreased to the present level of 4%. The natural vegetation community and the northern refuse dump had the highest cumulative infiltration rates of 3.96 and 2.89 cm s−1 in contrast to the eastern and western refuse dumps and the abandoned land, where the highest cumulative infiltration rates were 1.26, 1.04 and 0.88 cm s−1, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the infiltration rate was primarily determined by the silt percentage, SOM, plant coverage and the variation in soil bulk density. Our results provide new ideas regarding future soil erosion controls and sustainable development at open-pit coal mine refuse dumps.

  19. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning. PMID:26274959

  20. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alvarado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R2 greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning.

  1. Towards the Development of a Low Cost Airborne Sensing System to Monitor Dust Particles after Blasting at Open-Pit Mine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Miguel; Gonzalez, Felipe; Fletcher, Andrew; Doshi, Ashray

    2015-01-01

    Blasting is an integral part of large-scale open cut mining that often occurs in close proximity to population centers and often results in the emission of particulate material and gases potentially hazardous to health. Current air quality monitoring methods rely on limited numbers of fixed sampling locations to validate a complex fluid environment and collect sufficient data to confirm model effectiveness. This paper describes the development of a methodology to address the need of a more precise approach that is capable of characterizing blasting plumes in near-real time. The integration of the system required the modification and integration of an opto-electrical dust sensor, SHARP GP2Y10, into a small fixed-wing and multi-rotor copter, resulting in the collection of data streamed during flight. The paper also describes the calibration of the optical sensor with an industry grade dust-monitoring device, Dusttrak 8520, demonstrating a high correlation between them, with correlation coefficients (R2) greater than 0.9. The laboratory and field tests demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the sensor with the UAVs. However, further work must be done in the areas of sensor selection and calibration as well as flight planning. PMID:26274959

  2. Development strategy to prevent mine accidents in surface coal mines in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Permana, Herry

    2014-01-01

    Most of mining operations in Indonesia use open pit mine methods, with truck and shovel system and a large amount of manpower. The mining industry plays an important role contributed to the national economy and development in Indonesia, otherwise the mine accidents become as sensitive issue or problem. The main cause of mine accidents is still dominant of the low safety awarenesses and accountabilities, and also improperly cost spent on the occupational health and safety (OSH) programs. This ...

  3. Highwall stability due to punch mining at opencut coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, K.; Shimada, H.; Sasaoka, T.; Cao, H.; Kato, S.; Furukawa, H.; Ueda, T.; Yabuki, A.; Kramadibrata, S.; Sulistianto, B. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Earth Resources Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Most of Indonesia's coal is extracted from open cast mines. There are many long highwalls at abandoned mining operations where coal can no longer be safely mined because of weak strata. The feasibility of introducing punch room and pillar mining to Indonesian mines is examined. Conventional highwall mining and punch highwall mining systems are described. The stability of highwalls, because of punch mining, was studied using finite element modelling. The results are discussed. 12 refs., 11 tabs., 1 tab.

  4. Stability Assessment and Optimization Design of Lakeside Open-Pit Slope considering Fluid-Solid Coupling Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Wenchen Fan; Ping Cao; Ke Zhang; Kaihui Li; Chong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Chengmenshan copper mine, located at Jiujiang city in the Jiangxi Province, is a rarely lakeside open-pit mine in China. Since the open-pit is very close to Sai Lake, the seasonally changed water level and the distance between lake and slope have great influence to the stability of open-pit slope. Based on the drill data and geological sections, a numerical model of the slope is built. With the fluid-mechanical interaction associated, the stability of the slopes is numerically analyzed, in wh...

  5. Environmental Reconnaissance of Shivee-Ovoo Coal Mine, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battogtokh, B.; Woo, N. C.; Nemer, B.

    2011-12-01

    Mining sector is one of most rapidly developing industries in Mongolia for the last several decades. However, environmental monitoring and protection measures have been left out. An exploratory investigation was conducted to evaluate potential impacts of the mining activities on the soil and water environment at the Shivee-Ovoo surface coal mine. Water samples were collected from the mine dewatering boreholes, discharge lakes and drinking water sources around the mine area. High levels of electrical conductivity, ranging from 325μS/cm to 2,909μS/cm, indicate significant contents of dissolved solids in water. In general, Mg, Fe, F and EC levels in drinking water exceed the level of Mongolian and WHO guidelines for drinking water, and they appear to result from water-rock interaction along the groundwater flow paths. Hierarchical cluster analysis implies that the waters from the mine area and those from public water-supply wells be originated from the same aquifer. However, the water from the spring, dug well and artesian well are grouped separately, indicating different geological effects due to the shallow groundwater system with relatively short period of water-rock interaction. Groundwater dewatering for open-pit mine excavation causes significant water-level decline, and subsequently, the residents nearby areas happen to be provided with water from the deeper aquifer, which has with higher dissolved solids probably through longer period of water-rock interaction. Soil samples were collected from the top, middle and lower soil layers of excavation bench, mine-waste dump sites, topsoil and subsoil from nearby area of the mine. To evaluate potential of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD), samples were analyzed for chemical composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show 0.36% of sulfur in only one sample, collected from waste dumping site of low quality coal. Since sulfur component were not detected in other samples, there appear no apparent threat of ARD for this mine at present. In addition, particle size distribution (PSD) analysis and fractal dimensions of PSD were performed to evaluate desertification degree. Fractal dimensions (Dm) show the high sensitivity to the coarsening of the soil samples, and values decrease with increasing content of the sand. The soil samples from nearby area of the mine contained high percentage of sand, indicating desertification prone- area. Based on active and increased number of mining operation in Mongolia, we suggest that this kind of environmental study and continuous monitoring be performed at each mine area.

  6. Patrones de sucesin vegetal sobre los depsitos de material residual en minas de gravas - Santa Fe de Bogot Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Goyes Ricardo A.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Con Base en el estudio de la composicion y estructura de las comunidades vegetales y el analisis de las caracteristicas fisicoquimicas de los desechos, se determinaron los patrones iniciales de sucesion primaria, presentes en tres depositos de material residual de 18, 36, 120 meses de abandono, provenientes de la explotacion minera de gravas a cielo abierto al sur de Santafe de Bogota. La composicion, riqueza y diversidad floristica fueron maximas a los 36 meses de abandono del deposito. La dominancia alcanzo los maximos valores en el deposito de 120 meses. Los dos primeros parches de vegetacion presentaron un mejor ajuste al modelo de distribucion especie-abundancia logaritmico, y el tercero a un normal logaritimico. El azar es el patron de distribucion espacial-horizontal que mas abunda entre todas las especies,. seguido por patrones de micro y macroheterogeneidad. Las formas de crecimiento dominantes pasan de hierbas acaulirrosulas y postradas, en la comunidad pionera, a hierbas rastreras y arbustos, en el parche de 120 meses de edad. Las estrategias de historias de vida y las relaciones intraespecificas propuestas por Grime (1989, permitieron determinar que las plantas en la colonizacion de los primeros ambientes, se comportan como ruderales tolerantes a restricciones, y hacia el final del periodo sucesionall, como competidoras tolerantes a restricciones. Los modelos establecidos por Connell y Slatyer (1977 y Noble y Slatyer (1980, y los mecanimos de sucesion vegetal: arribo, establecimiento, facilitacion, tolerancia, inhibicion, extincion y maximo dominio, explican claramente los patrones de sucesion vegetal establecidos a traves de la dinamica de colonizacion y establecimiento de las especies vegetales sobre estos depositos. Cambios a traves del tiempo en la disponibilidad de condiciones y recursos en los sustratos expuestos a la colonizacion vegetal, medidos a partir de la caracterizacion de N, P, K, Ca, Na, Mg, porcentaje de arcillas, textura, pH, cBased on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia. This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of natural restauration of tropical ecosystems subjected to man-borne degradation.

  7. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Qingliang Chang; Jianhang Chen; Huaqiang Zhou; Jianbiao Bai

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...

  8. UK coal mining engineering capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The document outlines the current position of underground coal mining in the UK and identifies the key suppliers of equipment and services, in the following sections: longwall face machinery; roadway drivage; seismic exploration; ventilation; methane drainage; underground transport; electrical and control systems; underground safety; research and development; consultancy services; coal associations. A directory of 43 companies organizations and academic institutions is included. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Geophysics for opencast coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D. [International Mining Consultants Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The competitive nature of the European energy sector and a growing public awareness of environmental issues associated with industrial processes dictates that prior knowledge of the characteristics of an opencast mine site is becoming increasingly important. Reports on the applicability of geophysical methods of site investigation to opencast coal mining operations. Site investigation methods frequently need to be non-invasive, cost-effective, flexible and rapidly deployable. Geophysical exploration methods provide the obvious solution to many of these problems.

  10. Results of the Promethee Method Application in Selecting the Technological System at the Majdan III Open Pit Mine / Wyniki Zastosowania Metody Promethee do Wyboru Systemu Technologicznego W Kopalni Odkrywkowej Majdan III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Slobodan; Hudej, Marjan; Miljanović, Igor

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses the application of the PROMETHEE model and the results achieved in practice, following the example of the multi-criteria selection of the technological system at the Majdan III clay mineral raw material open pit mine of the Potisje Company, Republic of Serbia. After the introduction comments, reasons are explained for selecting the new technological system, conditions and limitations for the seven alternative solutions considered are described, mathematical foundation for the PROMETHEE method and a multi-criteria model of the problem in question are presented. The solution with the following structure was ranked first and accepted by the Company management as the best: Bucket chain excavator - Conveyor belts - Spreader (ECS), alongside a decision is made on the acquisition of machinery and system construction. The system was put into operation in 2000. The experience and the data accumulated in the previous twelve years confirm that the decision made on the application of the ECS technology was just, and the conclusion lists the benefits achieved. W artykule omówiono zastosowanie modelu Promethee i przedyskutowano uzyskane w ten sposób wyniki na przykładzie wielokryterialnego wyboru systemu technologicznego do zastosowania w kopalni odkrywkowej minerałów ilastych Majdan III, należącej do przedsiębiorstwa górniczego Potisje (Republika Serbii). Po uwagach wprowadzających przedstawiono powody wyboru nowego ciągu technologicznego, omówiono warunki oraz ograniczenia dla siedmiu alternatywnych rozwiązań, podstawy matematyczne metody Promethee oraz wielokryterialny model zagadnienia. Rozwiązanie uznane za najlepsze i zaaprobowane przez zarząd przedsiębiorstwa zakłada zastosowanie następującego ciągu technologicznego: koparka łancuchowa jednonaczyniowa - przenośniki taśmowe - rozkładarka(system ECS). Podjęto także decyzje odnośnie zakupu sprzętu i instalacji systemu, który uruchomiony został w 2000 roku. Doświadczenia i danezebrane z przeciągu ostatnich dwunastu lat potwierdzają zasadność wyboru systemu technologicznego. W podsumowaniu zestawiono listę uzyskanych korzyści

  11. Complementarities Between Coal Mining Machinery Industry and Coal Mining Industry: Evidence from China 1991-2006

    OpenAIRE

    He Xiao-yan; Wang Fei; Bai Yu-hui; Yang Xiao

    2013-01-01

    This study used VAR model to analyze and verify the complementaries between Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises and coal mining enterprises from the perspective of static state and dynamic state, it concluded that: there is a co-integration relationship between the actual output value of Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises and the actual value of Chinese coal mining enterprises, namely, there is a long-term and stable equilibrium; Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises have adv...

  12. Multi-seam coal mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B.B., Tati.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The project report is based on vacation work done by the writer at the Khutala Colliery during December/January 2009-2010. The purpose of this report is to explain and describe the design process in a multi-seam mine design for coal extraction at the Khutala Colliery. The multi-seam design will focu [...] s on the No. 2 and No. 4 seams as these are the seams that are currently being mined by underground methods at Khutala Colliery. The seam thicknesses and the parting thickness between the seams provide suitable conditions for designing a multi-seam mine design. An investigation into the pillar design aspects is carried out followed by a numerical modelling analysis of various scenarios. This analysis validates the first principles approach provided by multi-seam design guidelines. The design results from the analysis of the selected pillar design indicate sufficient parting for primitive conditions between seams, thus illuminating the need for superimposing in-panel pillars. This multi-seam mine design confirms the potential for the extraction of coal in a new panel. The design indicates that significant amounts of power station coal are present and suitable for extraction by room and pillar mining methods. The panel block indicates 401 625 tonnes of ROM coal. This block has a life of panel that will be mined just over a 4-month period. This 4-month period is assumed to mined at a production rate of 48 000 tonnes per month. The total capital cost required for the new panel is R48 281 127.05.

  13. Underwater coal mining in Kovin in Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makar, M.; Simic, R.; Pavlovic, V.; Matko, Z.

    1988-09-01

    Discusses underwater mining of the Kovin brown coal deposit in Yugoslavia, influenced by the Danube. If conventional surface mining were used, mining cost would increase due to a high water influx (17 m/sup 3/ per 1 t coal) and construction of a water dam about 7.5 km long. Underwater mining is more economic. Overburden to coal ratio will amount to 3.8 to 1, coal reserves will increase by 44 Mt. Brown coal will be mined by a system of floating excavators with hydraulic coal transport to power plants. Three coal seams in the Kovin deposit are from 9 to 14 m thick. Types of floating excavators developed in Yugoslavia, overburden transport and storage at a local island and efficiency of underwater mining are analyzed.

  14. Highwall stability due to punch mining at opencut coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuo Matsui; Hideki Shimada; Takashi Sasaoka; Hirofumi Furukawa; Takeshi Ueda; Atsuko Yabuki; Suseno Kramadibrata; Budi Sulistianto [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Department of Earth Resources Engineering

    2004-09-01

    Conventional highwall mining extracts coal with an auger machine or a continuous miner from exposed seams at the base of opencut or strip operations. However, under poor strata and high stress conditions, highwall mining cannot be conducted due to pillar and roof failures. In such cases, punch highwall mining is more effective than the conventional highwall mining. This paper describes conventional highwall mining and punch highwall mining systems and discusses the stability of the highwall due to punch highwall mining at opencut coal mines.

  15. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM ABANDONED UNDERGROUND COAL MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper summarizes current research on abandoned underground coal mines. t forms an initial basis for developing an inventory of methane emissions from such mines. arly measurements have shown that some abandoned coal mines can liberate large volumes of high quality gas (up to ...

  16. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  17. Underground coal mining section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

  18. Optimum Coal Mine: striving towards a 'zero effluent' mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.E., Cogho.

    Full Text Available Optimum Coal Mine comprises numerous defunct, active, and future mining sections. The mine is primarily a large opencast coal mine; however, underground mining activities will be increasing steadily over the next five years. Opencast and underground mining activities have a significant impact on sur [...] face and groundwater resources. To ensure that the mine will be able to continue with its mining operations in the catchment, the extent of this impact requires that substantial intervention and mitigation measures need to be implemented to ensure the environmental integrity and economic use of the catchment's water resources. In developing a sustainable long-term mine water management strategy, numerous scenarios had to be analysed. The various scenarios are a combination of water and land management activities. The main components of the mine's integrated water management strategy include: Management of water recharge by continual and appropriate rehabilitation of disturbed land Beneficial re-use of impacted mine water for coal plant process water and mining operations Reclamation and desalination of remaining excess impacted mine water to potable standard. From the mine's long-term water balance, it is evident that the continued implementation of numerous water management actions is required to mitigate the water resources impact in a sustainable manner. In addition, the installation of a water reclamation plant at Optimum Coal Mine (15M?/day) is a key step for the mine to achieve a zero impact target.

  19. Dewatering of planned Key Lake open pits in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineering design and experience gained so far with a dewatering system for an open-pit uranium mine planned at Key Lake in Northern Saskatchewan are presented. An extensive unconfined overburden aquifer is hydraulically connected with the underlying Athabasca Formation and basement rocks, both of relatively low hydraulic conductivity. The overburden aquifer is embedded in a bedrock trough, with the deepest depression between the planned pits. Hydrogeological data were used in a numerical dewatering model simulating groundwater flow at different stages of the pit development. Based on the model results, the enginering design had to provide for different pumping rates, varying between 1.0 and 0.21 m3/sec. This problem was solved by using a double line pressure system. The design concept for the complete peripheral discharge system and the well design used for 26 dewatering wells are discussed. (auth)

  20. Open-pit production and control at Roessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years metal prices have been severely depressed and most companies have directed efforts to controlling costs in order to stay in business. Roessing Uranium has consistently kept uranium production cost increases well below the domestic inflation rate and this has been the result of a firm commitment to production and cost control, which is the main theme of this paper. The subject of cost analysis is briefly presented and the paper then gives more technical detail under the main headings of grade control, production control and engineering projects. The main communication channels, which are used to ensure that different departments on the mine are all working for the same objectives, are mentioned. The paper, however, is intended to be a general overview of the engineering aspects of open-pit cost control

  1. Nasal mucociliary clearance in coal mine workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinar, F.; Beder, L. [Karaelmas University, Kozlu Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of coal dust particles on nasal mucociliary function in coal mine workers. Using the saccharin method, nasal mucociliary clearance was determined for 77 subjects, of which 39 who worked in a coal mine were actively exposed to coal dust whereas 38 were unexposed control subjects. The measurements were performed in the coal mine, at the level of 170 m below sea level. The average saccharin nasal transit time in coal mine workers, 12.61 (SD: 4.30) minutes, is longer, than that of the control subjects, 10.97 (SD: 3.22). Although the findings of this study demonstrate that the coal particles affect the nasal mucociliary clearance, the difference in saccharin nasal transit time between the two groups (exposed vs unexposed) is not statistically significant (P = 0.063).

  2. Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Martinez, M.

    2007-01-01

    About 7??Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13??m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10??km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7??m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Ta??chira and Me??rida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It is postulated that slower subsidence rates dominated during the Paleocene while greater foreland basin subsidence rates during the Eocene-Miocene resulted from the loading of nappe thrust sheets as part of the main construction phases of the Andean orogen. South-southeastward advance and emplacement of the Lara nappes during the oblique transpressive collision of the Caribbean and South American tectonic plates in the Paleocene was further removed from the sites of peat deposition, resulting in slower subsidence rates. Slower subsidence in the Paleocene may have favored the growth of raised mires, generating higher inertinite concentrations through more frequent moisture stress. Consistently low ash yield and sulfur content would be due to the protection from clastic input in raised mires, in addition to the leaching of mineral matter by rainfall and the development of acidic conditions preventing fixation of sulfur. In contrast, peat mires of Eocene-Miocene age encountered rapid subsidence due to the proximity of nappe emplacement, resulting in lower inertinite content, higher and more variable sulfur content, and higher ash yield.

  3. Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Paul C. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston VA 20192 (United States); Martinez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 3895, Caracas 1010 A (Venezuela)

    2007-08-01

    About 7 Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13 m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10 km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7 m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Tachira and Merida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It is postulated that slower subsidence rates dominated during the Paleocene while greater foreland basin subsidence rates during the Eocene-Miocene resulted from the loading of nappe thrust sheets as part of the main construction phases of the Andean orogen. South-southeastward advance and emplacement of the Lara nappes during the oblique transpressive collision of the Caribbean and South American tectonic plates in the Paleocene was further removed from the sites of peat deposition, resulting in slower subsidence rates. Slower subsidence in the Paleocene may have favored the growth of raised mires, generating higher inertinite concentrations through more frequent moisture stress. Consistently low ash yield and sulfur content would be due to the protection from clastic input in raised mires, in addition to the leaching of mineral matter by rainfall and the development of acidic conditions preventing fixation of sulfur. In contrast, peat mires of Eocene-Miocene age encountered rapid subsidence due to the proximity of nappe emplacement, resulting in lower inertinite content, higher and more variable sulfur content, and higher ash yield. (author)

  4. New Hope Coal Australia: leaders in thin seam coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    New Hope Corporation Ltd.'s coal activities in Queensland are conducted under the business name of New Hope Coal Australia and comprise open-cut mines in the West Moreton coal fields, 40 km west of Brisbane. The company gained an award for its reject co-disposal system and another for its organic overburden conditioning programme. Walloon coal from the Jeebropilly and New Oakleigh open-cut mines has characteristics which are making it increasingly popular as power plant fuel. The article describes operations at these mines and also at Swanbank and Acland. Other projects with which New Hope is involved are mentioned. 4 photos.

  5. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN: Underground Coal Mines in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COAL_UND, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN, is a polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the location and extent of underground coal mines in the...

  6. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_ENTRIES_IN: Underground Coal Mine Entrances in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — SW_COAL_ENTRY, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_ENTRIES_IN, is a point- based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the locations of underground coal mine entrances in the...

  7. Coal Mine Methane in Russia [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  8. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Cristescu; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2...

