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1

Utilization of residual reserves of coal strata outcrops by open-pit mining with a subsequent disposal of industrial waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the paper the author deals with the possibilities of open-pit mining of residual reserves of coal seam outcrops. Following the coal extraction, certified regional industrial waste can be disposed in the mined-out area, thus reducing the environmental burden of the region.

Kryl Václav

1998-06-01

2

Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

NONE

1995-12-31

3

Development of an on-line coal quality management system in a lignite open pit mine in Serbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presented a study regarding the development of a coal quality management system (CQMS) for two open pit mines located in Serbia called Tamnava West and Veliki Crljeni. The study was based on on-line measurements, and was commissioned by the public energy corporation Elektroprivreda Srbjie. The purpose of the study was to develop a CQMS that met the quality requirements of the power plants by implementing a rigorous exploration, production planning, and production monitoring system in order to control the production according to certain quality parameters. The paper provided general information and described the initial situation. It also presented an analysis of the necessity to introduce a production monitoring and control system. The setup and layout of a production monitoring and control system based on on-line measurements were outlined, with particular reference to the determination of input parameters for every excavator for the tracking of masses; the simulation of mass tracking and summation of the masses at the transfer points towards the major conveyor; and the monitoring of the output and control of the mass flow according to determined limit values. Recommendations for implementation were also discussed. It was concluded that the newly developed CQMS at Tamnava West open pit mine could be classified as uncomplicated with regard to the quality parameters to be controlled, since currently only calorific value was being controlled. 5 refs., 8 figs.

Zimmer, B. [Montan Bildungs-und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Theiben, (Germany)

2010-07-01

4

Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

5

Dynamics of the ecological-functional parameters of replantozems on dumps of open-pit coal mines in Central Siberia  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics have been studied of the ecological-functional parameters (EFP) of replantozems formed on the dumps of the Borodinskiy open-pit coal mine in the Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin (55°52' N, 94°54' E) that were not involved into agricultural use during the first 30 years. The work was based on the integrated analysis of the agrochemical properties and the EFP, which characterized the state of the plant cover, the microbial cenoses, and the biochemical activity of the replantozems representing a chronological series (5, 20, and 30 years). Multicomponent plant communities were formed on the surface of the replantozems over the 30-year period. The filled horizon of the replantozems was slowly involved into the metabolic processes. The thickness of the biologically active layer did not exceed 10 cm. The microbial cenosis's functional activity was relatively stabilized, and the values of the microbial biomass and basal respiration approached the background ones only in the upper (0-5 cm) layer. The biochemical activity of the microorganisms agreed with the changes in the properties of the upper (0-10 cm) layer of the replantozems: the contents of the total nitrogen and humus increased, as well as the degree of the humic acids "maturity" and the concentration of the mobile phosphorus, while the alkalinity decreased.

Trefilova, O. V.; Grodnitskaya, I. D.; Efimov, D. Yu.

2013-12-01

6

Influence of cultivation measures on the development of vegetation and nutrient ratios in spoil banks from brown-coal open-pit mining at Borken/northern Hessen  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spoil banks from open-pit brown-coal mining at Borken in northern Hessen are extremely acidic and depleted in nutrients. This material was mixed with neutralizing cellulose ash. For initial fertilization, N, P2O5 and K2O were applied at the same time as the seeding mixture. Seeding mixtures used were ''Dauerweide'', containing fast-growing species, and ''Boeschungssaat'', containing undermanding species. The fact that no top soil was applied resulted in increasing gaps and decreasing production rates in the plant stands. This work aimed to investigate how plant stands and the soil material develop after revegetation measures without application of topsoil. (orig.)

7

Millennium Open Pit Mine, Alberta, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Near Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, on the east bank of the Athabasca River, are found the Steepbank and Millennium mines. These open pit mines produce oil sands that are processed to recover bitumen, and then upgrade it to refinery-ready raw crude oil, and diesel fuel. The ASTER images were acquired September 22, 2000 and July 31, 2007, cover an area of 22.5 x 25.5 km, and are located near 57 degrees north latitude, 111.5 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2007-01-01

8

Effect of mining landscape history on local species diversity: a case study of the Yimin open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The exploration and utilization of mineral resources accelerates local economic and social development and simultaneously exacerbates the effects of climate and landscape changes, resulting in landscape fragmentation. Landscape change is widely considered as a major threat to species loss at a regional and global scale. However, how species diversity responds to landscape changes on a temporal scale has usually been ignored. In this study, we explored relationships between landscape and biodiversity (species level and functional group level during different years (1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010 at the Yimin open-pit coal mine, a mine that has been exploited for more than 30 years and that has produced obvious fragmentation effects on the landscape in Hulunbuir City. The ongoing patterns of transformation of the landscape were measured using the landscape dominance index, the habitat integral index of connectivity (IIC, and the habitat probability of connectivity (PC at seven different spatial scales. The main results were as follows: The present species diversity is significantly correlated with the landscape pattern indices of previous and earlier mining at a medium-sized spatial scale (4–8 km buffers. Different plant functional groups responded in various ways to changing landscape patterns. The species richness of perennial rhizome grasses was significantly correlated with the present small-scale landscape pattern (1–3 km, and the species richness of perennial forbs was significantly correlated with the previous and earlier mining large-scale landscape patterns (4–10 km. Perennial bunchgrasses were not significantly correlated with landscape patterns. We concluded that the time lag expressed by changes in plant species diversity occurred in response to changing patterns of construction and configurations of habitats in the landscape. The regional species pool determined the local species diversity. The connected habitat patches within a 4–8 km buffer region represented the principal species pool. The propagation strategies and dispersal traits of various functional groups were important mechanisms maintaining species diversity in a fragmented area.

Sarula Kang

2014-03-01

9

VIABILIDAD DE LA EXTRACCIÓN DE CARBONES A CIELO ABIERTO. CASO MINA LA MARGARITA / OPEN PIT COAL EXPLOTATION VIABILITY. MARGARITA MINE CASE OF STUDY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo analiza la viabilidad, planeamiento y diseño de una nueva explotación a cielo abierto de carbón en la mina La Margarita S.A., con recursos carboníferos superficiales calculados en 440.139,7 ton. Se logró dimensionar, diseñar y evaluar económicamente con tres diferentes métodos de explo [...] tación: Cortas, Contorno y Terrazas. Para el método de Cortas el Valor Presente Neto (VPN) fue de 817,5 de Contorno 518,5 y Terrazas 645,2 dado en millones de pesos ($) colombianos corrientes del 2004 y la Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR) para Cortas: 78,33%, Contorno 34,0% y Terrazas 38,62. Estos indicadores sirvieron para seleccionar el método de Cortas, el cual fue ajustado con cierto detalle, ya que fue necesario trabajar conjuntamente dos frentes para hacerlo viable. Como valor agregado para el proyecto se hizo una evaluación general ambiental, que es de vital importancia para la explotación. Se dan recomendaciones para minimizar los impactos más importantes tales como la flora, fauna, aire, suelo, aguas. De cada una de ellas se plantean medidas ya sean de mitigación, control o prevención. Se espera que este trabajo sirva como soporte técnico - económico para el desarrollo de una nueva extracción de carbón a cielo abierto dentro de la mina La Margarita. Abstract in english This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for “La Margarita” mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation was possible by three exploitation methods: (Multiple bench, Open Cast [...] contour, and Terraces). Net Present Values (NVP) were calculated: $C 817,5; $C 518,5 and $C 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $C 2380 are equivalent to $US 1) and Rate of Return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. In addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. It is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the Margarita Mine

JULIA, VELOZA; JORGE, MOLINA; HUMBERTO, MEJIA.

2006-11-01

10

Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia  

Science.gov (United States)

Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 ?m - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle concentrations are the highest in January and February, being the correlation between the TSP and PM10 measurements not as strong during this time period. This could be associated with the spatial and temporal variability of wet deposition as well as a larger mechanical and eolic resuspension of particles. We found that precipitation drastically reduces the levels of particulate matter. In order to describe the effect of wet deposition, a mathematical model was developed based on a first order relaxation proportional to the precipitation rate. Daily average concentrations and daily accumulated precipitation were used in this model, which showed high concentration reductions even for low precipitation levels essentially for all stations. Monthly precipitation values showed a better correlation with TSP concentrations. Finally, we found evidence of a significant decrease in global radiation due to particulate matter, particularly during the dry season, which could potentially affect farming and agricultural activities in the region.

Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

2012-12-01

11

A new look at Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata of the East Midlands, UK: initial data from the Smalley open pit mine  

Science.gov (United States)

Outcrops of Pennsylvanian (Duckmantian) age coal-bearing strata in the East Midlands of England are rare and have become rarer as more of the surface environment has been developed. Much of the stratigraphic correlation and paleoenvironmental interpretation of these strata have thus been based on subsurface data from deep mine workings and coal exploration boreholes. However, in 2009, coal mining commenced at an open pit mine near Smalley, east Derbyshire in the UK East Midlands. The mine provides a unique opportunity to carry out examination of a large-scale outcrop of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata in order to undertake detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. The coals that will be exposed during working belong to the Waterloo group of seams of Duckmantian age. Initial examination of the workings has been concentrated on two successive intervals: from the basal Third Waterloo Seam to the Bottom Second Waterloo seam, and the from above the Bottom Second Waterloo seam to the Top Second Waterloo seam. The two inter-seam intervals are approximately 10-12 meters thick. Examination of the coal seams and inter-seam intervals will continue as new faces are exposed, supplemented by exploration drilling data. Initial field observations on the first sections exposed suggest that the two inter-seam intervals represent the infill of lakes formed on a fluvio-lacustrine plain, with negligible marine influence. The strata immediately above the Third Waterloo Seam consist of dark grey fissile shaly mudrocks overlain by an upward coarsening sequence of pale grey siltstones with sandy laminae and current ripples indicating unidirectional tractional flows. These pass upwards into rippled fine sandstones, cut by shallow channels towards the top. The overall inter-seam sequence is interpreted as the deposits of a lacustrine delta system that infilled a shallow lake that was initially anoxic. Once the lake had been infilled, a peat mire was able to form, now represented by the Bottom Second Waterloo Seam. The interval between the Bottom and Top Waterloo Seams contains an upward-coarsening sequence of laminated siltstones, overlain by a series of sharp-based rippled sandstones, each up to about 60 cm thick. The sharp based sandstones are interpreted as being crevasse splay deposits, which would have been fed by a nearby fluvial channel, which has not yet been located. As additional exposures are created during the lifetime of the mine, the temporal, spatial and environmental relationships of the coals and inter-seam strata will be investigated further by recording stratigraphic sections and directional data and producing photo panels. This should enable detailed paleoenvironmental reconstructions for each of the intervals investigated, which will be considered in the light of recent research on analogous ancient and recent environments. Data from adjacent former mines and coal exploration boreholes containing lateral continuations of the intervals examined will then allow the Smalley mine geology to be placed within the regional context of the East Midlands Coalfield, and enable us to consider broad scale paleoenvironmental variation across the area. It is anticipated that by enhancing our understanding of inter-seam deposits, prediction of geological conditions ahead of mining will be improved.

Sian Davies-Vollum, K.; Guion, Paul; Satterfield, Dorothy; Suthren, Roger

2010-05-01

12

Situation and development of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation of uranium open-pit mining techniques in China is described. The main experiences in production and management are introduced. Meanwhile the suggestions about the further development of uranium open-pit mining techniques are also proposed

13

Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

14

Open-pit coal-mining effects on rice paddy soil composition and metal bioavailability to Oryza sativa L. plants in Cam Pha, northeastern Vietnam.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study quantified Cd, Pb, and Cu content, and the soil-plant transfer factors of these elements in rice paddies within Cam Pha, Quang Ninh province, northeastern Vietnam. The rice paddies are located at a distance of 2 km from the large Coc Sau open-pit coal mine. Electron microprobe analysis combined with backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive spectroscopy revealed a relatively high proportion of carbon particles rimmed by an iron sulfide mineral (probably pyrite) in the quartz-clay matrix of rice paddy soils at 20-30 cm depth. Bulk chemical analysis of these soils revealed the presence of Cd, Cu, and Pb at concentrations of 0.146±0.004, 23.3±0.1, and 23.5±0.1 mg/kg which exceeded calculated background concentrations of 0.006±0.004, 1.9±0.5, and 2.4±1.5 mg/kg respectively at one of the sites. Metals and metalloids in Cam Pha rice paddy soils, including As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.2±0.1 to 140±3 mg/kg, which were in close agreement with toxic metal contents in mine tailings and Coc Sau coal samples, suggesting mining operations as a major cause of paddy soil contamination. Native and model Oryza sativa L. rice plants were grown in the laboratory in a growth medium to which up to 1.5 mg/kg of paddy soil from Cam Pha was added to investigate the effects on plant growth. A decrease in growth by up to 60% with respect to a control sample was found for model plants, whereas a decrease of only 10% was observed for native (Nep cai hoa vang variety) rice plants. This result suggests an adaptation of native Cam Pha rice plants to toxic metals in the agricultural lands. The Cd, Cu, and Pb contents of the native rice plants from Cam Pha paddies exceeded permitted levels in foods. Cadmium and Pb were highest in the rice plant roots with concentrations of 0.84±0.02 and 7.7±0.3 mg/kg, suggesting an intake of these metals into the rice plant as shown, for example, by Cd and Pb concentrations of 0.09±0.01 and 0.10±0.04 mg/kg respectively in the rice grain endosperm. The adaptation of native rice plants, combined with bioaccumulation ratios of 1±0.6 to 1.4±0.7 calculated for Cd transfer to the rice grain endosperm, and maximum Cd transfer factors of 4.3±2.1 to the plant roots, strongly suggest a continuous input of some toxic metals from coal-mining operations to agricultural lands in the region of Cam Pha. In addition, our results imply a sustained absorption of metals by native rice plant varieties, which may lead to metal accumulation (e.g., Cd) in human organs and in turn to severe disease. PMID:23990254

Martinez, Raul E; Marquez, J Eduardo; Hòa, Hoàng Th? Bích; Gieré, Reto

2013-11-01

15

Equipment size effects on open pit mining performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the exploitation of economies of scale in open pit mining through the use of increasingly larger equipment. It presents a method adopted to evaluate the impact of increased scale on operational performance factors. The work identifies equipment size sensitive variables (ESSVs) in the mine design process that affect the performance of the production process. Data from a set of case studies show that the ESSV influence extends beyond mine production to encompass milling performance, environmental footprint and community impacts. Some ESSVs (such as reliability, tyre costs and productivity) are shown to be related to the current state of equipment technology and their effects are therefore comparable for different mines. Other ESSVs relate to the mine and deposit characteristics; their effects therefore vary from mine to mine. A detailed analytical approach, developed to model the impact of ESSVs, suggests that for truck/shovel operations, the industry may be approaching a situation of diseconomies of scale.

A. Bozorgebrahimi; R.A. Hall; M.A. Morin [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Mining Engineering Department

2005-03-01

16

Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is “deepened” in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level.

Ivana Cehlárová

2007-10-01

17

Dewatering of the Jenkins open pit uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining of low grade uranium sandstones in the Jenkins open pit mine in the Shirley Basin, Wyoming was troubled by slope failures and wet conditions in the pit. Since the mine was expanding toward a river, the possibility of drainage from this river into the mine raised serious concern during the mine planning. A baseline hydrogeologic study was performed and dewatering measures were designed with the help of a numerical mathematical model. A combination of dewatering wells installed from the surface around the perimeter of the pit and horizontal drains in areas of high slope failure potential substantially improved the mining conditions and slope stability. This procedure consequently led to the successful ore recovery from the highly saturated sandstone strata. The development of drawdown during the dewatering of two separated aquifers in the overburden was close to that predicted by the model

18

Post mining land reclamation using ashes from lignite combustion stored in open pit excavations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The power industry in Poland is based on brown and hard coal combustion and transferring the heat into electric power. About 99% of lignite, mined in open pits, is used as a fuel in power plants. Therefore very deep excavations having great volume are formed. Thus such type of mining has the impact on land degradation. In order to reduce this effect, at the earliest possible moment the cap rocks are dumped in the pit but at the safe distance from the mining face. Due to the big amounts of lignite delivered to the power plant, there are shortages of solids for filling the pit after completing the mining operations. Geotechnical properties of dumped combustion by-products depend on the lignite type, combustion technology and ashes haulage methods. The paper describes using waste from power industry for filling the open pits. It presents the types of post-mining open pits which require filling and reclamation. The methods of using combustion by-products which come from commercial power stations and thermal-electric power stations are presented in the paper too. (orig.)

Kudelko, Jan; Nowak, Janusz [KGHM CUPRUM Research and Development Centre, Wroclaw (Poland). Energy Resources Dept.

2010-10-15

19

Assessing the impact on the animal population of the lowering of the ground water level due to brown coal open-pit mining. Tieroekologische Bewertung von Grundwasserabsenkungen durch Braunkohlentagebau  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lowering of the groundwater table due to open-pit brown coal mining will adversely effect the dynamics of rivers and lakes, soilbiological processes and the plant and animal communities. Birds, amphibians, carabid beetles and snails were studied in a 520 km{sup 2} area to predict possible effects of a proposed mining project and to assess the impact from a nature conservation as well as from a synecological point of view. Selected species were used as bioindicators, habitat preference of most species was determined and sensitive areas for nature conservation were depicted on a map (scale 1:50,000) using criteria such as rarity of species, local abundance, and results from cluster analysis. (orig.).

Mader, H.J.

1989-01-01

20

Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantity of 222Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and 226Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall

 
 
 
 
21

Preliminary study of realizability of Karazhyra open pit coal fines briquetting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Main properties of brown coals in Karazhyra open pit upper and lower packs are determined. Characteristics of these coals briquette-ability are evaluated. A conceptual possibility to obtain high-quality briquettes from open pit coal fines is shown. (author)

22

Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

Kisieleski, W.E.

1980-06-01

23

Management of open pit mining operations with ore stockpiles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An open pit mining operation consists of mining processing and refining stages. The mining stage is responsible for provision of required amount of ore of pre-defined grade to the processing plant. The heterogeneity in the ore grade in various parts of the deposit leads to the definition of cutoff grade. The material below cutoff grade is sent to the stockpiles for utilization in later years when it becomes economical. The cutoff grade optimization theory maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of a mixing operation with a declining effect as the deposit leads toward exhaustion. This declining effect of NPV defines dynamic cutoff grades i.e. higher cutoff grades in the early years of mine life and lower cutoff grades in the later years. However, this precisely defines the amount and grade of material sent to the stockpile for processing in the later years. The management i.e. supply of material from the mine to stockpile and from the stockpile to the processing plant is an issue that is addressed in this paper by developing a cutoff grade optimization algorithm with option to stockpile. The benefits of methodology are elaborated in a case study. (author)

24

Environmental management of large scale open pit mining operations with special reference to Northern Coalfields Limited  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

India`s coal production from open pit mines rose to 202.2 mt in 1995-96 and is forecast to rise further. Northern Coalfields Ltd., has developed the production of coal from the Singrauli coalfield but had to implement strict environmental control to minimise damage to an area where the population is largely tribal and economically and socially weak. The paper describes the successful environmental and social mitigation measures implemented in and around the area. Those include reclamation of spoil dumps for afforestation, measures to minimise emissions and noise emitted from heavy vehicles and to control coal dusts, treatment of water pollution, and rehabilitation of families within core activity areas. 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs., 9 photos.

Sen, S.K. [Northern Coalfields Limited (India)

1997-12-31

25

Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST) y Partículas Respirables (PM 10) producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto / Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10) generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST) y partículas respirables (PM10) producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (dis [...] tribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad) y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios). Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación. Abstract in english This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP) and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10) generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distr [...] ibution, morphology and density) and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants). These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

Luis C, Angulo; José I, Huertas; Gloria M, Restrepo.

26

A decision support system using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for the optimal environmental reclamation of an open-pit mine  

Science.gov (United States)

The selection of an optimal reclamation method is one of the most important factors in open-pit design and production planning. It also affects economic considerations in open-pit design as a function of plan location and depth. Furthermore, the selection is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem. The group decision-making process can be improved by applying a systematic and logical approach to assess the priorities based on the inputs of several specialists from different functional areas within the mine company. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) can be very useful in involving several decision makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of an optimal reclamation method using an AHP-based model was evaluated for coal production in an open-pit coal mine located at Seyitomer region in Turkey. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve the group decision making in selecting a reclamation method that satisfies optimal specifications. Also, it is found that the decision process is systematic and using the proposed model can reduce the time taken to select a optimal method.

Bascetin, A.

2007-04-01

27

Hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buva?” (Republic of Srpska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Projecting of the dewatering system of the open-pit mine “Buva?” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina is based on the use of hydrodynamic model of groundwater regime. Creating the hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buva?“ was made in phases, which began by basic interpretation of collected data, along with schematization of the groundwater flow and flow conditions, and finally, forming and calibration of model. Hydrodynamic model was created as multilayer model with eight layers. Calibration of the hydrodynamic model is the starting point for making prognosis calculation in order to create the most optimal system of open-pit mine protection from groundwater. The results of model calibration indicated that the rivers Gomjenica and Bistrica, precipitation and inflow from karstified rocks are the primary sources of recharge of the limonite ore body “Buva?”.

Papi? Petar

2013-09-01

28

The using of GPS – RTK technology for creation of the OpenPit mine basic map  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The comparison of accuracy of results of methods used for measuring of detailed points of drawing of the openpit mine map with results of the method GPS – RTK is realized in the paper. The first part of the article deals with classical methods of tacheometry as wire tacheometry, reducing tacheometry or tacheometry with electronic tacheometer. In the second part of the article the selective set of coordinates of detailed points measured in the openpit mine in Jakub?ovice nad Odrou is evaluated. The results of comparison written are estimated in the end of the paper as well as some tasks at surveying by means of using GPS –RTK technology in the open pit mine.

Jitka Mu?ková

2007-06-01

29

The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

30

A Heuristic Traditional MIP Solving Approach for Long Term Production Scheduling in Open Pit Mine  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is optimization of long term production scheduling by solving the traditional MIP formulation that the objective function and all of constrains are satisfied. The economic viability of the modern day mine is highly dependent upon careful planning and design. Appropriate planning and operation of large open pit mines are enormous and complex task. Optimization techniques can be successfully applied to resolve a number of important problems that arise in the planning and management of a mine. Optimization of long-term production planning needs correct selection of equipments and labor forces and reducing capital and operation costs. Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP methods are used for optimizing production planning in open pit mines with objective of maximizing the total discounted net present value. But MIP formulation of the production scheduling in open pit mines, particularly in large open pit with many numbers of blocks needs too many variables causing it very difficult or impossible to solve. To over come this problem a new heuristic approach by reducing schedule period and applying primary guess is developed based on mixed integer linear programming to reduce the periods of planning and decrease the number of variable and the number of constraint needed in the formulation. The results of this method compared to existing methods shows the significant reduction of binary variable in MIP formulation and higher chance to obtain the optimal Net Present Value (NPV.

Vahid Rafiee

2008-01-01

31

GPSS system applied to optimization of technological process of open-pit mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The queuing sub-system and the stored sub-system are abstracted as a composed dynamic system from the technological process of open-pit mining. Using the GPSS system the simulation models were established, and by changing the parameters of the models the optimization of the technological process was carried out

32

Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d = 5.46 {+-} 0.32 {mu}m and {sigma}(ln d) = 0.61 {+-} 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d = 3.6 {+-} 0.38 {mu}m and {sigma}(ln d) = 0.55 {+-} 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Airborne particles from an opencast mining region were fully characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM-EDS and XPS techniques were applied to characterize airborne particles Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particle size distributions of TSP and PM{sub 10} are lognormal Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particles are composed of limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metals content in the particles does not represent any risk to human health.

Huertas, Jose I., E-mail: jhuertas@itesm.mx [Tecnologico de Monterrey, Eduardo Monroy Cardenas No 2000, Toluca, Mexico (Mexico); Huertas, Maria E. [Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Solis, Dora A. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Carrera Toluca - Atlacomulco km 14.5. Tlachaloya, Toluca, Mexico (Mexico)

2012-04-15

33

Technical parametrization of uranium reserves to be mined by open-pit method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Numerous technical parameters must be dealt with in calculating grade-tonnage relationships: some refer to ore selection criteria in the ore zone (for example the cut-off grade, the size of the standard mining unit, the blast-holes grid available when mining), others relate to geometrical constraints depending upon the mining method (for example the stripping ratio). Achieving the technical parametrization of the recoverable reserves is somewhat challenging when there is an excessive number of parameters: the example of an uranium deposit to be mined by open-pit method shows that the solution can be reached by a sequence of adequately interrelated studies

34

Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

35

AN ANOTHER WAY FOR OPEN PIT MINE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION – FLOATING SLOPES METHOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Authors of the work presents main principles of a new method of design the ultimate pit which is primarily applicable for bedded formations, but also can be acceptable for other types of deposits. On the basis of main criteria of optimum design (profitability and slope stability, the authors have tested theirs procedure and proposed a new method for optimum design of open pit mines, for which the most suitable name would be the Floating Slopes Method.

Branimir Jankovi?

2009-12-01

36

Optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation in combined mining using (0-1) integer programming  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english There are many near-surface deposits with considerable vertical extent that have the potential to be mined by a combined method of open-pit and underground methods. In this regard, there is often a point called 'transition depth' where a decision has to be made whether to continue deepening the pit [...] or change to underground methods. Recently, optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation has become an important challenge in mining engineering. Optimally, to model the transition problem on the basis of maximization of the profit from open-pit and underground mining, (0-1) integer programming has been used. In this method, block economic values of open-pit and underground methods should be imported to the transition model. A hypothetical example is presented in order to assess the model in detail.

E., Bakhtavar; K., Shahriar; A., Mirhassani.

37

Optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation in combined mining using (0-1) integer programming  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english There are many near-surface deposits with considerable vertical extent that have the potential to be mined by a combined method of open-pit and underground methods. In this regard, there is often a point called 'transition depth' where a decision has to be made whether to continue deepening the pit [...] or change to underground methods. Recently, optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation has become an important challenge in mining engineering. Optimally, to model the transition problem on the basis of maximization of the profit from open-pit and underground mining, (0-1) integer programming has been used. In this method, block economic values of open-pit and underground methods should be imported to the transition model. A hypothetical example is presented in order to assess the model in detail.

E., Bakhtavar; K., Shahriar; A., Mirhassani.

1059-10-01

38

igm Robots with laser measurement for an economic repair welding of equipment components of open-pit minings; igm-Roboter mit Laservermessung zum wirtschaftlichen Reparaturschweissen von Tagebauausruestungsteilen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Lusatian area,Vattenfall Europe AG prosecutes four open-pit minings whose lignite directly is supplied to power stations. A quarter of Germany's total electricity supply is based on lignite. The lignite mining in the area of the Lusatian open-pit minings is particularly efficient due to the horizontal orientation of the Lusatian coal seams. The movable components of the overburden conveyor bridges as well as the bucket wheel excavators and bucket ladder dredgers are subject to a tremendous wear. It is not economically feasible to refurbish certain wear parts. Such parts include Turas corners. In order to refurbish such Turas corners nevertheless, the Austrian company igm robot system AG (Wiener Neudorf, Austria) offers a welding robot.

Wihsbeck, Martin [igm Robotersysteme AG, Wiener Neudorf (Austria); Wache, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Spremberg (Germany). Schwarze Pumpe; Springfeld, Peter

2012-08-15

39

Pb-210 growth in water in an open pit uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In an open pit uranium mine, pluviometric precipitation may fill the pit with water. Pb-210 concentration grows in this water due to Rn-222 emanation from the submerse ore. The results of this model are compared with the numerical calculation of Pb-210 growth, from a constant value of 1 Bq of Rn-222. An independent determination of Rn-222 concentration equilibrium value, that is the value of Rn-222 concentration dissolved in water, is also necessary, in order to confirm the results of the model. Results of experiments made in the uranium mine at 'Caetite', BA, Brazil, have confirmed this model predictions, with good accuracy

40

Optimal cut-off grade determination based on variable capacities in open-pit mining  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SYNOPSIS Optimal cut-off grade is one of the most critical parameters in open-pit mine design because it defines the ore and waste and thus determines the maximum net present value possible from the mining operation. Although the algorithm presented by Lane (Choosing the optimum cut-off grade. Color [...] ado School of Mines Quarterly, vol. 59, no. 4, 1964. pp. 811-829) is the most common one in the literature, it does assume constant capacities of the mine, processing, and refinery. In this paper, Lane's original algorithm has been modified to consider variable processing capacities in order to determine the optimal cut-off grade in open-pit mines. The new algorithm proposed here is compared to both Lane's original algorithm and to a previous modification that incorporated rehabilitation costs into the cut-off grade estimation. The algorithm proposed here that permits variable processing capacities is shown to be superior for the determination of optimal cut-off grade to both these previous versions. In addition, a computer-based program was developed in Microsoft Office Excel© to calculate the optimal cut-off grade as proposed here.

J., Abdollahisharif; E., Bakhtavar; M., Anemangely.

1065-10-01

 
 
 
 
41

Combining Multiple Surveying Techniques to Accelerate Surveys of Open Pit Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrestrial Lidar Scanning (TLS) is well-accepted as the most precise tool for surveying open pit mines, collecting ultra-dense measurements drastically faster than traditional land surveying with a GNSS receiver. However, while a TLS can capture the most important parts of a mine in only a few surveys, the remaining occluded areas of the mine require several additional surveys, extending the survey time. To drastically reduce the time required for a TLS survey while still providing good quality data, we have adopted an approach that augments TLS data with UAV-based aerial triangulation. First, we identify a handful of positions from which the TLS can survey the vast majority of the mine, paying particular attention to the most important areas of the mine and the areas that an airborne scanner would have difficult accessing, such as the walls. We then survey the mine with a UAV-mounted camera and collect several ground control points (GCPs) in areas spread across the mine. During post-processing, we use aerial triangulation to derive a point cloud from the overlapping images captured by the UAV and matched the TLS and UAV data with the GCPs. Generally, the aerial-triangulation data is less dense and precise than the TLS data so we only used it to fill in areas we did not cover with the TLS. To minimize the impact of any loss of detail, we plan surveys so that the TLS covers the most important parts of the mine and so the UAV data is only needed for less important areas. The result is a georeferenced topographic map of the entire mine with high-quality data in the most important areas, all collected within hours rather than days. As proof of this concept, geo-konzept surveyed a mid-sized German open pit mine with a goal of spending only half a day surveying on-site. With an Optech ILRIS TLS and a geo-konzept Geo-Copter X-8000 UAS, we met this goal by surveying the entire 500-m×500-m mine in only 3 hours. Post-processing and georeferencing only required another 4 hours, meaning the entire survey could be done in a single day of work. We conclude that this multi-instrument approach greatly accelerates the rate at which surveyors can scan open-pit mines while still collecting dense and precise data.

Faust, János; Schimmer, Christoph; Herkommer, Martin; Kutschera, Johannes

2014-05-01

42

A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs

43

Mining and technological characteristics of future open-pit mine at Brod-Gneotino  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Development program of Electric Power Company of Macedonia includes opening of several coal pits with aim to prolong ate the working period of TPP Bitola, of which one is the bed Brod-Gneotino. This coal bed is characterized with some characteristic mining and technological parameters described in this paper. (Author)

44

Evaluation and monitoring an on-going landslide in volcanic sediments - a case study for an open pit mine, Turkey: Part 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TKI (Turkish Coal Enterprises) has been operating an open pit lignite mine since late 1970s in a town called Can which is situated in the north-west of Turkey. There is a ceramic factory, which is one of the biggest in Europe as far as capacity is concerned, operating very close to the lignite open pit mine. In 1999, a catastrophic earthquake demolished not only the cities and towns located on the Northern Anatolian fault zone but also triggered a landslide on the ceramic factory site benches of the Can lignite open pit. The susceptibility of artificial slopes to failure during earthquakes is a well-known event. This paper summarises geological, geomorphological and hydrological surveys of the area and the work done to define the slip surface by means of inclinometer surveys. Geotechnical parameters collected from all local geological formations were used later in the slope stability analysis. Details of the studies undertaken since the beginning of the landslide are given in this paper.

Onur, A.H.; Konak, G.; Koca, Y.; Yenice, H.; Kose, H.; Karakus, D. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mineral Engineering

2004-09-01

45

Gastropods as indicators of the ecological impact of the lowering of the ground water level due to projected open-pit brown coal mines. Gastropoden als Indikatorgruppe fuer die Bewertung von Grundwasserabsenkungen durch geplante Braunkohlentagebaue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possible effects on the biocoenosis caused by changed ground water tables due to open-cast mining were investigated during 1984/85 in the planned brown coal areas Garzweiler II and Inden II (Rheinisches Braunkohlenrevier). Among others, gastropods were recorded to point out moisture depending and endangered coenosis. According to the composition of moisture indicators and endangered species the sites were assigned to three categories of sensitivity. A cluster analysis supported these assessments. The prediction for most of the investigated sites is an irreversible damage and long-lasting threatening of the coenosis in case of a manipulated water balance. (orig.).