  9. Coal Mining Safety Monitoring Using WSN

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Kumar, Kriti Singh, Dr. Debmalya Bhattacharya

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose was to provide an implementable design scenario for underground coal mines using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main reason being that given the intricacies in the physical structure of a coal mine, only low power WSN nodes can produce accurate surveillance and accident detection data. The work mainly concentrated on designing and simulating various alternate scenarios for a typical mine and comparing them based on the obtained results to arr...

  10. Mining challenges to deal with the land, forestry and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of a report of the IMA Business Commission dealing with mining development planning in Indonesia as related to land matters, forestry and environmental aspects. A summary of land matter management of an open pit coal mine is included

  11. Research Status on Control System of Coal Mine Rescue Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Jian; Ge Shi-Rong; Zhu Hua

    2013-01-01

    The coal mine rescue robot is the device which replaces the rescue workers to detect the environment and rescue victims in mine. And the control system is the core of the coal mine rescue robot and decides the performance of the robot. To design the control system which meets the requirement of coal mine rescue, it is firstly analyzed that requirements of the coal mine rescue robot in this study. Then, it is recommended that the control systems of coal mine...

  12. Respirable coal mine dust sample processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, L.D.; Tomb, T.F.; Parobeck, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 established mandatory dust standards for coal mines. Regulatory requirements for complying with the provisions of the Act were prescribed in Title 30, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 70 and 71, which were published in the Federal Register on April 3, 1970, and March 28, 1972, respectively. These standard and sampling requirements of coal mine operators, along with a description of the laboratory which was established to process respirable coal mine dust samples collected in accordance with these requirements, were published in MESA Informational Report (MESA, the acronym for the Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration, was changed to MSHA, the acronym for the Mine Safety and Health Administration, in 1977). These standards and regulatory requirements continued under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 until November 1980, when major regulatory revisions were made in the operator's dust sampling program. This paper describes the changes in the respirable coal mine dust sampling program and the equipment and procedures used by MSHA to process respirable coal mine dust samples collected in accordance with regulatory requirements. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Radon products in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of the radon and its products in Poland's bituminous mines are given. The dependence of these concentrations on the mining and geological conditions of coal mines is also determined. Preliminary conclusions concerning prophylaxis are presented. 8 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  14. Control of mining processes in Polish brown coal surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarczyk, J. (Poltegor-Instytut, Wroclaw (Poland))

    1992-09-01

    Outlines the basic problems of strategic control of Polish brown coal mining. Important warning signals for brown coal mines are pointed out. The share of brown coal in power generation increased from 54.7% in 1990 to 64.54% in 1991. Exploitation fluctuates around 70 Mt/a while production capacity is 75 Mt/a. High employment levels and the decreasing demand for accompanying minerals are considered. Annual labor efficiency in the Belchatow mine (3,150 t/person in 1990) is compared with the efficiency of 7,140 t/person planned for 2000 at Laubag AG. Power consumed in brown coal mines is discussed. The basic problems of exploitation control and technical and economic criteria are reviewed. Problems of operational control of the excavator-conveyor sets are analyzed. Automation of bucket wheel excavators is stressed. Control of mine drainage is also taken into consideration. 5 refs.

  15. 30 CFR 816.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 816.84... ACTIVITIES § 816.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New and existing impounding structures constructed of coal mine waste or intended to impound coal mine waste shall meet the requirements of §...

  16. 30 CFR 817.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 817.84... ACTIVITIES § 817.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New and existing impounding structures constructed of coal mine waste or intended to impound coal mine waste shall meet the requirements of §...

  17. Acid mine drainage: mining and water pollution issues in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The importance of protecting water quality and some of the problems associated with mineral development are described. Negative impacts of mining operations such as sedimentation, water disturbances, and water pollution from waste rock and tailings are considered. Mining wastes, types of water pollution from mining, the legacy of acid mine drainage, predicting acid mine drainage, preventing and mitigating acid mine drainage, examples from the past, and cyanide heap-leaching are discussed. The real costs of mining at the Telkwa open pit coal mine are assessed. British Columbia mines that are known for or are potentially acid generating are shown on a map. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Long-term open-pit planning by ant colony optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Sattarvand, Javad

    2009-01-01

    The problem of long-term planning of a hard rock open pit mine (discontinuous exploitation operation) is a large combinatorial problem which cannot be solved in a reasonable amount of time through mathematical programming models because of its large size. In this thesis, a new metaheuristic algorithm has been developed based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and its application in long-term scheduling of a two dimensional hypothetical block model has been analysed. ACO is inspired by the f...

  19. Long-term open-pit planning by ant colony optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Sattarvand, Javad

    2012-01-01

    The problem of long-term planning of a hard rock open pit mine (discontinuous exploitation operation) is a large combinatorial problem which cannot be solved in a reasonable amount of time through mathematical programming models because of its large size. In this thesis, a new metaheuristic algorithm has been developed based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and its application in long-term scheduling of a two dimensional hypothetical block model has been analysed. ACO is inspired by the f...

  20. Injury experience in coal mining, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This Mine and Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  1. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  2. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  3. 20 years of Brown Coal Mine ''Belchatow''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History of the biggest Polish brown coal mine ''Belchatow'' is described. The mine located in Central Poland sells yearly about 34-35 million tons of coal to ''Belchatow'' power plant which produces about 20% of electric energy in the country. The plans of the mine are connected with the exploitation of the new deposit ''Szczercow'' estimated on 750 million tons of coal and 2 new power units (=750 MW) in Belchatow power plant, which should be built in 1996-2002. 2 ills

  4. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...and 75 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules Federal...and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. List of Subjects...Safety, Training programs, Underground mining. Authority: 30...

  5. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ...and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court...requirements for refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. On January 13...Safety, Training programs, Underground mining. Authority: 30...

  6. The innovational mining technology of fully mechanized mining on thin coal seam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, G.; Sun, Q.; Song, H. [China Ocean University, Qingdao (China)

    2007-03-15

    The paper describes the innovational fully mechanized mining technology practised on thin coal seams in Tianchen coal mine. This mining technology combined fully mechanized mining and orthodox working face mining. The technology is suitable for mining of particularly thin coal seams. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  8. Gray Correlation Analysis of Coal Mine Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Yan Tian; Zeng-Shou Dong; Ze-Min Li

    2013-01-01

    Based on the statistics of 2008-2012 State Administration of study safety coal mine accident,a grey relational analysis model of coal mine accidents was established,and the grey correlation matrixes were established according to the grey relevance degree of data series. The gas accident, roof accident and flood accident were considered as the main influential factors according to the advantage analysis method. The analysis method provides scientific basis for further prevention an...

  9. 75 FR 39735 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases From Magnesium Production, Underground Coal Mines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ...212113 Underground anthracite coal mining operations. 212112 Underground bituminous coal mining operations...characterizing CH 4 emissions from underground coal mining options. This information is...

  10. Informationization of coal enterprises and digital mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian-jun; Wang, Xiao-lu; Ma, Li; Zhao, An-xin [Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an (China). School of Communication and Information Engineering

    2008-09-15

    The main problems which were found in current conditions and problems of informationization in coal enterprises in China were analysed. The paper clarified how to achieve informationization in coal mining and put forward a general configuration of informationization construction in which informationization in coal enterprises was divided into two parts: informationization of safety production and informationization of management. A platform of integrated management of informationization in coal enterprises was planned. Ultimately, it was considered that an overall integrated digital mine is the way to achieve the goal of informatonization in coal enterprises, which can promote the application of automation, digitalization, networking, informaitionization to intellectualization. At the same time, the competitiveness of enterprises can be improved entirely and a new type of coal industry can be supported by information technology. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  11. The open-pit truck dispatching method based on the completion of production target and the truck flow saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, J.; Sun, X. [Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2007-05-15

    To address current problems in the 'modular dispatch' dynamic programming system widely used in open-pit truck real-time dispatching, two concepts for meeting production targets and truck flow saturation were proposed. Using truck flow programming and taking into account stochastic factors and transportation distance, truck real-time dispatching was optimised. The method is applicable to both shovel-truck match and mismatching and also to empty and heavy truck dispatching. In an open-pit mine the production efficiency could be increased by between 8% and 18%. 6 refs.

  12. The environmental conditions in coal mining regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is devoted to the analysis of the main directions of Coal industry damage influence upon the environment. In particular the values of different harmful pollution into air and water are given, and also ground damage from coal mining enterprises is described. The perspectives of the situation improvement are overviewed. 2 refs

  13. Equipment for surface mining and coal yards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalek, M.; Jankowiak, R. (Poltegor, Wroclaw (USSR))

    1989-01-01

    Reviews design and operation of earthmoving equipment developed in Poland by the Poltegor research institute for coal surface mining and coal handling in coal yards: bucket wheel excavators, stackers, stacker-loaders, loaders. The following aspects are discussed: equipment type, capacity, output, drives, power of drive motors, range, mass, dimensions, digging or cutting force, haulage rate and speed, reliability, failures, number of units manufactured in Poland, used in Poland or exported to other countries, selected design elements, original solutions protected by patents.

  14. Development and testing of methods for in-situ-monitoring the environmental problems in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden zur In-situ-Langzeitueberwachung fuer Probleme der Folgelandschaften des Braunkohlenbergbaus. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoedel, K.; Koenig, F.

    1999-06-15

    In the project a concept and prototypes have been developed and tested for an automatic, computer-based monitoring of sites suspected to be hazardous in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. In-situ measurements with milieuparameter probes and an optical sensor system in observation wells are combined with measurements between the wells using an electromagnetic system. Methods are being developed for monitoring the vadose and saturated zones. The areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines in eastern Germany are not in a steady-state condition. Considerable changes are occurring due to redistribution and aeration of the sediments during removal of the overburden, due to disposal of solid and liquid wastes in the mine area, as well as to the re-establishment of normal groundwater levels. Monitoring will help to better understand the system. Precautionary and remedial measures must also be monitored as well as natural attenuation of pollutants. The results of the project are encouraging with regard to the range of the electromagnetic monitoring system as well as with regard to the long-term stability. Hence, the efficiency will be tested at a reference object in a long time test. (orig.) [German] Im Vorhaben sind ein Konzept und Prototypen fuer die vollautomatische, rechnergestuetzte Langzeitueberwachung (Monitoring) von Altlastenstandorten in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften entwickelt und getestet worden. Das Konzept basiert auf der Kombination lokaler Messungen mit Milieuparametersonden und einem System zur optischen Spektrometrie mit raeumlichen Ueberwachungsmethoden eines elektromagnetischen Ueberwachungssystems. Dabei wurden Loesungen sowohl fuer ein Monitoring in der wassergesaettigten als auch in der ungesaettigten Zone entwickelt. Derartige Ueberwachungssysteme werden kuenftig benoetigt, um zu einem besseren Verstaendnis und zur Loesung der Probleme in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften zu kommen, die durch die Belueftung und Umstrukturierung der Gesteinsschichten, durch das Einbringen und Ablagern fester und fluessiger Abfaelle sowie durch den Wiederanstieg des Grundwassers verursacht werden. Ausserdem dient die Monitoringtechnologie zur Kontrolle der Wirksamkeit von Sicherungs- und Sanierungsmassnahmen sowie zur Untersuchung der Prozesse der natuerlichen Selbstreinigung (Natural Attenuation) in diesen Gebieten. Die Ergebnisse des Projektes sind sowohl hinsichtlich der Reichweite des elektromagnetischen Ueberwachungssystems als auch bezueglich der Langzeitstabilitaet so ermutigend, dass die Leistungsfaehigkeit an einem Referenzobjekt im Langzeitversuch getestet werden soll. (orig.)

  15. Mobile Robot in Coal Mine Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.TejaRam#1 , Smt. M. Nalinisri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the largest coal production and consumption countries in the world, many countries are having related accidents occurred frequently such as gas explosion, flood, breaking out of fire during the exploitation of coal mine. Hazardous Gas Detection Robot is required to detect various kind of gas in coal mines. Multiple data can be detected and calculated simultaneously, so the response is fast using the same reference value. The range of the measurement is wide and it can accurately detect the gas content.

  16. 30 CFR 816.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 816.81... ACTIVITIES § 816.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area other than the mine workings or excavations shall be placed in new or existing disposal...

  17. 30 CFR 817.81 - Coal mine waste: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: General requirements. 817.81... ACTIVITIES § 817.81 Coal mine waste: General requirements. (a) General. All coal mine waste disposed of in an area other than the mine workings or excavations shall be placed in new or existing disposal...

  18. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated...

  19. Characterization of coal samples from Dasal-i coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: Characterization of coal from Dasal coal mine Khyber pukatunkwa, Pakistan. Coal samples were collected from 50, 100, 150, 175, 200 and 250 feet. Coal samples were crushed, grounded and screened through 250 macro m sieves shaker. Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal showed that these coals were of low grade from sub-bituminous to bituminous. Sulphur content from Dasal coal mine was less as compared with other mines in Pakistan. Leaching of coal led to significant amount of mineral matter with hydrochloric acid (HCl), ammonium acetate (CH/sub 3/ COONH/sub 4/ ), nitric acid (HNO/sub 3/), hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Among the leachants HCl was most effective for copper, iron, chromium and cobalt. In case of CH/sub 3/ COONH/sub 4/ no significant leaching was made. HNO/sub 3/ and NaOH also resulted average leaching while, HF was found to be a good leachant for lead, nickel and zinc. Most of inorganic elements were effectively leached by digestion as compared to other leachants. (author)

  20. 78 FR 48593 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...health, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Underground mining. 30 CFR Part 75 Coal mines, Mine safety and health...recordkeeping requirements, Safety, Training programs, Underground mining. Authority: 30 U.S.C. 811. Dated:...

  1. Coal Mining Safety Monitoring Using WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar, Kriti Singh, Dr. Debmalya Bhattacharya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available -The main purpose was to provide an implementable design scenario for underground coal mines using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The main reason being that given the intricacies in the physical structure of a coal mine, only low power WSN nodes can produce accurate surveillance and accident detection data. The work mainly concentrated on designing and simulating various alternate scenarios for a typical mine and comparing them based on the obtained results to arrive at a final design. In the Era of embedded technology, the Zigbee protocols are used in more and more applications. Because of the rapid development of sensors, microcontrollers, and network technology, a reliable technologicalcondition has been provided for our automatic real-time monitoring of coal mine. The underground system collects temperature, humidity and methane values of coal mine through sensor nodes in the mine; it also collects the number of personnel inside the mine with the help of an IR sensor, and then transmits the data to information processing terminal based on ARM.

  2. Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology developed during the project is considered satisfactory, therefore we don't consider necessary to prosecute the research in this field. The methodology could be used in the future for looking for suitable rubbish dumps in other mining areas, especially when no other adequate locations are available, even though such need is not apparent by now. (Author) 10 refs.

  3. Future development in German hard coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, J. [Deutsche Steinkohle, AG (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The proceedings have the text of the talk and the 14 accompanying transparencies/overheads/viewgraphs. The political decision taken in March 1997 was in favour of an efficient and viable hard coal mining industry in Germany, with a future beyond 2005. The German hard coal companies combined to form a single comply Deutsche Steinkohle (DSK), to exploit synergy effects and new rationalisation potentials of hard coal mining companies; hard coal mines were unified under the umbrella of RAG Aktiengesellschaft. The reduction in subsidies up to 2005 requires a cutback in production, increase in productivity, and a halving of the work force. The challenges facing DSK with regard to corporate structure, workforce, organisational development and technology utilized in DSK's 11 mines are outlined. Environmental issues being addressed, particularly in the Ruhr area, are discussed. The relaying of a dyke on the Rhine is given as an example of how interests of ecology, flood protection and the coal industry have been combined. The landscaping of mined sites is being addressed by the whole RAG Group.

  4. Health care challenge in coal mines community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, M S

    1992-01-01

    The present paper depicts salient features of environment and living conditions with the comparison of various diseases prevalent among underground coal miners, surface workers, asbestos mine workers and general population of Jharia-Dhanbad coalfield as conducted by CMRS during the past few years. The investigations on coal miners' community comprise of different morbid conditions with respiratory (22%), Pneumoconiosis (11.6%), Skin (35%), Eye (29%), Intestinal parasitic infestation (44.6%), Anaemia (42%), Immunostatus (V.D.R.L. Positive-19.9%), Status of injuries and Blood pressure, Water-borne diseases, housing facilities and excreta disposal. The paper also includes the analysis of disease pattern obtained from hospital records of two coal mines which depicts 19.1%, 24.7% and 16% members of coal miners' families suffering from disorder with respiratory, gastro-intestinal and fever respectively. With speedy industrialization of the country, the mining of coal resource comes first in the chain of socio-economic development. The speedy human industrial activities are based on 80% steam, metallurgical and thermal electrical energy which hinges on coal wings. The coal has also gradually occupied all the phases of social life, our clothes, books, newspapers, cooking gas, chemical paints, dye stuff, oil phenyl, Benzene, Naphthalene, Coal tar, scents and various types of unaccountable products come out from coal derivatives and pushed to serve in the today's market for our daily exigencies. Every day one finds a new coal based industry is coming up in the area. The coal is utilized in two hundred ways in our various walks of social life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10130926

  5. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section 817.83 Mineral Resources...ACTIVITIES 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of 817.81, the...

  6. Coal mining and water quality: Criciuma's case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal mining in the Santa Catarina Coal-Basin started in 1885 and since them it has been causing serious damage to the environment, specially the water resources, causing several problems like sedimentation and acidification of the rivers that supply the region, and compromising the agricultural-industry and fishery. The mining is also responsible for several professional diseases. The region was considered, in 1980, the '14th Critical Area' to the Pollution Control and Environmental Quality Conservation. Only in the beginning of the 80's, after the publication of the 917 Interministerial Resolution (July, 1982), the first official actions were taken, in order to minimize the environmental impact due to the coal mining industry. With that scenario, the region was chosen as one of the study areas of the 'National Center of Control of Mining Pollution', derived from an agreement between the Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral - DNPM and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The present study is part of the set of studies that have been realized in the region, with the aim of evaluating the environmental impact caused by the coal mining industry, and to suggest actions (to the miners) in order to minimize the environmental problems. This study presents a review of the occupation process of the Criciuma region, its connection to the coal industry, the progress of the mineral and environmental legislation, and the periodic monitoring of environmental parameters (physic-chemical analysis of the Mae Luzia and Sangao rivers, and the drainage from two coal mines) during the period of three years. This period began before the setting of environmental restrictions, going up to after the adoption of reclamation actions. The results allow to conclude that, during the period studied, there was no improvement in the river water characteristics, despite the adoption of reclamation actions. This behaviour may be due to the following factors: there are several abandoned mines (mainly after 1990, year of the implantation of the free trade for the coal sector), that did not finish their reclamation works. These sites are still producing acid drainage; n the sub-basins of the rivers Mae Luzia and Sangao there are several dumping tailings, probably connected to abandoned mines. These tailings are permanent fonts of sulfuric acid; even the mines in operation, in accordance with the official regulations, drain to the rivers, eventually, acid mine drainage, with no previous treatment. (author)

  7. Geotechnical Risks in Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shahriar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a quantitative approach and decision tree were employed in order to assess and manage roof fall risks as only major problem bring about geotechnical issues in Iranian coal mines. For the objectives, risk was assessed due to the determination of likelihoods and cost of consequences (outcomes by the analysis of assembled roof fall data from 5 different coal regions comprising several underground coal mines in Iran. In addition, the cost of consequences is considered by a relative cost. Then, it was concluded that the annual average accidents in the all investigated mines are high and it is economically admissible to serve the proposed solutions for reducing the accidents.

  8. Results of the application of persistent scatterers interferometry for surface displacements monitoring in the Azul open pit manganese mine (Carajás Province, Amazon region) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Carolina d. A.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Mura, José C.; Gama, Fabio F.; dos Santos, Athos R.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    Brazil has 10% of global Mn reserves with its most important mine located in the Amazon region. The Azul deposit is related to sandstones and siltstones of the Águas Claras Formation (Archean), situated in the central portion of the Carajás Strike-Slip System. Vale S.A. mining company operates the Azul mining complex with three simultaneous excavations (mines 1, 2 and 3) conducted on rock materials of low geomechanical qualities. Mining operations are openpit, with 4-8 m-high benches and depth of 80 m. A stack of 19 TerraSAR-X (TSX) images was used for the investigation covering the period of March 20-October 4, 2012. In order to minimize the topography phase error in the interferometric process, a high resolution DEM was generated based on a panchromatic GeoEye-1 stereo pair. Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI) analysis was carried out using the IPTA (Interferometric Point Target Analysis) software and led to the detection of 40,193 point-wise persistent scatterers (PS), with an average density of 5,387 PS/km2. It was concluded that most of the mining area can be considered stable during the TSX coverage. High deformation rates related to settlements were mapped over a waste pile, while small deformation rates were detected along the north and south flanks of mine 1and were interpreted as cut slope movements toward the center of the pit. Despite only ground-based radar measurements were available for a short time period during the TSX coverage, and covering a sector of bench walls along the south flank of mine 1, the PSs movement patterns showed concordance with the field measurements. The investigation emphasized the important role that PSI technique can play in planning and risk assessment in this mining area. Monitoring of this type of deformation by PSI can usefully complement other commonly used field geotechnical measurements due to the synoptic SAR coverage over a dense grid, providing ground deformation data independently of field access and with millimeter accuracy.

  9. Exposure of workers in Tusnica coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to identify potential exposure of the workers in the coal mine Tusnica. The results of the investigation showed increased activity of brown coal up to 106088 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 97630 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra and 11831 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. Dose rate measurements ranged from 0.07 to 0.25 ?Sv h-1. The annual effective dose, taking into account external exposure to ambient gamma radiation and internal exposure due to inhalation of the resuspended dust, would be 1.6 mSv a-1. The results presented lead to the conclusion that Tusnica coal mine contains brown coal with significant radioactivity, indicating that the working hours in the area should be regulated and the use of respiratory protective equipment is obligatory. (authors)

  10. Analysis of coal mining mechanization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Shik; Lee, Kyung-Woon; Kim, Oak-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the remaining 11 coal mines after the rationalization of the industry, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. The statistics of coal industry are as follows. - The production of 1996 was dropped to 4,952 thousand tonne from 5,719 thousand tonne of 1995. - The overall O.M.S was increased to 1.81 ton per man{center_dot}shift from 1.68 ton of 1995. (author). 10 tabs., 12 figs.

  11. Spoil pile instabilities with reference to a strip coal mine in Turkey: mechanisms and assessment of deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmer, Ozgu; Ulusay, Resat; Gokceoglu, Candan

    2006-02-01

    With the increasing adoption of the surface mining of coal, problems associated with spoil pile instability, which affects resource recovery, mining cost, and safety and presents environmental hazards, have become a matter of prime concern to mine planners and operators. The study of geotechnical aspects is thus very important in the rational planning for the disposal, reclamation, treatment and utilization of spoil material. A strip coal mine, one of the largest open pit mines in Turkey, is located in Central Anatolia and provides coal to a thermal power station. Coal production is carried out in two adjacent open pits, the Central Pit and South Pit. A large-scale spoil pile instability over an area of 0.3 km2 occurred within the dumping area of the Central pit. In addition, small-scale movement occurred in the outside dumping area. This paper outlines the results of field and laboratory investigations to describe the mechanisms of the spoil pile instabilities and to assess deformations monitored over a long period following the failure. Shear test results indicate that the interface between the floor and spoil material dumped by dragline has a negligible cohesion and is the most critical plane of weakness for spoil pile instability. Back analyses based on the method of limit equilibrium and the numerical modelling technique, and observations in the pit revealed that failure occurred along a combined sliding surface consisting of a circular surface through the spoil material itself and a planar surface passing along the interface between the spoil piles and floor. The analyses also indicated that pore water pressure ratios of about 0.25 satisfy limiting equilibrium condition and that rainfall about one month before the failure may be a contributing factor to the instability. Movement monitoring data obtained following the failure over a 1.5-year period suggested that the ongoing deformations were mainly due to compaction of the spoil material. Based on the monitoring data and the results of the analyses, the failure mode of the local instability occurring at the outside dumping area was considerably similar to that of the large instability.

  12. Development of a new methodology of cost estimation and investment in the coal opencast mining sector in Spain. Desarrollo de una neuva metodologia de estimacion de costes e inversiones en el sector de la mineria a cielo abierto de carbon en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orche Garcia, E.

    1992-01-01

    A double methodology of costs evaluation and investments is shown for open pit coal exploitations mined by drilling and blasting and/or ripping and annual productions between 0.5 and 8 millions m[sup 3] of waste and up to 700,000 tb of coal operated with conventional machines. The costs methodology has been made starting from 31 data of Spanish projects and exploitations. The investment methodology was made essentially on the basis of theoretical assumptions. The reckoned costs and investment have an accuracy of [+-]20%. The methodology of costs evaluation provides the total final cost of the ton of saleable coal. 35 figs., 86 tabs.

  13. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver...

  14. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the... removed from the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be removed,...

  15. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the... removed from the disposal area prior to placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall be removed,...

  16. UK capacity: UK coal mining engineering capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The document outlines the current position of underground mining in the United Kingdom and identifies the key suppliers of equipment and services in: longwall face machinery, roadway drivage, seismic exploration, ventilation, methane drainage; underground transport, explosives use, electrical and control systems, and underground safety. A directory of suppliers is included in the brochure, together with names of consultants and universities carrying out research and development related to coal mining. 6 figs.

  17. Wireless Ethernet for longwall coal mine automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargrave, C.; McPhee, R.; Ralston, J.; Hainsworth, D.; Reid, D. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    The application of wireless Ethernet technology to provide a reliable communications link to the shearer for automation of longwall mining is described. Wireless Ethernet technology was installed and tested on a coal mine longwall. The demonstration included transmission of three-dimensional shearer position data and a surface display showing shearer path in real time. The movement of the shearer can be monitored using a web browser. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Need for Clean Coal Mining in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards clean coal strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.

  19. 30 CFR 800.17 - Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...requirements for underground coal mines and...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION...requirements for underground coal mines and...impacts incident to underground coal mining, which...

  20. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Period On August 31, 2011 (76 FR 54163), MSHA published a proposed rule, Proximity Detection Systems for... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines....

  1. Strategic Management of Coal Mining Industry Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tkacheva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop recommendations for the coal mining industry efficiency strategic management. The authors developed a mathematical economic models to maximize the net present value of the index of companies in the composition of the coal mining industry and calculated the efficiency of Russian enterprises in the composition of the coal mining industry in Russia in 2013 using MathCad. The authors identified the main problems of coal mines and in the quality of their solutions offer an innovative approach to strategic management of the industry of the country, which includes: establishing a common standard in the monitoring, analysis and evaluation of the situation, management decision-making at all levels of corporate and public governance; elimination of dogmatism in the organization of corporate and public governance, encouraging maximum independence and initiative of corporate management in the framework of national development strategies; Schooling management training to all levels of management autonomy, rapid, and therefore efficient and effective management within the company's strategy; creation of a unified and transparent system of monitoring of management decisions and increase the level of responsibility of managers at all levels and branches of government for the implementation of the national strategy, and within it is a strategy of smaller entities. The result of the joint implementation of the proposed principles in the organization of strategic management at different levels of management should be a combination of freedom in solving economic problems and personal initiative managers.

  2. Noise exposures in US coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.P.; Valoski, M.P.; Crivaro, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) inspectors conduct full-shift environmental noise surveys to determine the occupational noise levels to which coal miners are exposed. These noise surveys are performed to determine compliance with the noise standard promulgated under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Data from over 60,000 full-shift noise surveys conducted from fiscal year 1986 through 1992 were entered into a computer data base to facilitate analysis. This paper presents the mean and standard deviation of over 60,000 full-shift noise dose measurements for various underground and surface coal mining occupations. Additionally, it compares and contrasts the levels with historical noise exposure measurements for selected coal mining occupations that were published in the 1970`s. The findings were that the percentage of miners surveyed that were subjected to noise exposures above 100%, neglecting personal hearing protectors, were 26.5% and 21.6% for surface and underground mining, respectively. Generally, the trend is that the noise exposures for selected occupations have decreased since the 1970`s.

  3. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uezuelmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m-3. It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration. (authors)

  4. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisne, Abdullah; Okten, Gndz; Celebi, Nilgn

    2005-01-01

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uzlmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m(-3). It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration. PMID:15657110

  5. Plan compliance process for underground coal mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.A., Angelov; K., Naidoo.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS This paper presents a unique method of monitoring the effectiveness of the planning process as well as the execution of mine plans. The method primarily determines the degree of deviation from the original mine plans by comparing actual mined areas to initially planned mining areas. The per [...] formance of mining operations is also measured by comparing actual and planned tonnages for a particular period. Once the degree of deviation from mine plans has been established the cause/s of the deviation can be determined through a simple fault tree analysis. Accurate identification of the reasons of deviation can aid the mine in selecting possible methods to correct the deviation. It is, however, beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the methods employed in correcting such deviations, as each mining operation will have unique causes of plan deviation and methods of remedying them. Deviations from the plan greatly affect the yields obtainable, which in turn affects the life of mine, thus having negative economic and financial implications. Accordingly, this paper presents a project management method which aims to reduce risk by improving planning systems to ensure optimum overall extraction of coal reserves.

  6. Rock bolting trials at Taiheiyo coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, H.; Goto, T.; Sato, T.; Ikari, T. [Taiheiyo Coal Mining Co., Kushiro City (Japan). Department of Technical Development

    1994-12-31

    The main coal mining method at the Taiheiyo Coal Mining Company`s Kushiro colliery is fully mechanized retreat longwalling with maingates and tailgates supported by steel arch sets. The shift in mining to deeper areas has seen a gradual increase in both the size of the steel section and density of spacing. In order to reduce the amount of gateroad development drivage and maintain productivity, single entry methods, liner tailgates method and re-using gateroad methods have been introduced. The rock bolting systems widely used in Australia was introduced in 1991 to solve the problems of ineffective roadway control. Many investigations were conducted to confirm the effect of rock bolting. The results of these investigations show the high performance and applicability of the rock bolting system at Kushiro colliery. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, Coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.)

  8. 75 FR 57849 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...impact of this ETS on underground bituminous coal mines...which MSHA and the mining community have traditionally...ETS applies to the underground coal mining sector. Because this...0 million to the underground coal mining industry,...

  9. 76 FR 35968 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...this final rule on underground bituminous coal mines...which MSHA and the mining community have traditionally...rule applies to the underground coal mining sector. Because the...3 million to the underground coal mining industry,...

  10. Horizon control technology for selective mining in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, A.L.; Muirhead, I.R. [Associated Mining Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-05-01

    Methods currently used and potential alternative methods for controlling shearers and continuous miners are examined. In longwall mining, full automation, requires control of the longitudinal axis, control of the machine heading, and vertical guidance. Coal thickness measuring methods for calculating the thickness of coal between the cutting horizon and the coal-rock interface include natural gamma radiation methods, single and multi-frequency radar, and scattered electromagnetic waves. Coal ply interface detection methods that rely on physical characteristics to detect the interface include infrared methods, hardness detection methods, vibration analysis, machine energy parameters, sulphur content dependent methods, X-ray fluorescence techniques, prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, electron spin resonance, and natural gamma analysis. Machine positioning methods include modular azimuth positioning systems, navigation and guidance systems, seam tomography, and the HORTA/RIM combination. 8 figs.

  11. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  12. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  13. Coal mining in Bangladesh: Options to mitigate environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Angen, Meara Rose

    2008-01-01

    This study examines methods of mitigating the environmental impacts of coal mining in Bangladesh. Coal is expected to aid in providing energy security for the country in the short-term. The coal mining industry is currently in its infancy, and no policy exists. This study examines the government policies of three diverse countries and discovers that there are several instruments commonly used to reduce the environmental impacts of coal mining. These instruments include regulations that set st...

  14. Game Analysis between Government and Coal Mine Enterprise in Coal Resource Exploitation Environmental Impact Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENG Zhao-jian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available From the angle of compensation subject and compensation object, the interest involved with stakeholder was analyzed. Based on game theory, the relation between government and coal mine enterprise was analyzed. Through the research, the government should constraint the coal mine enterprise behavior, set up coal resources development environmental impact compensation incentive mechanism, increase coal resources exploitation and environmental compensation violations punishment, and incentive the coal mining enterprises.

  15. Recultivation of the cavity of the closed open pit Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili? Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper ore is one of the most important raw materials for industrial production. Increasing demands have been increasing its extraction generally. Shallow deposits with higher copper grade are mostly exhausted and the open pits become deeper, also the amount of overburden and the problems of its disposal are increased. In some cases large quantities of overburden can solve the problem of recultivation of degraded areas. This is the case of recultivation of degraded areas on the location of the closed open pit Bor. Here, the overburden from another open pit, Veliki Krivelj, is disposed into the cavity of the open pit Bor. In this way the overburden is disposed without further area degradation and the cavity is primarily, technically recultivated. When the filling process is finished, waste depot will have a flat top at the level K+450 [2], which is above the neighboring terrain, and the slopes height will vary. This problem was not especially considered up to date, so the experiences in this field are humble. This paper intends to be the basis for further research.

  16. ANLISIS Y DISEO DE LA OPERACIN DE PERFORACIN Y VOLADURAS EN MINERA DE SUPERFICIE EMPLEANDO EL ENFOQUE DE LA PROGRAMACIN ESTRUCTURADA / ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DRILLING AND BLASTING OPERATION ON OPEN PIT MINING USING FOCUS ON STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JUAN CARLOS, DAZ-MARTNEZ; MELISSA ANDREA, GUARN-ARAGN; JOVANI ALBERTO, JIMNEZ-BUILES.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artculo se presenta el anlisis y el diseo de la operacin de perforacin y voladuras en minera de superficie empleando el enfoque de la programacin estructurada. El propsito de este trabajo es crear una interfaz, por medio de la cual se ingresan la densidad del explosivo, dimetro e in [...] clinacin de la perforacin, resistencia a la compresin de la roca y dimensiones del banco. Luego se obtiene el valor de las variables ms importantes que acondicionan el diseo de la operacin de perforacin y voladuras, tales como: altura del banco, burden, espaciamiento, taco, carga del barreno, numero de barrenos, factor de carga, entre otras. Esta aproximacin permite disear la operacin de perforacin y voladuras en menor tiempo y disminuir el error humano que se tiene por el uso repetitivo de las frmulas para clculos de los parmetros involucrados en el diseo de la perforacin y voladura en minera de superficie. Abstract in english This article show analysis and design drilling and blasting operation on surface mining it focus on structured programming. The idea about this article a program where you can introduce different variables like, explosive density, diameter, inclination drilling, compressive strength rock and rock ma [...] ss design, after that, we get most important variables for this design like rock mass height, burden, spacing, hole charging , hole number, load factor. This article has allowed design drilling and blasting operation a lower time and get down mistake of the people that get it for repetitive use of calculation for parameter used in this design in drilling and blasting operation on surface mining.

  17. Simulation Based Investigation of Different Fleet Management Paradigms in Open Pit Mines-A Case Study of Sungun Copper Mine / Symulacje I Badania Różnych Paradygmatów Wykorzystania Floty Pojazdów I Urządzeń W Kopalniach Odkrywkowych. Studium Przypadku: Kopalnia Miedzi W Sungun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ali Saadatmand; Sattarvand, Javad

    2015-03-01

    Using simulation modeling, different management systems of the open pit mining equipment including non-dispatching, dispatching and blending solutions have been studied for the Sungun copper mine. Developed model has the capability of considering detailed features of both loading and hauling equipment. Productivity assessment scenarios have been established on the constructed model and the outputs revealed the noteworthy impact of the match factor of the trucks to the loaders on the production rate by over 40%. A dispatching simulation model with the objective function of minimizing truck waiting times have been developed and 7.8% improvement obtained by applying a flexible assignment of the trucks for the loaders compared to the fixed assignment system. Finally ore grade blending control unit has been introduced into the model. Getting the advantages of the newly added module it became possible to monitor the portion of material excavated from different operating benches and control truck dispatching rules for keeping the overall ore grade exactly at desired value. Przy użyciu modeli symulacyjnych zbadano różnorodne systemy zarządzania flotą pojazdów i urządzeń w kopalni odkrywkowej (wydawanie dyspozycji przewozu, wstrzymywanie przewozu oraz rozwiązania kwestii mieszania o rud o różnej zawartości pierwiastka użytecznego) na przykładzie kopalni miedzi Sungun. Opracowany model uwzględnia szczegółowe cechy sprzętu przeładunkowego oraz transportowego. Na podstawie modelu opracowano następnie scenariusze oceny wydajności, a wyniki jednoznacznie wykazały wielką wagę odpowiedniego skojarzenia ilości pojazdów i ładowarek. Opracowano model symulacyjny kierowania urządzeń do pracy, jako funkcję celu przyjmujący minimalizacje czasu przestoju ciężarówek. Uzyskano wynik lepszy o 7.8% poprzez elastyczne przydzielania pojazdów do ładowarek w porównaniu do systemu trwałego ich do siebie przypisania. W ostatnim etapie dodano do modelu system kontroli procesu mieszania rud o rozmaitej zawartości pierwiastka użytecznego. Korzystając z nowo-dodanego modułu, możliwe stało się monitorowanie porcji materiału wybieranego z poszczególnych poziomów i kontrolowanie rozsyłanych ciężarówek tak, by w skali całej kopalni możliwe było ciągłe utrzymanie zawartości pierwiastka użytecznego na żądanym poziomie.

  18. Game Analysis between Government and Coal Mine Enterprise in Coal Resource Exploitation Environmental Impact Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    MENG Zhao-jian

    2013-01-01

    From the angle of compensation subject and compensation object, the interest involved with stakeholder was analyzed. Based on game theory, the relation between government and coal mine enterprise was analyzed. Through the research, the government should constraint the coal mine enterprise behavior, set up coal resources development environmental impact compensation incentive mechanism, increase coal resources exploitation and environmental compensation violations punishment, and incentive the...

  19. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  20. Changes in soil physical properties of a coal mining site influenced by liming, poultry manure and revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A.L.; Albuquerque, J.A.; de Almeida, J.A.; Mafra, A.L.; Medeiros, J.C.; Alberton, A. [UDESC, Lages (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    The physical, chemical and biological properties of soils of reconstructed areas after coal mining are altered. This study aimed to evaluate liming, mineral and organic fertilizers and revegetation effects on the physical properties of a reconstructed soil after open-pit mining. The experiment was carried out in a former mine in Lauro Muller County - SC, in southern Brazil, from 2001 to 2005. The site was mined in 1991 and reconstructed in 1995. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications. The treatments consisted of. (1) Control; (2) 'dregs' (alkaline residue); (3) Lime; (4) Lime + Brachiaria brizantha; (5) Lime + Brachiaria brizantha + poultry litter. Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus saligna seedlings were transplanted to subplots of all treatments. Dolomitic limestone and dregs were incorporated in the soil at a depth of 10 cm. Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous fertilizers were added on the soil surface of all plots according to the official recommendation. Soil samples were collected in February 2005 (from the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm), and their physical and chemical properties evaluated. The treatments had no effects on soil bulk density, particle density, total porosity, macroporosity and microporosity. Liming increased pH, caused clay dispersion and reduced aggregates stability in water, while dregs increased pH without dispersing clay. Poultry litter and Brachiaria brizantha increased the aggregate stability and volumetric water content, thus favoring the recovery of soil physical quality in degraded areas.

  1. Determinants of coal mine labor productivity change. [1950 to 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. G.; Stevenson, W. L.

    1979-11-01

    Coal mine labor productivity (tons per miner-shift) has been falling yearly since 1970. The decline in labor productivity since 1970 has implications for the coal industry's labor demand, cost of production, and injuries and could hinder the ability of the industry to meet the coal output goals of the National Energy Plan. The purpose of this research study was to identify and measure the causes of labor productivity decline. Concise answers are given to three questions: Why is coal mine labor productivity important. What are the causes of labor productivity decline in deep and surface coal mines. What are the implications of these findings for future coal mine labor productivity. Coal mine labor productivity is important for three reasons: (1) it affects the cost of coal production, (2) it affects coal industry labor demand, and (3) it affects injuries and injury rates in coal mining. Labor productivity is the link between output levels and employment requirements. The period of declining productivity coincides with major changes in the coal industry's environment: (1) change from a largely unregulated industry to a highly regulated industry (the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969; implementation of many state surface mine reclamation laws, etc.) and (2) change from a declining, marginal profits industry to a growing, profitable industry (increasing coal prices and demand in the 1970s). A major conclusion of the study is that a portion of the high labor productivity of the 1960s was possible because some of the costs of coal mining - worker injuries, black lung disability, and environmental damage - were not being paid for by the coal industry and coal consumers. Once these costs were forced internally on the mine operators by legislation, productivity fell and the cost of production increased.

  2. Application of ordinary kriging to reconstruct and visualise the relief in thelocation of an open pit sand mine. (Polish Title: Zastosowanie krigingu zwyczajnego do rekonstrukcji i wizualizacji reliefu w miejscach odkrywkowej eksploatacji piasku)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarychta, R.; Zarychta, A.