Willecke, S. (Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Naturschutz und Landschaftsoekologie, Bonn (Germany, F.R.))

1989-01-01

46

Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

Adel Badri

2011-09-01

47

A study of radiation parameters in an open-pit mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation parameters associated with the open pit mining of a small (10,000 tonnes) but high grade (2%) uranium deposit at Nabarlek, N.T., have been investigated in detail. External radiation levels, radon emanation rates and radon daughter levels were measured systematically during the development of the mine, and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, usually during the night and were invariably associated with thermal inversions. The mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated from the measured levels to be 0.065 Working Level Months for employees working in the pit for the entire four and a half months of mining. The mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure for the same employee group was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters to be 2.3 mSv (230 mrem). For most other employees, however, exposures were much lower. Data on long lived radionuclides in dust and on particle size distribution are also presented. (author)

48

Automatic monitoring system for high-steep slope in open-pit mine based on GPS and data analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, GPS has been more and more applicative in open pit mine slope safety monitoring. Daye Iron Mine open pit high-steep slope automatic monitoring system mainly consists of three modules, namely, GPS data processing module, monitoring and warning module, emergency plans module. According to the rock mass structural feature and the side slope stability evaluation, it is arranged altogether to seven GPS distortion monitoring points on the sharp of Fault F9 at Daye iron Mine, adopted the combination of monofrequent static GPS receiver and data-transmission radio to carry on the observation, the data processing mainly uses three transect interpolation method to solve the questions of discontinuity and Effectiveness in the data succession. According to the displacement monitoring data from 1990 to 1996 of Daye Iron Mine East Open Pit Shizi mountain Landslide A2, researching the displacement criterion, rate criterion, acceleration criterion, creep curve tangent angle criterion etc of landslide failure, the result shows that the landslide A2 is the lapse type crag nature landslide whose movement in three phases, namely creep stage, accelerated phase, destruction stage. It is different of the failure criterion in different stages and different position that is at the rear, central, front margin of the landslide. It has important guiding significance to put forward the comprehensive failure criterion of seven new-settled monitoring points combining the slope deformation destruction and macroscopic evidence.

Zhou, Chunmei; Li, Xianfu; Qin, Sunwei; Qiu, Dandan; Wu, Yanlin; Xiao, Yun; Zhou, Jian

2008-12-01

49

On the atmospheric response to urbanization and open-pit mining under various geostrophic wind conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simulations alternatively assuming a real landscape with and without open-pit mines and grown settlements were performed with a non-hydrostatic meteorological model of the meso-{beta}-scale to elucidate whether the atmospheric response to such land-use changes is sensitive to the direction and magnitude of geostrophic wind. The results of simulations with the same geostrophic wind conditions substantiate that the daily domain-averages of the variables of state hardly differ for the different landscape realizations, except for cloud- and precipitating particles. However, land-use changes may significantly affect the local conditions over and downwind of the altered surfaces. The significant differences in the cloud- and precipitating particles, however, are not bound to the surroundings of land-use changes. The vertical component of wind vector, which is modified by the different heating of converted land-use, strongly affects cloud- and precipitation formation by the interaction cloud microphysics-dynamics. The magnitude of atmospheric response changes under the various directions and speeds of geostrophic wind for most of the field quantities and fluxes. 46 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Moelders, N. [Universitaet Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany). LIM - Institut fuer Meteorologie

1999-07-01

50

Study on the Law of the Movement and Damage to Slope with the Combination of Underground Mining and Open-Pit Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under circumstances in which both underground mining and open-pit mining are employed, the mining effects of two approaches will be superposed and the mining slope will receive several induced stress fields, which makes the sliding mechanism and deformation law of slope rock mass more complicated. This paper, targeting at the east slope of Antaibao Mine with the joint employment of underground mining and open-pit mining, aims to study the moving law of the slope rock mass and the damage mechanism to the overburden of the goaf by numerical simulation. It is supposed that models of possible damage to the slope could be explored for guidance to safety-production of the mine.

Xingkui Fang

2010-04-01

51

Numerical modelling of the groundwater inflow to an advancing open pit mine: Kolahdarvazeh pit, Central Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

The groundwater inflow into a mine during its life and after ceasing operations is one of the most important concerns of the mining industry. This paper presents a hydrogeological assessment of the Irankuh Zn-Pb mine at 20 km south of Esfahan and 1 km northeast of Abnil in west-Central Iran. During mine excavation, the upper impervious bed of a confined aquifer was broken and water at high-pressure flowed into an open pit mine associated with the Kolahdarvazeh deposit. The inflow rates were 6.7 and 1.4 m(3)/s at the maximum and minimum quantities, respectively. Permeability, storage coefficient, thickness and initial head of the fully saturated confined aquifer were 3.5?×?10(-4) m/s, 0.2, 30 m and 60 m, respectively. The hydraulic heads as a function of time were monitored at four observation wells in the vicinity of the pit over 19 weeks and at an observation well near a test well over 21 h. In addition, by measuring the rate of pumping out from the pit sump, at a constant head (usually equal to height of the pit floor), the real inflow rates to the pit were monitored. The main innovations of this work were to make comparison between numerical modelling using a finite element software called SEEP/W and actual data related to inflow and extend the applicability of the numerical model. This model was further used to estimate the hydraulic heads at the observation wells around the pit over 19 weeks during mining operations. Data from a pump-out test and observation wells were used for model calibration and verification. In order to evaluate the model efficiency, the modelling results of inflow quantity and hydraulic heads were compared to those from analytical solutions, as well as the field data. The mean percent error in relation to field data for the inflow quantity was 0.108. It varied between 1.16 and 1.46 for hydraulic head predictions, which are much lower values than the mean percent errors resulted from the analytical solutions (from 1.8 to 5.3 for inflow and from 2.16 to 3.5 for hydraulic head predictions). The analytical solutions underestimated the inflow compared to the numerical model for the time period of 2-19 weeks. The results presented in this paper can be used for developing an effective dewatering program. PMID:25186026

Bahrami, Saeed; Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Aslani, Soheyla; Baafi, Ernest

2014-12-01

52

A GIS-based, confined aquifer, hypothetical model of ground-water seepage into a former mining open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater seepage into a former mining site in Egypt is proposed for simulation. This site was used for basalt extraction. After the mining activities had stopped a large open pit was left over and groundwater seeped into the pit forming a lake. The pit has a dimension of approximately 1200 x 600 x 30 m. Because of the lack of field data, several scenarios may be hypothesized to explain the filling of these open pits with water. In this paper, one of these scenarios is studied. It is suggested that this water comes from an underneath confined aquifer. Through fractures in the host rock, water seeped upwards into the open pit. To estimate the rate at which water seeps into the lake, numerical study based on the finite element method is performed. Firstly, geo-referencing of the site was performed using GIS. The boundary of the lake was then digitized and elevation contours was defined. These data was then imported into grid-builder software to generate a two-dimensional triangular mesh which was then used by hydro-geosphere software to build the three-dimensional mesh and solve the problem. It was found that the set of discrete fractures was insufficient to fill the lake in the time span that was actually elapsed to fill up the lake which is on the order of two to three years.

53

Applications of state estimation in multi-sensor information fusion for the monitoring of open pit mine slope deformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional open pit mine slope deformation monitoring system can not use the monitoring information coming from many monitoring points at the same time, can only use the monitoring data coming from a key monitoring point, and that is to say it can only handle one-dimensional time series. Given this shortage in the monitoring, the multi-sensor information fusion in the state estimation techniques would be introduced to the slope deformation monitoring system, and by the dynamic characteristics of deformation slope, the open pit slope would be regarded as a dynamic goal, the condition monitoring of which would be regarded as a dynamic target tracking. Distributed information fusion technology with feedback was used to process the monitoring data and on this basis Klman filtering algorithms was introduced, and the simulation examples was used to prove its effectiveness. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Fu, Hua; Liu, Yin-ping; Xiao, Jian [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering

2008-06-15

54

Analysis of disposal of uranium mill tailings in a mined out open pit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mined out open pits are presently under consideration as disposal sites for uranium mill tailings. In this method of tailings management, the escape of contaminated liquid into an adjacent aquifer is the principal environmental concern. The modified Bishop Method was used to analyze the structural stability of a clay liner along the highwall and fluid flow models were used to analyze the effect of tailings solutions on groundwater under several operating conditions. The slope stability of a clay liner was analyzed at three stages of operation: (1) near the beginning of construction, (2) when the pit is partially filled with tailings, and (3) at the end of construction. Both clay lined and unlined pits were considered in the fluid flow modeling. Finally, the seepage of tailings solutions through the clay liner was analyzed. Results of the slope stability analysis showed that it would be necessary to construct the clay liner as a modified form of engineered embankment. This embankment would be similar in construction to that of an earthfill dam. It could be constructed on a 1 : 1 slope provided the tailings slurry were managed properly. It would be necessary to maintain the freeboard height between the embankment and tailings at less than 4 m. A partially dewatered sand beach would have to be located adjacent to the embankment. Potential leakage and aquifer contamination was modeled for lined and unlined pits of various designs. Sulfate, and possibly U and Th, are the most likely contaminants. Results from the model showed the clay and soil cement lined pit to be most effective in containing the pollutants

55

Net present value maximization model for optimum cut-off grade policy of open pit mining operations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimum cut-off grade policy maximizes the net present value (NPV) of an open pit mining operation subject to the mining, processing, and refining capacity constraints. The traditional approaches to cut-off grade determination ignore the escalation of the economic parameters such as metal price [...] and operating costs during life of an operation, and consequently lead to unrealistically higher values of the objective function. Further, the NPV of a mining operation declines due to the depletion of the available reserves, causing a decline in the optimum cut-off grade, i.e. higher cut-off grades in the early years of an operation and lower cut-off grades during the later years. Hence, low grade material mined in the earlier years may be stockpiled for processing during later years to offset the effect of escalating economic parameters on NPV. This paper demonstrates the combined impact of introducing economic parameters, escalation and stockpiling options into the cut-off grade optimization model. The model promises an enhancement in NPV as illustrated in a case study incorporating practical aspects of an open pit mining operation.

M.W.A, Asad; E, Topal.

56

Net present value maximization model for optimum cut-off grade policy of open pit mining operations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimum cut-off grade policy maximizes the net present value (NPV) of an open pit mining operation subject to the mining, processing, and refining capacity constraints. The traditional approaches to cut-off grade determination ignore the escalation of the economic parameters such as metal price [...] and operating costs during life of an operation, and consequently lead to unrealistically higher values of the objective function. Further, the NPV of a mining operation declines due to the depletion of the available reserves, causing a decline in the optimum cut-off grade, i.e. higher cut-off grades in the early years of an operation and lower cut-off grades during the later years. Hence, low grade material mined in the earlier years may be stockpiled for processing during later years to offset the effect of escalating economic parameters on NPV. This paper demonstrates the combined impact of introducing economic parameters, escalation and stockpiling options into the cut-off grade optimization model. The model promises an enhancement in NPV as illustrated in a case study incorporating practical aspects of an open pit mining operation.

M.W.A, Asad; E, Topal.

2011-11-01

57

Open pit blasting in uranium ore mining of SDAG Wismut. Pt. 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article reports blasting work in the abandoned open pits at Culmitzsch and Lichtenberg, dealing primarily with the techniques of so-called detonation-wave-shielded blasting, blasting at elevated rock temperatures, and blasting at site with fractured rock. (orig./HP)

58

PLANEAMIENTO DE MINAS A CIELO ABIERTO MEDIANTE OPTIMIZACIÓN ESTOCÁSTICA / PLANNING OF OPEN PIT MINES THROUGH STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los procesos de planificación minera en los depósitos a cielo abierto en Colombia, se han realizado utilizando herramientas deterministas, que excluyen la evaluación de riesgos y las incertidumbres del negocio minero y en algunos casos dejan de maximizar los beneficios en términos monetarios. Es nec [...] esario desarrollar modelos alternativos de planificación minera que mejoren las condiciones de competitividad y productividad en términos de los siguientes factores: Aumento de la vida de la mina - LOM; Extracción y explotación de recursos de menor calidad; Obtención de mayores beneficios del negocio minero; Disminución del riesgo y la incertidumbre del proceso de planificación minera, entre otros. Dentro de los procesos de planificación minera de los yacimientos minerales a cielo abierto en Colombia no hay evidencia de la utilización de herramientas para la toma de decisiones bajo escenarios de incertidumbre que permiten llevar a cabo estos procesos con técnicas meta heurísticas tales como recocido simulado; algoritmos genéticos; búsqueda tabú; redes neuronales, entre otros. En este trabajo se hace énfasis en los algoritmos genéticos y su aplicación a los procesos de planificación minera para explotaciones a cielo abierto. Se pretende que este trabajo sirva de base para realizar una aproximación al planeamiento minero estocástico, desde los algoritmos genéticos, y que su aplicación se lleva a cabo en las empresas que explotan los recursos minerales en Colombia, con el objetivo de mejorar la cadena productiva del proceso minero. Abstract in english Mine planning processes in open-pit deposits in Colombia, have been performed using deterministic tools, which excludes the assessment of risks and uncertainties in the mining business and in some cases fail to maximize the benefits in monetary terms. We need to develop alternative models for mine p [...] lanning to improve the competitiveness and productivity in terms of the following factors: Increased mine of life- LOM; Extraction and exploitation of lower quality resources; Obtaining more benefits from the mining business; Reduced risk and uncertainty in the mine planning process, among others. Within the planning processes of mineral mining in the open pit mine in Colombia there is no evidence of the use of tools for decision making under uncertainty scenarios that allow these processes to perform metaheuristic techniques such as simulated annealing; genetic algorithms; tabu search; neural networks; among others. In this paper we focus on genetic algorithms and its application to mine planning for open pit. This paper is intended to serve as the basis for a stochastic approach to mine planning, from the genetic algorithm and its implementation is carried out in companies that exploit the mineral resources in Colombia, with the aim of improving the production chain mining process.

Giovanni, Franco Sepúlveda; John Willian, Branch Bedoya; Patricia, Jaramillo Álvarez.

59

PLANEAMIENTO DE MINAS A CIELO ABIERTO MEDIANTE OPTIMIZACIÓN ESTOCÁSTICA / PLANNING OF OPEN PIT MINES THROUGH STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los procesos de planificación minera en los depósitos a cielo abierto en Colombia, se han realizado utilizando herramientas deterministas, que excluyen la evaluación de riesgos y las incertidumbres del negocio minero y en algunos casos dejan de maximizar los beneficios en términos monetarios. Es nec [...] esario desarrollar modelos alternativos de planificación minera que mejoren las condiciones de competitividad y productividad en términos de los siguientes factores: Aumento de la vida de la mina - LOM; Extracción y explotación de recursos de menor calidad; Obtención de mayores beneficios del negocio minero; Disminución del riesgo y la incertidumbre del proceso de planificación minera, entre otros. Dentro de los procesos de planificación minera de los yacimientos minerales a cielo abierto en Colombia no hay evidencia de la utilización de herramientas para la toma de decisiones bajo escenarios de incertidumbre que permiten llevar a cabo estos procesos con técnicas meta heurísticas tales como recocido simulado; algoritmos genéticos; búsqueda tabú; redes neuronales, entre otros. En este trabajo se hace énfasis en los algoritmos genéticos y su aplicación a los procesos de planificación minera para explotaciones a cielo abierto. Se pretende que este trabajo sirva de base para realizar una aproximación al planeamiento minero estocástico, desde los algoritmos genéticos, y que su aplicación se lleva a cabo en las empresas que explotan los recursos minerales en Colombia, con el objetivo de mejorar la cadena productiva del proceso minero. Abstract in english Mine planning processes in open-pit deposits in Colombia, have been performed using deterministic tools, which excludes the assessment of risks and uncertainties in the mining business and in some cases fail to maximize the benefits in monetary terms. We need to develop alternative models for mine p [...] lanning to improve the competitiveness and productivity in terms of the following factors: Increased mine of life- LOM; Extraction and exploitation of lower quality resources; Obtaining more benefits from the mining business; Reduced risk and uncertainty in the mine planning process, among others. Within the planning processes of mineral mining in the open pit mine in Colombia there is no evidence of the use of tools for decision making under uncertainty scenarios that allow these processes to perform metaheuristic techniques such as simulated annealing; genetic algorithms; tabu search; neural networks; among others. In this paper we focus on genetic algorithms and its application to mine planning for open pit. This paper is intended to serve as the basis for a stochastic approach to mine planning, from the genetic algorithm and its implementation is carried out in companies that exploit the mineral resources in Colombia, with the aim of improving the production chain mining process.

Giovanni, Franco Sepúlveda; John Willian, Branch Bedoya; Patricia, Jaramillo Álvarez.

2012-07-01

60

The development of a remote-controlled highwall rockbroom-a world first for the open-pit mining industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Jointed rock slopes are generally stable, as there is no freedom of movement for blocks of rock. In an open- pit mining environment, blasting opens up space into which blocks of rock can fail, resulting in the common occurrence of slope failure. Prior to the blasting of a trim pattern, the immediate [...] highwall is scaled, where loose rock material is removed by means of a mechanical scaler. As mining of the pit progresses, the height of the scaled highwall from the pit floor progressively increases. These highwalls are never scaled again for the remainder of the pit life, and time-dependant deterioration contributes to these highwalls becoming subject to rockfall and, sometimes, slope failure. This paper documents the development of a South African innovation, a remote-controlled mechanical highwall scaler, a world first for the mining industry. The scaler will enable open-pit highwalls to be scaled from crest to toe whenever the need arises. It will reduce the risk associated with highwalls and deliver on the Anglo American promise of producing safe, profitable platinum.

D., van Rensburg; L., Melis.

 
 
 
 
61

The planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines: proceedings of an international conference held at the University of Pretoria, 9-13 April 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book records the proceedings of the second international conference on the theme of planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines. The conference was held in Pretoria during April 1984. The major portion of South African iron ore and copper is mined in open-pit mines. The rapid expansion of the open-pit and strip mining industry has led to the thriving industry of today. Notable areas of growth have been the introduction of capital-intensive machinery such as walking drag-lines, large capacity shovels, in-pit crushers, extensive use of conveyor belts, large haul tracks and ore-dressing plants. Among other areas where corresponding progress has been made are blasting techniques, maintenance planning, computer applications, and large-scale stock-piling of bulk materials. The conference touched on all these subjects under four main headings: mine planning, mining operations, equipment selection and maintenance, and new developments. One paper looks at open-pit production control at Rossing Uranium Limited

62

Coal and communities in Vietnam & the Lang Cam Coal Mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Viet Nam's economic growth, demand for electricity, coal deposits and coal resources, anthracite, the Vietnamese Coal Corporation, and potential environmental and socio-economic impacts resulting from development of the coal industry are described. A case study of the Lang Cam Coal Mine is presented that shows some of the challenges faced by the mine and by the community. The Phuc Linh commune is a subsistence farming community of approximately 4500 people. The open pit mine supplies coal for domestic use. Environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the mine on the commune are assessed. The key issues identified are environmental impacts, need for technical training, lack of transparency in resettlement and compensation plans, lack of employment opportunities, loss of land and livelihood, increased social vices, and health and safety risks. Methods for potential mitigation of these issues are suggested. 22 figs.

Wong, M.; Tung, M.; Hoa, T.Q. [Golder Associates, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2006-07-01

63

Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of {sup 238}U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional 'sticky vinyl' passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained.

Pettersson, H.B.; Koperski, J. (Lund Univ. Teaching Hospital (Sweden))

1991-05-01

64

Investigation of aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from an open-pit uranium mine by passive vinyl collectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Detailed investigations of the aerial dispersion of radioactive dust from the biggest open-pit U mining and milling operation in Australia were carried out. Spatial distributions of the long-lived radionuclides of 238U series and their origin, i.e., mining and milling operations vs. natural background radiation, have been studied. Horizontal flux, dry deposition, and ground resuspension of the radionuclides were investigated along a 50-km transect in the direction of the prevailing monsoonal winds in the region. The study was performed by means of unconventional 'sticky vinyl' passive dust collectors, occasionally supported by high-volume air filter samplers. The data from the flux measurements show an inverse square to inverse cubic dependence, and the dry deposition exhibits an inverse square dependence, of radionuclide load vs. distance. The pit has been the predominant contributor of long-lived U series radionuclides to the environment within the radius of several kilometers from the operations. An aerial dispersion computer code (LUCIFER), based on a Gaussian plume model, was developed for the project. Experimental data were used as the code input data. Good agreement between the measured data and the normalized computed results was obtained

65

Open-pit project management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents a project management approach to open-pit lignite mine planning and exploitation. Key elements of an exploitation project management system are availability of resources, investment cost and organization of resource allocation. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab., 5 photos.

Roumpos, C.P.; Spanidis, F-M.P. [Power Corporation S.A. (Greece)

2003-04-01

66

Development of generalized cutoff grade optimization algorithm for open pit mining operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of optimum cutoff grade is influenced by the economic parameters (price of metal, mining and processing costs, etc.),The capacities of stages (mine, mill, and refinery) in the mining operation, and the grade distribution of the deposit. The cutoff grade changes with the influence of these parameters, sometimes widely, during the life of a mining operation. The theory of optimum cutoff grades is complex. However, this problem can be solved by the availability of algorithms, which could be implemented by the computer programs. This paper presents a cutoff grade optimization algorithm, which maximizes the Net Present Value (NPV) of the mining operation subject to mining, milling and refining constraints, the benefits of the methodology developed are demonstrated in a case study. (author)

67

Mitigation of the environmental impacts of open pit and underground uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiological and nonradiological environmental impacts of uranium mining on air, water and land are discussed. Methods of reducing impacts are covered with emphasis on Exxon's practices and experience. The message is that uranium mining environmental impacts are relatively small, but they do require good planning to avoid the need for expensive solutions later

68

In situ characterization at limestone open pit mine using prompt gamma neutron activation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) in situ characterization of blast holes in Atocongo and Pucara open cut mines from Cementos Lima S.A. has been performed. This method collects information about the ore surrounding the bore hole and gives a real time and representative results for a geophysical model of the mine. The PGNAA system gives an in situ estimation of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, and SO3. The field trials have been proved that the system could be used to characterize the limestone open cut mines. (orig.)

69

Ground-based multispectral measurements for airborne data verification in non-operating open pit mine "Kremikovtsi"  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of mining industry and metal production on the environment is presented all over the world. In our research we set focus on the impact of already non-operating ferrous "Kremikovtsi"open pit mine and related waste dumps and tailings which we consider to be the major factor responsible for pollution of one densely populated region in Bulgaria. The approach adopted is based on correct estimation of the distribution of the iron oxides inside open pit mines and the neighboring regions those considered in this case to be the key issue for the ecological state assessment of soils, vegetation and water. For this study the foremost source of data are those of airborne origin and those combined with ground-based in-situ and laboratory acquired data were used for verification of the environmental variables and thus in process of assessment of the present environmental status influenced by previous mining activities. The percentage of iron content was selected as main indicator for presence of metal pollution since it could be reliably identified by multispectral data used in this study and also because the iron compounds are widely spread in the most of the minerals, rocks and soils. In our research the number of samples from every source (air, field, lab) was taken in the way to be statistically sound and confident. In order to establish relationship between the degree of pollution of the soil and mulspectral data 40 soil samples were collected during a field campaign in the study area together with GPS measurements for two types of laboratory measurements: the first one, chemical and mineralogical analysis and the second one, non-destructive spectroscopy. In this work for environmental variables verification over large areas mulspectral satellite data from Landsat instruments TM/ETM+ and from ALI/OLI (Operational Land Imager) were used. Ground-based (laboratory and in-situ) spectrometric measurements were performed using the designed and constructed in Remote Sensing Systems Department at Space Research and Technology Institute thematically oriented spectrometric system TOMS working in the 0.4-0.9 ?m range of the electromagnetic spectrum (EMS). For proper comparison between the data obtained from the different sources mentioned spectral transformations such as normalized difference and rationing data for two wavelengths were applied in order to avoid misinterpretation. Statistically significant dependence between the various spectral transformations and the quantitative content of the iron in the different type of compounds was established. The achieved results provided evidence that methodology used could be extended to other regions of the country polluted by the mining activities and should be also tested in the region of the copper and zinc extraction. In the next step of our research we intend to use the results obtained by the multitemporal analysis of the satellite and ground-based multispectral data for the same and the similar regions of interest.

Borisova, Denitsa; Nikolov, Hristo; Petkov, Doyno

2013-10-01

70

Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

71

Determination of the radioactive aerosols transport coefficients generated in open pit uranium mining areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The classical atmospheric transport model is applied to uranium mining operations. Among the transport parameters there is one concerned with radioactive decay, but it does not include the radioactive decay series which is the specific case for uranium. Therefore, an extension of the transport theory is developed and tested, giving results greater than the ones obtained with the classical model, as expected. (author)

72

Mining principles in the situation of Dolni Rozinka Uranium Mines deposit with respect to protection of open pits and mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three surface and a network of underground monitoring points were established for assessing the impact of extracting oblique and steep ore zones and veins in the uranium ore deposit at Dolni Rozinka on the surrounding massif and on the earth surface. On the basis of these in-situ measurements and the results of modelling using equivalent materials and mathematical modelling and the evaluation of practical experience in the excavation of mines in this deposit new techniques were designed for protecting installations and buildings from the impacts of mining activities. The distance and size of limit angles of the mining effect were determined which allowed to considerably limit the range of existing safety pillars and thereby to reduce the volume of utility minerals whose excavation had previously been restricted. (B.S.)

73

Safety problems of methane gas in underground coal mines in Vietnam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview is presented of Vietnam's coal reserves and coal mining activities. In 1998, 11 million tons of coal was produced of which 3 million tons was exported. 65% of coal is produced by open pit mining, the rest by underground mining. Anthracite, lignite, peat and fat coal are mined. Underground mines are classified into 4 levels according to methane hazard. There have been 22 fire cases and firedamp explosions in underground mining. Methods of monitoring methane and preventing threats of methane explosion are outlined. Vietnam hopes for international cooperation on labour safety and explosion prevention. 4 tabs.

Manh Dac, P. [Institute of Mining Science and Technology, Hanoi (Vietnam)

2000-03-01

74

Simulation of Dynamic Fracturing of Continuum Rock in Open Pit Mining  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic fracture mechanism related to blast-induced borehole breakdown and crack propagation, 2D distinct element commercial code was used. The dynamic stresses, material status and velocity vectors are plotted and shown to evaluate rock mass failure under blast load. This paper focuses on the propagation and dynamic effects of blast waves in continuum rock masses. In order to investigate the effect of high strain rate loading on rock mass failure, a numerical simulation was conducted. The 2D distinct element code was used to model blast load effect on rock failure and stress distribution through the rock mass due to blast wave propagation. The blast loading history was simplified and applied to the blasthole walls. Accordingly, the interaction of explosive energy transferred to the rock mass from the blasthole pressure was examined as a function of time. A Mohr-Coulomb material model was used for host rock to allow for plastic failure calculations. The conducted numerical study describes the role of dynamic stresses in blasting in a qualitative manner. On the other hand, a free face boundary was considered as a common blast operation which is conducted in surface mining.

Zeinab Aliabadian

2013-07-01

75

Problems of the old mine from advance breakage in the open pit mine Nástup Tušimice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently the opencast mining operations of lignite are carried out at abandoned underground mine Ludmila (formerly Elsa area at former village Kralupy nearby the city of Chomutov. It causes a plenty of difficulties. The digital maps of former underground mining production and precaution of safety secure at former underground mining areas are described in the paper.

Martin Vrubel

2007-06-01

76

The use of geotextile tube containers for dewatering the Restigouche open pit zinc mine and settling pond basin in New Brunswick, Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of geotextile tube containers for the dewatering of an open pit zinc mine and settling pond in New Brunswick (NB). The zinc and lead mine closed in 1996 and will be re-opened in 2007. Remediation of the site has been challenged by severe discharge criteria for treated water, as well as by the different types of wastewater produced at the site, which is located in a mountainous area with no impermeable soil. The remediation projects include an open pit cleaning procedure where water is removed and the mine is then desludged. A wastewater treatment plant will then be installed. More than 32,000 m{sup 3} of sludge has accumulated at the bottom of the pit. The zinc content of the sludge was estimated at 2.5 ppm. The water management phase of the project will include batch treatments and the addition of 140 metric tonnes of lime to raise the pH and to precipitate metal ions. The sludge management program included the use of mechanical dewatering, the construction of a storage area, and the use of geocontainers for dewatering and temporary containment. Seventeen geotextile containers were used to reduce the zinc content of the water to less than the 250 ppb authorized by environmental agencies. The containers were changed once every 2 months. tabs., figs.

Douheret [Terratube, Saint-Romuald, PQ (Canada)

2010-07-01

77

Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

2013-02-01

78

Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

Marcos E. Hartwig

2013-09-01

79

Production shift from open-pit to underground at Vietnamese coalmines - consideration on safety management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vietnam's coal industry is being forced to increase production to meet demands. Production may increase from 33 million tons in 2006 to 75 million tons in 2025. All increased production may have to come from underground as oppose to open-pit production and deepening of underground mines may be inevitable. The author presents some apprehensions on safety management that will need consideration in mines are deepened. 2 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Isei, T.

2006-09-15

80

Performance evaluation of a new stochastic network flow approach to optimal open pit mine design-application at a gold mine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimal design of production phases and ultimate pit limit for an open pit mining operation may be generated using conventional or stochastic approaches. Unlike the conventional approach, the stochastic framework accounts for expected variability and uncertainty in metal content by considering a [...] set of equally probable realizations (models) of the orebody. This paper evaluates the performance of a new stochastic network flow approach for the development of optimal phase design and ultimate pit limit using a gold deposit as the case study. The stochastic and conventional frameworks as considered here utilize the maximum flow and Lerchs-Grossman (LG) algorithms, respectively. The LG algorithm is restricted to considering an estimated (average-type) orebody model, while the stochastic maximum flow algorithm is developed to simultaneously use a set of simulated orebody realizations as an input. The case study demonstrates that, when compared to the conventional LG algorithm as used in the industry, the stochastic approach generates a 30 per cent increase in discounted cash flow, a 21 per cent larger ultimate pit limit, and about 7 per cent more metal, while it maintains a consistency in phase size.

M.W.A., Asad; R., Dimitrakopoulos.

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Performance evaluation of a new stochastic network flow approach to optimal open pit mine design-application at a gold mine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimal design of production phases and ultimate pit limit for an open pit mining operation may be generated using conventional or stochastic approaches. Unlike the conventional approach, the stochastic framework accounts for expected variability and uncertainty in metal content by considering a [...] set of equally probable realizations (models) of the orebody. This paper evaluates the performance of a new stochastic network flow approach for the development of optimal phase design and ultimate pit limit using a gold deposit as the case study. The stochastic and conventional frameworks as considered here utilize the maximum flow and Lerchs-Grossman (LG) algorithms, respectively. The LG algorithm is restricted to considering an estimated (average-type) orebody model, while the stochastic maximum flow algorithm is developed to simultaneously use a set of simulated orebody realizations as an input. The case study demonstrates that, when compared to the conventional LG algorithm as used in the industry, the stochastic approach generates a 30 per cent increase in discounted cash flow, a 21 per cent larger ultimate pit limit, and about 7 per cent more metal, while it maintains a consistency in phase size.

M.W.A., Asad; R., Dimitrakopoulos.

82

Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ''ground truth'', from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions

83

Análise comparativa de metodologias utilizadas no despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto / Comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa das metodologias utilizadas para o despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto. Comparações entre essas metodologias contam com poucos trabalhos publicados na literatura. Metodologias baseadas em programação linear e programação dinâmica e em [...] heurística foram implementadas. Essas metodologias constituem as bases dos algoritmos de alguns dos sistemas de despacho comercializados no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido um modelo de simulação, a fim de se reproduzir o comportamento das operações de lavra de forma a avaliar o impacto das decisões de despacho em cada uma das metodologias estudadas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o desempenho dos algoritmos, utilizando-se essas metodologias sob diferentes condições em minas a céu aberto. Porém não se pode, através dos resultados obtidos, concluir pela superioridade de uma delas. Abstract in english In the present study a comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines has been carried out. There is a lack of studies comparing these methodologies in literature. Methodology based on linear and dynamic programming, as well as a heuristics-based methodology, hav [...] e been implemented. These methodologies serve as the basis of algorithms used in some of the dispatch systems sold in Brazil. A simulation model was developed to reproduce the behavior of mining operations in order to evaluate the impact of dispatch decisions in each of the methodologies studied. Results show the performance of algorithms that have used these methodologies under different conditions in open pit mining. However, from results obtained in the present study, it is not possible, to state the superiority of any of them.