    2013-12-01

    Extraction of mineral resources, including rocks, usually causes some significant changes of the landscape. Transformation of the relief which character and scale can be analysed by means of cartographic materials seems to be the most interesting. Reconstruction of the relief of the period prior to the exploitation is a starting point for such investigation. It can be done basing on archival cartographic materials which are difficult to obtain. However, too varied morphological material of the area can lead to erroneous conclusions which suggests interpretation of three - dimensional models of the relief. Hence, the paper deals with reconstruction and visualisation of the relief (in the period before the exploitation) of four sand fields of the old sand mine excavation "Siemonia". A geological map of Poland (Wojkowice sheet) has been used for the purpose. A geostatical analysis by means of the programmes Surfer 8 and ArcGIS 10.1. has been performed on the map. An estimation method called ordinary kriging, which is related to B.L.U.E. (best linear unbiased estimator), where the condition of the lack of weight of the measurement (the sum of weight is equal to 1) is fulfilled, has been applied. The calculated values of errors (mean error, mean squared error and mean squared standardised error) obtained as a result of application of the cross - validation procedure are, to a large extent, in agreement with predetermined values of errors given by numerous authors in the scientific literature. It confirms proper "manual" adjustment of two mathematic al models of spherical variograms and empirical variograms. The generated contour map of the investigated area (based on estimated points of sampling in nodes of the interpolation grid) together with its three - dimensional digital model are more adequate (due to significant marking of the relief) to the previous state of the investigated area than the two other presented types of cartographic visualisations made without application of the geostatistical methods. Hence, the graphic presentation of results, mentioned as the last one, can be only applied to visualise the relief without any detailed geomorphological interpretations due to its inaccuracy. It seems to be obvious that detailed analyses can be performed basing on a digital model of the terrain accompanied by its contour map obtained when reconstruction of the relief is made by means of geostatistical methods (especially ordinary kriging).

  3. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is announcing the date and location of an additional public hearing on the Agency's proposed rule addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published on August 31,...

  4. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ...campaign was targeted to the underground coal mining industry and included webcasts...operating speed assessments of underground mining equipment. Several other...Warning System for Surface and Underground Mining Applications,'' Min...

  5. Aspects of operational mine safety assurance at the 4 south mine, Quinsam coal mining operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivokuca, P. [Hillsborough Resources Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Quinsam Coal Corp., Campbell River, BC (Canada); DuBois, C.J. [Quinsam Coal Corp., Campbell River, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Mine safety management strategies at the Quinsam coal mine were discussed. The Quinsam mine is located 25 km from the Campbell River in Alberta. The mine has won several safety awards. A checkerboard de-pillaring design was used at the mine, which is also currently applying for a bulk sample permit. Some of the mine's seams are prone to spontaneous combustion and hard cutting coal. Accidents have tended to occur at extended cuts in structurally complex coal deposits. Structural mapping is used to identify and assess structural data as well as to develop ground support plans. Structural visualization and wedge stability analyses are also used. Customized training is provided to ensure that mining personnel are knowledgeable about rock mechanics, mine planning, depillaring practices, and ground support. On-site specialized ground training sessions are also provided. It was concluded that the variability of mining environments must be understood in order to make mines safer. Details of the mine's employees were provided, including details of the average age of employees, average hours worked, and their work experience. tabs., figs.

  6. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-05

    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  7. Depth to Coal Mining in the Colorado Front Range (frimndpthu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the depth to (overburden above) abandoned underground coal mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver Basin,...

  8. Open pit slope deformation monitoring by fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoquan; Xiong, Daiyu; Duan, Yun; Cao, Xiaoshuang

    2015-01-01

    With microstrain resolution and the capability to sample at rates of 2000 Hz or higher, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor offers exciting new possibilities for in situ deformation monitoring induced by blasting load in an open pit slope. Here, we are developing a new technology for measuring deformation in real time on the microstrain in an open pit slope during the blasting. A fiber optically instrumented rock mass strain sensor measured strain at 100-cm intervals along a two anchor rock bolt grouted in the slope intact rock mass. In field testing, a number of transient signals have been observed, which in some cases were large enough to trigger rapid sampling. The combination of short- and long-term observation offers new insight into the slope stability and blasting cumulative effects. Therefore, FBG sensors are a useful tool for measuring in situ strain in intact rock masses.

  9. Mining simulation for room and pillar coal operation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.P, Pereira; J.F.C.L, Costa; P, Salvadoretti; J, Koppe.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanized mining cycle using loaders and shuttle cars had its peak in terms of usage in the mining industry during 1950 through 1960. In Brazil, this system is still used at underground coal mines in southern Santa Catarina coal basin. With the aim of investigating the benefits of a new mining [...] scheme using the room and pillar method for these local mines, a computational simulator model was developed in order to investigate the mining cycle. This paper presents the methodology used to develop the simulator and the results that the simulation shows regarding impact of the proposed new scheme on mining productivity.

  10. The Rabbit Lake open pit tailing disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rabbit Lake open pit tailing depository is a below-ground tailing disposal system which takes advantage of existing low groundwater hydraulic gradients and low tailing permeabilities in preventing the exmigration of contaminants. Establishing a highly-permeable surround around the tailing connected to a pumped underdrainage system ensures maximum consolidation of tailing during placement. When pumping ceases at abandonment it provides a preferential path for groundwater flow around the fully consolidated tailing

  11. Overview of Deep Coal Mining in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Holub, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Ostrava - Karvin Coalfield is in the southwestern part of the Upper SilesianCoal Basin which extends from southern Poland into the Czech Republic. This coal mine district is situated in a geologically complicated region around the contact between large tectonic units, the older Bohemian Massif and the younger Outer Western Carpathians. The coal mining in the Ostrava - Karvin Coal Basin is accompanied with generating of induced seismic events having sometimes character of the rockburst w...

  12. The Three-Dimensional (3D) Numerical Stability Analysis of Hyttemalmen Open-Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ca?a, Marek; Kowalski, Micha?; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to perform the 3D numerical calculations allowing slope stability analysis of Hyttemalmen open pit (location Kirkenes, Finnmark Province, Norway). After a ramp rock slide, which took place in December 2010, as well as some other small-scale rock slope stability problems, it proved necessary to perform a serious stability analyses. The Hyttemalmen open pit was designed with a depth up to 100 m, a bench height of 24 m and a ramp width of 10 m. The rock formation in the iron mining district of Kirkenes is called the Bjornevaten Group. This is the most structurally complicated area connected with tectonic process such as folding, faults and metamorphosis. The Bjornevaten Group is a volcano-sedimentary sequence. Rock slope stability depends on the mechanical properties of the rock, hydro-geological conditions, slope topography, joint set systems and seismic activity. However, rock slope stability is mainly connected with joint sets. Joints, or general discontinuities, are regarded as weak planes within rock which have strength reducing consequences with regard to rock strength. Discontinuities within the rock mass lead to very low tensile strength. Several simulations were performed utilising the RocLab (2007) software to estimate the gneiss cohesion for slopes of different height. The RocLab code is dedicated to estimate rock mass strength using the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Utilising both the GSI index and the Hoek-Brown strength criterion the equivalent Mohr-Coulomb parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction) can be calculated. The results of 3D numerical calculations (with FLA3D code) show that it is necessary to redesign the slope-bench system in the Hyttemalmen open pit. Changing slope inclination for lower stages is recommended. The minimum factor of safety should be equal 1.3. At the final planned stage of excavation, the factor of safety drops to 1.06 with failure surface ranging through all of the slopes. In the case of a slope angle 70 for lower stages, FS = 1.26, which is not enough to provide slope stability. Another series of calculations were therefore performed taking water table lowering into consideration, which increases the global safety factor. It was finally evaluated, that for a water table level of 72 m the factor of safety equals 1.3, which is enough to assure global open-pit stability.

  13. Subsidence and reclamation in coal mine areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal mining has caused widespread ground surface subsidence and deterioration of soil structure in China. Approximately 8,500,000 hectares of land have been affected by subsidence. Two major causes of subsidence are the mining technique used and the pumping of ground water to facilitate coal extraction. About 60% of all coal mines in China have been included in a reclamation study. This study includes filling underground mines with gangue, coal ash, and garbage and use of subsided areas as fish ponds and wastewater treatment ponds

  14. Burnout in Chinese coal mine safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines commonly-suffered job burnout as it relates to the practice of safety supervision in Chinese coal mine enterprises. Commonly-suffered job burnout is a form of job burnout caused by external factors. It is closely related to task characteristics rather than individual idiosyncrasies. To explore the causes of commonly-suffered job burnout, the special attributes (the integrated output attributes, conditional output attributes, and public goods attributes) of coal mine safety output and the inevitability of the invalidation of the bounded authority in safety supervision were analyzed in this study, which reveals the formation mechanism of commonly-suffered job burnout. Moreover, a confirmatory game model was constructed to analyze how the attributes of the safety output and bounded authority of safety supervision act on the safety output. The theoretical connotation of commonly-suffered job burnout was explained based on the job demands-resources theory. A comparative analysis of commonly-suffered job burnout and the job burnout that occurs in the traditional research object was also undertaken from the viewpoint of the job demands, which are determined by the characteristics of the work task and their corresponding coping resources. Policy suggestions were given based on interventions in commonly-suffered job burnout. -- Highlights: •We discuss commonly-suffered job burnout in Chinese coal enterprises. •We analyze the special attributes of coal mine safety output. •We explore two main causes of commonly-suffered job burnout. •We construct a game model to validate how the two causes act on safety output. •We put forward related policy suggestions

  15. Biodesulfurization of Subbituminous Coal by Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Coal Mine Soil of South Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    Megga Ratnasari Pikoli; Sugilubin; Dea Indriani Astuti; Akhmaloka,; Pingkan Aditiawati

    2013-01-01

    Coal as fuel should be necessarily pre-treated by desulfurization in order to prevent excessive emissions of sulfur dioxide, a precursor of acid rain. Organic sulfur in coal can be eliminated by microbial action through the technology known as biodesulfurization. Source of microorganisms in the present study was coal mine soil in which microorganisms have been adapted to use the sulfur in coal. Coal mine in South Sumatra was choosen as source of microorganisms in this study, because it is an ...

  16. Working group report: methane emissions from coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of coalification inherently generates methane and other byproducts. The amount of methane released during coal mining is a function of coal rank and depth, gas content, and mining methods, as well as other factors such as moisture. In most underground mines, methane is removed by drawing large quantities of air through the mine releasing the air into the atmosphere. In surface mines, exposed coal faces and surfaces, as well as areas of coal rubble created by blasting operations are believed to be the major sources of methane. A portion of the methane emitted from coal mining comes from post-mining activities such as coal processing, transportation, and utilisation. Some methane is also released from coal waste piles and abandoned mines. This paper highlights difficulties with previous methane emission studies namely: absence of data on which to base estimates; use of national data to develop global estimates; failure to include all possible emission sources; overreliance on statistical estimation methodologies. It recommends a 'tiered' approach for the estimation of emissions from underground mines, surface mines and post-mining activities. For each source, two or more approaches (or 'tiers') are presented, with the first tier requiring basic and readily available data and higher tiers requiring additional data. 29 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Caterpillar's MineStar helps Black Thunder coal mine maximize production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kral, S. [Mining Engineering (USA)

    2002-11-01

    The Black Thunder Mine in the southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, is the largest single producing surface coal mine in the world and the second largest coal producer in the USA. The mine is using Caterpillar's MineStar integrated information system to link equipment in the mine with business applications in the office. Since September 2000, the system has been installed on the mine's 31 haul trucks and eight loading machines. MineStar integrates mine planing, production reporting and maintenance. It builds on another technology tool, the Computer-Aided Earthmoving System (CAES) which has been at use in the mine since 1997. The paper describes the use of MineStar and CAES for surface mining, and also the crushing, conveying and storage of the coal. The article is reprinted from Mining Engineering, November 2001. 6 photos.

  18. 78 FR 27442 - Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices; Correction AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: On April 30, 2013, Mine Safety...

  19. 43 CFR 20.402 - Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations. 20...402 Interests in underground or surface coal mining operations. (a...financial interest in underground or surface coal mining operations...

  20. 20 CFR 726.203 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED... Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement. ...applicable to the standard workmen's compensation...the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as...

  1. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  2. Estimating worker exposure to the decay of radon for the proposed olympic dam open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BHP Billiton has recently completed an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed expansion of the Olympic Dam copper and uranium operation in South Australia. The expansion includes the construction of one of the world's largest open pit mines, with a diameter of some 6km and a depth of 1 km. The unprecedented size of the proposed pit presented challenges when making assessments of radiation doses to workers. Doses were assessed for each of the main exposure pathways, with assessment of potential doses from gamma radiation and airborne radioactive dust being relatively straightforward. However, potential doses from inhalation of the decay products of radon required a more detailed assessment. The overall approach was to model radon decay product (RnDP) exposures using such parameters as; estimated radon emanation rates, assumed equilibrium factors and pit ventilation rates. In addition to these factors, the Olympic Dam region is subject to seasonal and nocturnal temperature inversions and it was was expected that these effects would also be present within the pit. A conservative approach was used which considered exposure during 'normal' conditions and exposure during the inversion conditions. Experimental work was conducted in other large open pits to confirm the assumptions made. The presentation outlines the approach and modeling used to determine the RnDP doses and the additional testwork that was conducted to estimate the RnDP dose for miners working at the base of the pit.

  3. Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C1) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C1 to C5), while only C1 and C2 were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C1 to C4 were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C1 (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C2-C3, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presence of C2 was detected in all samples while C3-C5 were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

  4. Update of coal pillar database for South African coal mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.N., van der Merwe; M., Mathey.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the Coalbrook disaster in 1960, research into coal pillar strength resulted in the adoption of the concept of a safety factor for the design of stable pillars in South African coal mining. At the time when the original statistical analysis was performed by Salamon and Munro in the early 19 [...] 60s, 27 cases of failed pillar workings were considered suitable for inclusion in the database of failed pillars. Pillar failure did not stop after the introduction of the safety factor formula by Salamon and Munro (1967). In the ensuing years, pillars that were created before the application of the formula deteriorated and later failed, as did ones that were created after the introduction of the formula. This means that over time, the database of failed pillar cases increased in size, allowing ever more reliable analyses to be performed. The number of failed cases in the database had grown from the original 27 in the 1960s to 86 by 2011. All the failed cases are contained in the updated database. The database of stable pillars, which is also used in the derivation of strength formulae, has now been extended from 125 to 337 cases. The new database of intact pillar cases is more complete as it bridges the time gap between the Salamon and Munro (1967) and the Van der Merwe (2006) databases. The original requirements for inclusion into the database were satisfied in the compilation of this latest collection. The characteristics of the original database of intact pillars did not change in a meaningful way. The mining depth and pillar dimensions of the new database are largely as they were in the original database. Time-related trends with regard to pillar dimensions and depth of mining could not be found, indicating that the geometrical parameters of coal mining in South Africa have not changed meaningfully in approximately a century of mining. The characteristics of cases in the updated database of failed pillars does not differ substantially from the one published by Van der Merwe (2006). The same difference between that database and the original Salamon and Munro database, namely that the average safety factor of the failed cases had increased dramatically, from 1.0 to 1.5, is still apparent. This may be due to the inclusion of more failures from specific areas that exhibit a disproportionate number of failures at higher safety factors. These areas are the Vaal Basin, Klip River, and Free State coalfields. The new database confirms yet again that there is no correlation between the safety factors of failed pillars and their time of failure. The safety factor on its own is thus not a reliable predictor of longterm stability of pillars.

  5. Selection of the optimal technology for surface mining by multi-criteria analysis

    OpenAIRE

    CVJETKO STOJANOVIC; DEJAN BOGDANOVIC; SNEZANA UROSEVIC

    2015-01-01

    The selection of optimal technology for surface mining of mineral deposits is a standarddecision-making problem. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of thecombined AHP and ELECTRE methods in selecting the optimal technology usingthe open pit coal mine “Ugljevik East” (Ugljevik Istok) as an example. In order toresolve the problems encountered, the three types of technologies were taken intoconsideration with regards to the eight criteria for selecting the optimal solution. Th...

  6. Hydrochemical characteristics of the natural waters associated with the flooding of the Meirama open pit (A Coruna, NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vazquez, A.; Falcon, I.; Canal, J.; Hernandez, H.; Padilla, F.; Rodriguez-Vellando, P.; Delgado, J.L. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama ceased extraction of brown lignite. Since then operations have begun which will lead to the formation of a big mining lake (about 2 km{sup 2} surface and up to 180 m deep) after controlled flooding of the open pit. In the process of flooding, both surface and ground waters are involved, each with their own chemical signature. According to the information available, the diversion of surface waters towards the pit hole should lead to the formation of a water body of acceptable quality. However, all unassisted flooding process could eventually form all acidic lake.

  7. Investigation of the long-term behaviour of residues of brown coal upgrading processes in an underground deposit in the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining. Text volume. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residues of brown coal upgrading processes are problematic substances that require extensive monitoring. In East Germany, these residues were usually stored above ground in abandoned open pits and industrial waste dumps. In the Land of Thuringia, the most urgent poblems are posed by the ''Neue Sorge'' abandoned open pit near Rositz and the Rusendorf industrial waste dump. In both cases, large volumes of highly polluted waste materials must be disposed of. The method of choice recommended for disposal is the combustion in a hazardous-waste incinerator in accordance with the specifications of the Waste Management Technical Guide (TA Abfall). Preliminary studies are currently being made for the construction of a waste incinerating plant in this region. An alternative option for disposal would be underground storage in an abandoned salt mine. Thuringia has a number of abandoned potassium mines that appear to be well suited for this purpose. On the other hand, there have been no systematic investigations so far on the long-term behaviour of hazardous waste under the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining, so that further studies will be necessary. (orig.)

  8. Situation of coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany. Year 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the supply and demand of coal in Germany, and employees of the German coal industry.

  9. Naturally occurring radionuclides in tipping waters from bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upper Silesian coal mines feature high-concentration of radium waters what is an interesting natural phenomenon. Results are presented of radioactivity measurements of those waters drained as tipping waters from bituminous coal mines. Mean 226Ra concentrations ranged from 0,7 to 28,2 Bq/l (761 pCi/l). 13 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  10. R&D and Technological Change in Coal Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joe G.

    This report examines the issue of research and development (R and D) as well as technological changes in coal mining, focusing primarily on deep coal mining from 1970 to the present. First, a conceptual framework for classification of R and D as well as technological change is developed. A review of the literature that gives a mixed impression of

  11. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performance standard in the Federal Register and in a newspaper of general circulation in the area of Alaska... environmental protection standard to any surface coal mining operation if he determines that it is necessary to... applicability of a performance standard to a coal mine in Alaska. No particular form of petition is...

  12. COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

  13. Safety Improvement Solutions In Coal Mines Using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristian; Lupu, Lucian; Edelhauser, Eduard

    2015-07-01

    Exploitation of coal from the Jiu Valley presents its own specific, in terms of coal mining deposit conditions, fact that required a continuous preoccupation for the monitoring of the work conditions, in order to ensure work-places safety. This paper intends to indicate a method of increasing the work environment safety using GIS technology, the analysis being completed at Lupeni Coal Mine, the largest Coal Mine in Jiu Valley, characterised by a low level of accidents that has taken place in there so far. It consists of an extension of accomplished studies in order to implement an intelligent dispatching system.

  14. 78 FR 35975 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Safety Standards for Underground Coal Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ...Safety Standards for Underground Coal Mine Ventilation...Where Mechanized Mining Equipment Is Being...Safety Standards for Underground Coal Mine Ventilation...Where Mechanized Mining Equipment is Being...Safety Standards for Underground Coal Mine Ventilation...Where Mechanized Mining Equipment is...

  15. Regulations enforcing better environment protection in Polish coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polish coal mining industry is unprofitable. In 1998 year the Council of Ministers launched the 'Reform of coal mining industry in Poland in the years 1998 - 2002'. This 'Reform' assumes a deep restructuring of the industry with the aim to make it economically efficient and sounder to environment. After one year of the 'Reform' realization it occurred that mainly because of the dramatic change in the coal market in Poland, some additional legal regulation are needed to achieve the aims of the reform. In the 'Correction' of the reform, in spite of deeper technical restructuring of the industry, including additional mines closing, a special stress is put on regulations concerning investments for environmental protection. The paper describes general regulations concerning environment protection in mineral industry and the specific solutions proposed for coal mines in restructuring process in a wide view of the present economic situation of coal mines. 4 refs

  16. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fi?ne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the coal and gas outburst event earlier.

  17. Treatment of acid mine lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Schipek, Mandy

    2012-01-01

    Mining of lignite in Lusatia has a long history of over 100 years. The extracted brown coal is utilized to generate electricity in three large power plants: Jnschwalde, Boxberg, and Schwarze Pumpe. With an annual carbon dioxide (CO2) output of approximately 50 million tons, these power plants are among Germanys large-scale CO2 emitters. The environmental impact from open-pit mining is of a considerable degree and currently poses a challenging problem. The groundwater deficit in 1990 was ...

  18. What Were the Reasons for the Rapid Landslide Occurrence in “Piaseczno” Open Pit? – Analysis of the Landslide Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakóbczyk Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are major natural hazards occurring in opencast mining. The problem of slope stability failure in the existing open pit mines as well as in those which are at a stage of technical closure is current issue in Poland and all over the world. This problem requires conducting in-depth and meaningful analysis which will identify the causes of processes characterized by a very rapid course and large extent.

  19. Management of mining and distribution of coal using computer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyberg, I.; Penitts, Ye.

    1980-01-01

    Stable supply of industrial users of coal, especially heating and power stations and brown coal fuel brick plants (quantity, quality and delivery time) is a vulnerable point in the brown coal industry of the GDR. There are a large number of diverse factors which influence mining and distribution of coal. Management of these factors on the whole due to their increasing complexity and dynamic nature using old methods is already impossible. Therefore the question has arisen of the necessity of using computer technology, automated data transmission and processing as the main question of support of management in the brown coal industry. The main principles of control using computer technology are discussed in the report which consists of four main parts: formulation of the problem and main conclusion; brief characteristics of the system of management of mining and distribution of coal using computers and mathematical methods; determination of main interrelationships in management and use of computers and formalized objectives in mining and distribution of coal; specialized questions of management in their interaction with mining and coal distribution (use of coal quality indicators, stored reserves, etc). Not only technical and technological questions and specific questions of computer use, but also the basic principles of management of the process of mining and recovery of coal are discussed in the report.

  20. A life-cycle description of underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, M. L.; Borden, C. S.; Duda, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    An initial effort to relate the major technological and economic variables which impact conventional underground coal mining systems, in order to help identify promising areas for advanced mining technology is described. The point of departure is a series of investment analyses published by the United States Bureau of Mines, which provide both the analytical framework and guidance on a choice of variables.

  1. Environmental impacts of brown coal surface mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 9 contributions, out of which 2 have been inputted in INIS. These are concerned with the impacts of mining in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Mining District on the air quality and public health, and with the effect of mined-out land reclamation on the environment. (M.D.). 8 tabs., 5 figs., 6 refs

  2. 78 FR 79010 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... training. MSHA published a notice in the Federal Register (78 FR 58567) announcing the availability of the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety...

  3. 78 FR 58567 - Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Criteria to Certify Coal Mine Rescue Teams AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: The...

  4. Volume activity 226Ra mine waters of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State Office for Nuclear Safety, Regional Center Kamenna administers, within the framework of supervision, an inspection on workplaces of mines and discharge radionuclides into the environment from mines of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines. Join-stock company OKD exploit coal in next mines Paskov, Darkov, Lazy and CSA. Join -stock company CMD exploit coal in mine CSM. In 2002 DIAMO, state enterprise took over a part of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines and its division ODRA pump mine waters on Water-pumping shaft Jeremenko, Water- pumping shaft Zofie and close Mine Barbora. A water samples were take on main outflow mine water of mine. The presentation summarizes results from monitoring mine waters from 1999 to 2004 years. Volume activity 226Ra mine waters of Mine Lazy-locality Dukla and Water-pumping shaft Zofie are higher then clearance level from Regulation No.307/2002 Coll. On Radiation Protection. They are comparable with mine waters of uranium mines. Volume activity 226Ra surface waters under outflow perform, without stream Petrvaldska struzka under outflow Water-pumping shaft Zofie, guidance level for contamination surface waters from Government regulation No.61/2003 Coll. Volume activity 226Ra surface waters under outflow coal mines are higher then volume in surface waters under uranium mines, because mine waters from uranium mines are decontaminate on decontamination stations. Considering that volume activities 226Ra surface water of Orlovska struzka stream are under guidance level for contamination surface waters from Government regulation No.61/2003 Coll.. don't urgency arrangement to decontamination mine waters. Mass activity 226Ra in bed sediment under outflow Mine Lazy-locality Dukla are comparable with exemption level from Regulation No.307 /2002 Coll. On Radiation Protection. (authors)

  5. Environmental impacts of coal mining and coal utilization in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal has remained the main source of energy in the UK from 1700 to the end of 1970s, and it still plays an important role in the power generation. The paper discusses the current coal consumption in the UK together with environmental impacts of coal mining, coal processing and coal utilisation for power generation. Since coal remains the single biggest contributor to greenhouse gases worldwide, methods for minimising environmental impacts of coal combustion are described in this paper including systematic application of the principles of clean coal technologies financed by the private sector. (authors)

  6. The changing philosophy of US coal mine safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, A. [Norwest Mine Services (USA)

    2000-01-01

    This article charts the evolution of attitudes towards coal mine safety in the USA and assesses the effectiveness of safety regulations currently in place. The US coal mining industry has gone from near carelessness, to a fight against the safety dictums of the government, to an appreciation that safety is good business. The US coal mine industry has entered an era of safety consciousness more effective than that mandated by governmental action. Coal mines, coal miners and the assets they employ to make the industry operate are now given unparalleled concern, attention and protection. A philosophy which places long term financial goals in a pre-eminent position has brought about the most effective safety programmes in US history. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  7. Environmental radioactivity around the former coal mine in Kocevje (Slovenia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity in the environment arising from the high uranium content of brown coal from the former coal mine in Kocevje was investigated. Enhanced levels of gamma dose-rate and radionuclide content were found on the tailings and in deposited coal, respectively. Outdoor radon concentrations were found to be probably the highest in the country, due to the high radon potential in background soil and in the coal tailings area, as well as the topographical and climatic characteristics of the site. (author)

  8. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. First half-year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides up-to-date information on the German coal mining industry for the reporting time period. Data on coal mining as well as on brown coal mining cover: Production, stocks, productivity, employes, sales, imports and exports of coal and coal products. (orig.)

  9. Analysis on Backfill Mining of “Under Three” Coal in Zhouyuanshan Mine and Strata Movement Law

    OpenAIRE

    Weijian Yu; Bo Xu; Tao Feng; Xinyuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of "under three" (under railways, buildings and water bodies) coal pillar mining, analysis on backfill mining and strata movement law is carried on in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine. First of all, according to the engineering geology and strata occurrence condition in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, FLAC2D software be used to establish a two-dimensional numerical model and to analyze and calculate the full caving method, strip method a...

  10. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  11. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  12. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  13. The role of the state coal mining enterprise in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam is now becoming one of the 3 State Mining Enterprises in Indonesia which is dealing specifically with coal minings and their developments, while the other 2 are PT Tambang Timah for tin and PT Aneka Tambang for miscellaneous minerals. However, there are actually 3 other more State Enterprises under the umbrella of the Department of Mines and Energy, namely PERTAMINA which is dealing with oil and natural gas exploitation, PLN which is the State Electricity Corporation and the State Gas Corporation. The process of merging into one State Coal Mining Enterprise was only happening on October 30, 1990 by the issuance of the Government Regulation Number 56, 1991 whereby the then called Perum Tambang Batubara was merged into PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam, which was then operating only in Tanjung Enim, South Sumatra. The new scope of operation and management of the PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam is now including not only the management of coal mines at Tanjung Enim South Sumatra, but also the coal mines at Ombilin, West Sumatra and the supervision of all contract of works in coal which up to now amount to 11, mostly spread in East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and one in West Sumatra. The amount of coal produced by PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam in 1990 was 4,854 million tons, while the coal production from all contract of works was 4,059 million tons for the same year

  14. Forum of European experts on surface coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrbova, M. (Severoceske Hnedouhelne Doly, Most (Czechoslovakia))

    1988-12-01

    Summarizes a meeting of a group of experts held in Karlovy Vary on 16-20 May 1988 under the auspices of the European Economic Commission (UNO) and organized by the Czechoslovak Federal Ministry of Fuel and Energy. It was attended by delegates from Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France, Yugoslavia, Hungary, GDR, USSR, Spain, Poland, Romania, UK and Turkey. Papers presented dealt with: monitoring surface mining equipment, storage of waste and toxic materials in surface coal mines, land recultivation, use of explosives in surface mines, geological surveys and assessment of brown coal reserves, automation of auxiliary processes, environmental protection, landscaping of waste dumps, water management and problems of slope stability in surface mining.

  15. A Strategy for Coal Bed Methane and Coal Mine Methane Development and Utilization in China

    OpenAIRE

    Energy Sector Management Assistance Program

    2007-01-01

    China is short of clean energy, particularly conventional natural gas. The proven per capital natural gas reserve is only 1/12th of the world average. However, China has large coal bed methane (CBM) resources with development potential which can be recovered from surface boreholes independent of mining and in advance of mining, and also captured as a part of underground coal mining operati...

  16. The enviornmental assessment of a contemporary coal mining system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutzi, E. J.; Sullivan, P. J.; Hutchinson, C. F.; Stevens, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    A contemporary underground coal mine in eastern Kentucky was assessed in order to determine potential off-site and on-site environmental impacts associated with the mining system in the given environmental setting. A 4 section, continuous room and pillor mine plan was developed for an appropriate site in eastern Kentucky. Potential environmental impacts were identified, and mitigation costs determined. The major potential environmental impacts were determined to be: acid water drainage from the mine and refuse site, uneven subsidence of the surface as a result of mining activity, and alteration of ground water aquifers in the subsidence zone. In the specific case examined, the costs of environmental impact mitigation to levels prescribed by regulations would not exceed $1/ton of coal mined, and post mining land values would not be affected.

  17. New methods of land reclamation in brown coal mine ''Adamow''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown coal mine ''Adamow'' is located in Central Poland and fuels power plant ''Adamow'' (600 MW). Every year 4.5-5.0 million tons of coal is extracted from 3 mines of this mine. In 1991 one of the mines ''Bogdanow'' was closed and the new one ''Kozmin'' was started. Then the problem appeared whether collect capping on external dump located 520 meters from the new mining or whether use it to fill up the closed mine located at a distance of 3700 meters. The second solution was chosen despite of the fact that was more expensive. Due to it 164 hectares of agricultural area were preserved, 116 hectares were reclaimed and water reservoir was done. The realization of this project was financed by mine and the National Fund for Environment Protection and Water Economics. 3 ills, 1 tab

  18. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, J M

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  19. Environmental pollution caused by coal mining and utilization in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the BP Statistical Review of World Energy of 2010 45.6% of coal production and 46.9% of coal consumption in the world in 2009 are accounted for China. The large-scale coal production and use cause major environmental impacts. A large environmental impact is through the emission of some unavoidable reaction products (for example waste gas, waste heat) that affect and damage the ecosystem. A steady influence can lead to long-term climate changes and medium term damage to the ecosystem. Other environmental impacts occur during mining of coal by the change in the water balance and the transformation of the landscape (surface mining, spoil tips). The environmental problems caused by coal mining and utilization can not be ignored in China.

  20. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

  1. Pedological characteristics of open-pit Cu wastes and post-flotation tailings (Bor, Serbia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Lili& #263; ; S, Cupa& #263; ; B, Lalevi& #263; ; V, Andri& #263; ; M, Gaji& #263; -Kva& #269; ev.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To gain a better knowledge of mining areas and potential remediation processes, some characteristics (morphological, physical, chemical and microbiological) of soils formed on open-pit Cu mine waste (OPW) and Cu post-flotation tailings (PFT) dumps were investigated. Soil profiles and surface samples [...] were studied. In general, the investigated soils are characterized by large proportion of coarse soil particles, degraded structure, low humus content, low pH, high As and Cu concentrations, and low soil microbial activity. In all investigated profiles there is no recognizable topsoil layer containing in situ formed humus probably due to soil age, lack of plant cover and organic litter, as well as other unfavorable soil conditions. The specificity of investigated soils is an irregular distribution of some soil characteristics (porosity, humus content, microbiological activity) over depth, which is a result of their technogenic origin. By establishing correlations between the studied surface sample parameters, using principal component analysis (PCA), poorer aggregate properties of PFT than of OPW soils were found, resulting most likely from aggressive mining, i.e., flotation processes. Both OPW and PFT soils compared with control natural soils are characterized by lower clay and humus content, and poorer aggregate properties.

  2. Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilli, F. A.; Maynard, D. P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

    1981-01-01

    Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucy is analyzed using both the developed baseline mine concept and the traditional geologic investigative approach.

  3. GSM Based Flexible Calling System For Coal Mining Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Himanshu K. Patel#1, Deep H. Desai*2, Tanvi G. Badheka

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an emergency flexible calling system consists of GSM module, solar panel, vibration sensor, battery sensor and fire sensor which are connected with centralized control room by wireless communication. Proposed system may be installed near coal mine where even basic emergency services are not available. It will be totally based on GSM signal strength. In case of medical & accidental emergency happen in the coal mine, particularly when the workerdoesnt have the mobile phone ...

  4. Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilli, F.A.; Maynard, D.P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

    1981-10-01

    Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucky, is next analyzed, using both the new baseline mine concept and traditional geologic investigative approach. The baseline mine concept presented is intended as a framework, providing a consistent basis for further analyses to be subsequently conducted in other geographic regions. The baseline mine concept is intended as a tool to give system designers a more realistic feel of the mine environment and will hopefully lead to acceptable alternatives for advanced coal extraction system.

  5. 76 FR 54163 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... space around mobile machines, and uneven and slippery ground conditions which may contain debris. MSHA... Machinery to commercialize the system for continuous mining machines) M3-1000 Proximity Monitoring System... mining operations, conditions, and machines in underground coal mines in South Africa are similar...

  6. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ...Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309 beginning on page 17529 in the issue of...

  7. Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deborah Kosmack

    2008-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

  8. The assessment of mine rebound and decanting in deeper coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This groundwater and monitoring study of 7 interlinked deep coal collieries in South Africa was conducted to develop analytical and numerical decant models of individual collieries suitable for integration into a single large model. The model will be used to prevent acid mine drainage after mining activities have stopped. The models considered interconnectivity between the mines, the geology of the overburden, the type of mining conducted at each mine, the topography and depth of the mining activities, and the piezometric levels of the mines and involved aquifers. The overburden formations in the studied region consisted of sandstone, shale, interbedded siltstone, mudstone and coal seams. Removal of the coal seams has resulted in the caving of the overlying strata into mined voids. The mining disruptions have resulted in subsidence and recharges of between 5 and 7 percent. The conceptual decant model predicted that piezometric levels of the mine will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. The flux from the overlying aquifers will decrease as water levels even out. Any polluted water will need to overcome 4 bar of pressure to to decant. Excess water above the weathered zone in the mines will seep out as normal unpolluted springs at lower points. Results of the numerical modelling study showed that it is unlikely that the collieries will decant, as the piezometric level of the mines will rise with the storage coefficient value of the mine. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Mining: Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities direct and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. This is so because environmental degradation has affected especially the common property resources such as land and water on which depend the subsistence and well-being of the local community. The study area being the foremost coal producing region of the country also ranked high in the record of environmentally degraded region. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coalfield in India have become ruined due to abandoned and active mine surface and underground mines. In open cast mines, waste resources are usually stacked as huge dumps in the surroundings. These, coupled with coal dumps, cause noteworthy visual impact. Large vicinity of forest, farming land, and pasture land has been transformed into colliery colonies or into uncultivated land due to rapid expansion of the coal mines. As a result, land use pattern has been changed considerably over last three decades. This study is pursued to assess the impact of coal mining activities on local community and environment.

  10. Analysis on Backfill Mining of Under Three Coal in Zhouyuanshan Mine and Strata Movement Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of "under three" (under railways, buildings and water bodies coal pillar mining, analysis on backfill mining and strata movement law is carried on in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine. First of all, according to the engineering geology and strata occurrence condition in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, FLAC2D software be used to establish a two-dimensional numerical model and to analyze and calculate the full caving method, strip method and backfill method and then gaining that backfill mining method is beneficial to improve the protection level of surface buildings and facilities. Then, using the theory of strata control and method of related mechanics to analyze the strata movement law and strata control principle of backfill mining, considering that supporting role of backfill body is mainly on lateral reinforcement of coal pillar and vertical supporting role of overlying strata, forming a cooperative control system of "bearing strata + coal pillar + backfill body" and deducing the equilibrium equations when it is in steady state. At last, using the numerical analysis method, respectively analyzing the surface subsidence of the corresponding important buildings of the three profiles of C-8 exploration line ,C-6 exploration line and A-A (cross section of the profile of C-8 exploration line after using backfill coal mining in 24 mining district. The results show that: the surface subsidence and horizontal deformation basically control within 30 mm and the surface deformation curvature of buildings generally in 0.110-3 /km in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, which accord with the relevant standards and requirements.

  11. Brown coal from Garzweiler II is in dispute. Green politicians want to abandon the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannes Rau (SPD), the Prime Minister of North-Rhine Westphalia, and Michael Vesper, member of the Greens and his opposite number in the coalition negotiations, demonstrate placability. But on the subject of Garzweiler II, opinions are divided in the red-and-green coalition talks: while the party 'Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen' are uncompromising about abandoning Europe's largest brown-coal open-pit mining project, the SPD still sticks to it. (orig.)

  12. Land utilization and recultivation at the Turow brown coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, C. (Poltegor-Projekt, Wroclaw (Poland))

    1992-01-01

    Characterizes mining and geological conditions at the Turow mine with respect to the environment. The balance resources of coal are 730 million Mt as of 1991. Stripping ratio is 4:1. Production is 16 Mt/a. Mine depth is about 180 m. Mine area occupied up to 1990 is 4,324 ha. The structure of land use and management is discussed. Land recultivation procedures are described (neutralization, fertilization, afforestation, plants used). It is concluded that the recultivation work at the Turow mine should be reoriented from agriculture to afforestation because of significant land contamination. 5 refs.

  13. A comparison of the hazards of mining coal and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows that the total risk of mining uranium is much less than the total risk of mining coal for the same electrical power output. The information that results from this analysis may be of use in the nuclear debate, and may also help to establish the small scale of the risk from current uranium mining operations carried out with modern precautions, in contrast to the very different operating conditions that sometimes existed in the early days of uranium mining. The risks of non-fatal accidents are not included in this paper. United Kingdom and United States of America data, are presented on coal mining risks and productivity. Uranium risk data have been obtained for Canadian, US, French, Australian and Namibian mines. (author)

  14. Safety and education in South African coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.M.

    1982-02-18

    Ten Inspectorates carry out the function of supervising the health and safety of miners, subordinate to the Government Mining Engineer in Johannesburg. The work derives from the 1956 Mines and Works Act. The Government Mining Engineer is also chairman of the Coal Mines Research Controlling Council, which initiates and supervises safety research. To improve work safety a series of safety campaigns are launched. In 1980 104 men were killed in accidents in South African coal mines and 1 200 injured. Activities at the mines depend on the origin and educational standard of the workers. Since most of the unskilled men only speak their local language, introductory language courses are the first step. A particular problem are the migrant workers, which raises the manpower fluctuation by over 100%. Special wage and other incentives are meant to encourage them to return forthwith.

  15. Agriculture and brown coal surface mining. The example of the Rhenish brown coal mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive surface mining in the Rhenish brown coal exploitation area has led to marked changes to the environment and living conditions there. This applies particularly to agriculture, which now has to subsist with a competitor for land. The progressive sacrifice of farmland and widespread relocation compaigns are grossly interfering with the business of farming. Only in exceptional cases do farms move as part of the relocation of whole villages. New sites are often found in hamlets and group settlements. This happens in connection with farming of newly reclaimed land or recultivated land reorganised and returned in land consolidation campaigns. (orig.)

  16. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2013. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  17. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  18. 20 CFR 718.302 - Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine... LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS... § 718.302 Relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. If a miner who is suffering...