Lásara Fabrícia, Rodrigues; Luiz Ricardo, Pinto.

84

Análise comparativa de metodologias utilizadas no despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto / Comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa das metodologias utilizadas para o despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto. Comparações entre essas metodologias contam com poucos trabalhos publicados na literatura. Metodologias baseadas em programação linear e programação dinâmica e em [...] heurística foram implementadas. Essas metodologias constituem as bases dos algoritmos de alguns dos sistemas de despacho comercializados no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido um modelo de simulação, a fim de se reproduzir o comportamento das operações de lavra de forma a avaliar o impacto das decisões de despacho em cada uma das metodologias estudadas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o desempenho dos algoritmos, utilizando-se essas metodologias sob diferentes condições em minas a céu aberto. Porém não se pode, através dos resultados obtidos, concluir pela superioridade de uma delas. Abstract in english In the present study a comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines has been carried out. There is a lack of studies comparing these methodologies in literature. Methodology based on linear and dynamic programming, as well as a heuristics-based methodology, hav [...] e been implemented. These methodologies serve as the basis of algorithms used in some of the dispatch systems sold in Brazil. A simulation model was developed to reproduce the behavior of mining operations in order to evaluate the impact of dispatch decisions in each of the methodologies studied. Results show the performance of algorithms that have used these methodologies under different conditions in open pit mining. However, from results obtained in the present study, it is not possible, to state the superiority of any of them.

Lásara Fabrícia, Rodrigues; Luiz Ricardo, Pinto.

2012-09-01

85

Coal Mines Security System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, au...

Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Rane, Milind E.

2012-01-01

86

The open pit of Garzweiler II. Authorisation secures energy supply and economic power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In end-March 1995 the North-Rhine-Westphalian Government granted an authorisation for the open pit of Garzweiler II thus permitting brown coal mining in the Rheinish mining region to continue at the same pace as before. At that time the decision was supported by a large majority across parties which made itself felt not only in parliament but also in the Brown Coal Committee and its subcommittees. The author describes the open pit mining project and the course of the authorisation procedure and explains this view he shares of the energy-economic necessity of Garzweiler II. It should be added that in the meantime a red-green coalition has come to power in the Land and the project may be defeated after all. (orig./HP)

87

Coal Mine Workers' Compensation  

Science.gov (United States)

... About DOL | Contact Us | Español Office of Workers' Compensation Programs DOL Home > OWCP > DCMWC > DCMWC TOC Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation (DCMWC) Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation Home ...

88

Numerical Study on an Applicable Underground Mining Method for Soft Extra-Thick Coal Seams in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The EGAT Mae Moh Mine is the largest open pit lignite mine in Thailand and it produces lignite about 16 million tons annually. In the near future, the pit limit of the mine will be reached and underground mine will then be developed through the open pit in the depth of 400 - 600 m from the surface. However, due to the challenges for underground mining such as poor geological conditions, extra thickness (20 - 30 m of coal seams, and weak mechanical properties of coal seams and the surrounding rock, the success possibility of underground mining and an applicable underground mining method is being investigated at the present. The paper discusses the applicability of multi-slice bord-and-pillar method for the soft extra thick coal seams in the Mae Moh mine by means of numerical analyses using the 3D finite difference code “FLAC3D”.

Nay Zarlin

2012-11-01

89

Extracting of Gypsum Reserves from Markusovce - Safarka Open Pit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mining company ?elba a.s. Spi?ská Nová Ves, plant Rudòany has decided to open new resources of gypsum, which will be extracted mainly like open pit mine. According to geological prospecting was chosen extracting method, which is combination of two classical method. At first it will by open pit mine, and depending on depth of reserves from surface is possible to change this extraction to one of undergroung exploration methods.

Bauer Viliam

1998-12-01

90

The situation of the surface coal mines in Vietnam and their future development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presently, Vietnam is on the way of industrialization and modernization. The coal mining sector has a noticeable role in this task, because it is an important power for the development of heavy industries. Open pit mining has been contributing a great deal to the total output of coal produced in Vietnam now. They are confronted with major problems in terms of output, technology and environment. In order to secure their stable position in Vietnam's coal mining sector in particular and in the country's coal mining sector in general also in the future, the surface coal mines should gear their technology, equipment and management to future demands and need to adapt the appropriate strategy for their development in the future. This is by no means the responsibility of the Vietnamese surface coal mines alone, but that of the Vietnam Coal Corporation as well as the Ministries and Government, too. (orig.)

Bui, X.N. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany); Ho, S.G. [Hanoi Univ. of Mining and Geology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Drebenstedt, C. [Inst. fuer Bergbau, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg (Germany)

2004-06-01

91

European coal mining equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the long-standing importance of coal mining, particularly underground coal mining in western European countries, a large manufacturing base developed for coal mining equipment of all types. Over the past few years, the underground coal mining sector has been rapidly declining in countries such as UK and manufacturers of coal mining equipment are now looking increasingly towards the major overseas markets - Australia, US, South Africa, China and India. This review looks at some of the products currently offered by coal mining equipment manufacturers in a number of European countries and highlights some new developments which could make a considerable impact in global markets. Machinery described includes: longwall shearers; continuous miners, powered supports, cutting and bolting machines, road headers, hoists, integrated systems, and bunkers. 7 figs.

Kennedy, A.

1994-05-01

92

Technical and environmental aspects of Coal mining,a case study on Maamba Collieries,Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents the general flow chart of stripping, mining, processing and handling of coal at Maamba Collieries. Major sources of environmental degradation starting from the Open Pit, Coal Preparation Plant(CCP), Aerial Ropewayup to the Screening Plantand dispatch facilities located some eleven kilometres away at Masuku Rail Terminalare pointed out. Past and on-going efforts by Maamba Collieries at ameliorating and, where feasible, mitigating of adverse environmental impact of mining, processing and handling of coal as well as limitations of these measures as applied at Maamba are presented and discussed. (author)

93

Image analysis applied to quantitative evaluation of chromatic impact generated by open-pit quarries and mines  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most important environmental impacts resulting from opencast mining, and especially quarries, is the visual impact. Evaluation of this impact considers two aspects: first, the area occupied by the quarry as seen by an observer from a specific place, and, second, the chromatic contrast existing between landscape and exploitation. In this study we develop a methodology to assess the chromatic impact in an objective and comparable form. To assess this impact we developed a method based on image analysis that allows us to obtain from a picture or image its equivalent as a function of chromatic impact, according to the sensibility of the human eye to different wavelengths. The methodology was applied to the Martinenca limestone quarry (Alcanar, Tarragona) and to Cerro Kori Kollo mine, La Joya district (Bolivia).

Pinto, Victor; Font, Xavier; Salgot, Miquel; Tapias, Jose; Mañá, Tomas

2002-01-01

94

Change detection over Sokolov open-pit mining area, Czech Republic, using multi-temporal HyMAP data (2009-2010)  

Science.gov (United States)

Two HyMap images acquired over the same lignite open-pit mining site in Sokolov, Czech Republic, during the summers of 2009 and 2010 (12 months apart), were investigated in this study. The site selected for this research is one of three test sites (the others being in South Africa and Kyrgyzstan) within the framework of the EO-MINERS FP7 Project (http://www.eo-miners.eu). The goal of EO-MINERS is to "integrate new and existing Earth Observation tools to improve best practice in mining activities and to reduce the mining related environmental and societal footprint". Accordingly, the main objective of the current study was to develop hyperspectral-based means for the detection of small spectral changes and to relate these changes to possible degradation or reclamation indicators of the area under investigation. To ensure significant detection of small spectral changes, the temporal domain was investigated along with careful generation of reflectance information. Thus, intensive spectroradiometric ground measurements were carried out to ensure calibration and validation aspects during both overflights. The performance of these corrections was assessed using the Quality Indicators setup developed under a different FP7 project-EUFAR (http://www.eufar.net), which helped select the highest quality data for further work. This approach allows direct distinction of the real information from noise. The reflectance images were used as input for the application of spectral-based change-detection algorithms and indices to account for small and reliable changes. The related algorithms were then developed and applied on a pixel-by-pixel basis to map spectral changes over the space of a year. Using field spectroscopy and ground truth measurements on both overpass dates, it was possible to explain the results and allocate spatial kinetic processes of the environmental changes during the time elapsed between the flights. It was found, for instance, that significant spectral changes are capable of revealing mineral processes, vegetation status and soil formation long before these are apparent to the naked eye. Further study is being conducted under the above initiative to extend this approach to other mining areas worldwide and to improve the robustness of the developed algorithm.

Adar, S.; Notesco, G.; Brook, A.; Livne, I.; Rojik, P.; Kopacková, V.; Zelenkova, K.; Misurec, J.; Bourguignon, A.; Chevrel, S.; Ehrler, C.; Fisher, C.; Hanus, J.; Shkolnisky, Y.; Ben Dor, E.

2011-11-01

95

Australian open cut coal mine blasting practices and trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last two decades, many advances have been made in open cut coal mining technology as new mines have come on stream and old mines have faced increasingly difficult mining and operational conditions. The need for close control of operating costs has necessitated consideration of modified excavation methods. Mining systems now often include: truck/shovel prestripping ahead of dragline operations; dragline high walls of 50 meters; total pit depths in excess of 80 meters; mining of multiple coal seams, thin seams and thin partings; more focus on (and measurement of) excavation equipment productivity; and/or conformance to strict environmental limitations. To meet these challenging requirements, innovative explosive products, initiating explosives and delivery systems have been developed. Suitable blasting techniques such as throw blasting also assist coal mining operations to maintain competitiveness in a tough economic environment. This paper examines some of the changes in blasting practices in both open pit and strip mines throughout the Australian coal industry and considers some of the trends for the future.

Sengstock, G.W. [ICI Australia Operations Pty Ltd., Kurri Kurri, New South Wales (Australia); Kennedy, B.J. [ICI Australia Operations Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

1995-12-31

96

The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administered to 128 experienced haul truck operators. The job performance criteria used were spotting in time, corrected tons hauled and supervisor ranking. The concurrent validity of the learning potential and psychomotor ability measures was partially supported. An exploratory factor analysis provided relatively convincing evidence for a general cognitive ability factor (g underlying performance on the learning potential and several psychomotor measures. The existence of a general psychomotor factor was not substantiated in the current study. Suggestions were made for improving design and criterion shortcomings.

Opsomming
Die doel van die ondersoek was om die saamvallende geldigheid van leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings vir die voorspelling van die werkprestasie van sleepvragwabestuurders in ’n oopgroefmyn te beoordeel. Addisionele doelwitte was om die aard van die verwantskap tussen leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese vermoëns te gepaal en om die relatiewe bydraes van hierdie veranderlikes as voorspellers te bepaal. Die voorspellers was die TRAM 1 Leerpotensiaaltoets en die Vienna Test System subtoetse wat toegepas is op 128 ervare sleepvragwabestuurders. Die werkprestasiekriteria was inteikentyd, gekorrigeerde tonmaat gesleep en toesighouerbeoordeling. Die saamvallende geldigheid van die leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings is gedeeltelik ondersteun. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het die bestaan van ’n algemene kognitiewe vermoëfaktor (g, wat onderliggend aan die leerpotensiaal en verskeie psigomotoriese metings is, redelik oortuigend gestaaf. ’n Algemene psigomotoriese faktor is nie in die huidige ondersoek gevind nie. Voorstelle is gemaak om die ontwerp- en kriteriumtekortkominge te verbeter.

Deléne Visser

2005-10-01

97

Designing an advanced RC drilling grid for short-term planning in open pit mines: three case studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SYNOPSIS This paper shows the usefulness of geostatistical conditional simulation combined with the quantification of sampling errors obtained from the analyses of fundamental errors - validated from duplicate data - to assess the relevance of the quality and quantity of the information, for short-t [...] erm mine planning purposes. Traditional blast-hole drilling equipment has been designed for efficient drilling, but not for obtaining high-quality samples. Furthermore, blast-hole sampling interferes with production, and thus usually produces poor-quality results. These results are the basis of short-term plans, where the grades of selective mining units are estimated and used for distinguishing between ore and waste. Under these conditions, misclassification (ore blocks sent to the waste dump and waste blocks processed at the plant) is inevitable, leading to significant hidden losses that can amount to millions of dollars per annum. Reverse circulation drilling with the latest automated sampling technology improves significantly the quality of the information used for short-term planning, and thus reduces misclassification, improving the financial returns of the operation. In this paper, we present the general methodology for assessing the effect of poor blast-hole sampling, as compared to advanced reverse circulation drilling grids at several spacings, in order to arrive at the most appropriate grid for short-term planning. This plan can be prepared well in advance using several additional variables that are usually not available when the plan is based on blast-hole samples. Furthermore, blending options can be analysed in order to optimize plant recovery, minimize the use of sulphuric acid, etc. Three case studies are presented, namely a typical porphyry copper deposit, an exotic oxide copper deposit, and a complex gold deposit, where mineralization is controlled by structures and lithology. This paper shows that in all cases, advanced reverse circulation drilling grids provide good-quality information that, coupled with the use of geosta-tistics for short-term mine planning, significantly improve the financial returns of the operation.

J.M., Ortiz; E.J., Magri.

98

Designing an advanced RC drilling grid for short-term planning in open pit mines: three case studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english SYNOPSIS This paper shows the usefulness of geostatistical conditional simulation combined with the quantification of sampling errors obtained from the analyses of fundamental errors - validated from duplicate data - to assess the relevance of the quality and quantity of the information, for short-t [...] erm mine planning purposes. Traditional blast-hole drilling equipment has been designed for efficient drilling, but not for obtaining high-quality samples. Furthermore, blast-hole sampling interferes with production, and thus usually produces poor-quality results. These results are the basis of short-term plans, where the grades of selective mining units are estimated and used for distinguishing between ore and waste. Under these conditions, misclassification (ore blocks sent to the waste dump and waste blocks processed at the plant) is inevitable, leading to significant hidden losses that can amount to millions of dollars per annum. Reverse circulation drilling with the latest automated sampling technology improves significantly the quality of the information used for short-term planning, and thus reduces misclassification, improving the financial returns of the operation. In this paper, we present the general methodology for assessing the effect of poor blast-hole sampling, as compared to advanced reverse circulation drilling grids at several spacings, in order to arrive at the most appropriate grid for short-term planning. This plan can be prepared well in advance using several additional variables that are usually not available when the plan is based on blast-hole samples. Furthermore, blending options can be analysed in order to optimize plant recovery, minimize the use of sulphuric acid, etc. Three case studies are presented, namely a typical porphyry copper deposit, an exotic oxide copper deposit, and a complex gold deposit, where mineralization is controlled by structures and lithology. This paper shows that in all cases, advanced reverse circulation drilling grids provide good-quality information that, coupled with the use of geosta-tistics for short-term mine planning, significantly improve the financial returns of the operation.

J.M., Ortiz; E.J., Magri.

2014-08-01

99

The mine planning process for an open-pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper discusses the mine planning process for Letseng diamond mine in the Kingdom of Lesotho, in conjunction with the various software packages used during the process. The major pillars of the long-term mine planning process at Letseng are pit optimization followed by pit design and scheduling [...] . Letseng uses Gemcom Whittle and GEMS for pit optimization and design and Runge XPAC for scheduling. The output of the mine planning process results in the generation of published mineral reserves and provides input into the Letseng overall business plan. The process of defining the key inputs for the entire mine planning process is discussed, which covers: ? Slope design as an input ? Diamond price inputs ? Operating and capital cost inputs ? Generation of pit shells ? Selection of an optimum pit shell and interim cutbacks using operational scenarios ? Sensitivity analysis on the selected optimum pit shell. ? Slope design criteria in the detailed design ? Split shell vs concentric pit design ? Practical mining widths to determine cutback design ? Pit design process in the GEMS software package. ? Development of scheduling scenarios in the XPAC software package ? Planning through mining production bottlenecks. ? Company-level NPV model ? Comparing scenarios and input of the different schedule scenarios into the company NPV model.

A., Madowe.

100

Environmental management of coal mines in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal production for the Hunter Valley in New South Wales, Australia is dominated by open-cut mines working the Singleton coal measures and a northern outcropping of the Greta measures. The article describes the environment and outlines the requirements of the two principal state acts controlling the development and operation of coal mines, environmental management and rehabilitation requirements, the Mining Acts 1992 and the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979. It explains the two main methods of surface mining employed in the Hunter Valley, strip-mining and open-pit mining. The environmental program to control air and water quality, to rehabilitate the mined land and to manage rehabilitated land is explained. 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Hannan, J.C.; Gordon, R.M. [NSW Minerals Council, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
101

Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto / Haul roads structural design in open pit mines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores [...] e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais. Abstract in english An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the [...] DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de, Sousa; Waldyr Lopes de, Oliveira Filho; Hernani Mota de, Lima.

102

Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto / Haul roads structural design in open pit mines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores [...] e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais. Abstract in english An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the [...] DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de, Sousa; Waldyr Lopes de, Oliveira Filho; Hernani Mota de, Lima.

2012-06-01

103

Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto Haul roads structural design in open pit mines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais.An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de Sousa

2012-06-01

104

Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

2012-10-01

105

REDUCTION OF SEISMIC EFFECTS FROM BLASTING IN OPEN PIT COAL-MINES BANOVI?I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ground motions of higher intensities are generated by deep-hole blasting of overburden. The most appropriate type of explosive as well as the optimum parameters of blasting was chosen. The minor part of the blasting energy is being transformed into the kinetic energy of seismic waves of smaller intensity.

Vladimir Štimac

1989-12-01

106

Coal Mines Security System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

Ankita Guhe

2012-05-01

107

Coal mine site reclamation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

NONE

2013-02-15

108

Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings

109

Development of the Bogatyr' open pit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bogatyr' open pit must be reconstructed to develop its rated capacity. In doing so, there must be more intensive work within the existing sections numbers 5 and 6, and sections 9 and 10 must be cut and developed, enabling an increase in preparation work in the first three years of operation of the open pit by 7-8 km, and annual volume of output by 7-8 million tons. The set of measures to develop the rated capacity of the open pit and increase it should be done in stages. Integrated reconstruction of the section will enable development of its rated capacity followed by an increase in production output to 56-60 million tons of coal a year.

Nikonov, Ye.S.; Kurganov, A.I.

1981-01-01

110

Outbursts in coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unexpected instantaneous outbursts of coal and gas have been a major hazard to underground coal mining for many years and, despite much research expenditure, continue to cause serious problems, particularly where mining depths and rates of advance are increasing. This review describes the phenomenon of outbursts, current research into the problem and the degree of success of the various prediction, prevention and control methods in the countries most affected. Applied research concentrates on three aspects: methods of identifying seams or parts of seams in which there are high concentrations of stress and hence outbursts are a possibility; monitoring the behaviour of outburst-prone strata during mining to warn of impending outbursts; and measures which may be taken either to alleviate the strata and gas pressures threatening to produce the outburst or to trigger outbursts in a controlled fashion. Pure research considers the mechanisms of outbursts from a physico-mechanical and chemical point of view with the aim of defining a coherent model of the outburst process on which the prediction, prevention and control methods can be based. Although mines still have to be closed down because of the problem in many countries a general mood of optimism prevails over the ability to continue to produce coal under outburst conditions. It would probably be fair to say that prediction, prevention and control methods which are universally applicable because they are based on correct physico-mechanical models of the process have yet to be found. For this reason, outbursts still occur in areas which are believed to have been made safe for mining. (147 refs.)

Jackson, L.J.

1984-05-01

111

Land reclamation beautifies coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

Coblentz, B. [MSU Ag Communications (United States)

2009-07-15

112

Coal mine subsidence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Longwall coal mining in southern Illinois occurs beneath some of the best agricultural land in the U.S. This region is characterized by highly productive, nearly level, and somewhat poorly drained soils. Subsidence from longwall mining causes changes in surface topography which alters surface and subsurface hydrology. These changes can adversely affect agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas that can be deleterious to crop production. While most subsided areas show little impact from subsidence, some areas experience total crop failure. Coal companies are required by law to mitigate subsidence damage to cropland. The objective of this paper is to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring grain yields to their pre-mined levels. The research was conducted on sites selected to represent conventional mitigation techniques on the predominate soils in the area. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max.(L.) Merr] yields in 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1991 from mitigated areas were compared to yields from nearby undisturbed areas

113

UNA APROXIMACIÓN A LA PLANEACIÓN MINERA A CIELO ABIERTO DESDE UN ENFOQUE BASADO EN DECISIONES BAJO INCERTIDUMBRE / AN APPOXIMATION TO THE OPEN PIT MINE PLANNING APPROACH BASED ON DECISIONS UNDER UNCERTAINTY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presenta en primer lugar una descripción del proceso de planeamiento minero desde un punto de vista clásico y su relación con los actuales procesos de planeamiento minero que tienen como base la optimización en sus diferentes etapas. Seguidamente, se realiza un acercamiento a los [...] procesos de planeación minera a cielo abierto desde un enfoque basado en decisiones bajo incertidumbre. Por último, se lleva a cabo un análisis crítico de los artículos encontrados clasificándolos en cinco categorías: Modelamiento geológico; Planeamiento minero; Evaluación financiera; Decisiones bajo incertidumbre y modelos de optimización. Abstract in english This article first presents a description of the mine planning process from a classical view and its relation to existing mine planning processes that are based on optimization in its various stages. Then be made an approach to planning processes open pit mining from an approach based on decisions u [...] nder uncertainty. Finally, it performs a critical analysis of the items found divided into five categories: geological models, mine planning, financial evaluation, decisions under uncertainty and optimization models.

GIOVANNI, FRANCO SEPÚLVEDA; JOHN WILLIAN, BRANCH BEDOYA; PATRICIA, JARAMILLO ÁLVAREZ.

2010-11-30

114

Funding coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper highlights some of the key assumptions that both project sponsors and banks have to take into account in determining the feasibility of coal mine projects. Predictions the analysts made about these key risks are compared with what actually happened for three cases: BT Australia`s 1986 valuation of 36% of Ulan; Macquarie`s 1989 valuation of 80% of Mt. Thorley; and Rothschild`s 1990 valuation of Oakbridge whose assets included 80% of Baal Bone and 100% of Clarence, Pelton/Ellalong and Saxonvale/Bulga. 7 tabs.

Clarke, D. [Macquarie Bank Limited (Australia)

1994-12-31

115

Coal Mine Methane in Russia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

NONE

2009-07-01

116

Coal mine subsidence and structures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Underground coal mining has occurred beneath 32 x 109m2 (8 million acres) of land in the United States and will eventually extend beneath 162 x 109m2 (40 million acres). Most of this mining has taken place and will take place in the eastern half of the United States. In areas of abandoned mines where total extraction was not achieved, roof collapse, crushing of coal pillars, or punching of coal pillars into softer mine floor or roof rock is now resulting in sinkhole or trough subsidence tens or even hundreds of years after mining. Difference in geology, in mining, and building construction practice between Europe and the United States preclude direct transfer of European subsidence engineering experience. Building damage cannot be related simply to tensile and compressive strains at the ground surface. Recognition of the subsidence damage role played by ground-structure interaction and by structural details is needed

117

Feasibility of thin seam coal mining at Dorstfontein Coal Mine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Please read the abstract in the section 00front of this document © 2003 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. Please cite as follows: Meyer PC, 2003, Feasibility of thin seam coal mining at Dorstfontein coal mine, MSc dissertat...

Meyer, Petrus Cornelius

2005-01-01

118

Glencore to list coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Swiss-based trading house Glencore International AG is to list its coal mining business on the Australian Stock Exchange in two months time in the largest public offering in the mining and metal sector so far this year. Glencore plans to offer 60-70% of the new company, to be called Enex Resources Ltd., to raise around 2.5 bn Australian dollars. Glencore's coal mining assets are located in Australia and South Africa with 11 mines in New South Wales and 14 in Mpumalanga Province. The initial public offering (IPO) will be made to investors in the US, Europe, Asia and Australia.

NONE

2001-07-27

119

Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

2014-01-01

120

Full utilization of mined coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper makes a case for the installation of cost effective processing capability for fines, middlings and waste on coal wash plant sites for BTU recovery. The product mix leaving the wash plant would comprise very high quality coal, power and a cement byproduct. The paper reviews the combustion of coal and the release of volatiles, from coal as a function of thermal treatment. The treatment of coal and coal waste in a plasma environment is reviewed as a logical consequence and it is suggested that plasma technology can provide the cost effective mine site process tool needed. Coal and coal wastes have been successfully treated in plasma in tonnage quantities requiring moderate power input (176 kWh/ton @ 200 kW plasma power) while producing high quality cement products and thermal energy. The published results are used to verify the conclusions of this paper and form the basis for the estimates of process economics. Calculations show that the profitability per ton mined coal can increase from a few dollars to the $10 to $30 range as all mined energy values are either converted to power or exported as high quality coal. The higher profitability numbers also assume sale of byproduct cement from the plasma. process. The coal fraction leaving the site may be either dry coal or a highly loaded coal water slurry fuel with its inherent down stream advantages. As a not insignificant additional benefit, the environmental burden associated with the storage of coal mining waste fractions is eliminated. The paper is not intended to convey the impression that any available plasma technology is ideally suitable. It suggests the urgency of further investigation of both suitable technologies and site specific economic optimization of wash plant operations and product mix.

Mathiesen, M.M. [Copyright Mathiesen & Associates International, Excelsior, MN (United States)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
121

Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at ? = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

Gila Notesco

2014-07-01

122

Software development for geologic information management system on open-pit production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A software, including geological data gathering and processing, deposit modelling, reserves calculating and mine map plotting, for geologic information management of open-pit production was developed. Based on the interactive technique, CAD, the object-oriented simulation, and the characteristics of geologic structures, all the geologic information databases and geologic mapping sub-systems have been established for open-pit production, planning and management. 6 refs., 1 fig.

Li, K.; Tian, A.; Ren, Z.; Pang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technomogy, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

2001-09-01

123

Coal Mining, Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

This simulated natural color ASTER image in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia covers an area of 30 by 36 km, and was acquired on August 26, 2000. On the right side of the image are 3 enormous opencast coalmines. The Hambach opencast coal mine has recently been brought to full output capacity through the addition of the No. 293 giant bucket wheel excavator. This is the largest machine in the world; it is twice as long as a soccer field and as tall as a building with 30 floors. To uncover the 2.4 billion tons of brown coal (lignite) found at Hambach, five years were required to remove a 200-m-thick layer of waste sand and to redeposit it off site. The mine currently yields 30 million tons of lignite annually, with annual capacity scheduled to increase to 40 million tons in coming years.The image is centered at 51 degrees north latitude, 6.4 degrees east longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

2001-01-01

124

Project design of an open pit colliery in Terkidag, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this manuscript, first of all, the status of Turkey in terms of energy production and consumption is given and the need to relyon domestic sources, namely lignite deposits, is emphasized rather than importing fuels from abroad. Then, a thorough literature workconcerning open pit design and production planning is explained in detail. On this basis, the project design and production planningof Tekirdag-Saray open pit colliery are conducted. According to the selected production technique, machinery-equipment that willbe utilized in the coal winning system is determined and in the final part, the investment cost and unit production cost regardingthe project are computed and the importance of constructing a power plant in the region operating with domestic fuels is expressed.

H. Kose

2010-10-01

125

Soviet coal developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Underground coal mining in the Donbass Basin and the Ukraine in the Soviet Union is becoming more difficult because of depth. The trend is to accelerate open pit mine development. Total production of coal this year is increasing from 712 mt in 1984 and 40% of coal production is now from open pits. The largest of the new open cast pits, Ekibastuzski in Kazakstan and Kansk-Achinski and South Yakut in Siberia, are now being developed. In the deep mines refrigeration is increasing, methane concentration control systems are in operation, and several methods are used to combat the problem of rock bursts. Mechanized mining and loading equipment have been developed for 18 types of mining and geological conditions.

Polyakov, V.

1985-09-01

126

Land reclamation in the lignite open pit mining industry of Central and Eastern Europe - a comparative discourse; Rekultivierung im Braunkohlenbergbau Mittel- und Osteuropas - eine vergleichende Betrachtung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comparative discourse on land reclamation in the Central and East European lignite mining regions is based on a complex analysis of the prevailing natural, geological, technological and social conditions. Considering the above conditions, the reclaimed land in the mined-out lignite mines of Central and Eastern Europe will predominantly be used as forests, although farming is also possible under particularly suitable conditions. Some of the land is given over to recreational purposes and integrated into the relevant landscape. Large lakes in residual holes of former lignite mines have only been created in Germany so far, where the special requirements of nature preservation have also been given attention. As regards the planning and financing regulations and the regulations coordinating the use of the post-mining land, there are differences between the individual countries which must be attributed to the rather diverse legal conditions. In general, the tasks associated with recultivation are defined similarly, are based on scientific investigations and are implemented at a very high level. The exchange of experience should be continued also in the future. (orig.)

Drebenstedt, C. [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)

2003-03-01

127

Radioactivities related to coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural radioactivity concentrations due to the coal mining in Gabal El-Maghara, North Sinai, Egypt, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Coal, water and soil samples were investigated in this study. The Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 activity concentrations in coal before extraction were 18.5 {+-} 0.5, 29.5 {+-} 1.2 and 149.0 {+-} 8.4 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. These concentrations were reduced to 18-22% after extraction due to the clay removal of the coal. The activity contents of the water and soil samples collected from the surrounding area did not show any evidence of enhancement due to the mining activities. Absorbed dose rate and effective dose equivalent in the mine environment were 29.4 nGy h{sup -1} and 128.0 {mu} Sv a{sup -1}, respectively. The measured activity concentrations in the mine environment and the surrounding areas (5 km away from the mine) are similar to that found in other regions in North and South Sinai. Based on the measurements of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the mine activity does not lead to any enhancement in the local area nor represents any human risk.

Seddeek, M.K.; Sharshar, T.; Ragab, H.S.; Badran, H.M. [Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt). Faculty of Science

2005-07-01

128

Selenium Bioaccumulation in Stocked Fish as an Indicator of Fishery Potential in Pit Lakes on Reclaimed Coal Mines in Alberta, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Pit lakes are a common reclamation strategy for open pit mines; however, there is a concern about their water quality and suitability as fish habitat because they are often contaminated by metals or metalloids. This study assessed the exposure of fish and invertebrates to selenium (Se) and other metals and metalloids in pit lakes formed by open pit coal mining in Tertiary (thermal coal) and in Cretaceous (metallurgical coal) bedrock. Juvenile hatchery rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were stocked into two thermal coal pit lakes (water Se 15 ?g/L, high water Se). Se accumulation in stocked fish and concentrations in invertebrates were characterized over a period of 2 years. In the metallurgical pits, invertebrates had higher Se concentrations and fish accumulated Se to higher levels (exceeding USEPA tissue Se guidelines) than biota in the thermal pits. Rainbow and brook trout accumulated similar concentrations of Se in their muscle and exhibited a similar relationship between whole-body and muscle Se concentrations. These results may be used by resource managers to assess compliance with whole-body tissue Se guidelines and to determine if pit lakes in coal mining areas pose a significant Se risk to wildlife or human health. The high Se exposure in metallurgical coal pits indicates that under the current mining and reclamation strategy, these lakes are not suitable for management as recreational "put and take" fisheries.

Miller, L. L.; Rasmussen, J. B.; Palace, V. P.; Sterling, G.; Hontela, A.

2013-07-01

129

Major new Colombian coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Amcoal with partners Rio Tinto and Glencore, is developing a new large coal export operation in Colombia, following an agreement last year to combine the Cerrejon Centrale and Oreganal coal properties. Three major groups have been awarded a contract to develop the Cerrejon Sur block. Five new mining concessions in the Guajira region south of El Cerrejon will be developed. Colombia has proven and inferred coal reserves amounting to more than 20,000 Mt and hopes to be producing 50 Mt/y by 2005. 1 tab., 1 map.

Chadwick, J.