  19. Rockbursts provoked by destress blasting in hard coal longwall mining.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kon?ek, Petr; Sou?ek, Kamil; Sta, Lubomr

    London : CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, Balkema, 2013 - (Singh, P.; Sinha, A.), s. 193-202 ISBN 978-0-415-62143-4. - (Fragblast. 10). [International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting. New Dehli (IN), 26.11.2012-29.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102014034 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : destress blasting * rockburst hazard * mining industry Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining http://www.crcnetbase.com/doi/abs/10.1201/b13759-25

  20. Land restoration after strip mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    Recent legislation requires that lands surface mined for coal be returned to approximate original topography and vegetative cover be restored. Spoils provide poor rooting habitat because of extreme stoniness or excessive slope steepness which provide few niches for seeds to become lodged and also spoil may provide poor mineral nutrition, poor water retention and sometimes the spoil may even have chemical properties detrimental to plant growth (acidity, alkalinity or even unusually large amounts of toxic mineral elements i.e., copper, sodium). To provide a substrate better suited for plant growth, recommendations for restoration call for deep burial of unfavorable substrate components i.e., rocks and materials of unusual chemistry and the dressing of reshaped spoil with topsoil i.e., material with the most favorable properties for plant growth. Even though all the substrate requirements for healthy plant growth may be met, such as adding a form of available nitrogen as fertilizer, plants will not grow if weather conditions are extreme. For example, in very dry (desert) climates precipitation may be too scanty or too erratic to permit the successful establishment of many kinds of plants. Even under the most favorable conditions plant productivity averaged over a period of years is low. Also in very cold climates the growing season may be limited to only a few weeks in summer e.g., arctic and alpine tundra regions. This shortens the time available for photosynthesis and keeps plant productivity low.

  1. Coal mine methane management, Nord?Pas?de?Calais (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Dfossez, Pierrick; Lemal, Sandrine; Schumacher, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    A coal mine, once closed, still "lives". Coal beds release methane, which is then trapped in the mine voids by water rising as a result of natural flooding. The consequence is a rise of pressure (a well?known phenomenon in every coalfield) which may be dangerous, because gas can migrate directly to the surface. Controlling mine gas risk is essential for safety reasons, due to methane's highly flammable nature. A control methodology was developed by the original operator and starting on this b...

  2. Possibilities of leading project tasks in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salobir, B. (Rudnik Lignita, Velenje (Yugoslavia))

    1991-01-01

    Highlights organizational changes at the Velenje lignite mine (Yugoslavia), which were recently introduced to achieve higher coal production and better effects from investment projects. Research and development groups were appointed for organizational fields of road drivage, coal production (working methods, mechanized longwall mining), maintenance of roadways (reconstruction, support construction, grouting) roof bolting, materials and manpower transport. Activities of individual research/development groups are controlled by technical managers of the mine. Research/development groups work simultaneously on several projects. Planning of projects, team work, responsibilities, financing and execution of development projects are described. 1 ref.

  3. High resolution processing of 3D seismic data for thin coal seam in Guqiao coal mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaoling; Peng, Suping; Zou, Guangui

    2015-04-01

    Accurate identification of small faults for coal seams is very important for coal-field exploration, which can greatly improve mining efficiency and safety. However, coal seams in China are mostly thin layers, ranging from 2-5 m. Moreover, the shallow coal seam with strong reflection forms a shield underneath thin coal seam which is only about 40 m deeper. This causes great difficulty in seismic processing and interpretation. The primary concern is to obtain high-resolution seismic image of underneath thin coal seam for mining safety. In this paper, field data is carefully analyzed and fit-for-purpose solutions are adopted in order to improve the quality of reprocessed data and resolution of target coal seam. Identification of small faults has been enhanced significantly.

  4. Mining systems in British private coal mines; Blackwell Mining and Mineral Engineering Ltd. (UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, B.

    1991-01-01

    There are some 90-100 private, or licensed, underground coal mines in Britain. Some are highly profitable, others lack finance for uprating equipment, systems and infrastructure. The great majority operate methods dating back to or pre-dating the National Coal Board mechanisation programmes. This paper reviews the two most common mining systems in thin seams i.e. the stall system and the short or longwall method and suggests how the small licensed mine can increase production and profitability by the adoption of semi-mechanised systems and equipment. Such 'intermediate technology' should be relatively inexpensive to install and easy to assimilate. The systems and equipment described have been used previously and should be familiar to older readers. It is suggested that where conditions permit the adoption of the longwall or shortwall hand filling face allows semi-mechanisation by intermediate technology systems using refurbished equipment. This would improve productivity while minimising capital costs. In small-scale private mining, it is important that equipment investments pay for themselves within a short period. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Ecological assessment of coal mine and metal mine drainage in South Korea using Daphnia magna bioassay

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Injeong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Lee, Byung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the ecological effect of acid mine drainage, metal mine (Dalsung) and coal mine (Samtan) drainage in South Korea were collected. The each mine drainage then investigated by whole effluent toxicity test (WET) and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE). WET results demonstrated that DS leachate and ST mine water is more toxic than other mine drainage due to the presence of cationic metals and acidic pH. TIE results revealed that the acidic pH and copper (Cu) could be the ma...

  6. Early detection of fire hazards in black coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folwarczny, J.; Gorniak, H.; Szymczyk, J.; Wystemp, E. (Politechnika Slaska (Poland). Instytut Techniki Cieplnej)

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a method for early detection of coal spontaneous combustion in underground mines. Effects of coal oxidation and heating on composition of the mine atmosphere are analyzed. Content of carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen is analyzed. Conventional calculation methods used in Poland and modifications recommended by the authors are evaluated. Balance of four main elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen) participating in chemical reactions of coal oxidation in fresh air entering a longwall face area and air mixed with gases and dusts leaving the face area is analyzed. Systems of equations that describe changes of element content in the air caused by coal oxidation are evaluated. Use of the recommended calculation method for early detection of coal spontaneous combustion is explained with examples. 3 refs.

  7. Effect of mining and utilizing bone coal on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average air ?-ray dose rates measured from the field, road, bone coal, bone coal cinder and bone coal cinder bricks in the three bone coal mines in west Zhejiang Province, are 3.8 x 102, 4.1 x 102, 7.1 x 102, 4.0 x 102 and 7.1 x 102 nGy/h, respectively. The mean contents of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the bone coal of the three bone coal mines are 2.0 x 103, 2.1 x 103, 3.9 x 101 and 6.1 x 102 Bq/kg, respectively, in the bone coal cinder (BCC) are 1.6 x 103, 1.6 x 103, 2.3 x 101 and 4.5 x 102 Bq/kg, respectively, and in the bone coal cinder brick (BCCB) are 1.2 x 103, 1.2 x 103, 2.4 x 101 and 4.0 x 102 Bq/kg, respectively, and those in the reference soil are 3.4 x 102, 1.0 x 102, 4.9 x 101 and 4.9 x 102 Bq/kg, respectively. The annual mean of effective dose equivalent for public living in house buildings made with BCCB near the three mines is 6.8 mSv

  8. 30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by Act...related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by Act...limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining is not included in the...

  9. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania's abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania's comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania's geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques

  10. Utilization of coal ash/coal combustion products for mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Society's demand for an inexpensive fuel, combined with ignorance of the long term impacts, has left numerous scars on the Pennsylvania landscape. There are over 250,000 acres of abandoned surface mines with dangerous highwalls and water filled pits. About 2,400 miles of streams do not meet water quality standards because of drainage from abandoned mines. There are uncounted households without an adequate water supply due to past mining practices. Mine fires and mine subsidence plague many Pennsylvania communities. The estimated cost to reclaim these past scars is over $15 billion. The beneficial use of coal ash in Pennsylvania for mine reclamation and mine drainage pollution abatement projects increased during the past ten years. The increase is primarily due to procedural and regulatory changes by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). Prior to 1986, DEP required a mining permit and a separate waste disposal permit for the use of coal ash in backfilling and reclaiming a surface mine site. In order to eliminate the dual permitting requirements and promote mine reclamation, procedural changes now allow a single permit which authorize both mining and the use of coal ash in reclaiming active and abandoned pits. The actual ash placement, however, must be conducted in accordance with the technical specifications in the solid waste regulations

  11. An Underground Air-Route Temperature Prediction Model for Ultra-Deep Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai Zhu; Shiyue Wu; Jianwei Cheng; Siyuan Li; Mingming Li

    2015-01-01

    Due to modern mining methods deployed in recent years, production of coal mines has been expanded significantly compared to thirty years ago. As a consequence, the mining depth of coal mines is becoming ever deeper. A common world-wide problem that underground coal mines are currently experiencing is the hazard caused by the underground hot environment, which also promotes a great need of reliable mitigation measures to assist mine operators controlling the heat stress for miners as well as m...

  12. Evaluation of the mine gases hazard in the closed hard coal mine Niwka-Modrzejw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Zawisza

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Closing of hard coal mines, especially stopping the process of mine water pumping, results in a reconstruction of the Carboniferous water-bearing horizon, leading to the intensification of gas flux to the near-surface zone (piston effect. Stopping the fans considerably enhances the movement of mine gases towards the surface in closed mines. Stopping the fans results in an accumulation of gases in workings and old workings.The results of geochemical analyses performed in the area of the hard coal mine Niwka-Modrzejw are presented in the paper. The obtained results and their comparison with the existing geological-reservoir model prove that the intensification of the mine gases flow towards the surface continues through the zones of tectonic discontinuities, crackings, and loosened zones in the Upper-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. The thickness and lithology of the onlying overburden plays a decisive role in the limitation of the mine gases migration.

  13. An intelligent hybrid system for surface coal mine safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, N.; Obradovic, I.; Cvjetic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15

    Analysis of safety in surface coal mines represents a very complex process. Published studies on mine safety analysis are usually based on research related to accidents statistics and hazard identification with risk assessment within the mining industry. Discussion in this paper is focused on the application of AI methods in the analysis of safety in mining environment. Complexity of the subject matter requires a high level of expert knowledge and great experience. The solution was found in the creation of a hybrid system PROTECTOR, whose knowledge base represents a formalization of the expert knowledge in the mine safety field. The main goal of the system is the estimation of mining environment as one of the significant components of general safety state in a mine. This global goal is subdivided into a hierarchical structure of subgoals where each subgoal can be viewed as the estimation of a set of parameters (gas, dust, climate, noise, vibration, illumination, geotechnical hazard) which determine the general mine safety state and category of hazard in mining environment. Both the hybrid nature of the system and the possibilities it offers are illustrated through a case study using field data related to an existing Serbian surface coal mine.

  14. Mined land in the Ruhr area: Geological assessments to bound the environmental consequences of coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction, transportation, and processing of coal has severe environmental impacts. The development of the highly mechanized underground mining has resulted in the displacement of very large quantities of coal and waste rock at the surface and underground. This has led to land subsidence, changes in groundwater flow, soil erosion, air pollution, and local climatic effects. Thus, in the Ruhr area more than 4,000 km2 is subject to subsurface mass displacement. The surface undergoes a mobile trough-shaped subsidence. The resulting deformations produce a range of different effects on geomorphology and hydrology/geohydrology. Abandoned coal mines have to be taken under long term drainage, pumping stations have to regulate the groundwater levels. The devastated areas have to be restored, hazardous waste materials from mining activities must be treated, and the long term risks of coal mining must be assessed as part of long range planning and the protection of natural resources. (orig./HP)

  15. Underground coal mine instrumentation and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchill, R. F.; Waldron, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    The need to evaluate mechanical performance of mine tools and to obtain test performance data from candidate systems dictate that an engineering data recording system be built. Because of the wide range of test parameters which would be evaluated, a general purpose data gathering system was designed and assembled to permit maximum versatility. A primary objective of this program was to provide a specific operating evaluation of a longwall mining machine vibration response under normal operating conditions. A number of mines were visited and a candidate for test evaluation was selected, based upon management cooperation, machine suitability, and mine conditions. Actual mine testing took place in a West Virginia mine.

  16. Biodesulfurization of Subbituminous Coal by Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Coal Mine Soil of South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megga Ratnasari Pikoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal as fuel should be necessarily pre-treated by desulfurization in order to prevent excessive emissions of sulfur dioxide, a precursor of acid rain. Organic sulfur in coal can be eliminated by microbial action through the technology known as biodesulfurization. Source of microorganisms in the present study was coal mine soil in which microorganisms have been adapted to use the sulfur in coal. Coal mine in South Sumatra was choosen as source of microorganisms in this study, because it is an area in Indonesia with the largest of subbituminous coal reserves. The microorganisms were activated as mixed culture by culturing the soil sample in mineral salt medium containing subbituminous coal as the sole sulfur. Desulfurization activities were examined by using three variations of the initial coal concentration, i.e., 10, 15 and 20% weight per volume. Growth and activity of the mixed culture on the subbituminous coal were monitored by measuring of medium pH, cell concentration, sulfate and organic sulfur concentration. The result showed that desulfurization activity of the mixed culture on 15% of coal was able to reduce sulfur up to 82.36%. Isolation and identification of the mixed culture based on genotypic and phenotypic characterizations revealed that members of the mixed culture were identified as genera of Enterobacter, Lelcersia and Bacillus. Observation on growth curves showing that the culturable isolates grew in at least three overlapping stages when using coal as sulfur source suggested that the members of the consortium worked alternately on coal as substrate.

  17. Line Creek Mine: coal processing and quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Broek, J.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Crows Nest Resources Line Creek Mine is one of the five new Western Canadian Mines to have come on stream during the last two years. As a second generation mine in South East British Columbia, Line Creek has been able to take advantage of 10 years prior operating experience by other coal producers in the area. This experience provided an increased understanding of the specific mining and processing conditions required for Rocky Mountain coals and has contributed to a smooth plant start-up and stable operation. This paper describes the Line Creek operation and highlights two aspects of the preparation process - the closed water circuit and the product quality control program. For the closed water circuit design, all process water is clarified and re-cycled within the confines of the plant building. Fine waste material is recovered by continuous belt filter presses and is combined with the coarse refuse for disposal on a dry basis. The product quality control program has been made an integral part of the Line Creek operation. It includes pre-production drilling, selection of the coal seam mining sequence, raw coal blending, in-plant process adjustments, and clean coal quality monitoring at the plant outlet and the train loadout. Responsibility for quality control starts at the operator level, and emphasizes fast response to changing plant feed conditions.

  18. Simulation Of Mine Water Inflow: Case Study Of The Štavalj Coal Mine (Southwestern Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Branko; Vakanjac, Vesna Ristić; Bukumirović, Dragomir; Dragišić, Veselin; Vakanjac, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The inflow of mine water to mining operations is often caused by random events such as precipitation. Consequently, the mine water inflow regime can be defined as a function of random events applying the theory of random processes. Regression models of the multiple linear correlation type have been used to simulate the inflow of mine water into mining operations, produce short-range predictions and facilitate rapid response inside the mine. The significance of such models lies in the ability to simulate and predict the consequences (mine water inflow), caused by events of a random nature (meteorological parameters: precipitation and air temperature). The presented prognostic models have been calibrated for mine water inflow to the Štavalj Coal Mine in southwestern Serbia. Mathematical dependencies were defined based on daily mine water inflow rates recorded during the period from 2003 to 2011, which can be used to generate short-range (1-7 day) predictions of mean daily mine water inflow rates to the Štavalj Coal Mine. A strong correlation (coefficient of correlation r = 0.93, Sig. = 0.00) was derived for the one-day forecast. The coefficients of correlation for predictions of mean daily mine water inflow rates related to time periods of two, three...seven days gradually declined to 0.63 (7-day mean daily inflow rate).

  19. Database on nuclide content of coal and gangue in Chinese coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The designing ides, structure, interface and basic function of a database are introduced of nuclide content of coal or gangue in Chinese coal mine. The design of the database adopts Sybase database system, and the database has the functions of making inquiries of keyword, classification and statistics, printing, data input which are achieved by using Power builder Language program. At the present, in this database, the data are collected on the radioactivity of natural radionuclide of 2043 coal, gangue and the other relative samples from various coal miners of all over the country. The database will provide the basic data for the environmental impact assessment of Chinese coal energy. (authors)

  20. Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

  1. Technical progress of coal mining engineering. Tanko gijutsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y. (Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-08-01

    This paper described technical progress of the mining engineering. Road heading was mainly made by blasting and the rock drill for blasting was converted to the oil hydraulic type to result in higher efficiency and lower noise. Loading operation was mechanized to 99% and popularly conducted by side tipping loaders. Some oil hydraulic road headers are recently used for drifting in rock. Roof supporting work to maintain tunnels is also mechanized and concrete spraying is also used. Many working faces for coal mining were self advanced and shielding frame was introduced, so that the perfect mechanization and highly efficient mining could be realized by combining these with drum cutters. Safe and unmanned remote controlling work advances to prevent workers from troubles such as gas outburst and rock burst. High pressure hydraulic coal mining was developed owing to the high productivity and remote controllability but disappeared now with closing many mines. Coal transporting technique advances rapidly with the advance of belt conveyors and unmanned work is also conducted. Hydraulic transportation from deep coal mine was put into practical use. The average productivity of workers in working faces rose from 3 t/shift of 30 years ago to today {prime} s 30 t/shift, exactly by 10 times. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  3. Exploration drilling for pre-mining gas drainage in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, E. A.; Brylin, V. I.; Lukyanov, V. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    High natural gas content in coal seams and low gas drainage efficiency are the basic issues to be addressed in order to ensure coal mining safety. A great number of wells being drilled within various gas drainage techniques significantly increase the costs of coal mining and do not reduce the gas content levels within the coal beds up to the required parameters in a short period of time. The integrated approach toward exploration well spacing applied at the stage of project development could make it possible to consider coal seam data to provide more effective gas drainage not only ahead of mining but also during further gas content reduction and commercial production of methane. The comparative analysis of a closely spaced grid of exploration program compiled in accordance with the recommendations on applying mineral reserves classification and inferred resources of coal and shale coal deposits and currently effective stimulation radius proves the necessity and possibility to consider exploration well data for gas drainage. Pre-mining gas drainage could ensure the safety of mining operations.

  4. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Olgun; zer, Samet Can; Fi?ne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in the zones where sudden changes of inclination and/or thickness of the coal seam.

  5. Study of Natural Radioactivity in Coal Samples of Baganuur Coal Mine, Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal and soil samples from Baganuur Coal Mine (BCM) of Mongolia have been investigated. The activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K have been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using shielded HPGe detector. Contents of natural radionuclide elements (U, Th and K) have been determined. Also the activities and contents of radionuclide of ashes were determined which generated in Thermal Power Plant 3 of Ulaanbaatar from coal supplied from BCM.

  6. 76 FR 19786 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Celatom Mine Expansion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... 60 miles west of Vale, Oregon. The Celatom Mine Complex currently consists of three open-pit mines... the Project Area include open pit mines, roads within the mine operations areas, and other operations... Celatom Mine Expansion Project in Harney and Malheur Counties, OR AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

  7. 77 FR 26574 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Celatom Mine Expansion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... three open-pit mines: Kelley Field (on BLM- administered land), Section 36 (on State land), and Beede... development of new mining operations ] in the Project Area include open pit mines, roads within the mine... Celatom Mine Expansion Project in Harney and Malheur Counties, OR AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

  8. Cavities as the sources of acid mine process in the Niwka-Modrzejow Coal Mine (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid mine process is one of the most significant sources the pollution of surface water. The intensive process was discovered in the Niwka-Modrzejow Coal Mine at the level 100-130 m. In this paper the method of prevention by the filling cavities of wastes from energy plants was proposed. (authors)

  9. The influence of coal mining on radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pit waters from hard-coal and brown-coal mining, as well as sediments and soils along sewers and rivers in the vicinity of collieries, are investigated in the scope of radiation protection. The greatest amount of Ra is discharged by hard-coal collieries in the order of several tens of Bq l-1 in presence of high mineralised brines. In contact with sulphate bearing surface water, Ra co-precipitates with Ba and is deposited as radiobarite. The contamination with 226Ra lead to high activity concentrations (up to 32 000 Bq kg-1) and increased gamma dose rates (6 000 nSv h-1). The special situation of diadochic incorporation of Ra into the dense crystal lattice prevents Rn from emanation. However in sediments influenced by brown-coal mining Ra is adsorbed at the surfaces of ferric hydroxides and therefore, Rn can emanate easily. (orig.)

  10. Coal Mine Safety Evaluation with V-Fold Cross-Validation and BP Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yang; Malin Song

    2010-01-01

    A suit of coal mine safety evaluation indexes have been propounded under the study of current situation about coal mine safety assement. Coal mine safety evaluation system based on BP neural network has been established by employing MATLAB neural network toolbox, and the actual index data will be utilized to validate marking effect through using V-fold Cross-validation technique, and then this will be applied to coal mine safety evaluation system to provide grounds for safety production and m...

  11. Instantaneous outbursts in underground coal mines: an overview and association with coal type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B.B.; Crosdale, P.J. [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Geology

    1998-02-01

    The precise mechanisms of instantaneous outbursts are still unresolved but must involve the effects of stress, gas content and physico-mechanical properties of the coal. Other factors such as mining methods and geological features can exacerbate the problem. Prediction techniques continue to be unreliable and unexpected outburst incidents resulting in fatalities are a major concern for underground coal operations. Gas content thresholds of 9 m{sup 3}/t for CH{sub 4} and 6 m{sup 3}/t for CO{sub 2} are used in the Sydney Basin, to indicate outburst-prone conditions, but are reviewed on an individual mine basis and in mixed gas situations. Data on the sorption behaviour of Bowen Basin coals from Australia have provided an explanation for the conflicting results obtained by coal face desorption indices used for outburst-proneness assessment. A key factor supported by both laboratory and mine-site investigations appears to be different desorption rates displayed by banded coals. Dull coal bands with high fusnitie and semifusinite contents tend to display rapid desorption from solid coal, for a given pressure drop. The opposite is true for bright coal bands with high vitrinite contents and dull coal bands with high inertodetrinite contents. Consequently, when face samples of dull, fusinite- or semifusinite-rich coal of small particle size are taken for desorption testing, much gas has already escaped and low readings result. Solid coal can retain gas, even after pressure reduction, creating a gas content gradient across the coal face sufficient to initiate an outburst. When the particle size of the coal is reduced, rapid gas desorption can occur. 65 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Posteriori analysis of the slopes of open pits in complex geological formations (gard coalfield - France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantz, D.; Arcamone, J.; Laversanne, J.

    1987-12-01

    The statistical approach permits a relationship to be obtained between dip and angle of repose in given region and is of interest on the prefeasibility level. On the feasibility level, a mechanical investigation is necessary; the mechanical parameters to be introduced in the calculations can be determined by laboratory tests, if the envisaged rupture mechanisms are simple. If not, an a posteriori analysis of existing slopes permits an estimate of cohesion c/sub m/ and of an internal friction angle F/sub m/ of the rock mass. In the case of the Mercoirol strip mine, which will be deeper than 400 m, the angles of repose of the old open pit (max. depth 125 m) have been analysed; the cohesion c/sub m/ obtained therefore was clearly lower than that of the untouched rock, but greater than that of the individual discontinuities or of the unconsolidated material tested in the laboratory. The angle F/sub m/ appears to be also higher than that of individual discontinuities or of the not consolidated material.

  13. Radon concentrations in coal mines of Baluchistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prolonged exposure to radon, the largest source (69%) of natural radioactivity, may cause lung cancer and bronchial tissue damage. So monitoring of radon at places of high radioactivity and in underground mines is important to assess the radiological hazards to occupational workers. For these reasons radon measurements were carried out in some coal mines of Baluchistan, Pakistan. The measurements were based upon passive detection of radon using CN-85 track detectors in Box Type Dosimeters. The radon concentration varied from 121 to 408 Bq m-3 in the mines under study. The computed radon dose varied from 1.38 to 4.67 mSv yr-1 with an average of 2.19±0.5 mSv yr-1. These coal mines have been found to be safe from radon-related health hazards

  14. Ground movement and deformation due to dewatering and open pit excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the application of stochastic medium theory, it is assumed that ground movement process has the property of Markov Process. Based on superposition principle and rock consolidation principle, the ground movement and deformation due to dewatering and open pit excavation can be calculated. The comparison between the field measurements in Morwell Open Pit, Latrobe Valley (Victoria, Australia) and the calculated results shows the validity of the method in this paper. 5 refs

  15. Introduction of continuous miner technology into Indian coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeming, J.J. [Joy Mining Machinery Co. (United Kingdom). Mining System

    2003-07-01

    The first fully mechanized room and pillar system in India, using continuous miner technology, started operations in May 2002 at Chirimiri Anjun Hill Mine, South Eastern Coalfields Ltd. The complete system, supplied by Joy Mining Machinery, included a 12CM15 continuous miner, two shuttle cars, a feeder breaker, a mobile roof-bolting machine, and an electrical distribution system. This paper details the project, including equipment supplied, mining conditions, design of the de-pillaring system, and the results to date. A second system is now under installation at Tandsi coal mine in western coalfields. India has large resources of coal in existing underground coal mines, with ideal conditions for mechanized continuous miner extraction. To date, no technology has been introduced for extraction of the substantial reserves of coal tied up in pillars. Continued success at Chirimiri, and success in pillar removal and in controlling roof conditions will ensure that modern continuous miner technology becomes the preferred choice in India for underground room, pillar development, and de-pillaring. 11 figs.

  16. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  17. 26 CFR 1.187-1 - Amortization of certain coal mine safety equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amortization of certain coal mine safety... (continued) § 1.187-1 Amortization of certain coal mine safety equipment. (a) Allowance of deduction—(1) In... respect to the amortization of the adjusted basis (for determining gain) of any certified coal mine...

  18. 20 CFR 726.1 - Statutory insurance requirements for coal mine operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mine operators. 726.1 Section 726.1 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE General § 726.1 Statutory insurance requirements for coal...

  19. 29 CFR 570.53 - Coal-mine occupations (Order 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). 570.53 Section 570.53... § 570.53 Coal-mine occupations (Order 3). (a) Finding and declaration of fact. All occupations in or about any coal mine, except the occupation of slate or other refuse picking at a picking table...

  20. 20 CFR 726.203 - Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act endorsement. 726.203 Section 726.203 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE...

  1. Gamma radiation hazard to miners in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hazard to miners working in 16 bituminous coal mines was determined by a thermoluminescence method. While the miners exposure to gamma radiation is higher than that of the general population, the yearly dose was never found to exceed 5 mSv in any investigated person. Factors contributing to the estimate of the exposure hazard and the need for individual dose monitoring in mines are discussed in more detail. 3 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  2. Environmental aspects of hard coal mines closure in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental problems that arise during the closure processes of hard coal mines in Poland are undertaken in the paper. The problems of changes in water balance in rock mass are described with a stress put on underground water management. Regulation concerning ground reclamation and utilisation and removal of existing heat and power plants which after the mines closure will continue to supply surrounding consumers are stressed and the possible solutions are shown. 13 refs

  3. Risk factors for the undermined coal bed mining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arad, V. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Arad, S. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The Romanian mining industry has been in a serious decline and is undergoing ample restructuring. Analyses of reliability and risk are most important during the early stages of a project in guiding the decision as to whether or not to proceed and in helping to establish design criteria. A technical accident occurred in 2008 at the Petrila coal mine involving an explosion during the exploitation of a coal seam. Over time a series of technical accidents, such as explosions and ignitions of methane gas, roof blowing phenomena or self-ignition of coal and hazard combustions have occurred. This paper presented an analysis of factors that led to this accident as well an analysis of factors related to the mining method. Specifically, the paper discussed the geomechanical characteristics of rocks and coal; the geodynamic phenomenon from working face 431; the spontaneous combustion phenomenon; gas accumulation; and the pressure and the height of the undermined coal bed. It was concluded that for the specific conditions encountered in Petrila colliery, the undermined bed height should be between 5 and 7 metres, depending on the geomechanic characteristics of coal and surrounding rocks. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  4. 78 FR 72717 - Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... of Workers' Compensation Programs Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation; Proposed Collection... to Coal Mine Employment (CM-913). A copy of the proposed information collection request can be... of benefits to coal miners who are totally disabled by black lung disease arising out of coal...

  5. Selection of technological parameters in borehole mining production by technical deep drilling and hydroexploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrovic Vladimir

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the estimate technological parameters for borehole hydro-production of sand by technical deep drilling slim well differently diameters, where are determinate calculation of radius of jet for selects hydro-monitor, the effect of hydro-caving, caving capacity, hydro-transport of pulp and drawings of the most important parts of necessary equipment for exploitation at the mining field exemplified by experimental borerhole hydro-mining of underlying quartz sand at surface open pit mine of coal named the Polje-D in Kolubara.

  6. Diffuse soil degassing from abandoned underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, D.; Ruiz, V.

    2003-04-01

    Southeastern Ohio has been extensively coal mined. The coal in this region and associated rocks are high in sulfur and generate acid mine drainage when exposed to air and water. Poor water quality in rivers and streams is a common problem in this region. Water recharge to the underground coal mines occurs preferentially throughout subsidence features in areas where the overburden is thinner than around 60 feet, usually close to river and streams. Gases released from the coal beds such as methane and carbon dioxide, as well as radon generated in the rocks can diffuse throughout the overlying rocks and soils and discharge to the atmosphere. The soils of an area covering around 151 km2 close to the town of Corning, Ohio, were investigated. Around half of the study area has been coal mined. Soil gas samples were taking every 600 to 1000 m using a sonde and extracting the gas with a syringe. Samples were also extracted with a vacuum pump and analyzed for radon in a Pylon AB-5 Radiation Detector. Soil gas samples were analyzed in a Arizona Mercury Analyzer. Additional samples were stored in vaccutainers and analyzed in a gas chromatograph to determine the partial pressures of carbon dioxide and methane. Our results indicate that gas concentrations are significantly higher in regions of thin overburden compared to regions of thick overburden and non-mined areas. These results suggest that gases are diffusing throughout fractures and subsidence features of the rocks overlying the exploited coal seams and are discharged more easily to the atmosphere when the overburden is thinner.

  7. Arc Export File Of Permitted and Mined Out Coal Areas of the Gulf Coast Coal-Bearing (gulfmines.e00)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior This dataset contains permitted coal mines and mined out areas in the Gulf Coast coal-bearing geology prior to 1998. The data included in the coverage are mine...

  8. Use of natural gamma radiation in the coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of delineating coal seams by the use of natural gamma borehole logging sondes has been known for many years. The principle of the technique is that the gamma fluxes in shales are higher than in coals as the abundance of naturally occurring radionuclides is some twenty times greater in the former. This paper discusses other applications where the differeing natural gamma properties of coals and shales can be used. These are: (a) To distinguish between stone (shale) and run-of-mine coal on conveyor belts. A common situation underground is one in which stone from development headings and normal run-of-mine coal have to be batched along the same conveyor system. A natural gamma device capable of distinguishing between such batches of material, and thus allowing suitable mechanical separation, will be described. (b) To provide an accurate measurement of roof coal thickness by measuring the natural gamma flux penetrating the roof coal. To illustrate this examples will be given where this technique is used to provide automatic controlled steering of Long Wall Shearers and to provide manually assisted steering of In-seam Heading Machines

  9. Effects of radiation on coal mine environment -a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to mass-scale industrialization, world's environment is being polluted every day endangering the existence of living beings on the earth. This has attracted the attention of environmental engineers, medical practitioners, planners and researchers throughout the world. Attempts are being made to make air, water and atmosphere clean and to prevent likely hazards arising out of various industrial activities. In addition, the radiation from natural sources is all around us and has been here since time immemorial. Coal miners have small occupational radiation which arise from naturally occurring radioactive substance(s) underground. The predominant source of natural radiation present in coal mines is the radon gas. This paper describes the origin of radon and its radiological hazards. An attempt has been made to review the status of the problem likely to be caused by the different radioactive elements present in Indian coal, coal ash and allied coal-based industries. (author)

  10. Chemical and microbial sulphuric acid production from aerated mine lake sediment that was treated by different additions of NaOH (speech)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined sediment from an open pit lake that was intensively used for coal mining during the first decade of 20th. century. Today, the site (Lake 111, Lusatia, Germany) is flooded and water has extreme chemistry: low pH values (2-3), high concentrations of sulphate (up to 2000 mg/l) and elevated concentrations of Fe, Zn and Mn. As a result, anoxic sediment accumulated elevated concentrations of these elements, especially high levels of reduced sulphur compounds. (orig.)

  11. Chemical and microbial sulphuric acid production from aerated mine lake sediment that was treated by different additions of NaOH (speech)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajtl, J. [South Bohemia Univ., Ceske Budejovice (Czechoslovakia); UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Wendt-Potthoff, K.; Friese, K.; Koschorreck, M. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Tichy, R. [South Bohemia Univ., Ceske Budejovice (Czechoslovakia)

    2000-07-01

    We examined sediment from an open pit lake that was intensively used for coal mining during the first decade of 20th. century. Today, the site (Lake 111, Lusatia, Germany) is flooded and water has extreme chemistry: low pH values (2-3), high concentrations of sulphate (up to 2000 mg/l) and elevated concentrations of Fe, Zn and Mn. As a result, anoxic sediment accumulated elevated concentrations of these elements, especially high levels of reduced sulphur compounds. (orig.)

  12. 76 FR 32951 - Coal Mining Equipment, Technologies and Services Trade Mission to China and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... ( http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr ), posting on ITA's trade mission calendar-- http://www.trade.gov/trade... International Trade Administration Coal Mining Equipment, Technologies and Services Trade Mission to China and... operating in the coal and mining sector and manufacturing or distributing mining and mining-safety...

  13. Structural and stress analysis of mining practice in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Waclawik, Petr; Pt?ek, Ji?; Grygar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 10, ?. 2 (2013), s. 255-265. ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : horizontal stress * structural analysis * mine roadway stability * coal mining * rock burst Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2013_02/acta_170_15_Waclawik_255-265.pdf

  14. Characteristics of coal-mine wastes for rehabilitation work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on many of the soil- element availability techniques commonly used in agronomy that are being applied to coal mine-rehabilitation sites because of the need for monitoring metal levels in both plants and mine soils. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was tested to determine its usefulness as a prediction of soil-plant relations. Eleven areas that varied greatly in edaphic, geological, geochemical, climatic conditions, and in mining and rehabilitation practices were sampled. Measured DTPA-extractable concentrations in cover soil, spoil, and A and C horizons of natural soil were compared to proposed maximum permissible levels of soil toxicity

  15. Changes in coal mining society in contemporary West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Government of India has, in recent years, taken multiple steps to encourage private sector participation, adopt a more holistic approach towards expanding its coal base, and improve efficiency in the sector as a whole. However, the existing regulatory framework in India is not adequately developed or in tune with international standards that the extractive industries sector have been putting together. It is thus crucial for the Indian coal industry to consider changes in its regulatory environment to make it a par with the international standards to meet the critical requirement for energy security. In fact coal mining society is passing though havoc changes due to Government’s newly introduced multifold policies. The industrial relation now has changed immensely than the previous practices. Coal industry, which contributes 67 percent of total energy requirements of our country. After two phases nationalization the industry witnessed certain developments, which have implications for the human recourses management and industrial relation. In the beginning of the 90s one important event was the introduction of the new economic policy and this has a great influence over the coal mine sector. Impact of the policy Change is the introduction of a number of private operators in the coal production. Broadly, new economic policy initiated the gradual withdrawal of state from the control of basic industry and infrastructure. Coal mines are no exception in this regard. So the effect of new economic policy in the consequence of globalization also falls on the coal sectors. We now see what sort of impact of policy change has taken place upon the coal sector and coal workers. This article tires to examine the changes taken place due to policy changes and changes in general outlook of the people of coal mines in which they live. Now the industrial relation as well as the mechanism of work has been changed drastically. The traditional practice of work and mental outlook is gradually replacing with global method. It was noticed that people associated in this industry has started accepting the wider scope of work culture.

  16. Application of stable isotopes to hydrogeology in coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotopes including Oxygen-18 and Deuterium have been applied to investigation of hydrogeology in main coal mines. By determination of stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen together with water analysis, the following studies have been developed: Identification of the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the groundwater from varied aquifers; Analysis of the hydraulic relationship between varied aquifers; Interpretation of the probable recharge source of mine water. The research results mentioned above reveal that: 1. The groundwater from main aquifers at coal mines in north China is of meteoric origin, which is recharged from hilly area surrounding the coal mine. Its isotopic composition differs slightly from that of the local precipitation. 2. There is a mutual hydraulic relationship between the Ordovician and Quarternary aquifers, so the difference of isotopic composition is very small. 3. By way of the variation of isotopic composition of groundwater from coal-bearing strata, we can infer the hydraulic relationship extent between overlaid alluvial layer and underlaid Ordovician limestone. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs

  17. Mycobacterium marinum Infection After Exposure to Coal Mine Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Moises A.; Ribes, Julie A.; Lohr, Kristine M.; Evans, Martin E.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium marinum infection has been historically associated with exposure to aquariums, swimming pools, fish, or other marine fauna. We present a case of M marinum left wrist tenosynovitis and elbow bursitis associated with a puncture injury and exposure to coal mine water in Illinois. PMID:26835478

  18. GSM Based Flexible Calling System For Coal Mining Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Himanshu K. Patel#1, Deep H. Desai*2, Tanvi G. Badheka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an emergency flexible calling system consists of GSM module, solar panel, vibration sensor, battery sensor and fire sensor which are connected with centralized control room by wireless communication. Proposed system may be installed near coal mine where even basic emergency services are not available. It will be totally based on GSM signal strength. In case of medical & accidental emergency happen in the coal mine, particularly when the workerdoesn’t have the mobile phone or having no tower in coal mine, this system may be very much helpful.System has flexible timer for calling to the control room. The System will be protected from theft attempts using different alarm circuits like vibration sensor, fire sensor and battery sensor. This system will be continuously powered through a solar panel. This system will be useful even for illiterate people as well as for coal mining worker. The purpose of this project is to help people in emergency in remote location as early as possible. This system can useful in villages having no electricity.

  19. Study of the closed coal mine data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeg, Sang Ho [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is an outgrowth of work begun in 1990, in the mid of the period that almost of the coal mines closed according to the government coal policy. At the first time the study has a simple plan to create a database of coal mine data. Effort had been made in designing an effective database system to manage the underground maps and related data. As the study progressed, we became aware that geographical information should be employed in the database for further usage of the data. The GIS concept had been introduced at the later period of this study, not only because of the necessity of visualization but because of the correlations of the other data. It seemed to us that maps and other data should be closely correlated on the geomorphological maps and that the database management should be done under the GIS circumstances. Underground maps about 1700 adits of 100 coal mines, and related graphic data have been collected in the database. And all those data were entered into the database in vectorial form, coordinates obtaining from the digitizing tablet. Detailed works are described in the other report, including the discussions of graphic database and data handling of graphical mine data. Comments about the GIS is also provided in the volume. (author). 3 figs., 3 maps.

  20. Environmental issues in coal mining: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India, among the first five coal producing countries in the world, has a coal mining history of over 220 years. The environmental problems accumulated due to yester year and current mining and other industrial activities have led to the various environmental issues related to societal development, ecology, land, water regime and air quality. There has been no definite goal of industrial activities and environmental management. The environmental status in most coal mining complexes and around is far from satisfactory. It has been located that the environmental issues be defined with reference to the desired quality of life for all. Hence, the quality of life criteria be defined for various coal mining regions based on which the actions on the environmental issues be planned. The task of environmental management is mammoth and no single agency can be expected to take care of these tasks. The planning jobs may be assigned to specially formed multi-faceted teams and the final developmental scenario be detailed with due consent of the public. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Vegetation development in central European coal mining sites.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prach, Karel

    Boca Raton : Taylor & Francis CRC Press, 2013, s. 38-52. ISBN 978-1-4665-9931-4 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP505/11/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : succession * vegetation * coal mining Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Study on hard roof rockburst in coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Yishan; Chen Dejun; Zhang Mengtao [Liaoning University of Engineering and Technology, Fuxin (China)

    1997-12-01

    Based on observations in the Mentougou Mine, a general law of roof rockburst is suggested. The destabilisation theory of roof rockburst was established. The general laws of microquake premonition and earth sound in roof rockbursts is advanced. The relationship between roof rockburst and rockburst of coal body is studied. 5 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. From in-situ coal to fly ash: A study of coal mines and power plants from Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Hower, J.C.; Drobniak, A.; Mardon, S.M.; Lis, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents data on the properties of coal and fly ash from two coal mines and two power plants that burn single-source coal from two mines in Indiana. One mine is in the low-sulfur (5%) Springfield Coal Member of the Petersburg Formation (Pennsylvanian). Both seams have comparable ash contents (???11%). Coals sampled at the mines (both raw and washed fractions) were analyzed for proximate/ultimate/sulfur forms/heating value, major oxides, trace elements and petrographic composition. The properties of fly ash from these coals reflect the properties of the feed coal, as well as local combustion and post-combustion conditions. Sulfur and spinel content, and As, Pb and Zn concentrations of the fly ash are the parameters that most closely reflect the properties of the source coal. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coal-mine production history from 1984 through 1995 in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area (cpmphg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage containing 12 years (1984 through 1995) of coal mining history in the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. This layer was derived...