1998-09-01

130

Results of the Promethee Method Application in Selecting the Technological System at the Majdan III Open Pit Mine / Wyniki Zastosowania Metody Promethee do Wyboru Systemu Technologicznego W Kopalni Odkrywkowej Majdan III  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the application of the PROMETHEE model and the results achieved in practice, following the example of the multi-criteria selection of the technological system at the Majdan III clay mineral raw material open pit mine of the Potisje Company, Republic of Serbia. After the introduction comments, reasons are explained for selecting the new technological system, conditions and limitations for the seven alternative solutions considered are described, mathematical foundation for the PROMETHEE method and a multi-criteria model of the problem in question are presented. The solution with the following structure was ranked first and accepted by the Company management as the best: Bucket chain excavator - Conveyor belts - Spreader (ECS), alongside a decision is made on the acquisition of machinery and system construction. The system was put into operation in 2000. The experience and the data accumulated in the previous twelve years confirm that the decision made on the application of the ECS technology was just, and the conclusion lists the benefits achieved. W artykule omówiono zastosowanie modelu Promethee i przedyskutowano uzyskane w ten sposób wyniki na przyk?adzie wielokryterialnego wyboru systemu technologicznego do zastosowania w kopalni odkrywkowej minera?ów ilastych Majdan III, nale??cej do przedsi?biorstwa górniczego Potisje (Republika Serbii). Po uwagach wprowadzaj?cych przedstawiono powody wyboru nowego ci?gu technologicznego, omówiono warunki oraz ograniczenia dla siedmiu alternatywnych rozwi?za?, podstawy matematyczne metody Promethee oraz wielokryterialny model zagadnienia. Rozwi?zanie uznane za najlepsze i zaaprobowane przez zarz?d przedsi?biorstwa zak?ada zastosowanie nast?puj?cego ci?gu technologicznego: koparka ?ancuchowa jednonaczyniowa - przeno?niki ta?mowe - rozk?adarka(system ECS). Podj?to tak?e decyzje odno?nie zakupu sprz?tu i instalacji systemu, który uruchomiony zosta? w 2000 roku. Do?wiadczenia i danezebrane z przeci?gu ostatnich dwunastu lat potwierdzaj? zasadno?? wyboru systemu technologicznego. W podsumowaniu zestawiono list? uzyskanych korzy?ci

Vuji?, Slobodan; Hudej, Marjan; Miljanovi?, Igor

2013-12-01

131

First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)

2005-07-01

132

78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

...underground coal mines. The U.S. Court...during an underground coal mine emergency. Responses...miners' escape and survivability. Availability of...Regulatory History The Mine Improvement and New...chambers in underground coal mines, and to...

2013-08-08

133

Coal mining needs a differentiating approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes state of Bulgarian coal mines in 1988 after the introduction of self-management in place of a strictly centralized economic control system in the mining and power generating industries, which are interdependent as thermal power plants consume 90% of Bulgarian coal. It is said that fulfillment of general branch plans, prepared in consultation with state financial experts, should be the first priority of all coal mines and power plants. The second priority is to improve profitability, despite low coal prices and low coal quality. It is suggested that the operating costs of a mine operating in average conditions, plus a few percent for self-financing and development, should determine the price of coal, and that prices should remain fixed for several years. Future investment in mining should come from state-owned industrial enterprises and from the state. Future investment approach should concentrate on constructing modern, highly mechanized coal mines with good mining conditions.

Stoyanov, S.

1988-03-01

134

Calibration of Numerical Model Applied to a Shear Zone Located on a Slope in an Open Pit Mine—Case History  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The instability of a pit mine slope diagnostic caused by the slipping of a localized deep shear zone is described. The slope was designed on ultra basic, serpentine and metabasite rock formations with an angle varying from 40 to 45 de- grees. The perturbed slope zone was classified as RMR 12 and the non-perturbed zone as RMR 75. The boundary of these zones is defined as the shear zone. The pit slope was field mapped in detail and the mechanical properties of the rock were obtained through a laboratory test. The lab data were further processed using the RMR mechanical classifi- cation system. The Distinct Elements Code numerical modeling and simulation software was used to design the pit slope. The model was calibrated through topographic mapping of the points on the ground. The task of calibrating a numerical model is far from simple. Exhaustive attempts to find points of reference are required. The mechanical be- havior in function of the time factor is a problem that has yet to be solved. The instant deformation generated in the numerical model generated functions that can be compared with the deformations of quick shifts acquired in the topog- raphic monitoring. SMR is indeed more often recommended for Pit Slopes, though the fact that we have used RMR does not invalidate the classification for the modeling effect. The main parameters such as spacing, filling, diving direc- tion and continuity allow for compartmentalization of the modeled area. The objective of the modeling was not to pro- ject slopes because this massif was undergoing a progressive slow rupture. The objective of the modeling was to study the movement of the mass of rock and its progressive rupture caused by a shear zone.

Evandro Moraes da Gama

2012-01-01

135

Patrones de sucesión vegetal sobre los depósitos de material residual en minas de gravas - Santa Fe de Bogotá Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con Base en el estudio de la composicion y estructura de las comunidades vegetales y el analisis de las caracteristicas fisicoquimicas de los desechos, se determinaron los patrones iniciales de sucesion primaria, presentes en tres depositos de material residual de 18, 36, 120 meses de abandono, provenientes de la explotacion minera de gravas a cielo abierto al sur de Santafe de Bogota. La composicion, riqueza y diversidad floristica fueron maximas a los 36 meses de abandono del deposito. La dominancia alcanzo los maximos valores en el deposito de 120 meses. Los dos primeros parches de vegetacion presentaron un mejor ajuste al modelo de distribucion especie-abundancia logaritmico, y el tercero a un normal logaritimico. El azar es el patron de distribucion espacial-horizontal que mas abunda entre todas las especies,. seguido por patrones de micro y macroheterogeneidad. Las formas de crecimiento dominantes pasan de hierbas acaulirrosulas y postradas, en la comunidad pionera, a hierbas rastreras y arbustos, en el parche de 120 meses de edad. Las estrategias de historias de vida y las relaciones intraespecificas propuestas por Grime (1989, permitieron determinar que las plantas en la colonizacion de los primeros ambientes, se comportan como ruderales tolerantes a restricciones, y hacia el final del periodo sucesionall, como competidoras tolerantes a restricciones. Los modelos establecidos por Connell y Slatyer (1977 y Noble y Slatyer (1980, y los mecanimos de sucesion vegetal: arribo, establecimiento, facilitacion, tolerancia, inhibicion, extincion y maximo dominio, explican claramente los patrones de sucesion vegetal establecidos a traves de la dinamica de colonizacion y establecimiento de las especies vegetales sobre estos depositos. Cambios a traves del tiempo en la disponibilidad de condiciones y recursos en los sustratos expuestos a la colonizacion vegetal, medidos a partir de la caracterizacion de N, P, K, Ca, Na, Mg, porcentaje de arcillas, textura, pH, cBased on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia. This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of natural restauration of tropical ecosystems subjected to man-borne degradation.

Mora Goyes Ricardo A.

1999-11-01

136

Coal mine roadway support practice in Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal mine roadway support practice in Australia is viewed. Coal mining geomechanics and rock reinforcement strategies required to increase coal mining depth and to enhance productivity in coal mining operation are presented together with roadway support practices and case studies of rib support. The pre-tensioned mild steel bolt effective in supporting coal mine roadways and the torque bolting technique using a thrust bearing assembly between a nut and washer are presented, and the polyurethane resin injection technique for roadway stabilization is also presented which offered various benefits in trial use at Augus Place Colliery. Based on the experience in Ellalong Colliery adopting longwall mining since 1983, new underground roadway support materials and concepts are arranged, and some new rock bolt developments and practical aspects of cable support at Tahmoor Colliery are viewed. The future directions and priorities of the Australian underground coal mining industry are finally considered. 7 refs., 12 figs.

Follington, I.

1995-03-01

137

Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

Floyd, E. L.

1977-01-01

138

Underground coal mining section data  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of tables which display the allocation of time for ten personnel and eight pieces of underground coal mining equipment to ten function categories is provided. Data from 125 full shift time studies contained in the KETRON database was utilized as the primary source data. The KETRON activity and delay codes were mapped onto JPL equipment, personnel and function categories. Computer processing was then performed to aggregate the shift level data and generate the matrices. Additional, documented time study data were analyzed and used to supplement the KETRON databased. The source data including the number of shifts are described. Specific parameters of the mines from which there data were extracted are presented. The result of the data processing including the required JPL matrices is presented. A brief comparison with a time study analysis of continuous mining systems is presented. The procedures used for processing the source data are described.

Gabrill, C. P.; Urie, J. T.

1981-01-01

139

Complementarities Between Coal Mining Machinery Industry and Coal Mining Industry: Evidence from China 1991-2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study used VAR model to analyze and verify the complementaries between Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises and coal mining enterprises from the perspective of static state and dynamic state, it concluded that: there is a co-integration relationship between the actual output value of Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises and the actual value of Chinese coal mining enterprises, namely, there is a long-term and stable equilibrium; Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises have advanced the development of Chinese coal mining enterprises, while the development of Chinese coal mining enterprises also have played a significant role in promoting Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises; in the short term, the changes of the actual output value of Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises are due to themselves as well as the actual output value of Chinese coal mining enterprises and the changes of actual output value of Chinese coal mining enterprises are also due to themselves and the actual output value of Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises.

He Xiao-yan

2013-01-01

140

30 CFR 816.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 816.84 Section 816.84 Mineral...816.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New and existing impounding structures constructed of coal mine waste or...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

30 CFR 817.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. 817.84 Section 817.84 Mineral...817.84 Coal mine waste: Impounding structures. New and existing impounding structures constructed of coal mine waste or...

2010-07-01

142

30 CFR 819.13 - Auger mining: Coal recovery.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Coal recovery. 819.13 Section 819...SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.13 Auger mining: Coal recovery. (a) Auger mining...

2010-07-01

143

Coal Mining in Southern Illinois  

Science.gov (United States)

After graduating from high school in 1936, C. William "Doc" Horrell received a $12 camera from his mother. Horrell was immediately bitten by the photography bug, and created a dark room in his mother's walk-in-closet. He attended Southern Illinois Normal University (now the Southern Illinois University Carbondale), and after his time in the armed services, he opened up his own photography studio in Anna, Illinois. In the 1960s, Doc began wandering around southern Illinois to document the region's coal mining industry. Over the next few years, he took thousands of photographs, some of which formed the heart of his 1973 book, "The Land Between the Rivers". The good folks at SIU Carbondale have created this online exhibit to introduce users to Horrell's work. Visitors can make their way through the exhibit, and they may find themselves gravitating to the complete online collection, which contains over 750 items. It's a tremendous find, and it includes images of abandoned coal mining facilities, men at work, and coal trains.

144

Mining challenges to deal with the land, forestry and environmental aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A summary is given of a report of the IMA Business Commission dealing with mining development planning in Indonesia as related to land matters, forestry and environmental aspects. A summary of land matter management of an open pit coal mine is included

145

A study of natural recovery in an aquatic ecosystem affected by mining: the Rodrigatos stream (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work takes place into the Bierzo Region, located in northeast of the province of Leon (Spain). In this area numerous open-pit and underground coal mines exist. Some of them are still in activity but almost have been abandoned. In any case, mining implies the presence of coal adits, spoil dumps, tailing dams, and coal-washing plants at the river bank. Most of them persist when mining have finished. (Author)

146

Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 7 Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13 m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10 km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7 m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Tachira and Merida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It is postulated that slower subsidence rates dominated during the Paleocene while greater foreland basin subsidence rates during the Eocene-Miocene resulted from the loading of nappe thrust sheets as part of the main construction phases of the Andean orogen. South-southeastward advance and emplacement of the Lara nappes during the oblique transpressive collision of the Caribbean and South American tectonic plates in the Paleocene was further removed from the sites of peat deposition, resulting in slower subsidence rates. Slower subsidence in the Paleocene may have favored the growth of raised mires, generating higher inertinite concentrations through more frequent moisture stress. Consistently low ash yield and sulfur content would be due to the protection from clastic input in raised mires, in addition to the leaching of mineral matter by rainfall and the development of acidic conditions preventing fixation of sulfur. In contrast, peat mires of Eocene-Miocene age encountered rapid subsidence due to the proximity of nappe emplacement, resulting in lower inertinite content, higher and more variable sulfur content, and higher ash yield. (author)

Hackley, Paul C. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston VA 20192 (United States); Martinez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 3895, Caracas 1010 A (Venezuela)

2007-08-01

147

Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type  

Science.gov (United States)

About 7??Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13??m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10??km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7??m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Ta??chira and Me??rida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It is postulated that slower subsidence rates dominated during the Paleocene while greater foreland basin subsidence rates during the Eocene-Miocene resulted from the loading of nappe thrust sheets as part of the main construction phases of the Andean orogen. South-southeastward advance and emplacement of the Lara nappes during the oblique transpressive collision of the Caribbean and South American tectonic plates in the Paleocene was further removed from the sites of peat deposition, resulting in slower subsidence rates. Slower subsidence in the Paleocene may have favored the growth of raised mires, generating higher inertinite concentrations through more frequent moisture stress. Consistently low ash yield and sulfur content would be due to the protection from clastic input in raised mires, in addition to the leaching of mineral matter by rainfall and the development of acidic conditions preventing fixation of sulfur. In contrast, peat mires of Eocene-Miocene age encountered rapid subsidence due to the proximity of nappe emplacement, resulting in lower inertinite content, higher and more variable sulfur content, and higher ash yield.

Hackley, P.C.; Martinez, M.

2007-01-01

148

Acid mine drainage: mining and water pollution issues in British Columbia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of protecting water quality and some of the problems associated with mineral development are described. Negative impacts of mining operations such as sedimentation, water disturbances, and water pollution from waste rock and tailings are considered. Mining wastes, types of water pollution from mining, the legacy of acid mine drainage, predicting acid mine drainage, preventing and mitigating acid mine drainage, examples from the past, and cyanide heap-leaching are discussed. The real costs of mining at the Telkwa open pit coal mine are assessed. British Columbia mines that are known for or are potentially acid generating are shown on a map. 32 refs., 10 figs.

NONE

1998-12-31

149

Coal Mine Methane in Russia [Russian Version  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

NONE

2010-07-01

150

French jumbos for Indian coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

French technology is being put to use in four coal mines in India: Amlabad, East Katras, Chora and Godavari Khani 10. In two of the mines the soutirage (sub-level caving) method as developed in the coal mines of Aquitaine in south west France is being introduced. The method involves the depillaring of the full thickness of the coal seam in successive slabs, retreating on level galleries and loading the won coal from these levels. The pillars are split using blasting; the blasting patterns are drilled with an Eimco-Secoma jumbo. 6 figs.

1989-03-01

151

Data Structuration in Coal Research and Coal Mining  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This presentation of data structuration in coal research and coal mining is considered as the first step in the setting up of an operational data bank. This structuration, according to the HBDS model, seems interesting to take into account many qualitative or/and quantitative data and to manage their relations. This application to drilling data deals with scientific and technical purposes, in coal mine.

Roulet, Marie-jose

1981-01-01

152

Basic problems which are being solved at the mining and power producting economic association im. G. Dimitrov, increasing coal reserves and implementing measures to prevent a deterioration in the quality of the coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining and power producing economic association im. G. Dimitrov delivers 17.5 percent of all the coal extracted in Bulgaria (NRB). 57.68 percent brown coal, 7.2 percent lignite and 100 percent of the anthracite for the entire country are extracted here. The quality of the coal is low. According to the cited data, the reserves of coal in the basin are 143 million tons, which, with a mean annual extraction of 6 million tons, will support operation of the mines to and after the year 2010. The ash content of the coals is high and is 58.6; 42 and 40 percent, respectively, for the brown coal, the lignite and the anthracites. An increase in the reserves of the Perishkiy basin was accomplished as a result of a number of measures: deblocking of the coal reserves located under major structures and buildings; expansion of open pit mining in depth and strike; reevaluation of the thin and high ash content strata in the reserves for extraction, additional explorations and so on. There are constantly ongoing measures to maintain and increase the quality of the extracted coal due to the continuous reduction in the quality of the coal reserves. The existing weaknesses and deficiencies are listed, along with measures to overcome them. The ash content in the commercial coal was reduced by 0.85 percent for 1983 as compared to the previous year, and by 1 percent for the brown coals as a result of these measures.

Stoimenov, St.; Gonev, Iv.

1984-01-01

153

Coal Mining Safety Monitoring Using WSN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose was to provide an implementable design scenario for underground coal mines using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main reason being that given the intricacies in the physical structure of a coal mine, only low power WSN nodes can produce accurate surveillance and accident detection data. The work mainly concentrated on designing and simulating various alternate scenarios for a typical mine and comparing them based on the obtained results to arr...

Ashish Kumar, Kriti Singh

2013-01-01

154

Geotechnical Risks in Underground Coal Mines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, a quantitative approach and decision tree were employed in order to assess and manage roof fall risks as only major problem bring about geotechnical issues in Iranian coal mines. For the objectives, risk was assessed due to the determination of likelihoods and cost of consequences (outcomes) by the analysis of assembled roof fall data from 5 different coal regions comprising several underground coal mines in Iran. In addition, the cost of consequences is considered by a relativ...

Shahriar, K.; Bakhtavar, E.

2009-01-01

155

Mobile Robot in Coal Mine Disaster  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As one of the largest coal production and consumption countries in the world, many countries are having related accidents occurred frequently such as gas explosion, flood, breaking out of fire during the exploitation of coal mine. Hazardous Gas Detection Robot is required to detect various kind of gas in coal mines. Multiple data can be detected and calculated simultaneously, so the response is fast using the same reference value. The range of the measurement is wide and it can accurately det...

S Tejaram, Smt M. Nalinisri

2013-01-01

156

The practical considerations regarding coal mine rehabilitation and closure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal mine closure is an important subject for the coal mining industry and the community within SA. The coal mine closure process begins with planning during the project feasiblility assessment phase and concludes with the surrender of tenure. Where a coal mine has not developed a closure plan, early commencement of closure planning is the best insurance for achieving surrender.

Beer, Abri

2010-01-01

157

Open-pit production and control at Roessing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years metal prices have been severely depressed and most companies have directed efforts to controlling costs in order to stay in business. Roessing Uranium has consistently kept uranium production cost increases well below the domestic inflation rate and this has been the result of a firm commitment to production and cost control, which is the main theme of this paper. The subject of cost analysis is briefly presented and the paper then gives more technical detail under the main headings of grade control, production control and engineering projects. The main communication channels, which are used to ensure that different departments on the mine are all working for the same objectives, are mentioned. The paper, however, is intended to be a general overview of the engineering aspects of open-pit cost control

158

Microbial influences during mining and usage of coal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A range of interactions of microorganisms with coal is considered. Topics include: coal biodegradation; microorganisms and acid mine drainage; biological treatment of acid coal mine drainage; and bacteria and fly ash leaching. 68 refs

159

Floatability of coal from Mine Kleofas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper researches into floatability of black coal from the KWK Kleofas Mine (Poland) in order to determine the floatability of the individual coal samples, the selectivity of applied collecting agents (Flotalex, Montanol), behaviour and transfer of macerals and indefinite matter into the flotation concentrates and flotation tailings. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 charts.

Peter Fecko; Iva Pectova; Barbara Tora; Vladimir Cablik; Silvie Riedlova [VSB-TU Ostrava, Ostrava - Poruba (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mining and Geology

2005-07-01

160

Characteristics of coal mine ventilation air flows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a greenhouse gas but also a wasted energy resource if not utilised. Underground coal mining is by far the most important source of fugitive methane emissions, and approximately 70% of all coal mining related methane is emitted to the atmosphere through mine ventilation air. Therefore, research and development on mine methane mitigation and utilisation now focuses on methane emitted from underground coal mines, in particular ventilation air methane (VAM) capture and utilisation. To date, most work has focused on the oxidation of very low concentration methane. These processes may be classified based on their combustion kinetic mechanisms into thermal oxidation and catalytic oxidation. VAM mitigation/utilisation technologies are generally divided into two basic categories: ancillary uses and principal uses. However, it is possible that the characteristics of ventilation air flows, for example the variations in methane concentration and the presence of certain compounds, which have not been reported so far, could make some potential VAM mitigation and utilisation technologies unfeasible if they cannot cope with the characteristics of mine site ventilation air flows. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows. Moreover, dust, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, and other possible compounds emitted through mine ventilation air into the atmosphere are also pollutants. Therefore, this paper presents mine-site experimental results on the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows, including methane concentration and its variations, dust loadings, particle size, mineral matter of the dust, and other compounds in the ventilation air flows. The paper also discusses possible correlations between ventilation air characteristics and underground mining activities. PMID:17239518

Su, Shi; Chen, Hongwei; Teakle, Philip; Xue, Sheng

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology developed during the project is considered satisfactory, therefore we don't consider necessary to prosecute the research in this field. The methodology could be used in the future for looking for suitable rubbish dumps in other mining areas, especially when no other adequate locations are available, even though such need is not apparent by now. (Author) 10 refs.

NONE

2000-07-01

162

Bacterial desulphurization of coal from mine Marcel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the work was verification of bacterial leaching on the samples of black coal from locality mine Marcel (Poland). From the results obtained it was clear that the coal is very well leached by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and this technology can be used for coal desulphurization. A leaching time of one month is required, to remove 72% of total sulphur and 60% of pyritic sulphur. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Peter Fecko; Pavla Ovcari; Silvie Riedlova; Barbara Tora [VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, Krakow (Poland)

2003-07-01

163

Mobile Robot in Coal Mine Disaster  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As one of the largest coal production and consumption countries in the world, many countries are having related accidents occurred frequently such as gas explosion, flood, breaking out of fire during the exploitation of coal mine. Hazardous Gas Detection Robot is required to detect various kind of gas in coal mines. Multiple data can be detected and calculated simultaneously, so the response is fast using the same reference value. The range of the measurement is wide and it can accurately detect the gas content.

S.TejaRam#1 , Smt. M. Nalinisri

2013-05-01

164

INFLUENCE OF OVERBURDEN ON ECONOMICAL EXPLOITATION OF OPEN PITS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From experience we have learnt that all efforts made in seeking thorough economical solutions in planning open pits are rewarding in the course of exploitation of the so planned open pits. From numerous issues to be solved in the course of planning the three are the most important, i.e. ultimate slope angle, waste transportation routes, and selection of equipment.

Vladimir Renduli?

1992-12-01

165

Coal Mining Safety Monitoring Using WSN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available -The main purpose was to provide an implementable design scenario for underground coal mines using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The main reason being that given the intricacies in the physical structure of a coal mine, only low power WSN nodes can produce accurate surveillance and accident detection data. The work mainly concentrated on designing and simulating various alternate scenarios for a typical mine and comparing them based on the obtained results to arrive at a final design. In the Era of embedded technology, the Zigbee protocols are used in more and more applications. Because of the rapid development of sensors, microcontrollers, and network technology, a reliable technologicalcondition has been provided for our automatic real-time monitoring of coal mine. The underground system collects temperature, humidity and methane values of coal mine through sensor nodes in the mine; it also collects the number of personnel inside the mine with the help of an IR sensor, and then transmits the data to information processing terminal based on ARM.

Ashish Kumar, Kriti Singh, Dr. Debmalya Bhattacharya

2013-10-01

166

Characterization of coal samples from Dasal-i coal mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Summary: Characterization of coal from Dasal coal mine Khyber pukatunkwa, Pakistan. Coal samples were collected from 50, 100, 150, 175, 200 and 250 feet. Coal samples were crushed, grounded and screened through 250 macro m sieves shaker. Proximate and ultimate analysis of coal showed that these coals were of low grade from sub-bituminous to bituminous. Sulphur content from Dasal coal mine was less as compared with other mines in Pakistan. Leaching of coal led to significant amount of mineral matter with hydrochloric acid (HCl), ammonium acetate (CH/sub 3/ COONH/sub 4/ ), nitric acid (HNO/sub 3/), hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Among the leachants HCl was most effective for copper, iron, chromium and cobalt. In case of CH/sub 3/ COONH/sub 4/ no significant leaching was made. HNO/sub 3/ and NaOH also resulted average leaching while, HF was found to be a good leachant for lead, nickel and zinc. Most of inorganic elements were effectively leached by digestion as compared to other leachants. (author)

167

30 CFR 912.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...surface coal mining operations...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations...mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

168

30 CFR 947.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...surface coal mining operations...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations...mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

169

30 CFR 933.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...surface coal mining operations...Designation Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations...mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

170

30 CFR 939.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...surface coal mining operations...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations...mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

171

Spoil pile instabilities with reference to a strip coal mine in Turkey: mechanisms and assessment of deformations  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increasing adoption of the surface mining of coal, problems associated with spoil pile instability, which affects resource recovery, mining cost, and safety and presents environmental hazards, have become a matter of prime concern to mine planners and operators. The study of geotechnical aspects is thus very important in the rational planning for the disposal, reclamation, treatment and utilization of spoil material. A strip coal mine, one of the largest open pit mines in Turkey, is located in Central Anatolia and provides coal to a thermal power station. Coal production is carried out in two adjacent open pits, the Central Pit and South Pit. A large-scale spoil pile instability over an area of 0.3 km2 occurred within the dumping area of the Central pit. In addition, small-scale movement occurred in the outside dumping area. This paper outlines the results of field and laboratory investigations to describe the mechanisms of the spoil pile instabilities and to assess deformations monitored over a long period following the failure. Shear test results indicate that the interface between the floor and spoil material dumped by dragline has a negligible cohesion and is the most critical plane of weakness for spoil pile instability. Back analyses based on the method of limit equilibrium and the numerical modelling technique, and observations in the pit revealed that failure occurred along a combined sliding surface consisting of a circular surface through the spoil material itself and a planar surface passing along the interface between the spoil piles and floor. The analyses also indicated that pore water pressure ratios of about 0.25 satisfy limiting equilibrium condition and that rainfall about one month before the failure may be a contributing factor to the instability. Movement monitoring data obtained following the failure over a 1.5-year period suggested that the ongoing deformations were mainly due to compaction of the spoil material. Based on the monitoring data and the results of the analyses, the failure mode of the local instability occurring at the outside dumping area was considerably similar to that of the large instability.

Kasmer, Ozgu; Ulusay, Resat; Gokceoglu, Candan

2006-02-01

172

Environmental protection in brown coal mining with the example of the Belchatow brown coal surface mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses environmental policy of Poland with the example of the Belchatow brown coal surface mine, the largest in Poland. The following problems are evaluated: collecting detailed information on water conditions in the Belchatow mine and environmental pollution prior to mine construction, construction of a pipeline system for water supply prior to mine draining, effects of mine draining on formation of a large drawdown cone, effects of lowering the ground water table on vegetation, forests, agriculture in the area, water conditions, river flow, water pollution from the Belchatow mine, water treatment plants, dust emission from Belchatow cuts and spoil banks, land reclamation after surface mining (plant growth, grass, afforestation), standardized methods for land reclamation, economic aspects of environmental protection, organizational models of environmental protection in a large brown coal surface mine.

Wasowicz, J.

1986-01-01

173

GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN COAL STRIP MINING: PRELIMINARY DESIGNS FOR ACTIVE MINE SOURCES OF POLLUTION  

Science.gov (United States)

Three potential pollution source categories have been identified for Western coal strip mines. These sources include mine stockpiles, mine waters, and miscellaneous active mine sources. TEMPO's stepwise monitoring methodology (Todd et al., 1976) is used to develop groundwater qua...

174

Coal mining and water quality: Criciuma's case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coal mining in the Santa Catarina Coal-Basin started in 1885 and since them it has been causing serious damage to the environment, specially the water resources, causing several problems like sedimentation and acidification of the rivers that supply the region, and compromising the agricultural-industry and fishery. The mining is also responsible for several professional diseases. The region was considered, in 1980, the '14th Critical Area' to the Pollution Control and Environmental Quality Conservation. Only in the beginning of the 80's, after the publication of the 917 Interministerial Resolution (July, 1982), the first official actions were taken, in order to minimize the environmental impact due to the coal mining industry. With that scenario, the region was chosen as one of the study areas of the 'National Center of Control of Mining Pollution', derived from an agreement between the Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral - DNPM and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The present study is part of the set of studies that have been realized in the region, with the aim of evaluating the environmental impact caused by the coal mining industry, and to suggest actions (to the miners) in order to minimize the environmental problems. This study presents a review of the occupation process of the Criciuma region, its connection to the coal industry, the progress of the mineral and environmental legislation, and the periodic monitoring of environmental parameters (physic-chemical analysis of the Mae Luzia and Sangao rivers, and the drainage from two coal mines) during the period of three years. This period began before the setting of environmental restrictions, going up to after the adoption of reclamation actions. The results allow to conclude that, during the period studied, there was no improvement in the river water characteristics, despite the adoption of reclamation actions. This behaviour may be due to the following factors: there are several abandoned mines (mainly after 1990, year of the implantation of the free trade for the coal sector), that did not finish their reclamation works. These sites are still producing acid drainage; n the sub-basins of the rivers Mae Luzia and Sangao there are several dumping tailings, probably connected to abandoned mines. These tailings are permanent fonts of sulfuric acid; even the mines in operation, in accordance with the official regulations, drain to the rivers, eventually, acid mine drainage, with no previous treatment. (author)

175

Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

Atalay, A.

1990-10-01

176

Coal mine helps endangered wallaby survive  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A central Queensland coal mine is being used to help save one of Australia`s most endangered species from extinction. BHP`s Gregory open-cut coal mine near Emerald has been chosen as a site to undertake a breeding programme for the Bridled Nailtail Wallaby. The Gregory/Crinum mine is an ideal location for the recovery programme because it has a considerable area of nature mixed brigalow and grassland south of mining operations that provide a suitable habitat for the wallabies. 16 nailtails were transferred to a half-acre enclosure at Gregory in early 1997; numbers had doubled to 32 by November 1998. The small wallaby is so named after its distinctive `bridal` marking on its shoulders and the horny projection at the tip of its tail. 2 photos.

NONE

1999-02-01

177

Exposure of workers in Tusnica coal mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to identify potential exposure of the workers in the coal mine Tusnica. The results of the investigation showed increased activity of brown coal up to 1060±88 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 976±30 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra and 118±31 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. Dose rate measurements ranged from 0.07 to 0.25 ?Sv h-1. The annual effective dose, taking into account external exposure to ambient gamma radiation and internal exposure due to inhalation of the resuspended dust, would be 1.6 mSv a-1. The results presented lead to the conclusion that Tusnica coal mine contains brown coal with significant radioactivity, indicating that the working hours in the area should be regulated and the use of respiratory protective equipment is obligatory. (authors)

178

Challenges to improved underground coal mine productivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal production from underground mines is a complex process which involves the interaction of four interrelated components: structure, atmosphere, equipment, and personnel. As the coal is mined, entry and pillar structures are created in the rock which must be protected and maintained for different lengths of time. The atmosphere within working areas of the mine must be free of accumulations of both dangerous gases and potentially hazardous particulates. Mining equipment is increasing in power, efficiency, and complexity. A smaller, aging workforce must be able to work safely and effectively in the challenging underground environment. Proper application of a wide variety of technologies can and must enhance overall productivity and safety to maintain the competitive position of underground coal as an economical energy source. Future technology developments necessary to increase the understanding of ground control, improve the mine atmosphere, provide greater machinery availability and efficiency, and protect personnel are presented as extensions of CONSOL Coal Group`s past use and current development of technology.

Cotten, S.A. [CONSOL Inc., Library, PA (United States)

1998-12-31

179

30 CFR 817.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

...structure constructed of coal mine waste or intended to impound coal mine waste that meets the criteria of...be diverted into stabilized diversion channels designed to meet the...constructed of or impounding coal mine waste shall be designed so that...

2010-07-01

180

30 CFR 816.84 - Coal mine waste: Impounding structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

...structure constructed of coal mine waste or intended to impound coal mine waste that meets the criteria of...be diverted into stabilized diversion channels designed to meet the...constructed of or impounding coal mine waste shall be designed so that...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816...816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. ...design shall include diversions and underdrains as...disturbed areas, including diversion channels that are not...placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall...

2010-07-01

182

30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817...817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. ...design shall include diversions and underdrains as...disturbed areas, including diversion channels that are not...placement of coal mine waste. Topsoil shall...

2010-07-01

183

Wireless Ethernet for longwall coal mine automation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of wireless Ethernet technology to provide a reliable communications link to the shearer for automation of longwall mining is described. Wireless Ethernet technology was installed and tested on a coal mine longwall. The demonstration included transmission of three-dimensional shearer position data and a surface display showing shearer path in real time. The movement of the shearer can be monitored using a web browser. 4 refs., 9 figs.

Hargrave, C.; McPhee, R.; Ralston, J.; Hainsworth, D.; Reid, D. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

2003-07-01

184

Development and testing of methods for in-situ-monitoring the environmental problems in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden zur In-situ-Langzeitueberwachung fuer Probleme der Folgelandschaften des Braunkohlenbergbaus. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the project a concept and prototypes have been developed and tested for an automatic, computer-based monitoring of sites suspected to be hazardous in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. In-situ measurements with milieuparameter probes and an optical sensor system in observation wells are combined with measurements between the wells using an electromagnetic system. Methods are being developed for monitoring the vadose and saturated zones. The areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines in eastern Germany are not in a steady-state condition. Considerable changes are occurring due to redistribution and aeration of the sediments during removal of the overburden, due to disposal of solid and liquid wastes in the mine area, as well as to the re-establishment of normal groundwater levels. Monitoring will help to better understand the system. Precautionary and remedial measures must also be monitored as well as natural attenuation of pollutants. The results of the project are encouraging with regard to the range of the electromagnetic monitoring system as well as with regard to the long-term stability. Hence, the efficiency will be tested at a reference object in a long time test. (orig.) [German] Im Vorhaben sind ein Konzept und Prototypen fuer die vollautomatische, rechnergestuetzte Langzeitueberwachung (Monitoring) von Altlastenstandorten in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften entwickelt und getestet worden. Das Konzept basiert auf der Kombination lokaler Messungen mit Milieuparametersonden und einem System zur optischen Spektrometrie mit raeumlichen Ueberwachungsmethoden eines elektromagnetischen Ueberwachungssystems. Dabei wurden Loesungen sowohl fuer ein Monitoring in der wassergesaettigten als auch in der ungesaettigten Zone entwickelt. Derartige Ueberwachungssysteme werden kuenftig benoetigt, um zu einem besseren Verstaendnis und zur Loesung der Probleme in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften zu kommen, die durch die Belueftung und Umstrukturierung der Gesteinsschichten, durch das Einbringen und Ablagern fester und fluessiger Abfaelle sowie durch den Wiederanstieg des Grundwassers verursacht werden. Ausserdem dient die Monitoringtechnologie zur Kontrolle der Wirksamkeit von Sicherungs- und Sanierungsmassnahmen sowie zur Untersuchung der Prozesse der natuerlichen Selbstreinigung (Natural Attenuation) in diesen Gebieten. Die Ergebnisse des Projektes sind sowohl hinsichtlich der Reichweite des elektromagnetischen Ueberwachungssystems als auch bezueglich der Langzeitstabilitaet so ermutigend, dass die Leistungsfaehigkeit an einem Referenzobjekt im Langzeitversuch getestet werden soll. (orig.)

Knoedel, K.; Koenig, F.

1999-06-15

185

Need for Clean Coal Mining in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.66.4.4870

Sribas Goswami

2014-01-01

186

Need for Clean Coal Mining in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.

Sribas Goswami

2014-04-01

187

Research Status on Control System of Coal Mine Rescue Robot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The coal mine rescue robot is the device which replaces the rescue workers to detect the environment and rescue victims in mine. And the control system is the core of the coal mine rescue robot and decides the performance of the robot. To design the control system which meets the requirement of coal mine rescue, it is firstly analyzed that requirements of the coal mine rescue robot in this study. Then, it is recommended that the control systems of coal mine robots which have been developed in China and its advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. In the end, we suggest an open control system based on ether net which meets the requirements of the coal mine rescue robot. The outdoor test shows that this control system effective and reliability for coal mine rescue robot.

Liu Jian

2013-01-01

188

Reclamation planning for coal mine in Istanbul, Agacli Region  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines mining aspect of view to reclamation studies based on rather simpler but more practical analyses in terms of legislations and regulations in Turkey. This paper also presents the results of various multi-disciplinary experimental studies aimed at the development of a reclamation proposal for an open pit mine located in the Istanbul Agacli region. Within the scope of this study, the current conditions and environmental features of the working area and its surrounding were evaluated. Various experimental studies were carried out on the representative samples taken from the overburden material and water sources in order to detect the existence of any contamination and also to determine the properties of samples subjected to the reclamation. Then, both environmental features and the results of experimental studies of the working area were evaluated. At the end of the evaluation, a simple and practicable reclamation proposal was developed.

Dogan, Tansel; Kahriman, Ali

2008-11-01

189

Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

1981-01-01

190

Evaluation of radioactive aerosols in United States underground coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radon and its alpha-radiation-emitting daughter products are known to present a health hazard in a wide variety of nonuranium underground mines. In order to provide information necessary for a complete summary of th occurrence of radioactive aerosols in US coal mines, several coal mines were sampled during the period September 1974-March 1975. Although not all underground coal mines were sampled, an attempt was made to evaluate representative mines from each coal producing district and major coal seam. This paper describes the general health problems investigated, evaluation methods employed, and summarizes the data obtained.

Rock, R.L.; Svilar, G.; Beckman, R.T.; Rapp, D.D.

1975-01-01

191

Near-source observations from single and multiple cylindrical explosions in a coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental study of ground motion from explosions designed to remove overburden in an open pit coal mine is reported. The purpose of this study is a characterization of these ground motions in the distance range of several tens of meters to several kilometers. The investigation has focused upon both single cylindrical sources with different explosive configurations as well as arrays of charges in the production mode. Critical to this study of source configuration and coupling is experimental control of the individual explosions, the timing of the explosions and the geological properties. The height of the explosive I charges, their depth and charge distribution were monitored in the field. High speed photography as well as velocity of detonation measurements were made on the multiple explosion source so that detonation of individual charges could be documented. Different yields of both ANFO and Emulsion explosives were used. Two tests were detonated with an air column or deck directly above the explosive while the remaining six, single shots were backfilled with stemming and drill cuttings. The air decks were designed to investigate proposed enhanced motions from such configurations. Observations were made as close as 50 m and as far as 10 km. This range of measurements allows the coupling of the explosive energy into the body and surface wave component of motion to be quantified and characterized as a function of range. The location of these tests was an active coal mine and so there was the opportunity to recover near-source data from three normal production shots of the mine. These explosions range in total explosive size from 43,500 to 87,077 lbs.

Stump, B.W.; Pearson, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Yang, Xiaoning [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1994-06-01

192

Greenhouse gas emission from Australian coal mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1997, when the Australian Coal Association (ACA) signed a letter of Intent in respect of the governments Greenhouse Challenge Program, it has encouraged its member companies to participate. Earlier this year, the ACA commissioned an independent scoping study on greenhouse gas emissions in the black coal mining industry This was to provide background information, including identification of information gaps and R and D needs, to guide the formulation of a strategy for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining, processing and handling of black coals in Australia. A first step in the process of reducing emission levels is an appreciation of the source, quantity and type of emissions om nine sites. It is shown that greenhouse gas emissions on mine sites come from five sources: energy consumption during mining activities, the coal seam gas liberated due to the extraction process i.e. fugitive emissions, oxidation of carbonaceous wastes, land use, and embodied energy. Also listed are indications of the degree of uncertainty associated with each of the estimates

193

Blast! Cape Breton coal mine disasters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book contains 18 chapters. Each chapter describes a major disaster (where three or more deaths occurred) in Cape Breton's coal mining history. The Lingan boiler explosion in 1877, the 1878 Sydney Mines explosion, 1892 Victoria Mines boiler explosions, No. 5 reserve gas explosion of 1903, runaway coal box at Scotia No. 4 in 1907, the 1908 Port Hood mine explosion, Florence No. 3 gas explosion in 1911, explosion at the New Waterford No. 12 Colliery in 1917, and a fall of stone at Inverness No.1 in 1924 are described. Other accidents were a runaway trip in 1937 and a runaway rake exactly a year later at the Sydney Mines Princess Colliery. A coal tank accident occurred at New Aberdeen No. 2 Colliery in 1943. Six disasters at Glace Bay are described: Caledonia fire and explosions in 1899, a boiler explosion at Numbers 2 and 9 surface plant in 1907, a speeding man rake in 1B Colliery in 1944, bump at No. 2 Colliery in 1946, and the explosions at No. 20 Colliery in 1952 and at No. 26 Colliery in 1979. A note containing a tribute to Cape Breton draegermen is included. 1 map.

MacKenzie, R.

2007-07-01

194

Noise exposures in US coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) inspectors conduct full-shift environmental noise surveys to determine the occupational noise levels to which coal miners are exposed. These noise surveys are performed to determine compliance with the noise standard promulgated under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Data from over 60,000 full-shift noise surveys conducted from fiscal year 1986 through 1992 were entered into a computer data base to facilitate analysis. This paper presents the mean and standard deviation of over 60,000 full-shift noise dose measurements for various underground and surface coal mining occupations. Additionally, it compares and contrasts the levels with historical noise exposure measurements for selected coal mining occupations that were published in the 1970`s. The findings were that the percentage of miners surveyed that were subjected to noise exposures above 100%, neglecting personal hearing protectors, were 26.5% and 21.6% for surface and underground mining, respectively. Generally, the trend is that the noise exposures for selected occupations have decreased since the 1970`s.

Seiler, J.P.; Valoski, M.P.; Crivaro, M.A.

1994-05-01

195

Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

196

78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices AGENCY: Mine Safety...information collection related to Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices. MSHA is particularly...Administration. Title: Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices. OMB Number:...

2013-04-30

197

77 FR 38323 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health...Data Card'' to ``Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling'' to more accurately reflect...Chronic exposure to respirable coal mine dust causes lung...

2012-06-27

198

30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...Designating Areas Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations...apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations...Environment of any area...

2010-07-01

199

30 CFR 941.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...surface coal mining by act of...chapter, Areas Designated...apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

200

30 CFR 939.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...surface coal mining by Act of...chapter, Areas Designated...apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1993  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, Coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.)

202

FY 2000 survey report on the supplementary project for feasibility survey of overseas coal development. Kendisan area, Loa Janan coal mine, East Kalimantan, Indonesia; 2000 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hojo jigyo chosa hokokusho. Indonesia Higashi Kalimantan shu Loa Janan Kendisan chiiki  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the purpose of studying feasibility of coal development in the Kendisan area south of the Loa Janan coal mine, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, the geological structure survey including topography making, surface survey, test boring, physical logging, etc. was conducted to grasp the outline of the coal seam and coal amount. Together with the surface survey, the test boring was carried out in a total of 27 holes and in a total length of 4,495.30m. Out of the cores collected from core boring, 128 were sampled/analyzed. As a result of the survey, 47 coal seams with coal thickness of 1m or more were confirmed out of a total of 114 coal seams. As a result of the analysis of coal quality, the values obtained were favorable as follows: the coal seam in the lower Puluh Balang seam was 5% or lower in ash, 6,000 kcal/kg or more in calorific value, and 0.5% or lower in sulfur content; the coal seam in the upper Balikpapan seam was 10% or lower in ash, 5,000-6,300 kcal/kg in calorific value, and 0.5% or lower in sulfur content. As a result of the calculation made for coal seams with coal thickness of 1m or more, the coal amount was estimated at approximately 2.5 million tons, assuming that it is possible to drill down to 100m of surface length by open pit mining. (NEDO)

NONE

2001-02-01

203

Coal mining in Bangladesh: Options to mitigate environmental impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines methods of mitigating the environmental impacts of coal mining in Bangladesh. Coal is expected to aid in providing energy security for the country in the short-term. The coal mining industry is currently in its infancy, and no policy exists. This study examines the government policies of three diverse countries and discovers that there are several instruments commonly used to reduce the environmental impacts of coal mining. These instruments include regulations that set st...

Angen, Meara Rose

2008-01-01

204

Changes in soil physical properties of a coal mining site influenced by liming, poultry manure and revegetation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical, chemical and biological properties of soils of reconstructed areas after coal mining are altered. This study aimed to evaluate liming, mineral and organic fertilizers and revegetation effects on the physical properties of a reconstructed soil after open-pit mining. The experiment was carried out in a former mine in Lauro Muller County - SC, in southern Brazil, from 2001 to 2005. The site was mined in 1991 and reconstructed in 1995. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications. The treatments consisted of. (1) Control; (2) 'dregs' (alkaline residue); (3) Lime; (4) Lime + Brachiaria brizantha; (5) Lime + Brachiaria brizantha + poultry litter. Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus saligna seedlings were transplanted to subplots of all treatments. Dolomitic limestone and dregs were incorporated in the soil at a depth of 10 cm. Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous fertilizers were added on the soil surface of all plots according to the official recommendation. Soil samples were collected in February 2005 (from the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm), and their physical and chemical properties evaluated. The treatments had no effects on soil bulk density, particle density, total porosity, macroporosity and microporosity. Liming increased pH, caused clay dispersion and reduced aggregates stability in water, while dregs increased pH without dispersing clay. Poultry litter and Brachiaria brizantha increased the aggregate stability and volumetric water content, thus favoring the recovery of soil physical quality in degraded areas.

Neto, A.L.; Albuquerque, J.A.; de Almeida, J.A.; Mafra, A.L.; Medeiros, J.C.; Alberton, A. [UDESC, Lages (Brazil)

2008-07-15

205

Game Analysis between Government and Coal Mine Enterprise in Coal Resource Exploitation Environmental Impact Compensation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the angle of compensation subject and compensation object, the interest involved with stakeholder was analyzed. Based on game theory, the relation between government and coal mine enterprise was analyzed. Through the research, the government should constraint the coal mine enterprise behavior, set up coal resources development environmental impact compensation incentive mechanism, increase coal resources exploitation and environmental compensation violations punishment, and incentive the coal mining enterprises.

MENG Zhao-jian

2013-08-01

206

30 CFR 942.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS...designating areas as unsuitable...Designating Areas as Unsuitable for Surface Coal Mining Operations...mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

207

Continuous quality control of mined hard and soft coals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is provided for determining the shale content of mined coal by monitoring the thorium content of the coal. Thorium content and ash content are shown to be related whereby a direct reading of the thorium will be indicative of the shale content of the coal and the ash content of the coal. The method utilizes the natural radiation of thorium to provide the continuous or selective control of mined coals

208

Game Analysis between Government and Coal Mine Enterprise in Coal Resource Exploitation Environmental Impact Compensation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From the angle of compensation subject and compensation object, the interest involved with stakeholder was analyzed. Based on game theory, the relation between government and coal mine enterprise was analyzed. Through the research, the government should constraint the coal mine enterprise behavior, set up coal resources development environmental impact compensation incentive mechanism, increase coal resources exploitation and environmental compensation violations punishment, and incentive the...

Meng, Zhao-jian

2013-01-01

209

Slope stability in surface mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The volume contains a total of 49 invited papers in four sections entitled: rock slope design considerations; case studies in rock slope stability; stability of waste rock embankments; and tailings and heap leaching. Three papers are directly relevant to coal mining: coal mine highwall stability by Ben Seegmiller; construction and operation of a major mined-rock disposal facility at Elkview Coal Corporation, British Colombia by Brent Zeitz; and steepened spoil slopes at Bridger Coal Company, by William Gerhard. The papers were invited in the long time lapse between the 3rd and 4th international conference on stability in open pit mining to supplement earlier proceedings. Immediately following the publication of this volume, a symposium was held in conjunction with the 2001 SME annual meeting in Denver, Colorado, USA.

Hustrulid, W.A.; McCarter, M.K.; Van Zyl, D.J.A. (eds.)

2000-07-01

210

Quinsam coal project could be a mine by 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes the proposed 120 million Can. dollar Quinsam coal project proposed near Campbell River on Vancouver Island. The 1-million tonne/year thermal coal mine is a joint venture of Brinco Limited and Weldwood of Canada Limited. Construction timetable, mining, preparation plant, water management and coal shipment are outlined.

1983-05-01

211

Environmental damage and countermeasures in Chinese coal mine areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses three aspects of the ecological environmental damage in China: ground subsidence due to underground coal mining, pollution of mine refuse from underground, and release of fly ash from power plants within coal mine areas. The paper proposes the comprehensive countermeasures for solving these problems. The author puts forward several ways and applications of disposal which could help alleviate the problems, and introduces the subsidence prediction principle in long wall mining. This technology calculates the subsidence, displacement and deformation at every point according to mining schedule. It provides a very useful tool for subsidence control. Finally, the author provides some suggestions to improve the environment in Chinese coal mine areas

212

Determinants of coal mine labor productivity change. [1950 to 1977  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal mine labor productivity (tons per miner-shift) has been falling yearly since 1970. The decline in labor productivity since 1970 has implications for the coal industry's labor demand, cost of production, and injuries and could hinder the ability of the industry to meet the coal output goals of the National Energy Plan. The purpose of this research study was to identify and measure the causes of labor productivity decline. Concise answers are given to three questions: Why is coal mine labor productivity important. What are the causes of labor productivity decline in deep and surface coal mines. What are the implications of these findings for future coal mine labor productivity. Coal mine labor productivity is important for three reasons: (1) it affects the cost of coal production, (2) it affects coal industry labor demand, and (3) it affects injuries and injury rates in coal mining. Labor productivity is the link between output levels and employment requirements. The period of declining productivity coincides with major changes in the coal industry's environment: (1) change from a largely unregulated industry to a highly regulated industry (the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969; implementation of many state surface mine reclamation laws, etc.) and (2) change from a declining, marginal profits industry to a growing, profitable industry (increasing coal prices and demand in the 1970s). A major conclusion of the study is that a portion of the high labor productivity of the 1960s was possible because some of the costs of coal mining - worker injuries, black lung disability, and environmental damage - were not being paid for by the coal industry and coal consumers. Once these costs were forced internally on the mine operators by legislation, productivity fell and the cost of production increased.

Baker, J. G.; Stevenson, W. L.

1979-11-01

213

International coal encyclopedia: coal exporting producers, coal mine index, coal distributors, international traders, and petroleum coke products; Volume 2, 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 2 of this annual encyclopedia is a directory of coal exporting producers. This year`s edition also contains revised and expanded sections on international trading companies, importing and exporting distributors, and coal mine index. New sections are included on petroleum coke and coal quality (the later is issued as supplement).

NONE

1995-06-01

214

Subsidence and reclamation in coal mine areas of China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal mining has caused widespread ground surface subsidence and deterioration of soil structure in China. Approximately 8,500,000 hectares of land have been affected by subsidence. Two major causes of subsidence are the mining technique used and the pumping of ground water to facilitate coal extraction. About 60% of all coal mines in China have been included in a reclamation study. This study includes filling underground mines with gangue, coal ash, and garbage and use of subsided areas as fish ponds and wastewater treatment ponds

215

What differences does age make? Coal mining injuries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Bureau of Labor Statistics says that in 2002 the coal mine workforce in the USA had a higher medium age than the workforce in any other sector of mining. Many older miners are part of the generation group known as Baby Boomers. The article gives figures for injuries received in underground coal mining, surface coal mining and coal preparation plant workers, analysed by age groups (Nexters, {lt}22; Generation Xers, 22-41; Baby Boomers, 42-59; Veterans, 60 and above), and also by job title. In all generation groups, more injuries were recorded in miners with less than two years experience. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 6 charts.

Mallett, L.; Schwerha, D.J. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Research Laboratory

2007-02-15

216

30 CFR 75.1107-11 - Extinguishing agents; requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements on mining equipment employed in low coal. 75.1107-11 Section 75.1107-11...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire...

2010-07-01

217

30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907...HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment...

2010-07-01

218

Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

1977-01-01

219

4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions.

Du, Wen-Feng; Peng, Su-Ping

2014-06-01

220

Simulator for bucket wheel excavators in brown coal open mining of RWE Power AG; Simulator fuer Schaufelradbagger in Braunkohlentagebauen der RWE Power AG  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the three large open pits Hambach, Garzweiler and Inden RWE Power AG (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) uses bucket wheel excavators, conveyor systems and spreaders that provide a continuous mass flow of the production side to the damping site of the opencast mine or the coal bunker respectively. On the world market there hardly exist paragons of solutions for the construction and commissioning of technical innovations of this conveyor technology. Consequently, the eligible technical and technological solutions have to be newly created. Therefore RWE Power AG developed an innovative simulator for bucket wheel excavators. The implementation takes place in a phased approach in which each stage has its own benefits for the company.

Mittmann, Robert; Niess, Thomas [RWE Power AG, Frechen-Habbelrath (Germany). Technikzentrum Tagebaue / Abt. PCZ-E Betriebsfuehrungssysteme; Rosenberg, Heinrich [RWE Power AG, Koeln (Germany). Tagebauplanung und -genehmigung

2011-05-15

 
 
 
 
221

30 CFR 921.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS...921.761 Areas designated...surface coal mining by Act of...chapter, Areas Designated...apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

222

30 CFR 912.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS...912.761 Areas designated...surface coal mining by act of...chapter, Areas Designated...apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

223

30 CFR 762.15 - Exploration on land designated as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for surface coal mining operations. 762...Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...OF THE INTERIOR AREAS UNSUITABLE FOR MINING CRITERIA FOR DESIGNATING...AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING...

2010-07-01

224

30 CFR 942.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS...942.761 Areas designated...surface coal mining by act of...chapter, Areas Designated...apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

225

30 CFR 762.13 - Land exempt from designation as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for surface coal mining operations. 762...Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...OF THE INTERIOR AREAS UNSUITABLE FOR MINING CRITERIA FOR DESIGNATING...AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING...

2010-07-01

226

30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS...designating areas unsuitable...apply to surface coal mining and reclamation operations...Ecology of any area...

2010-07-01

227

30 CFR 922.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS...922.761 Areas designated...surface coal mining by act of...chapter, Areas Designated...apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

228

30 CFR 910.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS...910.761 Areas designated...surface coal mining by Act of...chapter, Areas Designated...apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

229

30 CFR 761.11 - Areas where surface coal mining operations are prohibited or limited.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Areas where surface coal mining operations are...Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...THE INTERIOR AREAS UNSUITABLE FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED... Areas where surface coal mining...

2010-07-01

230

30 CFR 937.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS...937.761 Areas designated...surface coal mining by Act of...chapter, Areas Designated...apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

231

30 CFR 947.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS...947.761 Areas designated...surface coal mining by act of...chapter, Areas Designated...apply to surface coal mining and reclamation...

2010-07-01

232

Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C1) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C1 to C5), while only C1 and C2 were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C1 to C4 were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C1 (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C2-C3, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presence of C2 was detected in all samples while C3-C5 were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

233

Gas drainage in Australian underground coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes the use of gas drainage systems in Australian underground coal mines. Drainage systems are increasingly being used as the prime means of controlling outbursts. Systems covered include: predrainage; post drainage roof and floor holes; and goaf holes from the surface. Systems being investigated include hydrofracing from the surface, fracing from underground, angle drilling and horizontal holes from the surface. Gas extraction is expensive with the capital cost of a gas drainage system varying from 4 million Australian dollars to 6 million Australian dollars. 1 tab.

Ogilvie, M.L. [Kembla Coal & Coke Pty Ltd., Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

1995-01-01

234

ANÁLISIS Y DISEÑO DE LA OPERACIÓN DE PERFORACIÓN Y VOLADURAS EN MINERÍA DE SUPERFICIE EMPLEANDO EL ENFOQUE DE LA PROGRAMACIÓN ESTRUCTURADA / ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DRILLING AND BLASTING OPERATION ON OPEN PIT MINING USING FOCUS ON STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presenta el análisis y el diseño de la operación de perforación y voladuras en minería de superficie empleando el enfoque de la programación estructurada. El propósito de este trabajo es crear una interfaz, por medio de la cual se ingresan la densidad del explosivo, diámetro e in [...] clinación de la perforación, resistencia a la compresión de la roca y dimensiones del banco. Luego se obtiene el valor de las variables más importantes que acondicionan el diseño de la operación de perforación y voladuras, tales como: altura del banco, burden, espaciamiento, taco, carga del barreno, numero de barrenos, factor de carga, entre otras. Esta aproximación permite diseñar la operación de perforación y voladuras en menor tiempo y disminuir el error humano que se tiene por el uso repetitivo de las fórmulas para cálculos de los parámetros involucrados en el diseño de la perforación y voladura en minería de superficie. Abstract in english This article show analysis and design drilling and blasting operation on surface mining it focus on structured programming. The idea about this article a program where you can introduce different variables like, explosive density, diameter, inclination drilling, compressive strength rock and rock ma [...] ss design, after that, we get most important variables for this design like rock mass height, burden, spacing, hole charging , hole number, load factor. This article has allowed design drilling and blasting operation a lower time and get down mistake of the people that get it for repetitive use of calculation for parameter used in this design in drilling and blasting operation on surface mining.

JUAN CARLOS, DÍAZ-MARTÍNEZ; MELISSA ANDREA, GUARÍN-ARAGÓN; JOVANI ALBERTO, JIMÉNEZ-BUILES.

2012-12-01

235

ANÁLISIS Y DISEÑO DE LA OPERACIÓN DE PERFORACIÓN Y VOLADURAS EN MINERÍA DE SUPERFICIE EMPLEANDO EL ENFOQUE DE LA PROGRAMACIÓN ESTRUCTURADA / ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DRILLING AND BLASTING OPERATION ON OPEN PIT MINING USING FOCUS ON STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presenta el análisis y el diseño de la operación de perforación y voladuras en minería de superficie empleando el enfoque de la programación estructurada. El propósito de este trabajo es crear una interfaz, por medio de la cual se ingresan la densidad del explosivo, diámetro e in [...] clinación de la perforación, resistencia a la compresión de la roca y dimensiones del banco. Luego se obtiene el valor de las variables más importantes que acondicionan el diseño de la operación de perforación y voladuras, tales como: altura del banco, burden, espaciamiento, taco, carga del barreno, numero de barrenos, factor de carga, entre otras. Esta aproximación permite diseñar la operación de perforación y voladuras en menor tiempo y disminuir el error humano que se tiene por el uso repetitivo de las fórmulas para cálculos de los parámetros involucrados en el diseño de la perforación y voladura en minería de superficie. Abstract in english This article show analysis and design drilling and blasting operation on surface mining it focus on structured programming. The idea about this article a program where you can introduce different variables like, explosive density, diameter, inclination drilling, compressive strength rock and rock ma [...] ss design, after that, we get most important variables for this design like rock mass height, burden, spacing, hole charging , hole number, load factor. This article has allowed design drilling and blasting operation a lower time and get down mistake of the people that get it for repetitive use of calculation for parameter used in this design in drilling and blasting operation on surface mining.

JUAN CARLOS, DÍAZ-MARTÍNEZ; MELISSA ANDREA, GUARÍN-ARAGÓN; JOVANI ALBERTO, JIMÉNEZ-BUILES.

236

Recultivation of the cavity of the closed open pit Bor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Copper ore is one of the most important raw materials for industrial production. Increasing demands have been increasing its extraction generally. Shallow deposits with higher copper grade are mostly exhausted and the open pits become deeper, also the amount of overburden and the problems of its disposal are increased. In some cases large quantities of overburden can solve the problem of recultivation of degraded areas. This is the case of recultivation of degraded areas on the location of the closed open pit Bor. Here, the overburden from another open pit, Veliki Krivelj, is disposed into the cavity of the open pit Bor. In this way the overburden is disposed without further area degradation and the cavity is primarily, technically recultivated. When the filling process is finished, waste depot will have a flat top at the level K+450 [2], which is above the neighboring terrain, and the slopes height will vary. This problem was not especially considered up to date, so the experiences in this field are humble. This paper intends to be the basis for further research.

Lili? Jasmina

2008-01-01

237

COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

238

Ecological risk assessment of open coal mine area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The coal mine areas in China have the serious conflicts between resources exploitation and ecology safety, therefore the coal mine ecological risk assessment is an important problem which relates to the sustainability of coal mines to regions and the whole country. In this study, open coal mine area serves as researching object, heavy metals, soil erosion and coast are screened out as risk resources, soil wireworm as the receiver of heavy metals risk, biotope ecosystem as the receiver of soil erosion and coast risk; ecological indexes are calculated with species background index, biological diversity index and natural degree index, ecological friability indexes are calculated with soil fertility index, plant coverage, plant species diversity index, soil wireworm index and maturity index, and the typical coal mine area assessment indexes system is established. In addition, the regional ecological risk assessment is conducted on the friable ecological system of Fuxin Haizhou open coal mine area. Examples are researched of Haizhou open coal mine, the coal mine risk distribution is established, and foundations are provided for the administrative decision-making. PMID:18301998

Xi-jun, Ma; Zhao-hua, Lu; Jian-long, Cheng

2008-12-01

239

DEVELOPMENT OF RAW MATERIALS' EXPLOITATION FOR THE CEMENT PRODUCTION IN THE OPEN PITS »PARTIZAN« AND »PRVOBORAC« OF THE »DALMACIJA CEMENT« COMPANY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the exploitation of mineral raw materials for the cement industry of Split from the beginning of this century till today. Geological and geomcchanical characteristic of the open pits »Partizan« and "Prvoborac«, located within the same deposit and the technological exploitation process with basic parameters of suecessibility in both pits arc detaily discussed. The works of open pits' reclamation which has to be carried out simultanouslly with the exploitation itself arc also considered, as well as the perspectives of further exploitation development, in accord with modern tendencies to the mining technology development,

Biljana Kova?evi?

1990-12-01

240

Comparing the hazards of coal and uranium mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article from a paper presented to the Uranium Institute Symposium, London, 1986. The risk calculation is based on: a) the fuel required to generate 1 GWe year of power, b) the productivity of uranium and coal mining, and c) the risk to a miner from one year of mining, and the risk to the public that results from 1 GWe year's worth of mine and mill operation. The evaluation reveals that the ratio of coal mining risk to uranium risk on a GWey basis differs from country to country, but falls in the range 10 to 30, coal being the higher. (U.K.)

 
 
 
 
241

Control of water hazards in black coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Problems are discussed associated with water hazards in underground coal mines. The following groups of problems are evaluated: accidents caused by water inrush to coal mines in Poland from 1946 to 1984; effects of hydrogeologic conditions, surface waters, aquifers and tectonic dislocations in aquifer zones; classification of water hazards used in Poland; use of geophysical surveys for forecasting water hazards; methods for water influx control used in Poland such as draining, construction of water barriers, use of safety pillars (methods for determining optimum safety pillar size); safety regulations in coal mines with water hazards; mine rescue during accidents caused by inrush of water or quicksand. 14 references.

Rogoz, M.; Posylek, E.

1986-08-01

242

Environment friendly utilization of coal ash as a filling material in underground coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents research work into the utilization of coal ash. Several laboratory studies have shown that coal ash could be used as a filling material for underground coal mines. The drainage properties of coal ash are inferior to those of river sand, which is an ideal material for mine filling. Many filling problems have been detected using numerous physical models developed in the laboratory and it has been found that ash fill drainage characteristics could be enhanced using a specific additive. To validate these laboratory findings, field trials have been conducted in a significant number of underground coal mines in India. This work has concluded that coal ash as a fill material has several advantages over river sand. In addition, this document also includes norms for the potential use of coal as a backfill material in underground coal mines.

Prashant, Mr; Ghosh, C.N.; Kumar, R.; Mandal, P.K. [Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (India)

2011-07-01

243

Volume activity 226Ra mine waters of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The State Office for Nuclear Safety, Regional Center Kamenna administers, within the framework of supervision, an inspection on workplaces of mines and discharge radionuclides into the environment from mines of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines. Join-stock company OKD exploit coal in next mines Paskov, Darkov, Lazy and CSA. Join -stock company CMD exploit coal in mine CSM. In 2002 DIAMO, state enterprise took over a part of Ostrava-Karvina coal mines and its division ODRA pump mine waters on Water-pumping shaft Jeremenko, Water- pumping shaft Zofie and close Mine Barbora. A water samples were take on main outflow mine water of mine. The presentation summarizes results from monitoring mine waters from 1999 to 2004 years. Volume activity 226Ra mine waters of Mine Lazy-locality Dukla and Water-pumping shaft Zofie are higher then clearance level from Regulation No.307/2002 Coll. On Radiation Protection. They are comparable with mine waters of uranium mines. Volume activity 226Ra surface waters under outflow perform, without stream Petrvaldska struzka under outflow Water-pumping shaft Zofie, guidance level for contamination surface waters from Government regulation No.61/2003 Coll. Volume activity 226Ra surface waters under outflow coal mines are higher then volume in surface waters under uranium mines, because mine waters from uranium mines are decontaminate on decontamination stations. Considering that volume activities 226Ra surface water of Orlovska struzka stream are under guidance level for contamination surface waters from Government regulation No.61/2003 Coll.. don't urgency arrangement to decontamination mine waters. Mass activity 226Ra in bed sediment under outflow Mine Lazy-locality Dukla are comparable with exemption level from Regulation No.307 /2002 Coll. On Radiation Protection. (authors)

244

Technical, technological and economic aspects of thin-seams coal mining. International mining forum 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty papers presented at the mining forum are included in this book of proceedings. Many focus on technical and economic aspects of mining in the Ukrainian mining industry whose existence depends mostly on thin seams. Some issues from the Canadian and Chinese mining industry are also covered. Twelve papers deal with coal mining specifically and three papers cover underground gasification of coal. Other topics covered include joints for conveyor belts, legal aspects of CO{sub 2} sequestration in geological formations, production of liquid and gaseous fuels from coal, and dynamometers.

Sobczyk, E.J.; Kicki, J. (eds.) [Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland). Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute

2007-07-01

245

Coal Mining, Economic Development, and the Natural Resource Curse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coal mining has a long legacy of providing needed jobs in isolated communities but it is also associated with places that suffer from high poverty and weaker long-term economic growth. Yet, the industry has greatly changed in recent decades. Regulations, first on air, have altered the geography of coal mining, pushing it west from Appalachia. Likewise, technological change has reduced labor demand and has led to relatively new mining practices such as invasive mountain-top approaches. Thus, t...

Betz, Mike; Farren, Michael; Lobao, Linda; Partridge, Mark D.

2014-01-01

246

Environmental impacts of brown coal surface mining and processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings contain 9 contributions, out of which 2 have been inputted in INIS. These are concerned with the impacts of mining in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Mining District on the air quality and public health, and with the effect of mined-out land reclamation on the environment. (M.D.). 8 tabs., 5 figs., 6 refs

247

The influence of coal mining on radon potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pit waters from hard-coal and brown-coal mining as well as sediments and soils along sewers and rivers in the vicinity of collieries are investigated in the scope of radiation protection. The greatest amount of 226Ra is discharged by hard-coal collieries in the order of several ten Bq at simultaneous occurrence of high mineralised brines

248

The Grande Cache Coal project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grande Cache Coal (GCC), an investor-owned Alberta company, is in the final stages of the regulatory process leading to the resumption of coal mining in the Smoky River Coal Field of Alberta. Although many opportunities for low-cost, high-yield mining remained on the property, GCC opted for a long-term production plan that ensures stability for the local economy, sustainable use of the resources in the area, environmental responsibility and a satisfactory return for its investors. GCC entered the Alberta coal approval process in late 2000 with a public disclosure document. In October 2001, GCC formally submitted an application for mining approval and an environmental impact assessment (EIA) to the government and the public. The application covered the proposed Grande Cache Coal project, which includes the No. 7 underground mine, No. 8 surface mine and coal processing operations. The EIA provided a comprehensive investigation of environmental sensitivities in the project area, matched with environmental protection programs. The project is based on commencement of operations in late 2002. Combining highly productive U.S.-style room-and-pillar underground mining methods and conventional truck-and-shovel open pit mining, GCC's approach to sustainable development encompasses community involvement and reclamation of mine sites to productive land uses after mining.

Cain, P.; Martens, B. [Grand Cache Coal Co, Grande Cache, AB (Canada)

2002-09-01

249

Fractionation of chemical elements including the REEs and 226Ra in stream contaminated with coal-mine effluent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water draining from abandoned open-pit coal mines in southeastern Ohio typically has a low pH and high concentrations of Fe, Al and Mn, as well as of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, etc.) and of the rare earth elements (REEs). The cations of different elements are sorbed selectively by Fe and Al hydroxide precipitates which form with increasing pH. As a result, the trace elements are separated from each other when the hydroxide precipitates are deposited in the channel of a flowing stream. Therefore, the low-energy environment of a stream contaminated by mine effluent is a favorable site for the chemical fractionation of the REEs and of other groups of elements with similar chemical properties. The interpretation of chemical analyses of water collected along a 30-km-stretch of Rush Creek near the town of New Lexington, Perry County, Ohio, indicates that the abundances of the REEs in the water appear to change downstream when they are normalized to the REE concentrations of the mine effluent. In addition, the Ce/La ratios (and those of all REEs) in the water decrease consistently downstream. The evidence indicates that the REEs which remain in solution are enriched La and Ce because the other REEs are sorbed more efficiently. The solid Fe(OH)3 precipitates in the channel of Rush Creek upstream of New Lexington also contain radioactive 226Ra that was sorbed from the water. This isotope of Ra is a decay product of 238U which occurs in the Middle Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) coal and in the associated shale of southeastern Ohio. The activity of 226Ra of the Fe(OH)3 precipitates increases with rising pH, but then declines farther downstream as the concentration of Ra remaining in the water decreases

250

Final geological and mining exploration and reasons for the brown coal mine Laško closure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Final surface and underground geological and mine exploration data of the brown coalmine LaŠko are presented. The data refer to the period between 1978 and 1990 when most intensive and systematic exploration took place.In more than 225 years of activity, the brown coal mine Laško had many longer or shorter interruptions and oscillations of coal production. The coal from the Laško brown coal mine has always been known to be of the highest quality among the Slovenian browncoals, mostly due to its high calorific value (ARB and low sulphur content. Because of its quality, coal sales on the domestic market were never poor. Because of the energy crisis at the beginning of the 1970-ies, the decision was made to close the mine. The mine closure took a long period in spite of the mine company plans and activities forits restructure, so that the brown coal from Laško was mined until the middle of 1992. The ultimate mine closure reasons were technical and economic conditions of underground mining.After the final decision for closing the mine was made, the production was suspended, and extended underground mine closure and surface reclamation works were carried out.

Ivan Strgar

2003-06-01

251

Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

252

30 CFR 761.200 - Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas designated by...  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas...200 Interpretative rule related to subsidence due to underground coal mining in areas...where mining is prohibited or limited. Subsidence due to underground coal mining...

2010-07-01

253

Update of coal pillar database for South African coal mining  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Following the Coalbrook disaster in 1960, research into coal pillar strength resulted in the adoption of the concept of a safety factor for the design of stable pillars in South African coal mining. At the time when the original statistical analysis was performed by Salamon and Munro in the early 19 [...] 60s, 27 cases of failed pillar workings were considered suitable for inclusion in the database of failed pillars. Pillar failure did not stop after the introduction of the safety factor formula by Salamon and Munro (1967). In the ensuing years, pillars that were created before the application of the formula deteriorated and later failed, as did ones that were created after the introduction of the formula. This means that over time, the database of failed pillar cases increased in size, allowing ever more reliable analyses to be performed. The number of failed cases in the database had grown from the original 27 in the 1960s to 86 by 2011. All the failed cases are contained in the updated database. The database of stable pillars, which is also used in the derivation of strength formulae, has now been extended from 125 to 337 cases. The new database of intact pillar cases is more complete as it bridges the time gap between the Salamon and Munro (1967) and the Van der Merwe (2006) databases. The original requirements for inclusion into the database were satisfied in the compilation of this latest collection. The characteristics of the original database of intact pillars did not change in a meaningful way. The mining depth and pillar dimensions of the new database are largely as they were in the original database. Time-related trends with regard to pillar dimensions and depth of mining could not be found, indicating that the geometrical parameters of coal mining in South Africa have not changed meaningfully in approximately a century of mining. The characteristics of cases in the updated database of failed pillars does not differ substantially from the one published by Van der Merwe (2006). The same difference between that database and the original Salamon and Munro database, namely that the average safety factor of the failed cases had increased dramatically, from 1.0 to 1.5, is still apparent. This may be due to the inclusion of more failures from specific areas that exhibit a disproportionate number of failures at higher safety factors. These areas are the Vaal Basin, Klip River, and Free State coalfields. The new database confirms yet again that there is no correlation between the safety factors of failed pillars and their time of failure. The safety factor on its own is thus not a reliable predictor of longterm stability of pillars.

J.N., van der Merwe; M., Mathey.

254

Update of coal pillar database for South African coal mining  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Following the Coalbrook disaster in 1960, research into coal pillar strength resulted in the adoption of the concept of a safety factor for the design of stable pillars in South African coal mining. At the time when the original statistical analysis was performed by Salamon and Munro in the early 19 [...] 60s, 27 cases of failed pillar workings were considered suitable for inclusion in the database of failed pillars. Pillar failure did not stop after the introduction of the safety factor formula by Salamon and Munro (1967). In the ensuing years, pillars that were created before the application of the formula deteriorated and later failed, as did ones that were created after the introduction of the formula. This means that over time, the database of failed pillar cases increased in size, allowing ever more reliable analyses to be performed. The number of failed cases in the database had grown from the original 27 in the 1960s to 86 by 2011. All the failed cases are contained in the updated database. The database of stable pillars, which is also used in the derivation of strength formulae, has now been extended from 125 to 337 cases. The new database of intact pillar cases is more complete as it bridges the time gap between the Salamon and Munro (1967) and the Van der Merwe (2006) databases. The original requirements for inclusion into the database were satisfied in the compilation of this latest collection. The characteristics of the original database of intact pillars did not change in a meaningful way. The mining depth and pillar dimensions of the new database are largely as they were in the original database. Time-related trends with regard to pillar dimensions and depth of mining could not be found, indicating that the geometrical parameters of coal mining in South Africa have not changed meaningfully in approximately a century of mining. The characteristics of cases in the updated database of failed pillars does not differ substantially from the one published by Van der Merwe (2006). The same difference between that database and the original Salamon and Munro database, namely that the average safety factor of the failed cases had increased dramatically, from 1.0 to 1.5, is still apparent. This may be due to the inclusion of more failures from specific areas that exhibit a disproportionate number of failures at higher safety factors. These areas are the Vaal Basin, Klip River, and Free State coalfields. The new database confirms yet again that there is no correlation between the safety factors of failed pillars and their time of failure. The safety factor on its own is thus not a reliable predictor of longterm stability of pillars.

J.N., van der Merwe; M., Mathey.

2013-11-01

255

Environmental impacts of coal mining and coal utilization in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coal has remained the main source of energy in the UK from 1700 to the end of 1970s, and it still plays an important role in the power generation. The paper discusses the current coal consumption in the UK together with environmental impacts of coal mining, coal processing and coal utilisation for power generation. Since coal remains the single biggest contributor to greenhouse gases worldwide, methods for minimising environmental impacts of coal combustion are described in this paper including systematic application of the principles of clean coal technologies financed by the private sector. (authors)

256

Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. First half-year 1994  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report provides up-to-date information on the German coal mining industry for the reporting time period. Data on coal mining as well as on brown coal mining cover: Production, stocks, productivity, employes, sales, imports and exports of coal and coal products. (orig.)

257

Environmental regulations and brown coal mining in the Czech Republic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reduced level of Czech brown coal production is caused not only from the declining demand for this domestic source of energy fuel but also from environmental protection reasons. The government's decision in 1991 was significant on ecological lines for perspective operation of opencast brown coal mines and their external dumps in North and West-Bohemia. It arose as a consequence of the political solution of the conflict of interest between municipalities, non-governmental green organizations and coal enterprises. This decision and many other environmental obligations will influence the complex solution of problems connected with mining operations and post-mining sanitation and rehabilitation processes.

Svoboda, I.; Vrbova, M.; Kryl, V. [R-Princip Ltd., Most (Czech Republic)

1999-07-01

258

The Influence of Earthquakes on Open-Pit Slope Stability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estimation of stability of natural slopes, embankments, dams and open-pit slopes during earthquakes are complex and non-linear problems, therefore physical modeling is used for decision of it. As a result of physical modeling the pattern of seismic vibrations impact based on the movement process of probable collapse prism delineated by the most stressed plane of sliding has been established. Particular recommendations on the basis of safety factors selection in seismoactive zones are given.

Sergei Vadimovich Tsirel

2012-09-01

259

76 FR 10070 - Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation; Proposed Extension of Existing Collection; Comment...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Quality Rereading (CM-933b), Medical History and Examination for Coal Mine...Quality Rereading (CM-933b), Medical History and Examination for Coal Mine...Quality Rereading (CM-933b), Medical History and Examination for Coal...

2011-02-23

260

75 FR 57849 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

...investigation reports of mine explosions in intake air courses that involved coal dust...to Prevent Coal Dust Explosions in Intake Airways''; and MSHA's experience...underground coal mine explosions ignited in intake air courses. J Loss Prev Process...

2010-09-23

 
 
 
 
261

Final geological and mining exploration and reasons for the brown coal mine Laško closure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Final surface and underground geological and mine exploration data of the brown coalmine LaŠko are presented. The data refer to the period between 1978 and 1990 when most intensive and systematic exploration took place.In more than 225 years of activity, the brown coal mine Laško had many longer or shorter interruptions and oscillations of coal production. The coal from the Laško brown coal mine has always been known to be of the highest quality among the Slovenian browncoals, mostly due t...

Ivan Strgar

2003-01-01

262

The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

2009-06-01

263

The role of the state coal mining enterprise in Indonesia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam is now becoming one of the 3 State Mining Enterprises in Indonesia which is dealing specifically with coal minings and their developments, while the other 2 are PT Tambang Timah for tin and PT Aneka Tambang for miscellaneous minerals. However, there are actually 3 other more State Enterprises under the umbrella of the Department of Mines and Energy, namely PERTAMINA which is dealing with oil and natural gas exploitation, PLN which is the State Electricity Corporation and the State Gas Corporation. The process of merging into one State Coal Mining Enterprise was only happening on October 30, 1990 by the issuance of the Government Regulation Number 56, 1991 whereby the then called Perum Tambang Batubara was merged into PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam, which was then operating only in Tanjung Enim, South Sumatra. The new scope of operation and management of the PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam is now including not only the management of coal mines at Tanjung Enim South Sumatra, but also the coal mines at Ombilin, West Sumatra and the supervision of all contract of works in coal which up to now amount to 11, mostly spread in East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and one in West Sumatra. The amount of coal produced by PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam in 1990 was 4,854 million tons, while the coal production from all contract of works was 4,059 million tons for the same year

264

New methods of land reclamation in brown coal mine ''Adamow''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brown coal mine ''Adamow'' is located in Central Poland and fuels power plant ''Adamow'' (600 MW). Every year 4.5-5.0 million tons of coal is extracted from 3 mines of this mine. In 1991 one of the mines ''Bogdanow'' was closed and the new one ''Kozmin'' was started. Then the problem appeared whether collect capping on external dump located 520 meters from the new mining or whether use it to fill up the closed mine located at a distance of 3700 meters. The second solution was chosen despite of the fact that was more expensive. Due to it 164 hectares of agricultural area were preserved, 116 hectares were reclaimed and water reservoir was done. The realization of this project was financed by mine and the National Fund for Environment Protection and Water Economics. 3 ills, 1 tab

265

Mining simulation for room and pillar coal operation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The mechanized mining cycle using loaders and shuttle cars had its peak in terms of usage in the mining industry during 1950 through 1960. In Brazil, this system is still used at underground coal mines in southern Santa Catarina coal basin. With the aim of investigating the benefits of a new mining [...] scheme using the room and pillar method for these local mines, a computational simulator model was developed in order to investigate the mining cycle. This paper presents the methodology used to develop the simulator and the results that the simulation shows regarding impact of the proposed new scheme on mining productivity.

S.P, Pereira; J.F.C.L, Costa; P, Salvadoretti; J, Koppe.

2012-06-01

266

Mining simulation for room and pillar coal operation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The mechanized mining cycle using loaders and shuttle cars had its peak in terms of usage in the mining industry during 1950 through 1960. In Brazil, this system is still used at underground coal mines in southern Santa Catarina coal basin. With the aim of investigating the benefits of a new mining [...] scheme using the room and pillar method for these local mines, a computational simulator model was developed in order to investigate the mining cycle. This paper presents the methodology used to develop the simulator and the results that the simulation shows regarding impact of the proposed new scheme on mining productivity.

S.P, Pereira; J.F.C.L, Costa; P, Salvadoretti; J, Koppe.

267

Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

1981-02-01

268

Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

269

Brown coal from Garzweiler II is in dispute. Green politicians want to abandon the project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Johannes Rau (SPD), the Prime Minister of North-Rhine Westphalia, and Michael Vesper, member of the Greens and his opposite number in the coalition negotiations, demonstrate placability. But on the subject of Garzweiler II, opinions are divided in the red-and-green coalition talks: while the party 'Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen' are uncompromising about abandoning Europe's largest brown-coal open-pit mining project, the SPD still sticks to it. (orig.)

270

Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucky, is next analyzed, using both the new baseline mine concept and traditional geologic investigative approach. The baseline mine concept presented is intended as a framework, providing a consistent basis for further analyses to be subsequently conducted in other geographic regions. The baseline mine concept is intended as a tool to give system designers a more realistic feel of the mine environment and will hopefully lead to acceptable alternatives for advanced coal extraction system.

Camilli, F.A.; Maynard, D.P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

1981-10-01

271

Environmental pollution caused by coal mining and utilization in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the BP Statistical Review of World Energy of 2010 45.6% of coal production and 46.9% of coal consumption in the world in 2009 are accounted for China. The large-scale coal production and use cause major environmental impacts. A large environmental impact is through the emission of some unavoidable reaction products (for example waste gas, waste heat) that affect and damage the ecosystem. A steady influence can lead to long-term climate changes and medium term damage to the ecosystem. Other environmental impacts occur during mining of coal by the change in the water balance and the transformation of the landscape (surface mining, spoil tips). The environmental problems caused by coal mining and utilization can not be ignored in China.

272

Threat or opportunity? Landscape genetics in a coal mining area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aknowledgment The area of Sveagruva have experienced several periods of coal mining. This study aim to evaluating changes in vegetation composition, species distributions and genetic structure using a combination of field and molecular analyses, to identify whether or not coal mining have effected plant life in Svea. Investigations on species and gene level were done on two Luzula species, L. confusa Lindeb. and L. nivalis (Laest.) Spreng. No direct correlation was found, and the soil...

Skottvoll, Bente Sved

2013-01-01

273

Capture and Use of Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CONSOL Energy Inc., in conjunction with MEGTEC Systems, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, designed, built, and operated a commercial-size thermal flow reversal reactor (TFRR) to evaluate its suitability to oxidize coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM). Coal mining, and particularly coal mine ventilation air, is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions, a greenhouse gas. Ventilation air volumes are large and the concentration of methane in the ventilation air is low; thus making it difficult to use or abate these emissions. This test program was conducted with simulated coal mine VAM in advance of deploying the technology on active coal mine ventilation fans. The demonstration project team installed and operated a 30,000 cfm MEGTEC VOCSIDIZER oxidation system on an inactive coal mine in West Liberty, WV. The performance of the unit was monitored and evaluated during months of unmanned operation at mostly constant conditions. The operating and maintenance history and how it impacts the implementation of the technology on mine fans were investigated. Emission tests showed very low levels of all criteria pollutants at the stack. Parametric studies showed that the equipment can successfully operate at the design specification limits. The results verified the ability of the TFRR to oxidize {ge}95% of the low and variable concentration of methane in the ventilation air. This technology provides new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the reduction of methane emissions from coal mine ventilation air. A large commercial-size installation (180,000 cfm) on a single typical mine ventilation bleeder fan would reduce methane emissions by 11,000 to 22,100 short tons per year (the equivalent of 183,000 to 366,000 metric tonnes carbon dioxide).

Deborah Kosmack

2008-10-31

274

Analysis on Backfill Mining of “Under Three” Coal in Zhouyuanshan Mine and Strata Movement Law  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of "under three" (under railways, buildings and water bodies coal pillar mining, analysis on backfill mining and strata movement law is carried on in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine. First of all, according to the engineering geology and strata occurrence condition in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, FLAC2D software be used to establish a two-dimensional numerical model and to analyze and calculate the full caving method, strip method and backfill method and then gaining that backfill mining method is beneficial to improve the protection level of surface buildings and facilities. Then, using the theory of strata control and method of related mechanics to analyze the strata movement law and strata control principle of backfill mining, considering that supporting role of backfill body is mainly on lateral reinforcement of coal pillar and vertical supporting role of overlying strata, forming a cooperative control system of "bearing strata + coal pillar + backfill body" and deducing the equilibrium equations when it is in steady state. At last, using the numerical analysis method, respectively analyzing the surface subsidence of the corresponding important buildings of the three profiles of C-8 exploration line ,C-6 exploration line and A-A (cross section of the profile of C-8 exploration line after using backfill coal mining in 24 mining district. The results show that: the surface subsidence and horizontal deformation basically control within 30 mm and the surface deformation curvature of buildings generally in 0.1×10-3 /km in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, which accord with the relevant standards and requirements.

Weijian Yu

2013-09-01

275

Safety and education in South African coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten Inspectorates carry out the function of supervising the health and safety of miners, subordinate to the Government Mining Engineer in Johannesburg. The work derives from the 1956 Mines and Works Act. The Government Mining Engineer is also chairman of the Coal Mines Research Controlling Council, which initiates and supervises safety research. To improve work safety a series of safety campaigns are launched. In 1980 104 men were killed in accidents in South African coal mines and 1 200 injured. Activities at the mines depend on the origin and educational standard of the workers. Since most of the unskilled men only speak their local language, introductory language courses are the first step. A particular problem are the migrant workers, which raises the manpower fluctuation by over 100%. Special wage and other incentives are meant to encourage them to return forthwith.

Morris, D.M.

1982-02-18

276

Robotization of coal harvesting in open cut lignite mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Presents a summary of research which is currently being conducted at Monash University-Gippsland Campus on the automation of coal harvesting at a major Australian open cut mine. This mine is located at Morwell, Victoria and produces brown coal (lignite). The research aims to provide a computer assisted remote operation of mining machines and services. In addition it is developing an intelligent unmanned mining system using robotics technology. Also discusses the method of robotizing such a mine for maximum economic efficiency and the proposed control configuration for the system. Describes the current automation project, which is to achieve the required alignment between the rototized mining machine and the hopper by employing a reactive/adaptive fuzzy control system for maximum economic efficiency.

Ibrahim, M.Y.; Barfoot, C. [Monash University, Churchill, Vic. (Australia). School of Engineering

1997-12-31

277

Fugitive coal mine methane emissions at five mining areas in China  

Science.gov (United States)

Large quantities (about 28 billion m 3) of methane are released to the atmosphere every year from coal-mining activities around the world. This methane represents not only a significant greenhouse gas that is contributing to global temperature change, but is also a wasted energy resource. China, the largest coal producer in the world, is responsible for over 50% of the total global release of methane-containing ventilation air from coal mines. A mine site investigation methodology was developed for collecting reliable methane emission data from coal mines. Five main coal-mining areas in China were studied and specific data were collected from two mines in each of the five mining groups. Information such as coal and methane reserves, ventilation air released, methane concentration and methane release rates were collected. Future development plans were evaluated and used to estimate potential future emissions. It was determined that most of the methane generated in the five mining areas is currently released to the atmosphere.

Su, Shi; Han, Jiaye; Wu, Jinyan; Li, Hongjun; Worrall, Rhys; Guo, Hua; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenge

2011-04-01

278

Why coal mine safety regulations in Australia are not enforced  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper seeks to illustrate these processes by reference to the NSW Coal Mines Regulation Act. It will be shown, among other things, that severe enforcement problems are built into the legislation and that these are compounded at the enforcement stage by the co-operation of the Mines Department Inspectorate to management's point of view.

Hopkins, A.; Parnell, N.

1984-05-01

279

Surface mined land reclamation works in Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses the environmental impacts of open-pit mining and goes on to describe reclamation practices on mined lands, mentioning the costs and the environmental legislation involved. It gives details of afforestation projects carried out at several open-pit sites in Turkey. 17 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Mamurekli, D. [Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey). Mining Engineering Dept.

1997-11-01

280

Mechanism Analysis of Coal Mine Entrepreneurial Social Capital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper first focuses on the concept of coal entrepreneurial social capital under the background of safety production; Then, analyzes the source of coal entrepreneurial social capital and their action mechanism in order to improve the performance of safety and economy; Finally, this article puts forward the possible application safety production fields and its prospect of entrepreneurial social capital in coal mine enterprise and safety in production.

Ping Wang

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Agriculture and brown coal surface mining. The example of the Rhenish brown coal mining area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extensive surface mining in the Rhenish brown coal exploitation area has led to marked changes to the environment and living conditions there. This applies particularly to agriculture, which now has to subsist with a competitor for land. The progressive sacrifice of farmland and widespread relocation compaigns are grossly interfering with the business of farming. Only in exceptional cases do farms move as part of the relocation of whole villages. New sites are often found in hamlets and group settlements. This happens in connection with farming of newly reclaimed land or recultivated land reorganised and returned in land consolidation campaigns. (orig.)

282

Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania's abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania's comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania's geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resoun, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques

283

30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation...CATEGORIES OF MINING § 785.11 Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation...person who conducts or intends to conduct anthracite surface coal mining and...

2010-07-01

284

Seismic doublets and multiplets at Polish coal and copper mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The following criteria for selection of doublets at Polish coal mines were accepted: the difference in magnitude (based on seismic moment) of two events not larger than 0.15, the distance between their hypocenters not greater than 150 m, and the time interval between their occurrence not longer than 10 days. Similarly, the criteria for seismic events at copper mines are: the difference in magnitude not exceeding 0.15, the distance not greater than 200 m, and the time interval not longer than 20 days. Seismic events from the Wujek and Ziemowit coal mines that occurred between 1993 and 1995, and seismic events from the Polkowice copper mine that occurred between 1994 and 1996 and from the Rudna copper mine that occurred between 1994 and 2004 were considered. Their source parameters and focal mechanisms were known in most cases from previous studies. Altogether 108 seismic pairs from coal mines and 118 pairs from copper mines were found, forming doublets, triplets and quadruplets, within the magnitude range from 0.7 to 3.5. The distance and time intervals between two events forming pairs are not dependent on magnitude of these events. The focal mechanism of seismic events forming pairs is similar in over 60 percent of pairs at coal mines and in about one third of pairs at copper mines. Spatial distributions of doublets in particular sections of coal and copper mines display dominant linear trends, characteristic for a given area, which are often in conformity with the direction of nodal planes determined by fault plane solution of one or both the events forming a doublet. In such cases, the rupture plane can be discriminated among the nodal planes.

Gibowicz, S.J. [Polish Academy of Science, Warsaw (Poland). Inst. of Geophysics

2007-06-15

285

Simulation of methane emission and recovery for coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is very important to estimate methane gas emission and recovery accurately in underground coal mines for safe operation. Permeability to methane gas is affected by stress distribution of surrounding rock mass which is deformed by the excavation. Therefore, it is necessary to know stress change and deformation condition of rock mass mining throughout the mining process from roadway development to coal extraction. Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL) has developed an FEM simulation program named Mine Gas Flow 3D (MGF-3D). MGF-3D is designed to predict the volume of methane gas emitted from surrounding coal and rock seams based on stress distribution and permeability change which are determined by 3D stress analysis. MGF-3D also can set up a number of pre-drainage holes and estimate drainage gas volume from each hole. These simulations for gas recovery can contribute to a mine gas utilization plan. Gas emission and recovery in Japanese coal mine was simulated. The effectiveness of the simulation by MGF-3D was confirmed by the comparison with the field data. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Tomita, S.; Hirasawa, H.; Ohga, K.; Kawahara, H. [Japan Coal Energy Center (Japan)

2004-09-01

286

RECULTIVATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL MINING IN KOLUBARA BASIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coal plays a fundamental role in global development, but the coal mining industry exerts impact on the environment, society and economy. Kolubara Coal Company produces about 30 million tonnes of coal, and digs about 70 million m3 of overburden per year. The main result of surface coal is certainly taking agricultural land, so that surface mines, which affect large areas in Kolubara, about 100 hectars a year, causing a number of problems related to the recultivation of degraded area after coal extraction. The lignite extraction through the method of opencast mining in Kolubara is about 60 years old. The previous exploitation usage is characterised by the fact that the disposal of overburden is made non-selectively, whereas the surface solum is not being preserved. The recultivation is carried out in parallel with overburden excavation. It is necessary to preserve the fertile solum through selective excavation in order to bring the soil back to its previous purpose - agricultural production. The objective of this paper is mainly to point out the need for the further expansion of the utilisation of fossil fuels, which in turn reduces the emission of CO2, and thus reduces or prevents global climate changes on Earth. In addition to that, bringing back deteriorated terrains to their previous purpose - agricultural production, or the afforestation - contributes to the maintenance of ecological balance in nature, which then makes coal mining sustainable.

Ivica M Ristovi?

2010-01-01

287

Anthropogenic soils on spoil rock banks in North Bohemian Coal Basin, Czech Republic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The area of the North Bohemian Coal Basin is devastated by the extensive exploitation of brown coal by open pit mining. Knowledge of newly formed soils, their properties, development and contamination is important from the point of view of biological regeneration of the landscape. The mineralogy of anthropogenic soils from the mining area is presented together with the geochemistry of nutrients and trace elements. Attention is paid to the soil-forming processes in the non-reclaimed spoil rock banks with the development of spontaneous vegetation. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Raclavska, H.; Raclavsky, K.; Matysek, D.; Stalmachova, B. [VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic)

1997-12-31

288

Anthropogenic soils on spoil rock banks in North Bohemian Coal Basin, Czech Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of the North Bohemian Coal Basin is devastated by the extensive exploitation of brown coal by open pit mining. Knowledge of newly formed soils, their properties, development and contamination is important from the point of view of biological regeneration of the landscape. The mineralogy of anthropogenic soils from the mining area is presented together with the geochemistry of nutrients and trace elements. Attention is paid to the soil-forming processes in the non-reclaimed spoil rock banks with the development of spontaneous vegetation. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

289

Research of land resources comprehensive utilization of coal mining in plain area based on GIS: case of Panyi Coal Mine of Huainan Mining Group Corp.  

Science.gov (United States)

The result of land use in coalfield is important to sustainable development in resourceful city. For surface morphology being changed by subsidence, the mining subsidence becomes the main problem to land use with the negative influence of ecological environment, production and steadily develop in coal mining areas. Taking Panyi Coal Mine of Huainan Mining Group Corp as an example, this paper predicted and simulated the mining subsidence in Matlab environment on the basis of the probability integral method. The change of land use types of early term, medium term and long term was analyzed in accordance with the results of mining subsidence prediction with GIS as a spatial data management and spatial analysis tool. The result of analysis showed that 80% area in Panyi Coal Mine be affected by mining subsidence and 52km2 perennial waterlogged area was gradually formed. The farmland ecosystem was gradually turned into wetland ecosystem in most study area. According to the economic and social development and natural conditions of mining area, calculating the ecological environment, production and people's livelihood, this paper supplied the plan for comprehensive utilization of land resource. In this plan, intervention measures be taken during the coal mining and the mining subsidence formation and development, and this method can solve the problems of Land use at the relative low cost.

Dai, Chunxiao; Wang, Songhui; Sun, Dian; Chen, Dong

2007-06-01

290

Utilization of coal ash/coal combustion products for mine reclamation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Society's demand for an inexpensive fuel, combined with ignorance of the long term impacts, has left numerous scars on the Pennsylvania landscape. There are over 250,000 acres of abandoned surface mines with dangerous highwalls and water filled pits. About 2,400 miles of streams do not meet water quality standards because of drainage from abandoned mines. There are uncounted households without an adequate water supply due to past mining practices. Mine fires and mine subsidence plague many Pennsylvania communities. The estimated cost to reclaim these past scars is over $15 billion. The beneficial use of coal ash in Pennsylvania for mine reclamation and mine drainage pollution abatement projects increased during the past ten years. The increase is primarily due to procedural and regulatory changes by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). Prior to 1986, DEP required a mining permit and a separate waste disposal permit for the use of coal ash in backfilling and reclaiming a surface mine site. In order to eliminate the dual permitting requirements and promote mine reclamation, procedural changes now allow a single permit which authorize both mining and the use of coal ash in reclaiming active and abandoned pits. The actual ash placement, however, must be conducted in accordance with the technical specifications in the solid waste regulations

291

Coal mine methane in the Sabinas Sub-Basin, Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The general geology and stratigraphy of Mexico's Sabinas sub-basin was described with reference to its coal properties and gas content. Field derived data regarding cleating and reservoir pressure was presented along with gas analysis, adsorption isotherms, coal mineralogy and coal maturity. Mine methane emission data was presented along with a description of the application of in-seam methane drainage and reservoir simulation. It was concluded that the Sabinas sub-basin contains gassy coals in the Upper Cretaceous Olmos Formation, based on both historical evidence and desorption testing. The coals are at shallow depth (less than 500 m), are well cleated and have high natural fracture permeability. The double seam coal is under-pressured, and most likely under-saturated but it has high diffusivity. Sabinas coals are reported to be dry, with free gas in the cleat/fracture system and absence of mineralization. In-seam horizontal drilling prior to longwall mining resulted in a significant reduction of gas content and an increase in coal production. The Sabinas sub-basin is suitable for full-scale coalbed methane development using in-seam horizontal drilling technology. A comparison with the Maverick Basin in Texas showed that there are both similarities and differences between the Sabinas sub-basin coals in Mexico and the Maverick Basin coals in Texas. figs.

Gentzis, T. [CDX Canada Co., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-07-01

292

Mined land in the Ruhr area: Geological assessments to bound the environmental consequences of coal mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The extraction, transportation, and processing of coal has severe environmental impacts. The development of the highly mechanized underground mining has resulted in the displacement of very large quantities of coal and waste rock at the surface and underground. This has led to land subsidence, changes in groundwater flow, soil erosion, air pollution, and local climatic effects. Thus, in the Ruhr area more than 4,000 km2 is subject to subsurface mass displacement. The surface undergoes a mobile trough-shaped subsidence. The resulting deformations produce a range of different effects on geomorphology and hydrology/geohydrology. Abandoned coal mines have to be taken under long term drainage, pumping stations have to regulate the groundwater levels. The devastated areas have to be restored, hazardous waste materials from mining activities must be treated, and the long term risks of coal mining must be assessed as part of long range planning and the protection of natural resources. (orig./HP)

293

Underground coal gasification - the acceptable face of coal mining?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is growing interest in underground coal gasification, whereby energy is accessed from coal in a cleaner way than traditional combustion methods. The paper looks at the benefits of UCG. 1 fig., 1 photo.

Dryburgh, P.

2009-11-15

294

Mining injuries in Serbian underground coal mines -- a 10-year study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mining, especially underground coal mining, has always been a dangerous occupation. Injuries, unfortunately, even those resulting in death, are one of the major occupational risks that all miners live with. Despite the fact that all workers are aware of the risk, efforts must be and are being made to increase the safety of mines. Injury monitoring and data analysis can provide us with valuable data on the causes of accidents and enable us to establish a correlation between the conditions in the work environment and the number of injuries, which can further lead to proper preventive measures. This article presents the data on the injuries in Serbian coal mines during a 10-year period (2000-2009). The presented results are only part of an ongoing study whose aim is to assess the safety conditions in Serbian coal mines and classify them according to that assessment. PMID:21920518

Stojadinovi?, Saša; Svrkota, Igor; Petrovi?, Dejan; Deni?, Miodrag; Pantovi?, Radoje; Mili?, Vitomir

2012-12-01

295

Automated strip mine and reclamation mapping from ERTS. [Ohio coal  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the urgent need for a faster and more economical means of generating strip mine and reclamation maps, a study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of using ERTS computer compatible tape for automatic mapping. The procedure uses computer target spectral recognition techniques as a basis for classification. The area encompassed by this investigation includes five counties in eastern Ohio that comprise nearly 7,500 square kilometers (3,000 square miles). The counties have been disrupted by coal mining since the early 1800's, and strip mining has been practiced in all of them. The environmental effects of strip mining are also discussed.

Pettyjohn, W. A.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.

1974-01-01

296

Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

297

30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...  

Science.gov (United States)

...prohibition on surface coal mining operations within...Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...OF THE INTERIOR AREAS UNSUITABLE FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED...the prohibition on surface coal mining...

2010-07-01

298

30 CFR 761.13 - Procedures for compatibility findings for surface coal mining operations on Federal lands in...  

Science.gov (United States)

...for surface coal mining operations on Federal...Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...OF THE INTERIOR AREAS UNSUITABLE FOR MINING AREAS DESIGNATED...compatibility findings for surface coal mining...

2010-07-01

299

Introduction of pillarless working methods in the Babino coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses shortcomings of block-and-pillar working in the Babino coal mine. Slightly sloping 1.1-5.6 m thick seams were worked along the strike at an average depth of 500 m by retreat mining. Pillarless working was introduced in 1983, owing to high coal losses caused by pillars left between neighboring blocks. Coal seams were worked individually by means of 90-130 m long stopes. Preparatory mine rooms (hauling and ventilation roadways) and the longwall were prepared 4-6 months before mining began. After successful trials in 1983 and 1984, the method was modified into mechanized retreating longwall mining. In the fourth seam (1.4-2.4 m thick, dip angle 4 degrees), a 96 m stope has been set out with the 2 MK-E longwall complex. This longwall produced 190,000 t of coal in January 1988 with a 3% output advantage over previous methods, showing significant advantages in roadway maintenance, roof pressure, coal yield coefficient, operational costs, fire prevention, methane drainage, machine utilization, material energy and labor consumption, among other factors.

Aleksandrov, D.; Nikolov, E.

1988-03-01

300

Greenhouse research to curb emission from coal mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to David Williams, senior research scientist and member of the CSIRO Energy Technology's air quality group, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions come from five sources in coal mining. These include energy consumption during mining activities, fugitive emissions (coal seam gas liberated in the extraction process), oxidation of carbonaceous wastes, landuse and embodied energy. Total emissions are dominated by contributions from the first three. Both fugitive and waste oxidation emissions from opencut operations come from 'area' sources and their magnitudes are poorly known. Although there may be no measurable gas in freshly uncovered open cut coal, such mines usually emit methane that can be detected and sometimes quantified by air pollution techniques. Reporting on a recent research program into GHG emissions in the black coal mining industry commissioned by the Australian Coal Association (ACA), Williams maintains that research indicates emission rates could be 2040 times higher than the overall estimate for emissions from this source for opencut mines in Australia. The overall objective of the project is to provide methods that are supported by direct measurement to quantify the emissions of GHG and options for the disposal and /or use of methane emissions as an eligible waste-product energy source

 
 
 
 
301

Environmental protection at the Belchatow brown coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses environmental effects of brown coal surface mining in Belchatow. Mine construction started in 1975. In 1985 coal output had increased to 18.0 Mt/a, coal calorific value was 1,860 kcal/kg. A system of 345 wells was used for mine draining. Drawdown cone radius ranged from 34.0 to 13.4 km, drawdown area was 445.5 km/sup 2/. Sedimentation tanks with a total capacity of 290,337 m/sup 3/ were used for waste water treatment. In the initial phase of mine development air pollution was relatively low. Air pollution will increase after a coal-fired power plant is constructed. Damage caused by surface mining in the mine area is associated with drawdown and earth tremors (caused by overburden removal and its disposal in new areas). Two land reclamation trends in Belchatow are comparatively evaluated: reforestation and agriculture. The average land reclamaton cost was 4.2 million zlotys/ha. Organizations which coordinate environmental control and land reclamation in Belchatow are listed.

Wasowicz, J.; Ozog, J.

1987-01-01

302

Pedological characteristics of open-pit Cu wastes and post-flotation tailings (Bor, Serbia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english To gain a better knowledge of mining areas and potential remediation processes, some characteristics (morphological, physical, chemical and microbiological) of soils formed on open-pit Cu mine waste (OPW) and Cu post-flotation tailings (PFT) dumps were investigated. Soil profiles and surface samples [...] were studied. In general, the investigated soils are characterized by large proportion of coarse soil particles, degraded structure, low humus content, low pH, high As and Cu concentrations, and low soil microbial activity. In all investigated profiles there is no recognizable topsoil layer containing in situ formed humus probably due to soil age, lack of plant cover and organic litter, as well as other unfavorable soil conditions. The specificity of investigated soils is an irregular distribution of some soil characteristics (porosity, humus content, microbiological activity) over depth, which is a result of their technogenic origin. By establishing correlations between the studied surface sample parameters, using principal component analysis (PCA), poorer aggregate properties of PFT than of OPW soils were found, resulting most likely from aggressive mining, i.e., flotation processes. Both OPW and PFT soils compared with control natural soils are characterized by lower clay and humus content, and poorer aggregate properties.

J, Lili& #263; ; S, Cupa& #263; ; B, Lalevi& #263; ; V, Andri& #263; ; M, Gaji& #263; -Kvaš& #269; ev.

2014-03-01

303

75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

...Administration 30 CFR Parts 18 and 75 RIN 1219-AB34 High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines...Appendix I to Subpart D, in the table titled Table 10--HIGH VOLTAGE TRAILING CABLE AMPACITIES AND OUTSIDE DIAMETERS, the...

2010-04-22

304

GROUNDWATER QUALITY MONITORING OF WESTERN COAL STRIP MINING: PRELIMINARY DESIGNS FOR RECLAIMED MINE SOURCES OF POLLUTION  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is the fourth in a series of studies to assess the impact on groundwater quality of coal strip mining in the western United States. Presented are preliminary groundwater monitoring design guidelines for reclaimed mine areas, including regarded spoils and reclamation a...

305

Biodesulfurization of Subbituminous Coal by Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Coal Mine Soil of South Sumatera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coal as fuel should be necessarily pre-treated by desulfurization in order to prevent excessive emissions of sulfur dioxide, a precursor of acid rain. Organic sulfur in coal can be eliminated by microbial action through the technology known as biodesulfurization. Source of microorganisms in the present study was coal mine soil in which microorganisms have been adapted to use the sulfur in coal. Coal mine in South Sumatra was choosen as source of microorganisms in this study, because it is an area in Indonesia with the largest of subbituminous coal reserves. The microorganisms were activated as mixed culture by culturing the soil sample in mineral salt medium containing subbituminous coal as the sole sulfur. Desulfurization activities were examined by using three variations of the initial coal concentration, i.e., 10, 15 and 20% weight per volume. Growth and activity of the mixed culture on the subbituminous coal were monitored by measuring of medium pH, cell concentration, sulfate and organic sulfur concentration. The result showed that desulfurization activity of the mixed culture on 15% of coal was able to reduce sulfur up to 82.36%. Isolation and identification of the mixed culture based on genotypic and phenotypic characterizations revealed that members of the mixed culture were identified as genera of Enterobacter, Lelcersia and Bacillus. Observation on growth curves showing that the culturable isolates grew in at least three overlapping stages when using coal as sulfur source suggested that the members of the consortium worked alternately on coal as substrate.

Megga Ratnasari Pikoli

2013-01-01

306

Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

1979-08-01

307

Radon measurements and valuation in German hard coal underground mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of the radon concentrations by sampling in return air shafts of all hard coal mines in the area of the Chief Mines Inspectorate of the Land NW were carried out by means of a specially designed method of measurement. The dependence of radon concentrations on atmospheric pressure and fan pressure was evaluated on the basis of the measurement results available. Long-term measurements are carried out on the surface of a coal mine at return air shafts, using continuous measuring instruments. For continuous long-term measurements underground, an intrinsically-safe measuring device, which involves processing and storage of the measured values in a CMOS micro-computer, was developed. The radon concentrations which were found are low as compared with maximum levels based on dose/effect correlations put forward by the International Committee for Radiological Protection. Considering radon, the risk of the hard coal miner can therefore be regarded as negligible

308

Settlement and strength of clay-rich coal mine spoil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses the settlement and strength of clay-rich coal mine spoil material, which was sourced from Jeebropilly coal mine in south-east Queensland, Australia. The settlement consists of three components: self-weight, collapse on wetting up, and weathering-induced settlements; 80% of the self-weight settlement of initially dry spoil occurs during placement. Due to corrosion cracking at highly stressed particle contacts, collapse settlement of spoil occurs on wetting up. Weathering-induced spoil settlement occurs over a variable timeframe that depends on durability of the spoil. Laboratory tests included material characterization and geotechnical parameter testing. The characterization of testing methodologies is presented. The results of the tests have implications on the shear strength and settlement of clay-rich spoil materials such as the weathered clayrock found in the upper part of the Jeebropilly coal mine. These implications are detailed and they shed some light on the settlement and strength behavior of these materials.

Williams, David; Kho, Adrian; Daley, Andrew [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland (Australia)

2011-07-01

309

The menless technologies and robotisation in coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses use of robots in underground coal mining. The ROLF robots used in the United Kingdom, the BESTA and ASI robots in Poland and the KM 87A used in the USSR are evaluated. Causes of robot failures, low reliability and limited economic effects are analyzed. On the basis of the analysis, requirements for a new generation of robots for underground coal mining are outlined: walking ability in underground workings with a limited cross section, remote control of TV cameras that supply information to coal miners, remote manipulation of tools used for eliminating failures. Effects on mining cost of reducing oxygen content in the air of workings with robots and reducing dimensions of underground workings are discussed. Use of a new generation of robots is recommended.

Kruszecki, L.; Wasowicz, B. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Instytut Maszyn Gorniczych, Przerobczych i Automatyki)

1989-10-01

310

30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...  

Science.gov (United States)

...mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification...mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification...coal mine, and a mine which has been abandoned or deactivated and is to be...

2010-07-01

311

Decision Model of the Best Investment Opportunity in Coal Mine Project Based On Real Option  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The traditional decision-making methods of investment decision about coal mine projects have many deficiencies. Decision model of coal mine project option is proposed in paper . Firstly, analysis the characteristics which include uncertainty and irreversibility of physical option and build a suitable model after researching the significance ,then decide the best time though the coal mine project. Finally, case analysis presents the application of this method and provides strong theoretical basis for decision in coal mine project.  

Zhu Yongfei

2013-07-01

312

Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils. Quarterly report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

Atalay, A.

1990-10-01

313

Alunites in the red beds of the “Marcel” coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within the so-called red beds of the “Marcel” coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB),the authors have recorded the presence of alunite and natroalunite using XRD, IR and SEM/EDS. Both ofthem contain probably isomorphic substitutions of barium, strontium, phosphorus and, possibly, thehydronium ion. These two minerals preferably occur at the bottom of the red beds, in clay laminae overlyinga partly preserved coal seam; they are cryptocrystalline: their rhombohedral crystals, with a cub...

Piotr Wyszomirski; Marek Muszy?ski; Ireneusz Lipiarski

2004-01-01

314

Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

315

The influence of coal mining on radon potential  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pit waters from hard-coal and brown-coal mining, as well as sediments and soils along sewers and rivers in the vicinity of collieries, are investigated in the scope of radiation protection. The greatest amount of Ra is discharged by hard-coal collieries in the order of several tens of Bq l-1 in presence of high mineralised brines. In contact with sulphate bearing surface water, Ra co-precipitates with Ba and is deposited as radiobarite. The contamination with 226Ra lead to high activity concentrations (up to 32 000 Bq kg-1) and increased gamma dose rates (6 000 nSv h-1). The special situation of diadochic incorporation of Ra into the dense crystal lattice prevents Rn from emanation. However in sediments influenced by brown-coal mining Ra is adsorbed at the surfaces of ferric hydroxides and therefore, Rn can emanate easily. (orig.)

316

The prevention of water hazards in coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abrupt inrushes of water into deep coal mines have occurred from time immemorial. For example, in an undrained rock mass characterised by low strength, deposition of water-bearing loose rocks on the overlay of coal and disturbance by many water-bearing fault fissures, inrushes of water and quicksand are very common, resulting not only in any material damages but also causing human fatalities. 1 ref., 5 figs.

Milkowski, W. (Technical University, Gdansk (Poland))

1991-05-01

317

Risk factors for the undermined coal bed mining method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Romanian mining industry has been in a serious decline and is undergoing ample restructuring. Analyses of reliability and risk are most important during the early stages of a project in guiding the decision as to whether or not to proceed and in helping to establish design criteria. A technical accident occurred in 2008 at the Petrila coal mine involving an explosion during the exploitation of a coal seam. Over time a series of technical accidents, such as explosions and ignitions of methane gas, roof blowing phenomena or self-ignition of coal and hazard combustions have occurred. This paper presented an analysis of factors that led to this accident as well an analysis of factors related to the mining method. Specifically, the paper discussed the geomechanical characteristics of rocks and coal; the geodynamic phenomenon from working face 431; the spontaneous combustion phenomenon; gas accumulation; and the pressure and the height of the undermined coal bed. It was concluded that for the specific conditions encountered in Petrila colliery, the undermined bed height should be between 5 and 7 metres, depending on the geomechanic characteristics of coal and surrounding rocks. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

Arad, V. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Arad, S. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept of Electrical Engineering

2009-07-01

318

30 CFR 910.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. ...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas as unsuitable...

2010-07-01

319

30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 912...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas unsuitable for...

2010-07-01

320

30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 937...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas unsuitable for...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 933...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas unsuitable for...

2010-07-01

322

30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 939...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas unsuitable for...

2010-07-01

323

30 CFR 921.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. ...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas as unsuitable...

2010-07-01

324

30 CFR 905.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...905.761 Areas designated...

2010-07-01

325

30 CFR 903.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. ...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas as unsuitable...

2010-07-01

326

30 CFR 933.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by Act of Congress...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...933.761 Areas designated...

2010-07-01

327

30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 941...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas unsuitable for...

2010-07-01

328

30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 922...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas unsuitable for...

2010-07-01

329

30 CFR 903.761 - Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Areas designated unsuitable for surface coal mining by act of Congress...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...903.761 Areas designated...

2010-07-01

330

30 CFR 905.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. ...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas as unsuitable...

2010-07-01

331

30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 903...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas unsuitable for...

2010-07-01

332

30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 921...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas unsuitable for...

2010-07-01

333

30 CFR 941.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. ...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas as unsuitable...

2010-07-01

334

30 CFR 937.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. ...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas as unsuitable...

2010-07-01

335

30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 905...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas unsuitable for...

2010-07-01

336

30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. 910...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas unsuitable for...

2010-07-01

337

30 CFR 922.762 - Criteria for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for designating areas as unsuitable for surface coal mining operations. ...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN...for designating areas as unsuitable...

2010-07-01

338

30 CFR 800.17 - Bonding requirements for underground coal mines and long-term coal-related surface facilities and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND...INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY...long-term coal-related surface facilities and structures...structures, and for areas disturbed by...

2010-07-01

339

Proceedings of the 86th regular meeting of the Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book covers the proceedings of the 1990 Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute Convention. It includes: an acid rain legislation update; views on the future of western coal demands and production; and federal coal strategies for the 1990's

340

High Angle Mining System. Final research report, Sep 80-Jun 83  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under Bureau of Mines Contract JO-133925, ESD Corporation developed the High Angle Mining System (HAMS) as a method of extracting coal from seams varying widely in thickness and pitch. The system would normally be employed to extract coal lying beyond the economic limit of a strip or open-pit highwall. It is a surface-controlled operation involving no underground personnel. The HAMS can significantly increase the reserve base of coal that can be economically surface mined. A number of open-pit or surface mines which have moderately or steeply pitched seams were visited and studied. Existing technology was reviewed to identify systems or system components which merited further consideration for the development of the HAMS concept. Conventional and innovative approaches based on augering and two approaches based on slackline excavation were developed in sufficient detail to enable comparison on the basis of operational limitation, recovery ratio, productivity, and economy. The slackline excavator concept employing a projectile bucket was selected as the best approach. The capability of economically mining pitched seams of coal with the HAMS was demonstrated.

Christofferson, D.

1983-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

Use of natural gamma radiation in the coal mining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique of delineating coal seams by the use of natural gamma borehole logging sondes has been known for many years. The principle of the technique is that the gamma fluxes in shales are higher than in coals as the abundance of naturally occurring radionuclides is some twenty times greater in the former. This paper discusses other applications where the differeing natural gamma properties of coals and shales can be used. These are: (a) To distinguish between stone (shale) and run-of-mine coal on conveyor belts. A common situation underground is one in which stone from development headings and normal run-of-mine coal have to be batched along the same conveyor system. A natural gamma device capable of distinguishing between such batches of material, and thus allowing suitable mechanical separation, will be described. (b) To provide an accurate measurement of roof coal thickness by measuring the natural gamma flux penetrating the roof coal. To illustrate this examples will be given where this technique is used to provide automatic controlled steering of Long Wall Shearers and to provide manually assisted steering of In-seam Heading Machines

342

Coal mining under surface waters in foreign countries. [Canada, Japan, China, UK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal mining under the sea bed in the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan and China is evaluated. Coal reserves of the United Kingdom under sea bed amount to 645 Mt. Coal seams under sea bed are extracted in 16 mines. According to safety regulations developed by the National Coal Board the minimum mining depth under sea bed amounts to 83 m. When coal seams are situated at depths from 83 to 111 m mining with hydraulic stowing is used. When mining depth ranges from 111 to 240 m room and pillar mining is used. At depths exceeding 240 m mining with caving is used. In Canada, systems of coal mines at a distance to 5 km from sea shores produce about 6 Mt of coal annually. The minimum depth amounts to 55 m. When mining depths range from 55 to 100 m room and pillar mining is used, mining with caving is used at depths exceeding 100 m. Coal reserves of Japan situated under sea bed amount to 3800 Mt. When mining depth ranges from 40 to 100 m room and pillar mining is used. Longwall mining with caving is used at depths exceeding 100 m. About 30% of the country's coal output falls on underground mines under the sea bed. In China about 130 mines extract coal from seams under the sea bed. The minimum mining depth is 15 to 20 times greater than coal thickness when room and pillar mining is used or from 30 to 40 times greater when mining with caving is used.

Shokin, Yu.P.; Niskovskii, Yu.N.

1984-06-01

343

GSM Based Flexible Calling System For Coal Mining Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents an emergency flexible calling system consists of GSM module, solar panel, vibration sensor, battery sensor and fire sensor which are connected with centralized control room by wireless communication. Proposed system may be installed near coal mine where even basic emergency services are not available. It will be totally based on GSM signal strength. In case of medical & accidental emergency happen in the coal mine, particularly when the workerdoesn’t have the mobile phone or having no tower in coal mine, this system may be very much helpful.System has flexible timer for calling to the control room. The System will be protected from theft attempts using different alarm circuits like vibration sensor, fire sensor and battery sensor. This system will be continuously powered through a solar panel. This system will be useful even for illiterate people as well as for coal mining worker. The purpose of this project is to help people in emergency in remote location as early as possible. This system can useful in villages having no electricity.

Prof. Himanshu K. Patel#1, Deep H. Desai*2, Tanvi G. Badheka

2013-04-01

344

Environmental issues in coal mining: a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

India, among the first five coal producing countries in the world, has a coal mining history of over 220 years. The environmental problems accumulated due to yester year and current mining and other industrial activities have led to the various environmental issues related to societal development, ecology, land, water regime and air quality. There has been no definite goal of industrial activities and environmental management. The environmental status in most coal mining complexes and around is far from satisfactory. It has been located that the environmental issues be defined with reference to the desired quality of life for all. Hence, the quality of life criteria be defined for various coal mining regions based on which the actions on the environmental issues be planned. The task of environmental management is mammoth and no single agency can be expected to take care of these tasks. The planning jobs may be assigned to specially formed multi-faceted teams and the final developmental scenario be detailed with due consent of the public. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

345

Changes in coal mining society in contemporary West Bengal, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Government of India has, in recent years, taken multiple steps to encourage private sector participation, adopt a more holistic approach towards expanding its coal base, and improve efficiency in the sector as a whole. However, the existing regulatory framework in India is not adequately developed or in tune with international standards that the extractive industries sector have been putting together. It is thus crucial for the Indian coal industry to consider changes in its regulatory environment to make it a par with the international standards to meet the critical requirement for energy security. In fact coal mining society is passing though havoc changes due to Government’s newly introduced multifold policies. The industrial relation now has changed immensely than the previous practices. Coal industry, which contributes 67 percent of total energy requirements of our country. After two phases nationalization the industry witnessed certain developments, which have implications for the human recourses management and industrial relation. In the beginning of the 90s one important event was the introduction of the new economic policy and this has a great influence over the coal mine sector. Impact of the policy Change is the introduction of a number of private operators in the coal production. Broadly, new economic policy initiated the gradual withdrawal of state from the control of basic industry and infrastructure. Coal mines are no exception in this regard. So the effect of new economic policy in the consequence of globalization also falls on the coal sectors. We now see what sort of impact of policy change has taken place upon the coal sector and coal workers. This article tires to examine the changes taken place due to policy changes and changes in general outlook of the people of coal mines in which they live. Now the industrial relation as well as the mechanism of work has been changed drastically. The traditional practice of work and mental outlook is gradually replacing with global method. It was noticed that people associated in this industry has started accepting the wider scope of work culture.

Sribas Goswami

2011-01-01

346

Underground coal mining technology in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main innovations are in mining thick and very thick seams, the use of flexible shield supports in steep seams, inclined longwalling in seams with inclination of less than 12 degrees, and in pillarless mining in inclined seams. As regards development and panel layout, concentration of operations has been carried out, for example development in an individual seam has been replaced by concentrated development in a group or combined panel layout. Mechanization has made rapid progress.

Jia, R.

1981-04-01

347

Correlation of Risk Analysis Method Results with Numerical and Limit Equilibrium Methods in Overall Slope Stability Analysis of Southern Wall of Chadormalu Iron Open Pit Mine-Iran / Korelacja wyników analizy ryzyka z wynikami oblicze? numerycznych oraz wynikami uzyskanymi w oparciu o metod? równowagi granicznej zastosowanych do badania stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego na po?udniowej ?cianie odkrywkowej kopalni rud ?elaza w chadormalu w Iranie  

Science.gov (United States)

Slope stability analysis is one of the most important factors in designing open pit mines. Therefore an optimal slope design that supports both aspects of economy and safety is very significant. There are many different methods in slope stability analysis including empirical, limit equilibrium, block theory, numerical, and probabilistic methods. In this study, to analyze the overall slope stability of southern wall of Chadormalu iron open pit mine three numerical, limit equilibrium and probabilistic methods have been used. Software and methods that is used for analytical investigation in this study are FLAC software for numerical analysis, SLIDE software and circuit failure chart for limit equilibrium analysis and qualitative fault tree and semi-quantitative risk matrix for probabilistic analysis. The results of all above mentioned methods, was a circular failure occurrence in Metasomatite rock zone between 1405 to 1525 m levels. The main factors of failure occurrence in this range were heavily jointing and existing of faults. Safety factors resulted from numerical method; Circular chart method and SLIDE software are 1.16, 1.25 and 1.27 respectively. Regarding instability and safety factors in Metasomatite rock zone, in order to stabilize the given zone, some considerations such as bench angle and height reduction should be planned. In results of risk matrix method this zone was mentioned too as a high risk zone that numerical and limit equilibrium methods confirmed this. Badanie stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego jest jednym z najwa?niejszych czynników uwzgl?dnianych przy projektowaniu kopalni odkrywkowych. Optymalne zaprojektowanie wyrobiska pochy?ego z uwzgl?dnieniem czynników ekonomicznych oraz bezpiecze?stwa jest niezmiernie wa?ne. Istnieje wiele metod badania stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego, mi?dzy innymi metody empiryczne, metoda równowagi granicznej, teoria bloków oraz metody numeryczne i probabilistyczne. W pracy tej omówiono zastosowanie trzech spo?ród tych metod: metody numerycznej, równowagi granicznej oraz metody probabilistycznej, do analizy stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego na po?udniowej ?cianie kopalni rud ?elaza w Chadormalu w Iranie. Oprogramowanie wykorzystane w badaniach analitycznych to pakiet FLAK przy metodzie numerycznej, oprogramowanie SLIDE oraz wykresy ko?owe przy metodzie równowagi granicznej oraz jako?ciowe drzewa okre?laj?ce wyst?powanie uskoków i pó?-jako?ciowe macierze ryzyka przy metodzie probabilistycznej. Wyniki uzyskane w oparciu o trzy wy?ej wymienione metody wykaza?y wyst?pienie zawalenia si? ska? metasomatycznych na poziomie od 1405 do 1525 m. G?ównymi czynnikami warunkuj?cymi zawalenie si? ska? w tym regionie by?a obecno?? licznych p?kni?? oraz uskoków. Wska?niki bezpiecze?stwa uzyskane przy pomocy metod numerycznych, wykresu ko?owego oraz oprogramowanie SLIDE wynios?y kolejno: 1.16, 1.25, 1.27. W odniesieniu do niestabilno?ci w rejonie ska? metasomatycznych, aby uczyni? t? stref? bardziej stabiln? nale?y uwzgl?dni? takie czynniki jak k?t nachylenia ?awy oraz obni?enie wysoko?ci. Analiza przeprowadzona w oparciu o macierze ryzyka wykaza?a, ?e strefa ta jest stref? wysokiego ryzyka, za? wyniki analizy numerycznej oraz wyników uzyskanych przy pomocy metody równowagi granicznej w pe?ni ten wniosek potwierdzi?y.

Ahangari, Kaveh; Paji, Arman Gholinezhad; Behdani, Alireza Siami

2013-06-01

348

Exotic grasslands on reclaimed midwestern coal mines: An ornithological perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The largest grasslands in Indiana and Illinois are on reclaimed surface coal mines, which are numerous in the Illinois Coal Basin. The reclamation goal of establishing a vegetation cover with inexpensive, hardy exotic grass species (e.g., tall fescue, smooth brome) inadvertently created persistent, large grassland bird refuges. We review research documenting the importance of these sites for native prairie birds. On mines, grassland specialist birds (restricted to grassland throughout their range) prefer sites dominated by exotic grasses to those rich in forbs, whereas nonspecialist bird species show no significant preference. Midwestern mine grasslands potentially could be converted into landscapes that include native warm-season grasses and forbs adapted to the relatively dry, poor soil conditions, in addition to the present successful exotic grass stands. A key question is whether native mixtures will resist conversion to forb-rich or woody growth over the long term, as the exotic grasses have done.

Scott, P.E.; Lima, S.L. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (US). Dept. of Life Science

2004-07-01

349

All-Optical Fibre Networks For Coal Mines  

Science.gov (United States)

A topic of the paper is fiber-optic integrated network (FOIN) suited to the most hostile environments existing in coal mines. The use of optical fibres for transmission of mine instrumentation data offers the prospects of improved safety and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). The feasibility of optically powered sensors has opened up new opportunities for research into optical signal processing architectures. This article discusses a new fibre-optic sensor network involving a time domain multiplexing(TDM)scheme and optical signal processing techniques. The pros and cons of different FOIN topologies with respect to coal mine applications are considered. The emphasis has been placed on a recently developed all-optical fibre network using spread spectrum code division multiple access (COMA) techniques. The all-optical networks have applications in explosive environments where electrical isolation is required.

Zientkiewicz, Jacek K.

1987-09-01

350

Estimation of the exertion requirements of coal mining work  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work requirements of coal mining work were estimated by studying a group of 12 underground coal miners. A two level (rest, 300 kg X m/min) test was performed to estimate the linear relationship between each subject's heart rate and oxygen consumption. Then, heart rates were recorded during coal mining work with a Holter type recorder. From these data, the distributions of oxygen consumptions during work were estimated, allowing characterization of the range of exertion throughout the work day. The average median estimated oxygen consumption was 3.3 METS, the average 70th percentile was 4.3 METS, and the average 90th percentile was 6.3 METS. These results should be considered when assessing an individual's occupational fitness.

Harber, P.; Tamimie, J.; Emory, J.

1984-02-01

351

Estimation of the exertion requirements of coal mining work.  

Science.gov (United States)

The work requirements of coal mining work were estimated by studying a group of 12 underground coal miners. A two level (rest, 300 kg X m/min) test was performed to estimate the linear relationship between each subject's heart rate and oxygen consumption. Then, heart rates were recorded during coal mining work with a Holter type recorder. From these data, the distributions of oxygen consumptions during work were estimated, allowing characterization of the range of exertion throughout the work day. The average median estimated oxygen consumption was 3.3 METS, the average 70th percentile was 4.3 METS, and the average 90th percentile was 6.3 METS. These results should be considered when assessing an individual's occupational fitness. PMID:6692703

Harber, P; Tamimie, J; Emory, J

1984-02-01

352

The trend toward total quality management in Australian coal mining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper examines the trends and techniques now being adopted by the Australian coal mining industry to improve efficiency and competitiveness in the face of an increasingly difficult international and domestic coal market. Quality Assurance certification to internationally accepted standards has been gained by some operators whilst many more companies are implementing varied forms of Total Quality Control concepts. These concepts, now so well established in traditional manufacturing industries, have not previously been associated with the vagaries of the coal industry but are now being pursued by many in an effort to gain or retain a competitive edge. The paper also explains some of the actual processes being undertaken by the mining companies and outlines some of the systems being developed and utilised to undertake preliminary analysis and evaluation of existing and proposed management systems prior to implementing TQC systems. 2 figs.

Jeffreys, J.T.

1995-12-31

353

Ground movements related to mining steeply dipping coal seams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coalfields in northern Spain are deep with steeply dipping coal seams. Mining technology was traditionally based on extensive backfilling. The introduction of new caving mining methods has brought the need for state-of-the-art prediction techniques. The UTAH2-PC package has been used to predict subsidence profiles in a Central Coal Basin, where a new shortwall caving method was introduced on a steep seam which used to be worked by room-and-pillar techniques. An elastic model was developed to simulate workings on a fairly steep area (30-40 {degree}). Coal yielding was considered by backfilling broken areas with a degraded material. Several correction factors were introduced to overcome differences between the idealised computer model and actual panels. Once calibrated, the model was used to calculate the new stopes. The prediction of subsidence was close to the actual induced profile, validating the use of the computer program for future predictions. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Torano, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Cudeiro, O.; Paltchak, N.; Cuesta, A. [University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain). School of Mines

1999-07-01

354

Research on the Factors of Fatigue of Coal Mine Workers and Its Control Measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China is the largest coal producer in the world, it play a important role in the international field of coal production, but due to the frequent occurrence of coal mining accidents, it cause a enormous damage to the state's manpower and material resources. This article on research of the cause of the coal mining accident, it describes the fatigue of the coal mine workers assignment is the main cause of the accident and the threat to the safety of workers, and points out the important factors in ergonomics. MMEC theory is introduced and using for reference MMEC theory, finding out influence the cause of the coal mine worker fatigue, and combined with the relevant laws and regulations system to control and reduce the proposed method of coal mine worker fatigue to reduce and prevent the occurrence of coal mine accidents have some guidance Significance.

Zhang Jing-Gang

2013-07-01

355

Radioactive contamination of food chain around coal mine and coal-fired power stations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the coal mine in Lazarevac, and the coal-fired power stations in Obrenovac, on the activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs in some parts of human food chain of people living in the surrounding area. The obtained results showed that natural environment around the examined coal mine and the coal-fired power stations are not significantly affected by the emission of primordial radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 238U in the soil around the open coal mine and the coal processing installations (66.4-76.0 Bq/kg and in the soil around the coal-fired power stations (55.5-61.2 Bq/kg were not significantly higher than the average values in Serbia. The significant increase in the activity concentrations of natural radioisotopes in the samples of soil, vegetation, and animal products, was not confirmed. Food of animal origin used in human consumption is safe, i. e. not contaminated by radiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003 i br. TR34013

Vitorovi? Gordana S.

2012-01-01

356

Environmental assessment of coal-combustion waste use in underground coal mine workings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the past years, the percentage of coal-combustion waste being used in deep coal mines in the Upper Silesian coal basin, Poland, mainly for fire and methane control, as well as for backfilling, has increased steadily, reaching the total amount of 2,500,000 t/a in 1993. The scale of commercially proven underground reuse of these wastes requires adequate legislation that would enable correct environmental assessment and optimization of disposal options. Up to now, there are no such regulations in Poland, and these being applied do not fit to these options. Criteria and methods of assessment of environmental effect of coal-combustion waste use in underground coal mine workings have been developed and guidelines for an environmental assessment and optimization procedure have been elaborated. The elaborated methods were applied for determination of environmentally safe and beneficial coal combustion waste disposal from Rybnik Power Plant in workings of eight coal mines in western part of the USCB. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

Twardowska, I. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze (Poland). Inst. of Environmental Engineering

1996-12-31

357

Excursion guide for the tour of open-pit mining and upgrading sites of the Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft in the territory of the state of Brandenburg on 20 June 1996 on the occasion of the first BMBF status seminar; Exkursionsfuehrer zur Besichtigung von Tagebau- und Veredlungsstandorten der LMBV im Laenderbereich Brandenburg, 20. Juni 1996, anlaesslich des 1. Statusseminars des BMBF  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Extensive brown-coal mining in the Lausitz and other east-German districts belongs to the factors causing the severest environmental damage in Germany. In the new federal states, an area of 3300 square kilometres is concerned. This excursion guide gives an overview of the integration of research projects into land reclamation. The subject areas of the first status seminar are complemented by the technical excursions A/B (``ecology and hydrology/geotechnics``) and C (``land pollution``). (orig./MSK) [Deutsch] Der grossflaechige Abbau von Braunkohlenlagerstaetten in den Revieren der Lausitz und Mitteldeutschlands zaehlt mit zu den schwierigsten Umweltschaeden in Deutschland. Eine Flaeche von etwa 3 300 km{sup 2} ist in den neuen Bundeslaendern hiervon betroffen. Der Exkursionsfuehrer gibt einen Einblick, wie Forschungsarbeiten in die Bergbausanierung eingebunden werden. Die Themenkomplexe des 1. Statusseminars werden durch die Fachexkursionen A/B (`Oekologie und Wasserwirtschaft / Geotechnik`) und C (`Altlasten`) unterstuetzt. (orig./MSK)

NONE

1996-12-31

358

30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF MINING § 785.19 Surface coal mining and reclamation operations...conduct surface coal mining and reclamation operations...a valley holding a stream or in a location where...on either available data or field studies...

2010-07-01

359

30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including...FOR SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF MINING § 785.19 Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas...

2010-07-01

360

Residential damage in an area of underground coal mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to estimate the potential for future subsidence-related residential damage, a statistical analysis of past residential damage in the Boulder-Weld, Colorado, coal field was performed. The objectives of this study were to assess the difference in damage severity and frequency between undermined and non-undermined areas, and to determine, where applicable, which mining factors significantly influence the severity and frequency of residential damage. The results of this study suggest that undermined homes have almost three times the risk of having some type of structural damage than do non-undermined homes. The study also indicated that both geologic factors, such as the ratio of sandstone/claystone in the overburden, and mining factors, such as the mining feature (room, pillar, entry, etc.), can significantly affect the severity of overlying residential damage. However, the results of this study are dependent on local conditions and should not be applied elsewhere unless the geologic, mining, and residential conditions are similar

 
 
 
 
361

International coal encyclopedia: producers, mine index, petroleum coke, distributors, traders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 2 of the encyclopedia lists 175 coal exporting producers, giving details of the organisation name, address and contract details, key marketing personnel plus operations and logistics personnel and full mine information. Mine name, location, manager, annual tonnes produced for export, recoverable reserves, type of mine, type and rank of coal produced, preparation methods, export ports, load rate and maximum cargo size. A section on international coal traders and on import/export coal distributors is included which covers over 160 companies worldwide and details their exact trading activities and source/supply areas. Marketing and operations executives are listed for easy reference. Volume 2 now also includes a unique section that details all the petroleum companies who have petroleum coke for export available. This highlights the company name, address and full contact details. The marketing personnel as well as full details of the refinery name, location, crude oil capacity, type of coke, type of coke produced, annual production of petroleum coke per annum, quality of coke, method of preparation and export ports used for marketing.

1994-01-01

362

Drainage from coal mines: Chemistry and environmental problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the research on coal-mine drainage chemistry was conducted a decade ago, and now increased environmental awareness has brought about renewed interest in the findings. Consideration of the trace minerals and elements in coal points to the possible generation of acidic waters upon weathering, especially when pyrite is present. When pyrite weathers, it produces H+ and Fe3+ which catalyze the incongruent weathering of other carbonates and sulfides. In this weathering mechanism, catalysis by bacteria is important. Of the environmental problems in coal mine drainage, the mineral acidity of the water is the most serious. This is caused not only by the H+, but also by Mn4+, Fe3+, and Al3+ that are found or generated within the drainage. Case studies in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Colorado show that the abundance and form of pyrite in the deposit and in the overburden determines the level of acidity and the concentration of heavy metal pollutants in the drainage. Recent trends in environmental enforcement that emphasize integrated stream water standards and biotoxicity assays point to the possibility that the concentrations of heavy metals in coal mine drainages may cause environmental concern

363

Present conditions and trends of the development in coal processing at the Kolubara coal mine – Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The economic development of Yugoslavia and later the development of Serbia in the period of economic sanction, have defined the situation in the industrial branch of energy supply and, therefore, the situation in the coal processing at the Kolubara Coal Mine, Serbia. The accelerated growth of production capacities, the development and the use of devices and machines of ever greater unit capacities,the investigation of the use of coal in other fields, (not only for thermal power plants is the characteristics of the development until the 1990s. The period of the development of the mine until its restructuring is characteristic for extremely low prices of coal, electric power, wages, and, in consequence of the absence of the development, also the outdated equipment. The study on the long-term development programme, mining and processing of coal at Kolubara until 2020 has defined the future course of the development of processing, the changed concept of coal valorization and the introduction of new technological processes.

Rudolf Tomanec

2005-11-01

364

Modern carbonate microbialites from an asbestos open pit pond, Yukon, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbialites were discovered in an open pit pond at an abandoned asbestos mine near Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada. These microbialites are extremely young and presumably began forming soon after the mine closed in 1978. Detailed characterization of the periphyton and microbialites using light and scanning electron microscopy was coupled with mineralogical and isotopic analyses to investigate the mechanisms by which these microbialites formed. The microbialites are columnar in form (cm scale), have an internal spherulitic fabric (mm scale), and are mostly made of aragonite, which is supersaturated in the subsaline pond water. Initial precipitation is seen as acicular aragonite crystals nucleating onto microbial biomass and detrital particles. Continued precipitation entombs benthic diatoms (e.g. Brachysira vitrea), filamentous algae (e.g. Oedogonium sp.), dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria. The presence of phototrophs at spherulite centers strongly suggests that these microbes play an important initial role in aragonite precipitation. Substantial growth of individual spherulites occurs abiotically through periodic precipitation of aragonite that forms concentric laminations around spherulite centers while pauses in spherulite growth allow for colonization by microbes. Aragonite associated with biomass (?(13)C = -4.6‰ VPDB) showed a (13)C-enrichment of 0.8‰ relative to aragonite exhibiting no biomass (?(13)C = -5.4‰ VPDB), which suggests a modest removal of isotopically light dissolved inorganic carbon by phototrophs. The combination of a low sedimentation rate, high calcification rate, and low microbial growth rate appears to result in the formation of these microbialites. The formation of microbialites at an historic mine site demonstrates that an anthropogenically constructed environment can foster microbial carbonate formation. PMID:21231993

Power, I M; Wilson, S A; Dipple, G M; Southam, G

2011-03-01

365

Coal Mine Roadway Stability in Soft Rock: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines where the surrounding rock strata and coal seams are weak and the in situ stresses are high. Under the high overburden and tectonic stresses, roadways could collapse or experience excessive deformation, which not only endangers mining personnel but could also reduce the functionality of the roadway and halt production. This paper describes a case study on the stability of roadways in an underground coal mine in Shanxi Province, China. The mine was using a longwall method to extract coal at a depth of approximately 350 m. Both the coal seam and surrounding rock strata were extremely weak and vulnerable to weathering. Large roadway deformation and severe roadway instabilities had been experienced in the past, hence, an investigation of the roadway failure mechanism and new support designs were needed. This study started with an in situ stress measurement programme to determine the stress orientation and magnitude in the mine. It was found that the major horizontal stress was more than twice the vertical stress in the East-West direction, perpendicular to the gateroads of the longwall panel. The high horizontal stresses and low strength of coal and surrounding rock strata were the main causes of roadway instabilities. Detailed numerical modeling was conducted to evaluate the roadway stability and deformation under different roof support scenarios. Based on the modeling results, a new roadway support design was proposed, which included an optimal cable/bolt arrangement, full length grouting, and high pre-tensioning of bolts and cables. It was expected the new design could reduce the roadway deformation by 50 %. A field experiment using the new support design was carried out by the mine in a 100 m long roadway section. Detailed extensometry and stress monitorings were conducted in the experimental roadway section as well as sections using the old support design. The experimental section produced a much better roadway profile than the previous roadway sections. The monitoring data indicated that the roadway deformation in the experimental section was at least 40-50 % less than the previous sections. This case study demonstrated that through careful investigation and optimal support design, roadway stability in soft rock conditions can be significantly improved.

Shen, Baotang

2014-11-01

366

Textural and mineralogical characteristics of SPM in coal mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ultimate goal of air pollution assessment and control effort is to mitigate the effect of pollutants on environment. The effects may be on health, various other biological systems, and physical quality of environment. The severity of impact of airborne suspended particulate matter may depends upon its physico-chemical properties. Opencast mining operation of ten generates high percentage of airborne Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) which gets dissipated into the atmosphere around the mine and leads to serious disruption to the quality of the life. In this paper, a study of air quality monitoring in terms of SPM in an opencast coal mine has been presented. Among the various mining activities drilling, coal crushing and handling operations and movement of dumpers on the haul roads are the main sources of dust generation in an opencast coalmine. The concentration of SPM is variable throughout the year. It shows wide variation in summer and winter seasons in mining areas. The mineral constituents present in the SPM also vary considerably. 6 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

367

Analysis of the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining ?????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses the modern practice of insuring investment projects in coal mining. It studies experience of countries with developed coal industry, namely, United States, Australia and China. It analyses offers of state and private insurers that provide services in insuring commercial and non-commercial (political risks for investment projects in coal mining. It determines main types of insurance protection, which started to be widely used when insuring real investments, and analyses specific features of their application in insuring coal mining projects. It uses the analysis for highlighting key types of insurance, application of which could ensure complex protection of investments into Ukrainian coal mining projects.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ???? ????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????????????, ? ?????????, ???, ????????? ? ???. ???????????????? ??????????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ????????????, ??????????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ? ?????????????? (???????????? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ? ??????????. ?????????? ???????? ???? ????????? ??????, ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??????????, ? ???????????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ????????. ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ???? ???????????, ?????????? ??????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ? ?????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????.

Gusak Andrey S.

2013-03-01

368

The future of brown coal mining in Germany. Lectures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Like most other sectors, the German brown coal mining industry is facing new challenges with the unification process. Major problems are also raised by the supply network, another dramatic GDR legacy - namely the need to recultivate the mining-devasted areas. Ideas to overcome such problems are shown by Dr.-Ing. Dietrich Boecker (board member of Rheinbau Ltd.) and the Leipzig government president, Mr. Walter Christian Steinbach, in the realm of an organised politics and science discussion on October 6, 1992. (HS). 6 figs

369

Corrosion of rock anchors in US coal mines  

Science.gov (United States)

The mining industry is a major consumer of rock bolts in the United States. Due to the high humidity in the underground mining environment, the rock bolts corrode and loose their load bearing capacity which in turn reduces the life expectancy of the ground support and, thus, creates operational difficulties and number of safety concerns[1]. Research on rock anchor corrosion has not been adequately extensive in the past and the effects of several factors in the mine atmosphere and waters are not clearly understood. One of the probable reasons for this lack of research may be attributed to the time required for gathering meaningful data that makes the study of corrosion quite challenging. In this particular work underground water samples from different mines in the Illinois coal basin were collected and the major chemical content was analyzed and used for the laboratory testing. The corrosion performance of the different commercial rock anchors was investigated by techniques such as laboratory immersion tests in five different corrosion chambers, and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated ground waters based on the Illinois coal basin. The experiments were conducted with simulate underground mining conditions (corrosive). The tensile strengths were measured for the selected rock anchors taken every 3 months from the salt spray corrosion chambers maintained at different pH values and temperatures. The corrosion potential (Ecorr ), corrosion current (Icorr) and the corresponding corrosion rates (CR) of the selected commercial rock bolts: #5, #6, #6 epoxy coated and #7 forged head rebar steels, #6 and #7 threaded head rebar steels were measured at the solution pH values of 5 and 8 at room temperature. The open circuit potential (OCP) values of the different rock anchors were recorded in 3 selected underground coal mines (A, B & C) in the Illinois coal basin and the data compared with the laboratory electrochemical tests for analyzing the life of the rock anchors installed in the mines with respect to corrosion potential and corrosion current measured. The results of this research were statistically validated. This research will have direct consequence to the rock related safety. The results of this research indicate that certain corrosive conditions are commonly found in mines but uniform corrosion (around 0.01-0.03mm loss per year across the diameter) is generally not considered a serious issue. From this study, longer term research for longterm excavation support is recommended that could quantify the problem depending on the rock anchor used and specific strata conditions.

Bylapudi, Gopi

370

Bacterial desulphurization of coal from mine CSA Most  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the paper was application of bacterial leaching on 3 brown coal samples from bore S 187 (CV from locality Mine CSA Most. Based on the results of bacterial leaching and petrologic analyses of the given samples, it is possible to state that the individual samples are very similar, they contain significant shares of clay materials and pyrite is predominantly represented in a framboidal form, which intergrowths into a massive form. Applying bacterial leaching it is possible to remove from 24 to 40% of total sulphur and from 20 to 37% of pyritic sulphur from the coals.

Fecko P.

2006-01-01

371

Land management in surface mining with the example of the Belchatow brown coal mine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Belchatow brown coal surface mine will cover 5720 ha of land - 2563 ha of arable land, 831 ha of pasture land, 1598 ha of forests and 678 ha of other land types (e.g. waste, roads, etc.). Regulations on land management and environmental protection in Poland are analyzed. Their effects on land management in the Belchatow mine are evaluated. Types of soils, their agricultural use, types of private and state farms in the mine area are discussed. Problems associated with expropriation, expropriation cost and effects of mine construction on agriculture in the Belchatow area are also analyzed. Selected problems associated with balance of manpower in the area and effects of growing employment in the mine on lack of manpower in agriculture are evaluated. Program for land reclamation, its cost, planned investment, organizational models of land reclamation and types of land utilization after reclamation are described. 1 refs.

Wasowicz, J.; Skalska, T.

1986-01-01

372

Raptor use of revegetated coal strip mine spoils in interior Alaska  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Raptors associated with reclaimed coal strip mine spoils on the Usibelli Coal Mine in southcentral Alaska were observed in 1981 and 1982. Of the 10 raptor species identified on the mine, 6 (red-tailed hawk, golden eagle, Northern harrier, American kestrel, hawk owl, and short-eared owl) were observed hunting on the reclaimed areas

373

Underwater coal mining and environmental protection; Podvodna eksploatacija uglja i zastita zivotne sredine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyzes the environmental impacts of underwater coal mining, which represents an innovation in the technology of lignite mining in Yugoslavia. The experimental coal mine Kovin was used as an example to demonstrate the assessment method of such impacts. Finally, some conceptual solutions for environmental protection were suggested. 6 refs., 1 fig.

Ivanovic, V.; Elezoc, V.; Koprivica, O. [Rudarski Institute, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

1999-07-01

374

Joint research project lignite: development and testing of methods for in-situ-monitoring for problems in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines as well as for other endangered and dangerous sites. Pt. 2: technical prooftesting. Final report; Verbundvorhaben Braunkohle: Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden zur In-situ-Langzeitueberwachung fuer Probleme der Folgelandschaften des Braunkohlenbergbaus sowie fuer andere gefaehrdete und gefaehrliche Standorte. Teilvorhaben 2: Grosstechnische Erprobung. Endbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Starting point of this project was a preceding project by BMBF under FZK 1460990, where a concept and prototypes have been developed and tested for an automatic, computer-based monitoring of sites suspected to be hazardous in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. The monitoring system is based on local measurements with milieuparameter probes and an optical sensor system in observation wells combined with measurements between the wells using an electromagnetic system. Methods were developed for monitoring the vadose and saturated zones. In future these monitoring systems will be needed to understand the processes connected with the considerable changes due to redistribution and aeration of the sediments during removal of the overburden, due to disposal of solid and liquid wastes in the mine area, as well as to the re-establishment of normal groundwater levels. Precautionary and remedial measures must also be monitored as well as natural attenuation of pollutants. Aim of this follow-up project was to prove the applicability and efficiency of this monitoring system at a testing site. For this the monitoring system was technically improved, with a remote data transmission equipped and built as a small-scale production. The system was successfully tested under extreme conditions at the Concordia dump in Stassfurt. (orig.) [German] Ausgangspunkt dieses Projektes war das vom BMBF unter FKZ 1460990 gefoerderte Vorlaeufervorhaben, in dem ein Konzept fuer die vollautomatische, rechnergestuetzte Langzeitueberwachung (Monitoring) von Altlastenstandorten in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften entwickelt und getestet wurde. Das Monitoringsystem basiert auf der Kombination lokaler Messungen mit Milieuparametersonden sowie einem Optosensorsystem und raeumlichen Ueberwachungsmethoden mit einem elektromagnetischen Ueberwachungssystem. Dabei wurden Loesungen sowohl fuer ein Monitoring in der wassergesaettigten als auch in der ungesaettigten Zone entwickelt. Derartige Ueberwachungssysteme werden kuenftig benoetigt, um zu einem besseren Verstaendnis und zur Loesung der Probleme in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften zu kommen, die durch die Belueftung und Umstrukturierung der Gesteinsschichten, durch das Einbringen und Ablagern fester und fluessiger Abfaelle sowie durch den Wiederanstieg des Grundwassers verursacht werden. Ausserdem dient die Monitoringtechnologie zur Kontrolle der Wirksamkeit von Sicherungs- uns Sanierungsmassnahmen sowie zur Untersuchung der Prozesse der natuerlichen Selbstreinigung (Natural Attenuation) in diesem Gebieten. Ziel dieses Folgevorhabens war es, die Anwendbarkeit und Effektivitaet des Monitoringkonzeptes an einem Teststandort nachzuweisen. Dafuer musste das Monitoringsystem technisch ueberarbeitet, mit einer Datenfernuebertragung versehen und in einer Kleinserie gebaut werden. Das System wurde am Standort Concordiahalde in Stassfurt unter extremen Bedingungen erfolgreich getestet. (orig.)

Knoedel, K.; Koenig, F.

2002-06-27

375

Methane asphyxia. Coal mine accident investigation of distribution of gas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Death from asphyxia due to substitution of air by methane gas may occur in coal mine by gas outburst. In such a case, it is required to determine methane gas contents from cadaveric blood and tissues for diagnosing cause of death and estimating conditions of the accident. The methane concentration in blood and tissue samples of 22 male victims by a gas outburst accident was measured by gas chromatography. The level of methane in the cardiac blood was in the range of 6.8-26.8 microliters/g. As a model of gas outburst in coal mine, rats were exposed experimentally to various concentrations of methane. Their course of death and methane distribution in the bodies were observed. From these findings, diagnostic criteria for asphyxia from substitution of air by methane are also discussed. PMID:3870672

Terazawa, K; Takatori, T; Tomii, S; Nakano, K

1985-09-01

376

Coal mine subsidence: effects of mitigation on crop yields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Subsidence from longwall underground coal mining adversely impacts agricultural land by creating wet or ponded areas. While most subsided areas show little impact, some localized places, usually less than 1.5 ha in size, may experience total crop failure. Coal companies mitigate subsidence damaged cropland by installing drainage waterways or by adding fill material to raise the grade. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of mitigation in restoring corn and soybean yields to pre-mined levels. Fourteen sites in southern Illinois were selected for study. Corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields from mitigated and nearby undisturbed areas were compared for four years. Results varied due to differing weather and site conditions. Mean corn yields overall, however were significantly (?0.05) lower on mitigated areas. There was no significant difference in overall mean soybean yields. Soil fertility levels were similar and did not account for yield differences. 14 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

377

Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

378

Mechanism of Electronic Charging of Coal Mine Dust  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electronic charging of mine dust can cause coal-dust explosion and increase the risk of pneumoconiosis, so it is necessary to take more attention to the study of its electronic charging properties. The mechanism of electronic charging of coal mine dust was investigated in this paper. It was found that the formation and polarity of dust are determined by the energy band structure and of the two contacting sides; then a mathematical model of work function is established in mesoscopic level. The experiments conclude that the work function decreases with the particle size for the dust with same properties, moreover large particles are positively charged and small particles are negatively charged. Finally, the experimental verification of the main particles charged model drive unipolar and bipolar charged modes and confirm the correctness of microstructure and mesoscopic analyses, which furthermore lay the foundation for further research.

Cheng Xue-Zhen

2013-09-01

379

Mechanism of Reinforcement on Inwall of Coal Mine Shaft Wall  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the theory of elasticity, the analytic solution of temperature stress on shaft wall of coal mine with reinforcement on inwall is deduced. It is shown that with the increment of reinforcement stress Pa, the radial compressive stress &sigmar become larger, the vertical compressive stress &sigmaz become less, while the circumferential stress &sigma &theta changed from compressive stress to tensile stress. The stability of shaft wall enhanced with vertical stress reduced by reinforcement on inwall of shaft wall. Compressive steel plate could be used to reinforce the inwall, characterized with low-cost, short time and construction easy. While the intelligent equipment should be developed further to provide everlasting and greater reinforcement on in wall of coal mine shaft wall.

Jinlong Liu

2013-05-01

380

Isolation of keratinolytic fungi from a coal mine dump  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the study of fungal succession in the coal mine dump in Brzezinka (Poland), soil samples were examined for keratinolytic fungi. These micro-organisms were rather poorly represented in the area studied. Out of 300 soil samples examined, only 48 (16%) were positive for keratinolytic fungi. Trichophyton akelloi and Arthroderma curreyi were the prevailing species. These species occurred practically at two locations, i.e. on the naked carbon rocks inhabited by algae crops (chiefly by Cyanophyta) and in the pine litter. It can be supposed that the occurrence of keratinolytic fungi was more dependent on the favourable general conditions such as increasing organic matter content, microflora, and humidity than on the presence of keratin remains in the soil. Because of the lack of potentially pathogenic fungi, the coal mine dump examined cannot be considered as an important source of fungal infection.

Ulfig, K.; Korcz, M. [Institute of Ecology and Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
381

Moving up down in the mine: Sex segregation in underground coal mining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study employs both individualist theories of human capital and sex-role spillover and structuralist theories from the socialist feminist perspective, emphasizing the formal and informal organizational factors operating within a patriarchal capitalist society to explain job-level sex segregation among underground coal miners. Both quantitative and qualitative data on women in coal mining are used to evaluate these theories. A logistic regression analysis performed on data obtained in 1986 by the US Bureau of Mines demonstrates that while human capital variables are predictive of a miner's job rank, variation in job rank attributed to gender is even greater. For men, training and experience in mining combine to increase the probability of being in a more skilled job in a coal mine. Age and seniority are curvilinearly related to the variation in men's job rank. For women, only age accounts for their advancement such that younger, not older women who have slightly more mining experience, occupy the more skilled positions in the work place. These findings suggest that, in terms of job advancement, men enjoy a greater return on their human capital investments than women, and that factors other than those representing a miner's human capital are affecting women's positions underground more than men's

382

Blind workings explosion hazard estimation procedure at Ukrainian coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A procedure for assessing and forecasting blind workings explosion hazards in coal mines when using electrical equipment is given. The procedure enables a feasibility study to be carried out concerning protection means maintenance schedule and offers new standards providing a level of safety according to GOST 12.1.004-76 that allows the elimination of electricity-caused explosions in blind workings. 2 figs.

Koptikov, V.P.; Kovalyov, A.P.; Spivakovsky, A.V.; Chursinova, A.A. [Makeyevka State Safety in Mines Research Institute, Makeyevka (Ukraine)

1999-07-01

383

Remediation of coal mining wastewaters using chitosan microspheres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of chitosan and chitosan/poly(vinylalcohol) microspheres incorporating tetrasulphonated copper (II) phthalocyanine (CTS / PVA / TCP) in the remediation of coal mining wastewaters. The process was monitored by toxicity tests both before and after adsorption treatments with chitosan and microspheres. Physicochemical parameters, including pH and trace-metal concentration, as well as bioindicators of water pollution were used to that end. Wastewater samples collected from drainage of underground coal mines, decantation pools, and contaminated rivers were scrutinized. Acute toxicity tests were performed using the Brine Shrimp Test (BST) in order to evaluate the remediation efficiency of different treatments. The results showed that the pH of treated wastewater samples were improved to values close to neutrality. Chitosan treatments were also effective in removing trace-metals. Pre-treatment with chitosan followed by microsphere treatment (CTS / PVA / TCP) was more effective in decreasing toxicity than the treatment using only chitosan. This was probably due to the elimination of pollutants other than trace-metals. Thus, the use of chitosan and microspheres is an adequate alternative towards remediation of water pollution from coal mining.

Geremias, R.; Pedrosa, R.C.; Benassi, J.C.; Favere, V.T.; Stolberg, J.; Menezes, C.T.B.; Laranjeira, M.C.M. [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)

2003-12-01

384

Presentations from the 1992 Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On May 20 and 21, 1992, the MSHA Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting was held at the National Mine Health and Safety Academy in Beckley, West Virginia. Fifteen presentations were given on key issues involved in the design and construction of dams associated with coal mining. The attendees were told that to improve the consistency among the plan reviewers, engineers from the Denver and Pittsburgh Technical Support Centers meet twice annually to discuss specific technical issues. It was soon discovered that the topics being discussed needed to be shared with anyone involved with coal waste dam design, construction, or inspection. The only way to accomplish that goal was through the issuance of Procedure Instruction Letters. The Letters present a consensus of engineering philosophy that could change over time. They do not present policy or carry the force of law. Currently, thirteen position papers have been disseminated and more will follow as the need arises. The individual paper were not even entered into the database.

1993-12-31

385

Structure of capital equipment distribution among production units in coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyzes trends in mechanization and automation of operations in underground black coal mining in the Karaganda basin from 1965 to 1979. In the analyzed period number of operating coal mines in the basin decreased by 30% and coal output increased by 50.5%, number of longwall faces decreased by 29% and coal output from a face increased by 20.5%. The average labor efficiency for a miner in a month increased by 1.5 times. In the same time value of capital invested in black coal mining in the basin increased by 2.3 times. Efficiency of capital productivity in coal mining is unsatisfactory. It is associated with: machine failures, excessively long period of assembling and disassembling face systems, extensive downtime due to operational reasons, low quality of repair and maintenance. Working time losses caused by machine failures and other reasons in the longwall faces mined by face systems exceed 25%. Major operations such as mining, mine haulage, hoisting, ventilation, mine drainage, repair and maintenance, as well as coal preparation, coal transport on the surface of coal mines and coal storage are characterized. Proportion of machines and equipment taking part in individual operations is given in a table. It is stated that a low degree of mechanization is characteristic of auxiliary operations and repair.

Karenov, R.S.

1981-08-01

386

History and environmental impact of mining in the Ostrava - Karvina coal field (Upper Silesian coal basin, Czech Republic)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper deals with the history of underground mining and with quantities of mined hard coal, mine water and methane in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin between 1782 and 2000. The effect of the closure of mines on selected parts of the coal field with respect to surface streams and landscape, as well as new activities connected with potential utilisation of coal bed methane and methane trapped in gobs of closed mines is examined. This paper is a presentation of selected results from project No S3086005: 'Effect of winding-up of underground mining on processes in lithosphere and on environment' which is financed within the framework of the Program of Aimed Research and Development of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. 12 refs., 7 figs.

Petr Martinec; Bozena Schejbalova [Czech Academy of Sciences, Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic). Institute of Geonics

2004-07-01

387

An innovative approach to a `boutique` mine and coal preparation plant at Stratford Coal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a new approach to coal mining, with an open cut being operated by contractor`s machinery and a small work force being heavily supplemented by a large contingent of contractors at peak times. It details the development of a modern preparation plant which, in the three years since construction, has undergone two major modifications and many smaller changes to cope with conditions not envisaged at the time of the original design. This process is ongoing and has included several innovations in equipment both in New South wales (NSW) and throughout Australia, including the Daniels Bath, Jameson Cell flotation, and Teetered Bed Separator (TBS). The project, and the coal handling and preparation plant (CHPP) in particular, are examples of the latest approaches and technology which make new investment in the traditionally difficult area of small coal mines both possible and profitable. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Newling, P.; Weale, W.; Swanson, A.; Crisafulli, P. [Stratford Coal Pty. Ltd., NSW (Australia)

1998-12-31

388

Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized by low pH and high iron and sulfate concentrations and may contaminate local drinking-water supplies and streams. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of injecting cementitious alkaline materials, such as Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) material to mitigate current adverse environmental impacts associated with AMD in a small, abandoned deep mine in Coshocton County Ohio. The Flue Gas Desulfurization material will be provided from American Electric Power`s (AEP) Conesville Plant. It will be injected as a grout mix that will use Fixated Flue Gas Desulfurization material and water. The subject site for this study is located on the border of Coshocton and Muskingum Counties, Ohio, approximately 1.5 miles south-southwest of the town of Wills Creek. The study will be performed at an underground mine designated as Mm-127 in the Ohio Department of Natural Resources register, also known as the Roberts-Dawson Mine. The mine operated in the mid-1950s, during which approximately 2 million cubic feet of coal was removed. Effluent discharging from the abandoned mine entrances has low pH in the range of 2.8-3.0 that drains directly into Wills Creek Lake. The mine covers approximately 14.6 acres. It is estimated that 26,000 tons of FGD material will be provided from AEP`s Conesville Power Plant located approximately 3 miles northwest of the subject site.

Mafi, S.; Damian, M.T.; Senita, R.E.; Jewitt, W.C.; Bair, S.; Chin, Y.C.; Whitlatch, E.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

1997-07-01

389

Injection of FGD Grout to Abate Acid Mine Drainage in Underground Coal Mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) from abandoned underground coal mines in Ohio is a concern for both residents and regulatory agencies. Effluent from these mines is typically characterized b