  5. High radon exposure in a Brazilian underground coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, L H S; Melo, V; Koifman, S; Amaral, E C S

    2004-09-01

    The main source of radiation exposure in most underground mining operations is radon and radon decay products. The situation of radon exposure in underground mining in Brazil is still unknown, since there has been no national regulation regarding this exposure. A preliminary radiological survey in nonuranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil had high radon concentration and needed to be better evaluated. This paper intends to present an assessment of radon and radon decay product exposure in the underground environment of this coal mining industry and to estimate the annual exposure to the workers. As a product of this assessment, it was found that average radon concentrations at all sampling campaign and excavation sites were above the action level range for workplaces of 500-1500 Bq m(-3) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection--ICRP 65. The average effective dose estimated for the workers was almost 30 times higher than the world average dose for coal miners. PMID:15511021

  6. High radon exposure in a Brazilian underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main source of radiation exposure in most underground mining operations is radon and radon decay products. The situation of radon exposure in underground mining in Brazil is still unknown, since there has been no national regulation regarding this exposure. A preliminary radiological survey in non-uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil had high radon concentration and needed to be better evaluated. This paper intends to present an assessment of radon and radon decay product exposure in the underground environment of this coal mining industry and to estimate the annual exposure to the workers. As a product of this assessment, it was found that average radon concentrations at all sampling campaign and excavation sites were above the action level range for workplaces of 500-1500 Bq m-3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection-ICRP 65. The average effective dose estimated for the workers was almost 30 times higher than the world average dose for coal miners

  7. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  8. The South Manchurian Railway Company and the Mining Industry: The Case of the Fushun Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-yu Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the Japanese victory over Czarist Russia in the Russo-Japanese War and the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905, the southernmost section of the southern branch of the China Far East Railway (ChangchunPort Arthur was transferred to Japanese control. A new, semi-privately held company, the South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR, Mantetsu, was established with 85.6 percent capitalization by the Japanese government and foreign bonds to operate the railroad and to develop settlements (including highways, public health facilities, educational institutions, and industries (coal mines, harbor facilities, electrical power plants, shale oil plants, chemical plants, and restaurants along its route. SMR nonetheless emphasized railway and mining investment. The centerpiece of its mining interests was the Fushun Coal Mine. Starting in 1917, SMR began to prosper, with most profits coming from its coal mines, and it soon spun off subsidiary companies. In this sense, although the factors that influenced development of the Fushun Coal Mine in each period were different, this development still shows continuity of the business management.

  9. Radon concentration measurements in the Amasra coal mine, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldik, R; Aytekin, H; Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Ta?delen, M

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the results of atmospheric radon measurements that were performed for the Amasra underground coal mine in Zonguldak bituminous coal basin (Turkey) are presented. The radon measurements were performed for 40 days between November 2004 and December 2004 using passive nuclear etched track detectors. The radon concentrations vary from a minimum value 49 Bq m(-3) in a site located at +40 m to a maximum value 223 Bq m(-3) in a site located at -100 m. Mean concentration is 117 (Bq m(-3)). This value is well below the action level of 500-1,500 Bq m(-3) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (1993). The mean effective dose value for workers of this mine of 3.4 microSv per day was obtained. This result shows that protection against radiological hazards would not be necessary for workers of this mine((2)). PMID:16357025

  10. Radon concentration measurements in the AMASRA coal mine, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the results of atmospheric radon measurements that were performed for the Amasra underground coal mine in Zonguldak bituminous coal basin (Turkey) are presented. The radon measurements were performed for 40 days between November 2004 and December 2004 using passive nuclear etched track detectors. The radon concentrations vary from a minimum value 49 Bq m-3 in a site located at +40 m to a maximum value 223 Bq m-3 in a site located at -100 m. Mean concentration is 117 (Bq m-3). This value is well below the action level of 500-1500 Bq m-3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (1993). The mean effective dose value for workers of this mine of 3.4 ?Sv per day was obtained. This result shows that protection against radiological hazards would not be necessary for workers of this mine(2). (authors)

  11. Research on the Factors of Fatigue of Coal Mine Workers and Its Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing-Gang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available China is the largest coal producer in the world, it play a important role in the international field of coal production, but due to the frequent occurrence of coal mining accidents, it cause a enormous damage to the state's manpower and material resources. This article on research of the cause of the coal mining accident, it describes the fatigue of the coal mine workers assignment is the main cause of the accident and the threat to the safety of workers, and points out the important factors in ergonomics. MMEC theory is introduced and using for reference MMEC theory, finding out influence the cause of the coal mine worker fatigue, and combined with the relevant laws and regulations system to control and reduce the proposed method of coal mine worker fatigue to reduce and prevent the occurrence of coal mine accidents have some guidance Significance.

  12. NV - Assessment of wildlife hazards associated with mine pit lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Several open pit mines in Nevada lower groundwater to mine ore below the water table. After mining, the pits partially fill with groundwater to form pit lakes....

  13. China`s recent development in coal mining, processing and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Weitang; Wang Chenglong; Zhu Deren [Ministry of Coal Industry, Beijing (China)

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes the state of the art and outlook of coal mining and clean coal technology in China. As the major mining method, underground mining accounts for 96% of the total production. Among the state owned mines, the percentage of mechanized mining reached 71%. A rapid development of high-productive and high-profitable mines, especially those with longwall sublevel caving method, is described. The issues of heavy duty equipment, roof bolting, mine safety are also addressed. The Chinese government is paying more and more attention to the environmental problems resulting from coal mining, processing and utilization. A basic framework of clean coal technology is being formed and a wide range of technology is included. This includes fluidized bed combustion and pulverised coal combustion technology, development of IGCC and of coal conversion technologies and advances in pollution control and waste management. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Polish legal regulations considering recovery of secondary materials from coal mining dumping grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawor ?ukasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is presented temporary situation of coal mining dumping grounds in Poland their inventarization, localization and environmental impacts. The coal mining dumping grounds in Poland are situated in three coal basins: Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Lower Silesian Coal Basin and Lublin Coal Basin. In all mentioned areas occur ca. 270 coal mining waste dumps, covering surface of over 4400 ha. The main environmental impacts connected with dumping grounds are fire hazards, water pollution and a danger of slope sliding. The question of recovery of coal from disposed wastes with regard to legal regulations is discussed. There are presented technical methods of coal recovery considering environmental protection issues. There is a necessity and technical possibility of recovery of coal from the coal-mining waste dumps. The coal recovery reduces hazards of self-ignition and fires of the dump. It is also economically justified. The analysis of required regulations in legal system in Poland for safe exploitation of secondary materials from coal mining dumps is done. Socio-economic aspects of recovery of coal are discussed. The valid legal regulations in Poland regulate the issues connected with coal mining dumping grounds in a very general way. It is necessary to prepare supplements to the legal provisions or new regulations concerning post-mining dumping grounds.

  15. Construction of Safety Performance Management System for Coal Mine Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    You-jun WU

    2010-01-01

    The bad coal mine natural environment, safety investment deficiency, insufficiency safety performance management system are the main causes leading to the coal mining accident frequently nowadays, building-up safety performance management system is importance to coal enterprises safety work. This paper analyses the security status and the reasons of coal mine enterprises, the important role played by safety performance management system during the course of safe production, and the problems e...

  16. Current situation and problems to be studied for uranium bearing coal deposit mining in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium bearing coal deposits are a specific kind of uranium ore resources. Since uranium bearing coal can generate electricity, provide heat and recover uranium during the process of hydrometallurgy, it is necessary to mine these deposits. This paper summarizes the experiences in uranium bearing coal deposit mining, suggests research topics in this area. It is hoped that these studies can promote the development of uranium bearing coal deposit mining. (authors)

  17. An open method for mining steeply dipping brown coal deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, B.

    1985-02-15

    First the floor layer is removed. Then trenches are tunneled from the surface of the brown coal seam. The slant of the sides of the trenches on the dip side of the deposit is 1 to 2 and from the opposite side, 1 to 1.5. The final result of making the trenches is the formation of a slanted drift which is the front of extracting operations. The number of slanted drifts is a function of the depth of the deposit. Mining is conducted using loosener bulldozers which cut a coal layer 20 centimeters thick by moving it downward along the slanted drift. Then the coal is placed on a conveyor belt by a loader. A scraper which removes the barren rock and transports it to the tailings heaps operates simultaneously with the bulldozer. The proposed method eliminates the possibility of the formation of landslides and makes it possible to selectively extract the mineral coal.

  18. Assessment of fugitive dust emissions from an opencast coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amponsah-Dacosta, F.; Annegam, H.J. [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, Mining Engineering Dept.

    1998-01-01

    Fugitive dust is a nuisance wherever coal is extracted, processed, storage, handled or transported. Dust dramatically increases loss of road surface materials, limits visibility, increases road maintenance and escalates equipment costs due to wear and tear of moving parts. The best way of making opencast coal mining a more environmentally-friendly operation is to embark on a rational dust control plan based on an emission inventory, which identifies sources of emissions and quantifies each source contribution to ambient air pollution concentrations. The objective of this paper is to present the quantitative and qualitative procedures used in compiling a comprehensive airborne dust emission inventory of a South African opencast coal mine. US EPA emission inventory techniques and emission factors were used. The inventory results indicate that unpaved haul roads are the predominant source of dust emissions from the mine. Results of such an inventory can be used as input for dispersion and receptor modelling to determine the impacts of various sources on the environment. This inventory will serve as a baseline for a dust control plan for the mine and a guide in the selection of parameters for monitoring programmes. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Integrated Positioning for Coal Mining Machinery in Enclosed Underground Mine Based on SINS/WSN

    OpenAIRE

    Qigao Fan; Wei Li; Jing Hui; Lei Wu; Zhenzhong Yu; Wenxu Yan; Lijuan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance i...

  20. Coal Mine Roadway Stability in Soft Rock: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Baotang

    2014-11-01

    Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines where the surrounding rock strata and coal seams are weak and the in situ stresses are high. Under the high overburden and tectonic stresses, roadways could collapse or experience excessive deformation, which not only endangers mining personnel but could also reduce the functionality of the roadway and halt production. This paper describes a case study on the stability of roadways in an underground coal mine in Shanxi Province, China. The mine was using a longwall method to extract coal at a depth of approximately 350 m. Both the coal seam and surrounding rock strata were extremely weak and vulnerable to weathering. Large roadway deformation and severe roadway instabilities had been experienced in the past, hence, an investigation of the roadway failure mechanism and new support designs were needed. This study started with an in situ stress measurement programme to determine the stress orientation and magnitude in the mine. It was found that the major horizontal stress was more than twice the vertical stress in the East-West direction, perpendicular to the gateroads of the longwall panel. The high horizontal stresses and low strength of coal and surrounding rock strata were the main causes of roadway instabilities. Detailed numerical modeling was conducted to evaluate the roadway stability and deformation under different roof support scenarios. Based on the modeling results, a new roadway support design was proposed, which included an optimal cable/bolt arrangement, full length grouting, and high pre-tensioning of bolts and cables. It was expected the new design could reduce the roadway deformation by 50 %. A field experiment using the new support design was carried out by the mine in a 100 m long roadway section. Detailed extensometry and stress monitorings were conducted in the experimental roadway section as well as sections using the old support design. The experimental section produced a much better roadway profile than the previous roadway sections. The monitoring data indicated that the roadway deformation in the experimental section was at least 40-50 % less than the previous sections. This case study demonstrated that through careful investigation and optimal support design, roadway stability in soft rock conditions can be significantly improved.

  1. The reclamation of former coal mines and steelworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is a result of studies undertaken on behalf of the European Commission and examines the current 'state of the art' techniques for the restoration of despoiled lands arising from the coal and steel industries. Chapters are entitled: introduction; site assessment; investigation and treatment of mine workings and unstable ground; demolition and site clearance; colliery spoil heap characteristics; colliery spoil heap stability; colliery spoil heap combustion; colliery spoil washing; steel industry raw materials and wastes; coal carbonisation; treatment of contaminated soils; water quality; landform and earthworks; the establishment and care of vegetation; management of reclaimed land; a framework for site generation; and case studies. 266 refs

  2. Ambient environment in the coal mining complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environment is all pervading and therefore associated with all individuals. The ambient environment with respect to any activity lies a little outside and the receiving body outside the active zone denotes ambient environment. Basically, air quality and noise level are two physical ingredients whose assessment gives an idea of impact on the ambience. Though largely blamed for polluted conditions, the general ambient conditions in the coal fields do not show a tardy image. Being a low level dispersion industry, its impact remains concentrated in the active core zone. This has been brought out here. The paper presents the status of air quality, and noise level in some coal fields in India. It also discloses a brighter future and sustainable development due to increased concern for environment. (author)

  3. Textural and mineralogical characteristics of SPM in coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of air pollution assessment and control effort is to mitigate the effect of pollutants on environment. The effects may be on health, various other biological systems, and physical quality of environment. The severity of impact of airborne suspended particulate matter may depends upon its physico-chemical properties. Opencast mining operation of ten generates high percentage of airborne Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) which gets dissipated into the atmosphere around the mine and leads to serious disruption to the quality of the life. In this paper, a study of air quality monitoring in terms of SPM in an opencast coal mine has been presented. Among the various mining activities drilling, coal crushing and handling operations and movement of dumpers on the haul roads are the main sources of dust generation in an opencast coalmine. The concentration of SPM is variable throughout the year. It shows wide variation in summer and winter seasons in mining areas. The mineral constituents present in the SPM also vary considerably. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Corrosion of rock anchors in US coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylapudi, Gopi

    The mining industry is a major consumer of rock bolts in the United States. Due to the high humidity in the underground mining environment, the rock bolts corrode and loose their load bearing capacity which in turn reduces the life expectancy of the ground support and, thus, creates operational difficulties and number of safety concerns[1]. Research on rock anchor corrosion has not been adequately extensive in the past and the effects of several factors in the mine atmosphere and waters are not clearly understood. One of the probable reasons for this lack of research may be attributed to the time required for gathering meaningful data that makes the study of corrosion quite challenging. In this particular work underground water samples from different mines in the Illinois coal basin were collected and the major chemical content was analyzed and used for the laboratory testing. The corrosion performance of the different commercial rock anchors was investigated by techniques such as laboratory immersion tests in five different corrosion chambers, and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated ground waters based on the Illinois coal basin. The experiments were conducted with simulate underground mining conditions (corrosive). The tensile strengths were measured for the selected rock anchors taken every 3 months from the salt spray corrosion chambers maintained at different pH values and temperatures. The corrosion potential (Ecorr ), corrosion current (Icorr) and the corresponding corrosion rates (CR) of the selected commercial rock bolts: #5, #6, #6 epoxy coated and #7 forged head rebar steels, #6 and #7 threaded head rebar steels were measured at the solution pH values of 5 and 8 at room temperature. The open circuit potential (OCP) values of the different rock anchors were recorded in 3 selected underground coal mines (A, B & C) in the Illinois coal basin and the data compared with the laboratory electrochemical tests for analyzing the life of the rock anchors installed in the mines with respect to corrosion potential and corrosion current measured. The results of this research were statistically validated. This research will have direct consequence to the rock related safety. The results of this research indicate that certain corrosive conditions are commonly found in mines but uniform corrosion (around 0.01-0.03mm loss per year across the diameter) is generally not considered a serious issue. From this study, longer term research for longterm excavation support is recommended that could quantify the problem depending on the rock anchor used and specific strata conditions.

  5. Noise problems in coal mining complex- a case discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noise monitoring study was conducted at Moonidih mining complex of Jharia coal-field. The study included monitoring and analysis of ambient as well as workplace noise levels. An attempt has been made to critically analyse the noise situation through octave band analysis, thereby identifying alarming noise frequencies for each noise generating equipment having Leq level more than 90 dBA. A noise model has also been developed to draw noise contours of the entire mining complex. Based on these studies, suitable control measures have been suggested. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  6. The future of brown coal mining in Germany. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like most other sectors, the German brown coal mining industry is facing new challenges with the unification process. Major problems are also raised by the supply network, another dramatic GDR legacy - namely the need to recultivate the mining-devasted areas. Ideas to overcome such problems are shown by Dr.-Ing. Dietrich Boecker (board member of Rheinbau Ltd.) and the Leipzig government president, Mr. Walter Christian Steinbach, in the realm of an organised politics and science discussion on October 6, 1992. (HS). 6 figs

  7. Study on land use changes of the coal mining area based on TM image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wen-bo; Yao, Jing; Kang, Ting-jun [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). School of Geomatics

    2008-06-15

    Based on the two temporal TM images of 1995 and 2001 of one coal mining area, analyzed the variety information of the coal mining area. Relative registration were done with the two images firstly, then cut out the study area for experimental data, classified the coal mining area using supervised classification in ERDAS, the coal mining area will be divided into five categories as water body, agricultural land, construction land, coal mining area and other land. Make land use change matrix, the result shows that in the six years of 1995 to 2001, the change of the utilize of the land is greatly, the main represent is showed as follows: the area of water body, agricultural land and coal mining land had continually increased, on the contrary, construction area and other decreased. The percentage speed of the construction land is the biggest, the value reach -1.08%. The main reasons is that with the exploitation of the coal mine and the reclaim of the land, the exploitation of the coal mining land make the agricultural land and construction area convert into coal mining land, on the other hand with the backfill of the subsided waterlogged land and the reclaim of the subsided land make the coal mining land convert into agricultural land. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. 20 CFR 718.203 - Establishing relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishing relationship of pneumoconiosis to coal mine employment. 718.203 Section 718.203 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COAL MINERS' TOTAL DISABILITY OR...

  9. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st half of 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report on coal mining in Germany contains statistical data on the following issues: (a) Hard coal mining: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part 2: marketing and foreign commerce. (b) brown coal: part 1: production, resources, performance, employees; part II: marketing in domestic and foreign commerce.

  10. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  11. 30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SPECIAL BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING ...

  12. Long-hole destress blasting for rockburst control during deep underground coal mining.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kon?ek, Petr; Sou?ek, Kamil; Sta, Lubomr; Singh, R.

    -, ?. 61 (2013), s. 141-153. ISSN 1365-1609 R&D Projects: GA Mk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Ostrava - Karvina Coal basin * longwall mining * rockbursts * destress blasting Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 1.424, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1365160913000348

  13. Economic aspect of underground coal mines damping in Ostrava-Karvina basin

    OpenAIRE

    Dvo??ek Jaroslav

    1999-01-01

    The contribution deals with the underground coal mines damping from the economic point of view. It mentions the basic groups of cost items connected with the mine damping process and their sources. The most important is the subsidy from the state budget. The autor presents his opinion concerning the decreasing economic requirements in the underground coal mines damping process.

  14. Underwater coal mining and environmental protection; Podvodna eksploatacija uglja i zastita zivotne sredine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanovic, V.; Elezoc, V.; Koprivica, O. [Rudarski Institute, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1999-07-01

    This paper analyzes the environmental impacts of underwater coal mining, which represents an innovation in the technology of lignite mining in Yugoslavia. The experimental coal mine Kovin was used as an example to demonstrate the assessment method of such impacts. Finally, some conceptual solutions for environmental protection were suggested. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  15. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ...-693-9441 (facsimile). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Public Hearings On October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64412...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and... Register on October 19, 2010, addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust,...

  16. 76 FR 25277 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... FR 64412), MSHA published a proposed rule, Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust... the proposed rule. The proposal was published on October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64412). DATES: All comments...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety...

  17. 75 FR 69617 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors. The proposed rule was published on October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64412) and is available on MSHA's Web...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety...

  18. Raptor use of revegetated coal strip mine spoils in interior Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raptors associated with reclaimed coal strip mine spoils on the Usibelli Coal Mine in southcentral Alaska were observed in 1981 and 1982. Of the 10 raptor species identified on the mine, 6 (red-tailed hawk, golden eagle, Northern harrier, American kestrel, hawk owl, and short-eared owl) were observed hunting on the reclaimed areas

  19. Mechanism of Electronic Charging of Coal Mine Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xue-Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The electronic charging of mine dust can cause coal-dust explosion and increase the risk of pneumoconiosis, so it is necessary to take more attention to the study of its electronic charging properties. The mechanism of electronic charging of coal mine dust was investigated in this paper. It was found that the formation and polarity of dust are determined by the energy band structure and of the two contacting sides; then a mathematical model of work function is established in mesoscopic level. The experiments conclude that the work function decreases with the particle size for the dust with same properties, moreover large particles are positively charged and small particles are negatively charged. Finally, the experimental verification of the main particles charged model drive unipolar and bipolar charged modes and confirm the correctness of microstructure and mesoscopic analyses, which furthermore lay the foundation for further research.

  20. Coal mine subsidence: effects of mitigation on crop yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsidence from longwall underground coal mining adversely impacts agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas. While most subsided areas show little impact, some localized places, usually less than 1.5 ha in size, may experience total crop failure. Coal companies mitigate subsidence damaged cropland by installing drainage waterways or by adding fill material to raise the grade. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring corn and soybean yields to pre-mined levels. Fourteen sites in southern Illinois were selected for study. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields from mitigated and nearby undisturbed areas were compared for four years. Results varied due to differing weather and site conditions. Mean corn yields overall, however were significantly (?0.05) lower on mitigated areas. There was no significant difference in overall mean soybean yields. Soil fertility levels were similar and did not account for yield differences. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs