WorldWideScience

Sample records for open-pit coal mines

  1. Open pit coal exploitation viability. Margarita mine. Case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an analysis of financial viability, planning and design for the new coal open pit exploitation for La Margarita mine, with coal-resources estimated on 440.139,7 ton. Dimension, design and economic evaluation were possible by three exploitation methods: (multiple bench, open cast contour, and terraces). Net present values (NVP) were calculated: $c 817,5; $c 518,5 and $c 645,2 respectively for each method (given in million current Colombian pesos $. $c 2380 are equivalent to $us 1) and rate of return (ROR) 78,33%; 34,0% and 38,62% respectively for each method. These indicators served as a parameter to choose the multiple bench method, which should be recalculated because it was necessary to work jointly with two pits and making feasible the project. in addition a general environmental evaluation was done, which is vital for the exploitation. Important impacts on the flower, animals, air, water were found, and measures of control, prevention and mitigation were stated. it is expected that this paper can be useful as a technical-economical support for the development of the open pit exploitation in the margarita mine

  2. Mudstone depressurization behaviour in an open pit coal mine, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, G.; Waterhouse, J. [Golder Associates, West Perth, WA (Australia); Crisostomo, J. [PT Adaro Indonesia, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2010-07-01

    Mining activities in the Tutupan mine in Indonesia began in the mid-1990s. The open pit mine's coal seams are interbedded with fine-grained sandstones, mudstones, and carbonaceous mudstones. Slope stability analyses at the pit have integrated hydrogeology with geotechnical engineering analyses to optimize slope designs and reduce the risk of slope failure. This paper discussed the impact of mining and dewatering on mudstone depressurization. Sensors were placed at key points in the mine to obtain data related to the mudstone units. Reductions in pore pressure occurred as a result of groundwater flow away from the observed zones, increases in porosity, and increases in total porosity caused by an expansion of the rock mass as a result of drainage and hydrostatic unloading. Mudstone pore pressure trends with time were interpreted by determining the thickness of the mudstone unit, the presence or absence of known thin sandstone beds, unloading from overhead mining activities, and the position of the mudstone within the sedimentary sequence. The study showed that unloading activities have a significant impact on pore pressure in thick mudstone units, regardless of the depth, thickness, or properties of the unit. Pore pressure within high wall mudstone units typically decreased to values equivalent to the elevation of the unit where it was exposed to dips in a high wall. The dewatering of sandstone units in low walls caused a decline in pore pressure within the thick mudstone units located beneath the sandstones. Differences in primary permeabilities were attributed to greater fracturing in deeper and stronger rock units. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Open-pit coal mines: anthropogenic stressors and vegetation succession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, J.; Steklova, J.; Ceska, J. [Czech University of Life Science Prague, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-01

    In the spoil heaps, i.e. in the waste dumps of the soil removed in open-pit coal mining, the emergence and development of spontaneous vegetation is a prerequisite for 'bringing them to life', i.e. for development of flora and fauna. Here, the diversity of plants is the result of locally different conditions - often extreme ones (such as drought and overheating of the surface, toxicity of the substrate, erosion, etc.). At initial stages, phytocenoses, which are not rich in the number of species and which usually have a dominant edificator species, emerge here. The abiotic stress in the spoil heaps is a regular and predictable phenomenon. The theory of primary strategies, represented by the relations of stress, disturbance and competition, was applied. A general diagram of succession development of vegetation in the spoil heaps in the North Bohemia has been prepared; the basic concept is the concept of C-S-R strategies here. The stress-tolerant taxa are determined by the conditions of these anthropogenic areas, i.e. these species are diagnostic indicators for an environment strongly burdened with stress factors (S-strategists). On the other hand, there are species well adapted to unpredictable disturbances (R-strategists); these often include field weeds and ruderal plants. Competitive C-strategists grow in the relatively stable habitats of spoil heaps areas. They are able to resist stress and disturbance only with difficulties. The C-S-R life strategies represent intersections based on the principle of the compromise of profits and losses.

  4. Air quality impact assessment of multiple open pit coal mines in northern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, José I; Huertas, María E; Izquierdo, Sebastián; González, Enrique D

    2012-01-01

    The coal mining region in northern Colombia is one of the largest open pit mining regions of the world. In 2009, there were 8 mining companies in operation with an approximate coal production of ?70 Mtons/year. Since 2007, the Colombian air quality monitoring network has reported readings that exceed the daily and annual air quality standards for total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 ?m (PM??) in nearby villages. This paper describes work carried out in order to establish an appropriate clean air program for this region, based on the Colombian national environmental authority requirement for modeling of TSP and PM(10) dispersion. A TSP and PM?? emission inventory was initially developed, and topographic and meteorological information for the region was collected and analyzed. Using this information, the dispersion of TSP was modeled in ISC3 and AERMOD using meteorological data collected by 3 local stations during 2008 and 2009. The results obtained were compared to actual values measured by the air quality monitoring network. High correlation coefficients (>0.73) were obtained, indicating that the models accurately described the main factors affecting particle dispersion in the region. The model was then used to forecast concentrations of particulate matter for 2010. Based on results from the model, areas within the modeling region were identified as highly, fairly, moderately and marginally polluted according to local regulations. Additionally, the contribution particulate matter to the pollution at each village was estimated. Using these predicted values, the Colombian environmental authority imposed new decontamination measures on the mining companies operating in the region. These measures included the relocation of three villages financed by the mine companies based on forecasted pollution levels. PMID:22054578

  5. Contributions to the workshop `Residual ponds from open pit brown coal mining`; Beitraege zum Workshop ``Braunkohlebergbaurestseen``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The contributions to the workshop ``Investigations on flooding in residual ponds from open-pit mining`` deal, inter alia, with the hydrochemical development of flushing waters, the stability of the water quality of residual lakes, especially under the impact of land contamination, the influence of brine receipts by flushed residual lakes, and with the microbiological ecology of residual lakes from mining. Furthermore, geophysical studies for demonstrating paths of flow and for calculating the depth and volume of residual lakes from open-pit mining are discussed. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Beitraege zu dem Workshop `Untersuchungen zu Flutungen in Tagebaurestseen` befassen sich unter anderem mit der hydrochemischen Entwicklung von Flutungsgewaessern, mit der Qualitaetsstabilitaet von Restseewaessern - insbesonders bei Einwirkung von Altlasten - und mit den Einfluessen von Solezufluessen bei Restseeflutung sowie mit Untersuchungen zur mikrobiologischen Oekologie in Bergbaurestseen. Desweiteren werden geophysikalische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis von Fliesswegen und die Tiefen- und Volumenberechnung eines Tagebaurestlochsees erlaeutert. (MSK)

  6. Development of broadleaved woodland on colliery and open pit coal mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadleaved woodland is an important land use and vegetation type in the United Kingdom (UK), and potentially the most effective landscape and restoration treatment for colliery waste tips and open pit coal sites. A field-based national survey of collieries in England and Wales in 1986 and 1987 showed that establishment was satisfactory in only half of the schemes, and growth was deemed satisfactory in less than one-fifth. There are standard forestry practices whereby stock quality can be assured, and herbaceous vegetation controlled or eliminated by the use of herbicides. During the restoration of the site, depending on choice of species, adequate soil water can be provided by the selection of appropriate soil types and thicknesses, and adoption of appropriate soil handling and decompaction practices. The low affinity of the plantations with local and regional types was partly due to the planting of non-native species and partly due to the failure to match species with site and soil characteristics. There is no reason why woodlands of a local and regional character cannot be established by planting the associated species. A matrix of fast-growing tree and/or shrub species should be used to promote early woodland development. These would be removed during normal management which is essential for the ultimate success of the woodland. Planting schemes should also incorporate woodland structural elements and understory and ground flora species. Provided that these measur flora species. Provided that these measures are fully implemented, significant improvements in establishment, growth, and woodland development on restored sites should be achieved

  7. Effect of mining landscape history on local species diversity: a case study of the Yimin open-pit coal mine in Inner Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarula Kang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The exploration and utilization of mineral resources accelerates local economic and social development and simultaneously exacerbates the effects of climate and landscape changes, resulting in landscape fragmentation. Landscape change is widely considered as a major threat to species loss at a regional and global scale. However, how species diversity responds to landscape changes on a temporal scale has usually been ignored. In this study, we explored relationships between landscape and biodiversity (species level and functional group level during different years (1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010 at the Yimin open-pit coal mine, a mine that has been exploited for more than 30 years and that has produced obvious fragmentation effects on the landscape in Hulunbuir City. The ongoing patterns of transformation of the landscape were measured using the landscape dominance index, the habitat integral index of connectivity (IIC, and the habitat probability of connectivity (PC at seven different spatial scales. The main results were as follows: The present species diversity is significantly correlated with the landscape pattern indices of previous and earlier mining at a medium-sized spatial scale (4–8 km buffers. Different plant functional groups responded in various ways to changing landscape patterns. The species richness of perennial rhizome grasses was significantly correlated with the present small-scale landscape pattern (1–3 km, and the species richness of perennial forbs was significantly correlated with the previous and earlier mining large-scale landscape patterns (4–10 km. Perennial bunchgrasses were not significantly correlated with landscape patterns. We concluded that the time lag expressed by changes in plant species diversity occurred in response to changing patterns of construction and configurations of habitats in the landscape. The regional species pool determined the local species diversity. The connected habitat patches within a 4–8 km buffer region represented the principal species pool. The propagation strategies and dispersal traits of various functional groups were important mechanisms maintaining species diversity in a fragmented area.

  8. Natural radioactivity in lignite samples from open pit mines “Kolubara”, Serbia – risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal as fossil fuel mainly contains naturally occurring radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series and 40K. Use of coal, primarily in industry, as a result has dispersion of radioactive material from coal in and through air and water. The aim of this study was to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples from open pit mines “Kolubara” and to evaluate its effect on population health. The results showed that all measured and calculated values were below the limits recommended in international legislation. - Highlights: • Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in coal samples were determined. • Effect on population health due to the activity of these radionuclides was estimated. • All samples were collected at different locations of the open pit mines “Kolubara”. • All measured and calculated values were below the recommended limits. • There is no enhanced radiation hazard for population nearby open pit mines

  9. Identification of a Hidden Volcano in an Open-pit Coal Mine by Gravity Survey, NW Bohemia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan

    Houten : EAGE, 2014, Tu PA2 03/1-Tu PA2 03/5. ISBN 978-94-6282-027-2. [Near Surface Geoscience 2014 - 20th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics. Athens (GR), 14.09.2014-18.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : hidden volcano * coal mine * gravity survey Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  10. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 ?m - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle concentrations are the highest in January and February, being the correlation between the TSP and PM10 measurements not as strong during this time period. This could be associated with the spatial and temporal variability of wet deposition as well as a larger mechanical and eolic resuspension of particles. We found that precipitation drastically reduces the levels of particulate matter. In order to describe the effect of wet deposition, a mathematical model was developed based on a first order relaxation proportional to the precipitation rate. Daily average concentrations and daily accumulated precipitation were used in this model, which showed high concentration reductions even for low precipitation levels essentially for all stations. Monthly precipitation values showed a better correlation with TSP concentrations. Finally, we found evidence of a significant decrease in global radiation due to particulate matter, particularly during the dry season, which could potentially affect farming and agricultural activities in the region.

  11. A new look at Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata of the East Midlands, UK: initial data from the Smalley open pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sian Davies-Vollum, K.; Guion, Paul; Satterfield, Dorothy; Suthren, Roger

    2010-05-01

    Outcrops of Pennsylvanian (Duckmantian) age coal-bearing strata in the East Midlands of England are rare and have become rarer as more of the surface environment has been developed. Much of the stratigraphic correlation and paleoenvironmental interpretation of these strata have thus been based on subsurface data from deep mine workings and coal exploration boreholes. However, in 2009, coal mining commenced at an open pit mine near Smalley, east Derbyshire in the UK East Midlands. The mine provides a unique opportunity to carry out examination of a large-scale outcrop of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata in order to undertake detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. The coals that will be exposed during working belong to the Waterloo group of seams of Duckmantian age. Initial examination of the workings has been concentrated on two successive intervals: from the basal Third Waterloo Seam to the Bottom Second Waterloo seam, and the from above the Bottom Second Waterloo seam to the Top Second Waterloo seam. The two inter-seam intervals are approximately 10-12 meters thick. Examination of the coal seams and inter-seam intervals will continue as new faces are exposed, supplemented by exploration drilling data. Initial field observations on the first sections exposed suggest that the two inter-seam intervals represent the infill of lakes formed on a fluvio-lacustrine plain, with negligible marine influence. The strata immediately above the Third Waterloo Seam consist of dark grey fissile shaly mudrocks overlain by an upward coarsening sequence of pale grey siltstones with sandy laminae and current ripples indicating unidirectional tractional flows. These pass upwards into rippled fine sandstones, cut by shallow channels towards the top. The overall inter-seam sequence is interpreted as the deposits of a lacustrine delta system that infilled a shallow lake that was initially anoxic. Once the lake had been infilled, a peat mire was able to form, now represented by the Bottom Second Waterloo Seam. The interval between the Bottom and Top Waterloo Seams contains an upward-coarsening sequence of laminated siltstones, overlain by a series of sharp-based rippled sandstones, each up to about 60 cm thick. The sharp based sandstones are interpreted as being crevasse splay deposits, which would have been fed by a nearby fluvial channel, which has not yet been located. As additional exposures are created during the lifetime of the mine, the temporal, spatial and environmental relationships of the coals and inter-seam strata will be investigated further by recording stratigraphic sections and directional data and producing photo panels. This should enable detailed paleoenvironmental reconstructions for each of the intervals investigated, which will be considered in the light of recent research on analogous ancient and recent environments. Data from adjacent former mines and coal exploration boreholes containing lateral continuations of the intervals examined will then allow the Smalley mine geology to be placed within the regional context of the East Midlands Coalfield, and enable us to consider broad scale paleoenvironmental variation across the area. It is anticipated that by enhancing our understanding of inter-seam deposits, prediction of geological conditions ahead of mining will be improved.

  12. Black Butte switches to laser for mapping open pit mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbley, K.P. [Corbley Communications Inc., Littleton, CO (USA)

    2001-03-01

    The Black Butte Coal Co. has turned to a new laser-based mapping technology called Light Detection and Ranging, LIDAR, for mapping the topography of surface mines. The system, known as the Remote Airborne Mapping System (RAMS), is provided by EnerQuest Systems LLC of Denver. In four projects at the 63-square mile Black Butte operation, advanced airborne LIDAR has demonstrated advantage over aerial photography in terms of timeliness and convenience for mapping coal seams in an open-pit mine. LIDAR uses a scanning laser altimeter to directly measure the latitude, longitude and elevation coordinates of ground points by emitting light pulses towards the ground from the unit in the aircraft. Black Butte mine uses a dragline for overburden stripping. 3-D models of the pit and seams are created with Minescape software. The LIDAR system allows modeling of overburden to determine the position of the economic cutoff by mapping outside the pit: mapping inside the pit enables the 3-D model to be checked. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  13. Prediction of the net radon emission from a model open pit uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, K.K.; Perkins, R.W.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Enderlin, W.I.

    1979-04-01

    Radon emission from a model open pit uranium mining operation has been estimated by applying radon exhalation fluxes measured in an open pit uranium mine to the various areas of the model mine. The model mine was defined by averaging uranium concentrations and production and procedural statistics for eight major open pit uranium mines in the Casper, Wyoming area. The resulting emission rates were 740 Ci/AFR during mining operations and 33 Ci/AFR/yr after abandonment of the mine.

  14. Mathematical Optimization Models and Methods for Open-Pit Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Open-pit mining is an operation in which blocks from the ground are dug to extract the ore contained in them, and in this process a deeper and deeper pit is formed until the mining operation ends. Mining is often a highly complex industrial operation, with respect to both technological and planning aspects. The latter may involve decisions about which ore to mine and in which order. Furthermore, mining operations are typically capital intensive and long-term, and subject to uncertainties rega...

  15. Environmental impact assessment of open pit mining in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjezi, M.; Shahriar, K.; Dehghani, H.; Samimi Namin, F.

    2009-07-01

    Mining is widely regarded as having adverse effects on environment of both magnitude and diversity. Some of these effects include erosion, formation of sinkhole, biodiversity loss and contamination of groundwater by chemical from the mining process in general and open-pit mining in particular. As such, a repeatable process to evaluate these effects primarily aims to diminish them. This paper applies Folchi method to evaluate the impact of open-pit mining in four Iranian mines that lacked previous geo-environmental assessment. Having key geologic resources, these mines are: Mouteh gold mine, Gol-e-Gohar and Chogart iron mines, and Sarcheshmeh copper mine. The environmental components can be defined as public health and safety, social relationships, air and water quality, flora and fauna hence, various impacting factors from the mining activities were estimated for each environmental component. For this purpose, each impacting factor was first given a magnitude, based solely on the range of possible scenarios. Thereafter, a matrix of weighted factors was derived to systematically quantify and normalize the effects of each impacting factor. The overall impact upon each individual environmental component was then calculated by summing the weighted rates. Here, Folchi method was applied to evaluate those environmental conditions. Based on the acquired results, the present paper finally concludes that amongst four case histories in Iran, Sarcheshmeh copper mine significantly affects the environment, with critical level of air pollution there.

  16. Superficial drainage studies in open-pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drainage studies concerning large open-pit mining projects can be of vital importance throughout the mining activity itself as they may assist in avoiding activity interruptions due to drainage problems, therefore representing substantial savings. These studies should, in fact, be carried out from the initial activity stages and shall be considered in operational, project and planning decisions in order to optimize results and reduce costs. This specific study presents a drainage study systematization proposal, enphasazing economic decision criteria. The authors comment on studies of this nature developed at the Caldas uranium mine - NUCLEBRAS. (D.J.M.)

  17. Cut winnings methods of an open-pit mine development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface mining is an extremely significant process of acquisition of a substantial amount of minerals serving the needs of human society. The open-pit mining process is characterized by horizontal removal of a huge amount of blasted rock. The deposit is often mined in several horizontal sections. The deposits may be mined via so-called shelf quarries, which are quarries created in the hill slope or via so-called pit quarries where the quarry is established in the terrain lacking the camber and the quarry is 'deepened' in the depth direction by gradual mining. A combined way is also possible, when after the initial mining in the shelf quarry, mining continues to altitudes under the surrounding level. (authors)

  18. Post mining land reclamation using ashes from lignite combustion stored in open pit excavations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudelko, Jan; Nowak, Janusz [KGHM CUPRUM Research and Development Centre, Wroclaw (Poland). Energy Resources Dept.

    2010-10-15

    The power industry in Poland is based on brown and hard coal combustion and transferring the heat into electric power. About 99% of lignite, mined in open pits, is used as a fuel in power plants. Therefore very deep excavations having great volume are formed. Thus such type of mining has the impact on land degradation. In order to reduce this effect, at the earliest possible moment the cap rocks are dumped in the pit but at the safe distance from the mining face. Due to the big amounts of lignite delivered to the power plant, there are shortages of solids for filling the pit after completing the mining operations. Geotechnical properties of dumped combustion by-products depend on the lignite type, combustion technology and ashes haulage methods. The paper describes using waste from power industry for filling the open pits. It presents the types of post-mining open pits which require filling and reclamation. The methods of using combustion by-products which come from commercial power stations and thermal-electric power stations are presented in the paper too. (orig.)

  19. Environmental Management of the Pocos de Caldas Open Pit Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pocos de Caldas mine is located in the district of Caldas, in the southwest of the Minas Gerais state of Brazil. Prior to the startup of the Lagoa Real mine in 2001, it was the only facility in Brazil where uranium concentrate was produced. The facility is an open pit mine with a surface diameter of 1000 m and an average depth of 120 m. Some 47 million m3 of overburdened ore and waste have been mined from the pit. About 1250 tonnes of uranium concentrate were recovered. The mine was closed in 1995, and actions were undertaken by INB to restore adequate environmental conditions to the site. The treatment of water percolating the waste rock pile is placing a burden on the company. The treatment consists of neutralization of the acid water percolate with CaO, recovery of the precipitate and its dumping into the open pit. Experiments have been carried out for the covering of the waste rock pile with native vegetals. The results have been promising. The chemical installation was adapted for the production of rare earth composites from monazite ore. Production is now starting with an installed annual capacity of 450 tonnes of cerium oxide and 1800 tonnes of lantanium chloride. INB is now starting a process which calls for the contracting of a specialized entity for the establishment of a global environmental restauration programme. (author)

  20. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantity of 222Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and 226Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall

  1. Radon and aerosol release from open-pit uranium mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, V.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Mauch, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The quantity of /sup 222/Rn (hereafter called radon) released per unit of uranium produced from open pit mining has been determined. A secondary objective was to determine the nature and quantity of airborne particles resulting from mine operations. To accomplish these objectives, a comprehensive study of the release rates of radon and aerosol material to the atmosphere was made over a one-year period from April 1979 to May 1980 at the Morton Ranch Mine which was operated by United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) in partnership with Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The mine is now operated for TVA by Silver King Mines. Morton Ranch Mine was one of five open pit uranium mines studied in central Wyoming. Corroborative measurements were made of radon flux and /sup 226/Ra (hereafter called radium) concentrations of various surfaces at three of the other mines in October 1980 and again at these three mines plus a fourth in April of 1981. Three of these mines are located in the Powder River Basin, about 80 kilometers east by northeast of Casper. One is located in the Shirley Basin, about 60 km south of Casper, and the remaining one is located in the Gas Hills, approximately 100 km west of Casper. The one-year intensive study included simultaneous measurement of several parameters: continuous measurement of atmospheric radon concentration near the ground at three locations, monthly 24-hour radon flux measurements from various surfaces, radium analyses of soil samples collected under each of the flux monitoring devices, monthly integrations of aerosols on dichotomous aerosol samplers, analysis of aerosol samplers for total dust loading, aerosol elemental and radiochemical composition, aerosol elemental composition by particle size, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall.

  2. Radon release and dispersion from an open pit uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisieleski, W.E.

    1980-06-01

    Radon-222 flux from representative sections of the United Nuclear St. Anthony open-pit mine complex was measured. The collected radon was adsorbed on activated charcoal and the radon activity was measured by gamma spectroscopy. System design, calibration, and the procedure to determine radon flux density (pCi/m/sup 2/.s) are described. A continuous series of radon flux densities were measured over a 5-month period at a control point in the mine. The average flux density at the control point was 1.9 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. A close correlation between radon flux density variations and changes in barometric pressure was observed by a comparison of meteorological data and average daily radon flux density measured at the control point. The release rate from each section of the mine was calculated from the average radon flux density and the area of the section, as determined from enlarged aerial photographs. The average radon flux density for eight locations over the ore-bearing section was 7.3 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average flux density for four locations over undisturbed topsoil was 0.17 pCi/m/sup 2/.s. The average Ra-226 content of ten samples taken from the ore-bearing region was 102 pCi/g ore. The ratio of radon flux density to radium content (specific flux) was 0.072. The release rate from the entire St. Anthony open pit was determined to be 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ pCi/s. This rate is comparable to the natural release of radon from one square mile of undisturbed topsoil. 16 refs., 31 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST) y Partículas Respirables (PM 10) producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto / Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10) generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis C, Angulo; José I, Huertas; Gloria M, Restrepo.

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST) y partículas respirables (PM10) producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (dis [...] tribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad) y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios). Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación. Abstract in english This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP) and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10) generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distr [...] ibution, morphology and density) and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants). These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  4. Caracterización de Partículas Suspendidas (PST y Partículas Respirables (PM 10 producidas en Áreas de Explotación Carbonífera a Cielo Abierto Characterization of Total Suspended Particles (TSP and Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM 10 generated in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C Angulo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura sobre la cuantificación y caracterización de partículas suspendidas (PST y partículas respirables (PM10 producidas en áreas de explotación carbonífera a cielo abierto. El material particulado es un contaminante complejo por sus características físicas (distribución de tamaño de partícula, morfología y densidad y por sus características químicas (compuestos orgánicos e inorgánicos, metales y contaminantes primarios y secundarios. Estas características son críticas para determinar el tipo y magnitud de los efectos sobre la salud humana. Se encontró que los trabajos realizados, han empleado experimentos de laboratorio y de campo, así como estudios de modelación. Esta revisión bibliográfica contribuye a una mejor comprensión y evaluación de las tecnologías que se deben usar para encontrar soluciones a este problema de contaminación.This article presents a literature review about the quantification and characterization of total suspended particles (TSP and inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 generated in open pit coal mining areas. Particle matter is a complex pollutant due to its physical characteristics (particle size distribution, morphology and density and its chemical characteristics (organic and inorganic components, metals, and primary and secondary pollutants. These characteristics are critical to determine the type and the magnitude of their effects on human health. It was found that the different works published in the literature have used lab and field experiments, and also modeling studies. This literature review contributes to improve the understanding and evaluation of technologies that must be used to find solutions to this atmospheric pollution problem.

  5. Hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buva?” (Republic of Srpska)

    OpenAIRE

    Papi? Petar; Baji? Dragoljub; Polom?i? Dušan; Stojkovi? Jana

    2013-01-01

    Projecting of the dewatering system of the open-pit mine “Buva?” (Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina) is based on the use of hydrodynamic model of groundwater regime. Creating the hydrodynamic model of the open-pit mine “Buva?“ was made in phases, which began by basic interpretation of collected data, along with schematization of the groundwater flow and flow conditions, and finally, forming and calibration of model. Hydrodynamic model was created as multilayer model with ei...

  6. The application of GPS to the deformation monitoring of side slope in open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GPS has the characters,such as higher accuracy,not influenced by weather and day time. According to actual circumstance of a open pit uranium mine in China. This paper introduces a system to monit the deformation of side sloping and its detail application in a open pit mine. (authors)

  7. Characterization of airborne particles in an open pit mining region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We characterized airborne particle samples collected from 15 stations in operation since 2007 in one of the world's largest opencast coal mining regions. Using gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis the samples were characterized in terms of concentration, morphology, particle size distribution (PSD), and elemental composition. All of the total suspended particulate (TSP) samples exhibited a log-normal PSD with a mean of d = 5.46 ± 0.32 ?m and ?(ln d) = 0.61 ± 0.03. Similarly, all particles with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10) exhibited a log-normal type distribution with a mean of d = 3.6 ± 0.38 ?m and ?(ln d) = 0.55 ± 0.03. XPS analysis indicated that the main elements present in the particles were carbon, oxygen, potassium, and silicon with average mass concentrations of 41.5%, 34.7%, 11.6%, and 5.7% respectively. In SEM micrographs the particles appeared smooth-surfaced and irregular in shape, and tended to agglomerate. The particles were typically clay minerals, including limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar. - Highlights: ? Airborne particles from an opencast mining region were fully characterized. ? SEM-EDS and XPS techniques were applied to characterize airborne particles ? Particle size distributions of TSP and PM10 are lognormal ? Particles are composed of limestone, calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar ? Heavyassium feldspar ? Heavy metals content in the particles does not represent any risk to human health

  8. A Heuristic Traditional MIP Solving Approach for Long Term Production Scheduling in Open Pit Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Rafiee; Omid Asghari

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is optimization of long term production scheduling by solving the traditional MIP formulation that the objective function and all of constrains are satisfied. The economic viability of the modern day mine is highly dependent upon careful planning and design. Appropriate planning and operation of large open pit mines are enormous and complex task. Optimization techniques can be successfully applied to resolve a number of important problems that arise in the planning...

  9. Slope Design and Implementation in Open Pit Mines: Geological and Geomechanical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fleurisson, Jean-alain

    2012-01-01

    Slopes in open pit mines must be considered as geotechnical structures. Therefore their design and implementation must be conducted with all consideration including technical, economical, environmental and safety issues. But these structures are above all natural geological and geomechanical features and the geological structures as well as the petrographical nature of the rock material control the deformation and failure mechanisms. It is therefore important to implement a well-defined metho...

  10. Accuracy of single count methods of WL determination for open-pit uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of single count methods of WL determination was made using a database respresentative of Australian open pit uranium mine conditions. The aim of the study was to check the existence of the optimum time delay coresponding to the Rolle method, to determine the accuracy of the conversion factor for Australian conditions and to examine any systematic use of data bases of representative radon daughter concentration

  11. Optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation in combined mining using (0-1) integer programming

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Bakhtavar; K., Shahriar; A., Mirhassani.

    1059-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english There are many near-surface deposits with considerable vertical extent that have the potential to be mined by a combined method of open-pit and underground methods. In this regard, there is often a point called 'transition depth' where a decision has to be made whether to continue deepening the pit [...] or change to underground methods. Recently, optimization of the transition from open-pit to underground operation has become an important challenge in mining engineering. Optimally, to model the transition problem on the basis of maximization of the profit from open-pit and underground mining, (0-1) integer programming has been used. In this method, block economic values of open-pit and underground methods should be imported to the transition model. A hypothetical example is presented in order to assess the model in detail.

  12. igm Robots with laser measurement for an economic repair welding of equipment components of open-pit minings; igm-Roboter mit Laservermessung zum wirtschaftlichen Reparaturschweissen von Tagebauausruestungsteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wihsbeck, Martin [igm Robotersysteme AG, Wiener Neudorf (Austria); Wache, Wolfgang [Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Spremberg (Germany). Schwarze Pumpe; Springfeld, Peter

    2012-08-15

    In the Lusatian area,Vattenfall Europe AG prosecutes four open-pit minings whose lignite directly is supplied to power stations. A quarter of Germany's total electricity supply is based on lignite. The lignite mining in the area of the Lusatian open-pit minings is particularly efficient due to the horizontal orientation of the Lusatian coal seams. The movable components of the overburden conveyor bridges as well as the bucket wheel excavators and bucket ladder dredgers are subject to a tremendous wear. It is not economically feasible to refurbish certain wear parts. Such parts include Turas corners. In order to refurbish such Turas corners nevertheless, the Austrian company igm robot system AG (Wiener Neudorf, Austria) offers a welding robot.

  13. Optimal cut-off grade determination based on variable capacities in open-pit mining

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Abdollahisharif; E., Bakhtavar; M., Anemangely.

    1065-10-01

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Optimal cut-off grade is one of the most critical parameters in open-pit mine design because it defines the ore and waste and thus determines the maximum net present value possible from the mining operation. Although the algorithm presented by Lane (Choosing the optimum cut-off grade. Color [...] ado School of Mines Quarterly, vol. 59, no. 4, 1964. pp. 811-829) is the most common one in the literature, it does assume constant capacities of the mine, processing, and refinery. In this paper, Lane's original algorithm has been modified to consider variable processing capacities in order to determine the optimal cut-off grade in open-pit mines. The new algorithm proposed here is compared to both Lane's original algorithm and to a previous modification that incorporated rehabilitation costs into the cut-off grade estimation. The algorithm proposed here that permits variable processing capacities is shown to be superior for the determination of optimal cut-off grade to both these previous versions. In addition, a computer-based program was developed in Microsoft Office Excel© to calculate the optimal cut-off grade as proposed here.

  14. Combining Multiple Surveying Techniques to Accelerate Surveys of Open Pit Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, János; Schimmer, Christoph; Herkommer, Martin; Kutschera, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial Lidar Scanning (TLS) is well-accepted as the most precise tool for surveying open pit mines, collecting ultra-dense measurements drastically faster than traditional land surveying with a GNSS receiver. However, while a TLS can capture the most important parts of a mine in only a few surveys, the remaining occluded areas of the mine require several additional surveys, extending the survey time. To drastically reduce the time required for a TLS survey while still providing good quality data, we have adopted an approach that augments TLS data with UAV-based aerial triangulation. First, we identify a handful of positions from which the TLS can survey the vast majority of the mine, paying particular attention to the most important areas of the mine and the areas that an airborne scanner would have difficult accessing, such as the walls. We then survey the mine with a UAV-mounted camera and collect several ground control points (GCPs) in areas spread across the mine. During post-processing, we use aerial triangulation to derive a point cloud from the overlapping images captured by the UAV and matched the TLS and UAV data with the GCPs. Generally, the aerial-triangulation data is less dense and precise than the TLS data so we only used it to fill in areas we did not cover with the TLS. To minimize the impact of any loss of detail, we plan surveys so that the TLS covers the most important parts of the mine and so the UAV data is only needed for less important areas. The result is a georeferenced topographic map of the entire mine with high-quality data in the most important areas, all collected within hours rather than days. As proof of this concept, geo-konzept surveyed a mid-sized German open pit mine with a goal of spending only half a day surveying on-site. With an Optech ILRIS TLS and a geo-konzept Geo-Copter X-8000 UAS, we met this goal by surveying the entire 500-m×500-m mine in only 3 hours. Post-processing and georeferencing only required another 4 hours, meaning the entire survey could be done in a single day of work. We conclude that this multi-instrument approach greatly accelerates the rate at which surveyors can scan open-pit mines while still collecting dense and precise data.

  15. Slope orientation assessment for open-pit mines, using GIS-based algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Martin; Laflamme, Amélie-Julie

    2011-09-01

    Standard stability analysis in geomechanical rock slope engineering for open-pit mines relies on a simplified representation of slope geometry, which does not take full advantage of available topographical data in the early design stages of a mining project; consequently, this may lead to nonoptimal slope design. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology that allows for the rigorous determination of interramp and bench face slope orientations on a digital elevation model (DEM) of a designed open pit. Common GIS slope algorithms were tested to assess slope orientations on the DEM of the Meadowbank mining project's Portage pit. Planar regression algorithms based on principal component analysis provided the best results at both the interramp and the bench face levels. The optimal sampling window for interramp was 21×21 cells, while a 9×9-cell window was best at the bench level. Subsequent slope stability analysis relying on those assessed slope orientations would provide a more realistic geometry for potential slope instabilities in the design pit. The presented methodology is flexible, and can be adapted depending on a given mine's block sizes and pit geometry.

  16. A cost comparison study of open pit mining vs. in situ assisted gravity drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twin-well steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has resulted in breakthrough technology to access previously uneconomical deep-seated oil sands reserves in Alberta, and to provide a very cost-effective and environmentally acceptable method for extracting bitumen from reserves having a minimum of 30 m overburden. In the evaluation of new or improved bitumen recovery technologies for its new North Mine, Syncrude Canada has recognized that SAGD was a potential alternate to the current open pit mining and hot water extraction process. A study was conducted to compare and evaluate bitumen recovery by the two schemes at the North Mine site, scheduled to begin operations in 1996, for the reserves under Syncrude's tailings pond, and at a new grassroots area. Study description and analysis of results are presented for the grassroots case. The assumptions and mining/recovery processes used for the mining or SAGD method are detailed and the advantages and drawbacks of each scheme are noted. Results show that the SAGD unit supply costs are projected to be proportionately lower than the corresponding open pit mining/hot water extraction (OP/X) cost, using a 20-y project life. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the SAGD process is more sensitive to natural gas costs, while the OP/X scheme is more sensitive to power costs. The SAGD process is much less labor-intensive than OP/X and has obvious advantages in terms of tailings disposal and post-mining reclamation. In adisposal and post-mining reclamation. In addition, the underground nature of SAGD operation eliminates adverse effects of the weather on working conditions. 11 figs

  17. Close-out of open pit and waste rock piles of Daxin uranium mine of China - 59073

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Daxin Uranium Mine is an small open pit mine. Its contaminated facilities include open pit 87620 m2, East waste rock pile 71710 m2, west waste rock pile 57828 m2, ore transfer station and industrial fields 9370 m2, building and structure 26600 m2, equipment 246 pieces, plastic conduit 3000 m. steel conduit 2500 m2 and road for transporting ores 1020 m. The integrated decommissioning programmes are presented: uranium extraction, slope stabilization, clear-up, backfill, reshape, covering, re-vegetation, dismantlement/ demolishment, decontamination, re-smelting, waste water treatment. (authors)

  18. Optimal synthesis of energy supply systems for remote open pit mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary motivation underlying the proposal of polygeneration systems for mine sites is to increase the efficient use of natural resources by combining different technologies and energy resources while satisfying energy service demands. For many mineral producers, particularly in Canada's mining extremes of climate and depth, energy in support of mineral production can be the second largest cost center after labor. A generic methodology is proposed for the design of energy supply systems in mine sites, based on a search for the minimum discounted cost of energy supplied for all feasible different plant configurations. These configurations can be represented within a connectivity matrix which corresponds to a network representation. A Mixed Integer Programming formulation is set out for the multiperiod synthesis and operational planning problem. This is characterized by i) binary variables for the selection of technologies, ii) integer variables for the determination of the number of units installed, and iii) by continuous variables for the representation of energy and economic flows. Through the integration of particular energy supply strategies matching specific mine circumstances (on-grid, remote, degree days, etc) and consideration of technologies that improve energy efficiency, hitherto not considered new technologies and demand management systems or new perspectives on optimal mine site energy supply can be investigated. Some of these investigations identify the economic conditions through which biomass energy feedstocks should be used, for direct heat production, for gasification and providing for Fischer–Tropsch syndiesel manufacture. As well as integrating demand from mobile diesel-fueled plant into an optimization procedure this analysis shows how the techniques can be used to explore economic conditions of threshold prices for biomass (purpose-grown biomass and peat are considered herein) and trucked-in diesel. The methodology also allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. Within the paper the energy demands for a remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario are considered as a case study to illustrate the technique and investigations. As expected, for mines close to electricity, natural gas, and diesel distribution infrastructures, the optimal choice is to connect. When a constraint is applied specifying that connection is not possible, as would be for the case exemplified, the optimal choice includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply. - Highlights: •Optimal mine site energy supply methodology is established. •Methodology permits innovative, lower cost, energy supply solutions to be identified. •The methodology allows for electricity and syngas storage and diesel and biomass bunkering. •A remote, open pit mining operation located in Northern Ontario is considered as a case study. •The optimal solution includes some of the more exotic options for mine site energy supply

  19. A study of radiation parameters in an open-pit mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation parameters associated with the open pit mining of a small (10,000 tonnes) but high grade (2%) uranium deposit at Nabarlek, N.T., have been investigated in detail. External radiation levels, radon emanation rates and radon daughter levels were measured systematically during the development of the mine, and are correlated with ore grade, properties of the host rock and atmospheric conditions. Significant radon daughter concentrations were observed only under stable atmospheric conditions, usually during the night and were invariably associated with thermal inversions. The mean cumulative exposure to radon daughters was estimated from the measured levels to be 0.065 Working Level Months for employees working in the pit for the entire four and a half months of mining. The mean cumulative external gamma ray exposure for the same employee group was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters to be 2.3 mSv (230 mrem). For most other employees, however, exposures were much lower. Data on long lived radionuclides in dust and on particle size distribution are also presented. (author)

  20. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Badri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new approach to integrating OHS into risk management in the context of a new open-pit mining project in Quebec, based on analysis of incident and accident reports, semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and collaborative field observations. We propose a new concept, called hazard concentration, based on the number of hazards and their influence. This concept represents the weighted fraction of each category of hazards related to an undesirable event. The weight of each category of hazards is calculated by AHP, a multicriteria method. The proposed approach included the creation of an OHS database for facilitating expert risk management. Reinforcing effects between hazard categories were identified and all potential risks were prioritized. The results provided the company with a rational basis for choosing a suitable accident prevention strategy for its operational activities.

  1. Limnological and fisheries investigation of the flooded open pit at the Gunnar uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gunnar uranium mine on the north shore of Lake Athabaska was closed in 1964 and became flooded. This study describes the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water-filled open pit mine. Depth profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen and specific conductivity indicated the presence of five strata in the 110 m-deep lake during the summer. Radionuclides and dissolved salts were concentrated in the deepest layer, where there was almost no dissolved oxygen and living organisms. The concentrations of heavy metals except uranium are generally very low at all depths. Surface levels of radium 226, thorium, uranium and lead 210 are low. There is no surface seepage out of the pit. Bacteria and phytoplankton populations are typical of those found in warm nutrient-rich waters; the total number of species is low, but there is a large number of individuals. No benthic species are present at the bottom or at 82.5 m. Northern pike, common suckers, and longnose suckers were caught; all appeared to be in good condition and larger than individuals of the same age in the neighbouring lakes. Radionuclide levels in their flesh were one to two orders of magnitude greater than background

  2. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of 'pulse' toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a 'snap-shot' of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. - Research Highlights: ? Archiactivity. - Research Highlights: ? Archived gizzard samples reveals mining history. ? Grit ingestion exposes grouse to cadmium and lead. ? Grit selection includes particles enriched in cadmium. ? Cadmium enriched particles are of toxicological significance.

  3. Applications of state estimation in multi-sensor information fusion for the monitoring of open pit mine slope deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Hua; Liu, Yin-ping; Xiao, Jian [Liaoning Technical University, Fuxin (China). Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering

    2008-06-15

    The traditional open pit mine slope deformation monitoring system can not use the monitoring information coming from many monitoring points at the same time, can only use the monitoring data coming from a key monitoring point, and that is to say it can only handle one-dimensional time series. Given this shortage in the monitoring, the multi-sensor information fusion in the state estimation techniques would be introduced to the slope deformation monitoring system, and by the dynamic characteristics of deformation slope, the open pit slope would be regarded as a dynamic goal, the condition monitoring of which would be regarded as a dynamic target tracking. Distributed information fusion technology with feedback was used to process the monitoring data and on this basis Klman filtering algorithms was introduced, and the simulation examples was used to prove its effectiveness. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Open pit blasting in uranium ore mining of SDAG Wismut. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports blasting work in the abandoned open pits at Culmitzsch and Lichtenberg, dealing primarily with the techniques of so-called detonation-wave-shielded blasting, blasting at elevated rock temperatures, and blasting at site with fractured rock. (orig./HP)

  5. PLANEAMIENTO DE MINAS A CIELO ABIERTO MEDIANTE OPTIMIZACIÓN ESTOCÁSTICA / PLANNING OF OPEN PIT MINES THROUGH STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovanni, Franco Sepúlveda; John Willian, Branch Bedoya; Patricia, Jaramillo Álvarez.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de planificación minera en los depósitos a cielo abierto en Colombia, se han realizado utilizando herramientas deterministas, que excluyen la evaluación de riesgos y las incertidumbres del negocio minero y en algunos casos dejan de maximizar los beneficios en términos monetarios. Es nec [...] esario desarrollar modelos alternativos de planificación minera que mejoren las condiciones de competitividad y productividad en términos de los siguientes factores: Aumento de la vida de la mina - LOM; Extracción y explotación de recursos de menor calidad; Obtención de mayores beneficios del negocio minero; Disminución del riesgo y la incertidumbre del proceso de planificación minera, entre otros. Dentro de los procesos de planificación minera de los yacimientos minerales a cielo abierto en Colombia no hay evidencia de la utilización de herramientas para la toma de decisiones bajo escenarios de incertidumbre que permiten llevar a cabo estos procesos con técnicas meta heurísticas tales como recocido simulado; algoritmos genéticos; búsqueda tabú; redes neuronales, entre otros. En este trabajo se hace énfasis en los algoritmos genéticos y su aplicación a los procesos de planificación minera para explotaciones a cielo abierto. Se pretende que este trabajo sirva de base para realizar una aproximación al planeamiento minero estocástico, desde los algoritmos genéticos, y que su aplicación se lleva a cabo en las empresas que explotan los recursos minerales en Colombia, con el objetivo de mejorar la cadena productiva del proceso minero. Abstract in english Mine planning processes in open-pit deposits in Colombia, have been performed using deterministic tools, which excludes the assessment of risks and uncertainties in the mining business and in some cases fail to maximize the benefits in monetary terms. We need to develop alternative models for mine p [...] lanning to improve the competitiveness and productivity in terms of the following factors: Increased mine of life- LOM; Extraction and exploitation of lower quality resources; Obtaining more benefits from the mining business; Reduced risk and uncertainty in the mine planning process, among others. Within the planning processes of mineral mining in the open pit mine in Colombia there is no evidence of the use of tools for decision making under uncertainty scenarios that allow these processes to perform metaheuristic techniques such as simulated annealing; genetic algorithms; tabu search; neural networks; among others. In this paper we focus on genetic algorithms and its application to mine planning for open pit. This paper is intended to serve as the basis for a stochastic approach to mine planning, from the genetic algorithm and its implementation is carried out in companies that exploit the mineral resources in Colombia, with the aim of improving the production chain mining process.

  6. [Health status of children living in the vicinity of coal open pits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, M F; Reshetnik, L A; Liashchenko, O V

    2000-01-01

    Open-cast mining in the vicinities of the town of Cheremkhovo is cause of environmental pollution with Al, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, B, Ni, Be, Sn, Y, Cr, V. Assessing the health status of children living in this area revealed the following: a high incidence of diseases; multimorbidity with a tendency for chronicity; reduced concentrations of a complex of essential trace elements in the children's hair below the physiological level; abundant hair heavy metals; the relation of hair trace element composition to the coal output. Micro- and macroelement imbalance is likely to cause high morbidity in the children living in the open-cast mining area. PMID:10900801

  7. Coal mining in the Canadian province of Alberta. Der Kohlenbergbau in der kanadischen Provinz Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecke, K.; Clasen, J.H.

    1989-10-01

    The article describes the coal deposits and coal reserves in the Mountain, Foothill, and Plains regions of the Canadian province of Alberta. Subsequently, open pits typical of Alberta such as the Smoky River mines, the Obed project, and the Montgomery mine are dealt with. In the Smoky River mines, coal is also produced underground. (MOS).

  8. Modelling of the large scale redox front evolution in an open pit uranium mine in Pocos de Caldas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an open pit uranium mine at Pocos de Caldas in Brazil, the upper portions of the rock have been oxidized by infiltrating oxidizing groundwater. The redox front is very uneven and fingering is in evidence to depths ranging down to several hundred meters. The redox fingers are found in fractures and fractures zones. An attempt has been made to model the development of such redox fingerings along flow channels and to relate the structure to independent observations of flow channels in other crystalline rocks. 5 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  9. Uranium in mining water of kaolin open pit in Zarów (Lower Silesia); methodology of determination and genetic remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D; Wyszomirski, P; Chru?ciel, E; Ocho?ski, A

    1999-11-01

    In this paper, a method of determination of uranium 238 and 234 in mining waters of Andrzej kaolin open pit in Zarów (Lower Silesia) is presented. The method is based on independent measurements of alpha and beta radiation intensities by means of a liquid scintillation spectrometer alpha/beta. The initial volume of water sample was 3 dm3, then it was diminished by chemical preparation to 6 cm3, and then 12 cm3 of scintillator was added. The lower limit of detection (for the measurement time of 8 h) for both 234U and 238U amounted to 0.02 Bq/dm3. For determination of the uranium content in ferruginous sediments precipitating from mining waters of the above-mentioned open pit, gamma ray spectrometry was used. The obtained results may be viewed as a contribution to studies on anomalous uranium concentration within this kaolin deposit. The elevated uranium content, in comparison with its average concentration in the Earth crust, is characteristic for parent rocks of Andrzej kaolin deposit, which are granitoids of Strzegom-Sobótka massif. In connection with it, the high uranium content can be observed not only in kaolin and weakly kaolinised granitoids from the deposit in question, but also in mining waters genetically related with them. PMID:10464924

  10. The development of a remote-controlled highwall rockbroom-a world first for the open-pit mining industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D., van Rensburg; L., Melis.

    Full Text Available Jointed rock slopes are generally stable, as there is no freedom of movement for blocks of rock. In an open- pit mining environment, blasting opens up space into which blocks of rock can fail, resulting in the common occurrence of slope failure. Prior to the blasting of a trim pattern, the immediate [...] highwall is scaled, where loose rock material is removed by means of a mechanical scaler. As mining of the pit progresses, the height of the scaled highwall from the pit floor progressively increases. These highwalls are never scaled again for the remainder of the pit life, and time-dependant deterioration contributes to these highwalls becoming subject to rockfall and, sometimes, slope failure. This paper documents the development of a South African innovation, a remote-controlled mechanical highwall scaler, a world first for the mining industry. The scaler will enable open-pit highwalls to be scaled from crest to toe whenever the need arises. It will reduce the risk associated with highwalls and deliver on the Anglo American promise of producing safe, profitable platinum.

  11. Bright future for Grootegeluk coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raats, H.

    2001-10-01

    Boasting the world's largest coal beneficiation plant and the largest open pit coal operation in the southern hemisphere, Kumba Coal's Grootegeluk Mine in the Northern Province of South Africa has embarked on several initiatives to sustain it as an economical coal mine for the next 100 years. The articles describes its operational mining equipment used and its four main products - semi-soft coking coal, PCI coal, power station coal and metallurgical coal. A research project, dubbed COL713 is in progress to assess the best sealing method for the mines waste material to minimise the risk of spontaneous combustion. An Environmental Management system will be implemented in January 2002 with the aim of achieving ISO 14001 accredition by January 2003. 3 photos.

  12. Consequences of coal mining and burning in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (2). Territorial consequences of coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of the 1450 km2 of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin, the area of the coal-bearing territory is 850 km2. The area occupied by the open pits, spoil banks and mines is nearly 27O km2, out of which over 90 km2 have already been recultivated. Predicted mining development scenarios for the region till 2035 are outlined. The extent of mining will decrease gradually, and land will be reclaimed. The abandoned pits will be filled with water and employed for recreation purposes. The specific features of the individual open pit mines are given. The ways to reduce the adverse environmental impacts of mining are outlined; these include, in particular, desulfurization of existing power plants on the one hand, and energy savings associated with a reduction in mining and power generation activities on the other hand. (J.B.)

  13. A numerical solution to integrated water flows: Application to the flooding of an open pit mine at the Barcés river catchment - La Coruña, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J.-Horacio; Padilla, Francisco; Juncosa, Ricardo; Vellando, Pablo R.; Fernández, Álvaro

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThis research and practical application is concerned with the development of a physically-based numerical model that incorporates new approaches for a finite element solution to the steady/transient problems of the joint surface/groundwater flows of a particular region with the help of a Geographic Information Systems to store, represent, manage and take decisions on all the simulated conditions. The proposed surface-subsurface model considers surface and groundwater interactions to be depth-averaged through a novel interpretation of a linear river flood routing method. Infiltration rates and overland flows generation processes are assessed by a sub-model which accounts for this kind of surface-groundwater interactions. Surface-groundwater interactions consider also novel evaporation and evapotranspiration processes as a diffuse discharge from surface water, non-saturated subsoil and groundwater table. The practical application regards the present flooding of the Meirama open pit, a quite deep coal mining excavation, with freshwater coming from the upper Meirama sub-basin, in the context of the water resources fate and use at the Barcés river catchment (˜87.9 km2), Coruña, Spain. The developed model MELEF was applied to the complex geology of a pull-apart type sedimentary tertiary valley and the whole of the water resources of the Barcés River drainage basin, down to its outlet at the Cecebre Reservoir. Firstly, the model was adapted and calibrated during a simulation period of three and a half years (2006/2009) with the aid of the historically registered hydrological parameters and data. Secondly, the results predict the most likely forthcoming evolution of the present flooding of the Meirama open pit to reach therein a total depth level of almost 200 m, as regards the projected evolution of the water resources, climatology and usages.

  14. Tanacetum vulgare as a Bioindicator of Trace-Metal Contamination: A Study of a Naturally Colonized Open-Pit Lignite Mine

    OpenAIRE

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Be?chatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare ap...

  15. The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine

    OpenAIRE

    Deléne Visser; Bergh, Z. C.; Marikie Pelser

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administere...

  16. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig, Marcos E.; Mura, Jose? C.; Paradella, Waldir R.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI) represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection an...

  17. In situ characterization at limestone open pit mine using prompt gamma neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) in situ characterization of blast holes in Atocongo and Pucara open cut mines from Cementos Lima S.A. has been performed. This method collects information about the ore surrounding the bore hole and gives a real time and representative results for a geophysical model of the mine. The PGNAA system gives an in situ estimation of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, and SO3. The field trials have been proved that the system could be used to characterize the limestone open cut mines. (orig.)

  18. Integration of OHS into Risk Management in an Open-Pit Mining Project in Quebec (Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Badri; Sylvie Nadeau; André Gbodossou

    2011-01-01

    Despite undeniable progress, the mining industry remains the scene of serious accidents revealing disregard for occupational health and safety (OHS) and leaving open the debate regarding the safety of its employees. The San José mine last collapse near Copiapó, Chile on 5 August 2010 and the 69-day rescue operation that followed in order to save 33 miners trapped underground show the serious consequences of neglecting worker health and safety. The aim of this study was to validate a new app...

  19. Field measurements of mixed exposure of operators to radioactive aerosol, gas and quartz in confinement of mining equipment cabs during open-pit mining of high-grade uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of field measurements of miners mixed exposure to radon and daughters, uranium ore dust and respirable quartz, was conducted in an open-pit mine in Northern Saskatchewan during 1980-81. Control of radon gas levels in the mining equipment cabs is required. Dust may be reduced by minimizing the resuspension of dust from contaminated surfaces within the cabs

  20. Determination of the radioactive aerosols transport coefficients generated in open pit uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical atmospheric transport model is applied to uranium mining operations. Among the transport parameters there is one concerned with radioactive decay, but it does not include the radioactive decay series which is the specific case for uranium. Therefore, an extension of the transport theory is developed and tested, giving results greater than the ones obtained with the classical model, as expected. (author)

  1. Simulation of Dynamic Fracturing of Continuum Rock in Open Pit Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Aliabadian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic fracture mechanism related to blast-induced borehole breakdown and crack propagation, 2D distinct element commercial code was used. The dynamic stresses, material status and velocity vectors are plotted and shown to evaluate rock mass failure under blast load. This paper focuses on the propagation and dynamic effects of blast waves in continuum rock masses. In order to investigate the effect of high strain rate loading on rock mass failure, a numerical simulation was conducted. The 2D distinct element code was used to model blast load effect on rock failure and stress distribution through the rock mass due to blast wave propagation. The blast loading history was simplified and applied to the blasthole walls. Accordingly, the interaction of explosive energy transferred to the rock mass from the blasthole pressure was examined as a function of time. A Mohr-Coulomb material model was used for host rock to allow for plastic failure calculations. The conducted numerical study describes the role of dynamic stresses in blasting in a qualitative manner. On the other hand, a free face boundary was considered as a common blast operation which is conducted in surface mining.

  2. The 2000/60/EC Water Framework Directive and the Flooding of the Brown Coal Meirama Open Pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.

    2009-04-01

    Coal mining in Galicia (NW Spain) has been an important activity which came to an end in December, 2007. Hence, for different reasons, the two large brown coal mines in Galicia (the As Pontes mine, run by ENDESA GENERACIÓN, and the Meirama mine, owned by Lignitos de Meirama, S.A., LIMEISA), have started closure procedures, both of which are considering the flooding of the mine pits to create two large lakes (~8 km2 in As Pontes and ~2 km2 in Meirama). They will be unique in Galicia, a nearly lake-free territory. An important point to consider as regards the flooding of the lignite mine pits in Galicia is how the process of the creation of a body of artificial water will adapt to the strict legal demands put forth in the Water Framework Directive. This problem has been carefully examined by different authors in other countries and it raises the question of the need to adapt sampling surveys to monitor a number of key parameters -priority substances, physical and chemical parameters, biological indicators, etc.- that cannot be overlooked. Flooding, in both cases consider the preferential entrance into the mine holes of river-diverted surface waters, in detriment of ground waters in order to minimize acidic inputs. Although both mines are located in the same hydraulic demarcation (i.e. administrative units that, in Spain, are in charge of the public administration and the enforcement of natural water-related laws) the problems facing the corresponding mine managers are different. In the case of Meirama, the mine hole covers the upper third part of the Barcés river catchment, which is a major source of water for the Cecebre reservoir. That reservoir constitutes the only supply of drinking water for the city of A Coruña (~250.000 inhabitants) and its surrounding towns. In this contribution we will discuss how mine managers and the administration have addressed the uncertainties derived from the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in the particular case of Meirama.

  3. Ultimate open pit stochastic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Denis; Caron, Josiane

    2013-02-01

    Classical open pit optimization (maximum closure problem) is made on block estimates, without directly considering the block grades uncertainty. We propose an alternative approach of stochastic optimization. The stochastic optimization is taken as the optimal pit computed on the block expected profits, rather than expected grades, computed from a series of conditional simulations. The stochastic optimization generates, by construction, larger ore and waste tonnages than the classical optimization. Contrary to the classical approach, the stochastic optimization is conditionally unbiased for the realized profit given the predicted profit. A series of simulated deposits with different variograms are used to compare the stochastic approach, the classical approach and the simulated approach that maximizes expected profit among simulated designs. Profits obtained with the stochastic optimization are generally larger than the classical or simulated pit. The main factor controlling the relative gain of stochastic optimization compared to classical approach and simulated pit is shown to be the information level as measured by the boreholes spacing/range ratio. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the classical approach increase with the treatment costs but decrease with mining costs. The relative gains of the stochastic approach over the simulated pit approach increase both with the treatment and mining costs. At early stages of an open pit project, when uncertainty is large, the stochastic optimization approach appears preferable to the classical approach or the simulated pit approach for fair comparison of the values of alternative projects and for the initial design and planning of the open pit.

  4. Quinsam Coal Mine reclamation : 25 years of reclamation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polster, D. [Polster Environmental Services Ltd., Duncan, BC (Canada); DuBois, C. [Quinsam Coal Corp., Campbell River, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The Quinsam Coal Mine is located on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Although it was initially opened as an open pit mine in 1986, mining has been conducted entirely underground since 1994. Coal processing is conducted at a heavy media bath and cyclone circuits to remove the non coal fraction which is then stockpiled. This paper summarized the reclamation work that has been conducted at the mine, with particular focus on efforts to return forest productivity and provide wildlife habitat to areas disturbed by both open pit and underground mining. Reclamation trials were established more than 25 years ago on an old test pit. Several different types of substrate materials for tree growth were used in the trials along with combinations of topsoil, oxidized till and course rock. Three legume species were also tested in combination with planted Douglas-fir seedlings. The seeded species established a good cover following the initial trials. Reclamation activities have also included resloping of mine wastes, covering the wastes with rooting media and seeding. It was concluded that in areas with shallow soils over bedrock, the reclamation program at the Quinsam Coal Mine will improve the productive capability of the land. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Detection and Monitoring of Surface Motions in Active Open Pit Iron Mine in the Amazon Region, Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry with TerraSAR-X Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Scatterer interferometry (PSI represents a powerful tool for the detection and monitoring of tiny surface deformations in vast areas, allowing a better understanding of its triggering mechanisms, planning of mitigation measures, as well as to find better solutions for social and environmental issues. However, there is no record hitherto of its use in active open pit mine in tropical rainforest environment. In this paper we evaluate the use of the PSI technique for the detection and monitoring of mine slope deformations in the N4W iron mine and its surroundings, Pará State, Northern Brazil. The PSI processing was performed with 18 ascending SAR scenes of the TerraSAR-X satellite acquired in the dry season of 2012. The results showed a significant number of widely distributed persistent scatterers. It was observed that most of the study area was stable during the time span. Nevertheless, high deformation rates (312 mm/year were mapped over the mine waste piles, but do not offer any hazard, since they are expected displacements of meters in magnitude for these manmade land structures. Additionally, it was mapped tiny deformation rates in both the east and west flanks of pits 1 and 2. The main underlying reasons can be assigned to the accommodation phenomena of very poor rock masses, to the local geometric variations of the slope cuts, to the geological contact between ironstones and the country rocks, to the exploitation activities, as well as to the major geological structures. This study showed the applicability of the PSI technique using TerraSAR-X scenes in active open pit mines in tropical moist environment. However, the PSI technique is not capable in providing real-time warnings, and faces limitations due to SAR viewing geometry. In this sense, we strongly recommend the use of radar scenes acquired in both ascending and descending orbits, which would also provide a more complete understanding of the deformation patterns.

  6. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Be?chatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone. PMID:23748998

  7. Performance evaluation of a new stochastic network flow approach to optimal open pit mine design-application at a gold mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.W.A., Asad; R., Dimitrakopoulos.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The optimal design of production phases and ultimate pit limit for an open pit mining operation may be generated using conventional or stochastic approaches. Unlike the conventional approach, the stochastic framework accounts for expected variability and uncertainty in metal content by considering a [...] set of equally probable realizations (models) of the orebody. This paper evaluates the performance of a new stochastic network flow approach for the development of optimal phase design and ultimate pit limit using a gold deposit as the case study. The stochastic and conventional frameworks as considered here utilize the maximum flow and Lerchs-Grossman (LG) algorithms, respectively. The LG algorithm is restricted to considering an estimated (average-type) orebody model, while the stochastic maximum flow algorithm is developed to simultaneously use a set of simulated orebody realizations as an input. The case study demonstrates that, when compared to the conventional LG algorithm as used in the industry, the stochastic approach generates a 30 per cent increase in discounted cash flow, a 21 per cent larger ultimate pit limit, and about 7 per cent more metal, while it maintains a consistency in phase size.

  8. The open pit of Garzweiler II. Authorisation secures energy supply and economic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In end-March 1995 the North-Rhine-Westphalian Government granted an authorisation for the open pit of Garzweiler II thus permitting brown coal mining in the Rheinish mining region to continue at the same pace as before. At that time the decision was supported by a large majority across parties which made itself felt not only in parliament but also in the Brown Coal Committee and its subcommittees. The author describes the open pit mining project and the course of the authorisation procedure and explains this view he shares of the energy-economic necessity of Garzweiler II. It should be added that in the meantime a red-green coalition has come to power in the Land and the project may be defeated after all. (orig./HP)

  9. Análise comparativa de metodologias utilizadas no despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto / Comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lásara Fabrícia, Rodrigues; Luiz Ricardo, Pinto.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, realizou-se uma análise comparativa das metodologias utilizadas para o despacho de caminhões em minas a céu aberto. Comparações entre essas metodologias contam com poucos trabalhos publicados na literatura. Metodologias baseadas em programação linear e programação dinâmica e em [...] heurística foram implementadas. Essas metodologias constituem as bases dos algoritmos de alguns dos sistemas de despacho comercializados no Brasil. Foi desenvolvido um modelo de simulação, a fim de se reproduzir o comportamento das operações de lavra de forma a avaliar o impacto das decisões de despacho em cada uma das metodologias estudadas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram o desempenho dos algoritmos, utilizando-se essas metodologias sob diferentes condições em minas a céu aberto. Porém não se pode, através dos resultados obtidos, concluir pela superioridade de uma delas. Abstract in english In the present study a comparative analysis of the methodologies used to dispatch trucks in open pit mines has been carried out. There is a lack of studies comparing these methodologies in literature. Methodology based on linear and dynamic programming, as well as a heuristics-based methodology, hav [...] e been implemented. These methodologies serve as the basis of algorithms used in some of the dispatch systems sold in Brazil. A simulation model was developed to reproduce the behavior of mining operations in order to evaluate the impact of dispatch decisions in each of the methodologies studied. Results show the performance of algorithms that have used these methodologies under different conditions in open pit mining. However, from results obtained in the present study, it is not possible, to state the superiority of any of them.

  10. Implications of mining practices in an open-pit gold mine for monitoring of a comprehensive test-ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of an experiment at the Gold Quarry pit, operated by the Newmont Gold Company at Carlin, NV The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data, together with ''ground truth'', from conventional surface blasting activity and to use these data to help determine the effectiveness with which conventional mining blasts can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions

  11. Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Gila Notesco; Veronika Kopa?ková; Petr Rojík; Guy Schwartz; Ido Livne; Eyal Ben Dor

    2014-01-01

    Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS) sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR)-region image usin...

  12. Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões / A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco César Rodrigues de, Araújo; Marcone Jamilson Freitas, Souza.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sort [...] e a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática. Abstract in english This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and qua [...] lity targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

  13. Uma heurística para o planejamento operacional de lavra com alocação dinâmica de caminhões A heuristic for the open-pit mining operational planning problem with dynamic truck allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco César Rodrigues de Araújo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho trata do planejamento operacional de lavra em minas a céu aberto com alocação dinâmica de caminhões. Esse problema consiste em determinar o número de viagens que cada caminhão deve fazer a cada frente de lavra, bem como decidir em quais frentes de lavra alocar as carregadeiras, de sorte a atender as metas de produção e qualidade requeridas para o minério a ser produzido, fazendo o melhor aproveitamento da frota de veículos disponível. Dada sua complexidade combinatória, o problema é resolvido por meio de um algoritmo heurístico baseado na metaeurística Iterated Local Search. O algoritmo proposto é testado usando-se dados reais e seus resultados são comparados com aqueles encontrados pelo otimizador LINGO aplicado a um modelo de programação matemática.This work addresses open-pit mining operational planning with dynamic truck allocation. The problem involves determining the number of trips that each mining truck would do to each mining face, as well as deciding to which face the shovels are to be allocated, in order to meet the production and quality targets, and to achieve the best utilization of the available fleet. Due to the combinatorial complexity of the problem, it is solved using a heuristic algorithm based on the Iterated Local Search metaheuristic. The proposed algorithm is tested using real data and the results are compared against those produced by a LINGO-based mathematical programming model.

  14. Modelling of environmental impacts of 140 years of open pit lignite mining and chemical industry on groundwater contaminants in the Bitterfeld area, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a groundwater flow and transport model was used to estimate the contamination of watersheds located in the Bitterfeld area in Germany. The contamination was caused by previous open pit lignite mining activities in the region as well as by contaminants from a chemical plant. A high resolution geological model of the area was used to parametrize the model. The region is geologically complex, with Pleistocene channels and gullies from the Saalenian age. The mining activities also disturbed or destroyed many geological structures in the region. A geological description was provided, as well as details of hydraulic conductivity, lithology, and hydrostratigraphy. The model was based on borehole data and maps covering a total area of 60 km2. The time-dependent groundwater recharge and boundary conditions were set. Dispersivity and diffusivity parameters were also considered. The model accurately characterized the successive spreading of groundwater contamination over the last 100 years in the area. The study showed that the contamination will spread to nature reserve zones in the region over the next few decades. 3 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Changcun coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jucheng

    1995-12-31

    Changcun Coal Mine is located in the south-east part of Shanxi province, which is administrated by Luan Coal Mine Bureau. The mine is approximately 17 km long, 5.4 km wide and covers an area of 83.7 km{sup 2}. Its geological reserves amount to 881.25 million tons, among which 413 million tons are mineable reserves with a service life of more than 80 years. The principal seam is seam No. 3, which is 6.05 m thick. The coal in this area is ranked as lean coal with a calorific value of 8500 k cal/kg and it is excellent for use in chemical industries and power generation. The article briefly describes the longwall mining operation at the mine and the equipment used for mining, transport and coal preparation. 1 photo.

  16. Selective mining and beneficiation at Grootegeluk coal mine Waterberg Coalfield, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Grootegeluk Coal Mine, situated in the Waterberg Coalfield in the Northern Province of South Africa, ranks among the largest open pit coal mines in the world in terms of run of mine tonnage. Commissioned in 1980 to provide steel producer Iscor with coking coal, Grootegeluk currently produces 53 Mt of coking coal per annum. At present Iscor consumes 1.2 Mt of coking coal while Matimba, the world's largest direct dry cooled PowerStation consumes an additional 12.6 Mt. Fine washing and screening plants currently beneficiate the run of mine feed from this multi-seam multi-product mine. Although the Waterberg Coalfield contains approximately 50% of South Africa's coal reserves, Grootegeluk is the only operating mine in this coalfield. The coal seams of the Waterberg Coalfield occur in the Volksrust and Vryheids formations of the Karoo Sequence. Numerous coal seams ranging from a few millimeters up to 8 meters occur over a stratigraphic thickness of at least 120 meters. These coal seams are grouped into eleven coal bearing zones that can be correlated across the coalfield. The coal- and coalbearing strata in the Waterberg are of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age. Coal from the Volksrust formation is autochthonous while the coal from the Vryheid formation is allochthonous. To ensure that sufficient geological and analytical data are obtained from exploration boreholes an extensive sampling procedure was established with washability data ranging from 1,35 to 2,20 g/cc. The analyses indicated that certain parts of the coalbearing strata is not suitable for the production of coking coal due to the high phosphorus content or the poor coking properties. This resulted in an open pit with 11 mining benches. The upper parts of the deposit is extracted by conventional shovel and truck operations while the coal seams of the lower part of the deposit are mined selectively with hydraulic shovels. At Grootegeluk down the hole geophysics (natural gamma) are used for grade control and also to quantify the effect of over- or undermining on the various mining benches. Reconciliation between the run of mine material dispatched to the various plants and their resulted yields/qualities are done regularly.

  17. Crinum coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Crinum project was given approval to proceed in January 1993. The mine is expected to produce its first coal in the second half of 1994, leading to full production by mid-1996, when total product coal from the Gregory Joint Venture leases is designed to reach 4.5 million tonnes per annum. Development work will be performed by continuous miner machines, progressing to a longwall underground mining operation. Crinum and Gregory coals will be processed in Gregory's recently modified preparation plant to produce three products - a low ash coking coal, a weak coking coal and a by-product thermal coal for world markets. Crinum coal will augment production from Gregory mine's remaining open cut coal reserves. 2 figs.

  18. Technical and environmental aspects of Coal mining,a case study on Maamba Collieries,Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the general flow chart of stripping, mining, processing and handling of coal at Maamba Collieries. Major sources of environmental degradation starting from the Open Pit, Coal Preparation Plant(CCP), Aerial Ropewayup to the Screening Plantand dispatch facilities located some eleven kilometres away at Masuku Rail Terminalare pointed out. Past and on-going efforts by Maamba Collieries at ameliorating and, where feasible, mitigating of adverse environmental impact of mining, processing and handling of coal as well as limitations of these measures as applied at Maamba are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Open-pit construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual design of a nuclear power plant accordingly to SR 136, situated in deep open pits in rock near the brink of a plateau and accessible from above as well as horizontally from the receiving stream, was further worked out. The increased backfill covering enables the reactor building to withstand heavier external forces and higher internal pressure caused by contaminated atmosphere in the event of severe hypothetical internal accidents. The leakage of this atmosphere is to be collected in special condensation rooms and another part of it is to be cooled down in these rooms. An outer safety barrier and leakage extraction fans keep this atmosphere substantially enclosed. By that means the consequences of a core melt accident will be reduced considerably. (orig.)

  20. Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini; Siamak Haji Yakhchali

    2012-01-01

    Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropri...

  1. US coal mining analysed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-12

    Earlier this year Lehman Brothers produced a report analysing the US coal industry and examining its competitiveness with other fuels. It found that operating costs of coal-fired power plants were 21% lower than nuclear plants, 24% lower than natural gas plants and 60% lower than oil-fired plants. Lehman expects coal to maintain its share of electricity generation beyond 2010. The report discusses coal reserves, productivity of US coal mining, changes in ownership with the industry and transportation costs. This article summarises its content.

  2. [Comparison of soil fertility among open-pit mine reclaimed lands in Antaibao regenerated with different vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Jin-chuan; Yue, Jian-ying; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Guo, Chun-yan; Lu, Ning; Wang, Yu-hong; Yang, Sheng-quan

    2013-09-01

    Re-vegetation is mainly applied into regeneration in opencast mine to improve the soil quality. It is very important to choose feasible vegetation types for soil restoration. In this study, three typical forest restoration types were studied at Antaibao mine, namely, Medicago sativa, mixed forests Pinus taebelaefolius-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii and Elaeagnus angustifolia-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii-Hipophae rhamnoides, to determine the nutrient contents and enzyme activities in different soil layers. The results showed that re-vegetation markedly increased soil nutrient contents and the enzyme activities during the restoration process. The nutrient content of soil in the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest field was significantly higher than those in other plots. It was found that the soil of the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest had the highest integrated fertility index values. In conclusion, the restoration effects of the P. zaebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. Korshinskii mixed forest was better than that of E. angustifolia-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii-H. rhamnoides, while M. sativa grassland had the least effect. PMID:24289011

  3. The concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the selection of haul truck operators in an open-pit mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deléne Visser

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of learning potential and psychomotor ability measures for the prediction of haul truck operator performance in an open-pit mine. Additional goals were to determine the nature of the relationship between learning potential and psychomotor abilities and to assess the relative contributions of these variables as predictors. The predictors were the TRAM 1 Learning Potential test and Vienna Test System subtests that were administered to 128 experienced haul truck operators. The job performance criteria used were spotting in time, corrected tons hauled and supervisor ranking. The concurrent validity of the learning potential and psychomotor ability measures was partially supported. An exploratory factor analysis provided relatively convincing evidence for a general cognitive ability factor (g underlying performance on the learning potential and several psychomotor measures. The existence of a general psychomotor factor was not substantiated in the current study. Suggestions were made for improving design and criterion shortcomings.

    Opsomming
    Die doel van die ondersoek was om die saamvallende geldigheid van leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings vir die voorspelling van die werkprestasie van sleepvragwabestuurders in ’n oopgroefmyn te beoordeel. Addisionele doelwitte was om die aard van die verwantskap tussen leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese vermoëns te gepaal en om die relatiewe bydraes van hierdie veranderlikes as voorspellers te bepaal. Die voorspellers was die TRAM 1 Leerpotensiaaltoets en die Vienna Test System subtoetse wat toegepas is op 128 ervare sleepvragwabestuurders. Die werkprestasiekriteria was inteikentyd, gekorrigeerde tonmaat gesleep en toesighouerbeoordeling. Die saamvallende geldigheid van die leerpotensiaal en psigomotoriese metings is gedeeltelik ondersteun. ’n Ondersoekende faktorontleding het die bestaan van ’n algemene kognitiewe vermoëfaktor (g, wat onderliggend aan die leerpotensiaal en verskeie psigomotoriese metings is, redelik oortuigend gestaaf. ’n Algemene psigomotoriese faktor is nie in die huidige ondersoek gevind nie. Voorstelle is gemaak om die ontwerp- en kriteriumtekortkominge te verbeter.

  4. Fully mobile crawler-mounted crushing plant for large open pit mines; Vollmobile Brechanlage auf Raupen fuer Grosstagebaue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentges, Ulrich [ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik GmbH, Essen (Germany). BU Mining, Vertrieb und Bergbauplanung

    2008-11-15

    The newly developed concept of a fully mobile crawler-mounted crushing plant has already proven successful in worldwide surface mining. The innovative feature of this new concept is the facility for moving the crusher during operation, guaranteeing flexibility and mobility. In combination with a continuously operated conveyor, the entire truck transport that would otherwise be necessary is eliminated. A first reference plant has been successfully operating now for almost one year in China, working at full production rate since the first day. A second plant is soon set to go into operation at a Canadian oil sand producer. In addition to the cost savings to the customer, the fully mobile crushing system has huge potential for reducing operations related CO{sub 2} emissions providing a greener footprint. (orig.)

  5. Geostatistical modeling of facies, bitumen grade and particle size distribution for the Joslyn oil sand open pit mine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babak, Olena; Insalaco, Enzo; Mittler, Andreas [Total EandP Canada Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Joslyn North Mine Project is currently in the pre-development stage; the aim of this study is to use different available data to draw a geological model of facies, bitumen grade, full particle size distribution (PSD) and ore/waste discrimination. The study was conducted with the database of around 800 wells, stochastic, indicator and Gaussian simulations were performed along with a sensitivity study. Results demonstrated the importance of some parameters for evaluating grade cases including variogram uncertainty, sampling limitations and errors in geostatistical workflow. In addition, modeling the full PSD dataset was shown to be useful. This study demonstrated how to use available database through an overall workflow to develop case scenarios for bitumen in place in ore and characterize the ore material.

  6. Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto Haul roads structural design in open pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de Sousa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais.An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

  7. Dimensionamento estrutural de estradas de mina a céu aberto / Haul roads structural design in open pit mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lilian Masetti Lobo Soares de, Sousa; Waldyr Lopes de, Oliveira Filho; Hernani Mota de, Lima.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma estrada de mina foi dimensionada com materiais típicos ocorrentes em mineração de minério de ferro no Brasil, utilizando-se os métodos empíricos CBR e DNER. Através do programa de dimensionamento estrutural mecanístico-empírico ELSYM5, compararam-se os resultados obtidos pelos métodos anteriores [...] e propôs-se a otimização do dimensionamento feito pelo método DNER. Os resultados mostram que a espessura total do pavimento calculada pelos dois métodos é, basicamente, a mesma, sendo que a espessura da camada de base pelo método DNER é superior à obtida pelo CBR, enquanto o oposto ocorre com a sub-base. Ambos os dimensionamentos mostram, através da aplicação do software ELSYM5, que não são os mais apropriados, visto que a deformação de algumas camadas, principalmente no caso CBR, está acima do limite aceitável de 2000 µ?. Através da variação da espessura das camadas, obteve-se um dimensionamento adequado, que levou à redução da espessura da camada total do pavimento de 1,97 m para 1,40 m. A redução da deformação das camadas, em que se variou o módulo de elasticidade, demonstra a importância da realização de ensaios de caracterização física dos materiais. Abstract in english An unpaved mine haul road, based on CBR and DNER empirical methods, was designed using materials which are typical in current Brazilian iron ore mining. By means of the mechanistic-empirical structural ELSYM5 software, the results obtained by previous methods were compared and an optimization of the [...] DNER design was proposed. The results demonstrate that the total thickness of the pavement calculated by the two methods is basically the same and that the base layer thickness calculated by the DNER method is superior to the one obtained by the CBR method, whereas the opposite occurs in relation to the sub-base. Both designs show through the application of ELSYM5 software that they are not the most appropriate, since the strain of some layers, especially in the CBR case, is above the acceptable limit of 2000 µ?. Analyzing the variation of the layer's thickness, it was possible to obtain an adequate design, which led to the reduction of the total pavement layer thickness from 1.97 m to 1.40 m. The reduction of the layer's strain in which the elastic modulus was submitted to variation, demonstrates the importance of performing tests for the physical characterization of materials.

  8. Handling equipment Selection in open pit mines by using an integrated model based on group decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza Yazdani-Chamzini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Process of handling equipment selection is one of the most important and basic parts in the project planning, particularly mining projects due to holding a high charge of the total project's cost. Different criteria impact on the handling equipment selection, while these criteria often are in conflicting with each other. Therefore, the process of handling equipment selection is a complex and multi criteria decision making problem. There are a variety of methods for selecting the most appropriate equipment among a set of alternatives. Likewise, according to the sophisticated structure of the problem, imprecise data, less of information, and inherent uncertainty, the usage of the fuzzy sets can be useful. In this study a new integrated model based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS is proposed, which uses group decision making to reduce individual errors. In order to calculate the weights of the evaluation criteria, FAHP is utilized in the process of handling equipment selection, and then these weights are inserted to the FTOPSIS computations to select the most appropriate handling system among a pool of alternatives. The results of this study demonstrate the potential application and effectiveness of the proposed model, which can be applied to different types of sophisticated problems in real problems.

  9. The mine planning process for an open-pit diamond mining operation - a case study on Letseng diamond mine in Lesotho

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Madowe.

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the mine planning process for Letseng diamond mine in the Kingdom of Lesotho, in conjunction with the various software packages used during the process. The major pillars of the long-term mine planning process at Letseng are pit optimization followed by pit design and scheduling [...] . Letseng uses Gemcom Whittle and GEMS for pit optimization and design and Runge XPAC for scheduling. The output of the mine planning process results in the generation of published mineral reserves and provides input into the Letseng overall business plan. The process of defining the key inputs for the entire mine planning process is discussed, which covers: ? Slope design as an input ? Diamond price inputs ? Operating and capital cost inputs ? Generation of pit shells ? Selection of an optimum pit shell and interim cutbacks using operational scenarios ? Sensitivity analysis on the selected optimum pit shell. ? Slope design criteria in the detailed design ? Split shell vs concentric pit design ? Practical mining widths to determine cutback design ? Pit design process in the GEMS software package. ? Development of scheduling scenarios in the XPAC software package ? Planning through mining production bottlenecks. ? Company-level NPV model ? Comparing scenarios and input of the different schedule scenarios into the company NPV model.

  10. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  11. REDUCTION OF SEISMIC EFFECTS FROM BLASTING IN OPEN PIT COAL-MINES BANOVI?I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Štimac

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The ground motions of higher intensities are generated by deep-hole blasting of overburden. The most appropriate type of explosive as well as the optimum parameters of blasting was chosen. The minor part of the blasting energy is being transformed into the kinetic energy of seismic waves of smaller intensity.

  12. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  13. Coal mine subsidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the efficacy of the Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement's (OSMRE) efforts to implement the federally assisted coal mine subsidence insurance program. Coal mine subsidence, a gradual settling of the earth's surface above an underground mine, can damage nearby land and property. To help protect property owners from subsidence-related damage, the Congress passed legislation in 1984 authorizing OSMRE to make grants of up to $3 million to each state to help the states establish self-sustaining, state-administered insurance programs. Of the 21 eligible states, six Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wyoming applied for grants. This paper reviews the efforts of these six states to develop self-sustaining insurance programs and assessed OSMRE's oversight of those efforts

  14. Revegetation of coal mine soil with forest litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, A.D.; Ludeke, K.L.; Thames, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    Forest litter, a good source of organic matter and seeds, was applied on undisturbed soil and on coal mine (spoils) in experiments conducted on the Black Mesa Coal Mine near Kayenta, Arizona over a 2-year period (1977-1978). Germination, seedling establishment, plant height and ground cover were evaluated for two seeding treatments (forest litter and no forest litter) and two soil moisture treatments (natural rainfall and natural rainfall plus irrigation). The forest litter was obtained at random from the Coconino National Forest, broadcast over the surface of the soil materials and incorporated into the surface 5 cm of each soil material. Germination, seedling establishment, plant height and ground cover on undisturbed soil and coal mine soil were higher when forest litter was applied than when it was not applied and when natural rainfall was supplemented with sprinkler irrigation than when rainfall was not supplemented with irrigation. Applications of forest litter and supplemental irrigation may ensure successful establishment of vegetation on areas disturbed by open-pit coal mining.

  15. Exploration on feasibility of using in-situ leaching after explosion on the bottom of Huangfengling open pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the situation of mining and the faced problems in Huangfengling open pit, it was proposed to use in-situ leaching after explosion to recover uranium in order to overcome the difficulties with open mining of the deposit and high mining cost. The feasibility and necessity of using in-situ leaching after explosion in Huangfengling open pit was explored

  16. Interior drains for open pit disposal of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptualized interior drainage system is presented for reducing the environmental impact on natural groundwater by disposal of uranium mill tailings in the mined-out open pit. The evaporation/seepage ratio can be increased through the use of interior drains, long-term monitoring of groundwater quality can be eliminated, and the open pit will not require an extensive liner. Other advantages not related to groundwater are: control of fugitive dust and radon emanation during mill operations and timely reclamation after the impoundment is filled with tailings

  17. Mining coal deposits under difficult mining and geologic conditions. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratczenko, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Selected problems associated with underground coal mining in the USSR are discussed. Deteriorating mining and geologic conditions are evaluated: mining depth increase to more than 1000 m in 22 mines, high methane content in 30% of mined coal seams, rock burst hazards in 25% of mined coal seams, unstable roofs in 40% of mined coal seams, roofs difficult to break down in 25% of mined coal seams, and decreasing coal seam thickness (45% of mined coal seams is less than 1.2 m thick). The following problems associated with underground mining are analyzed: opening coal deposits, mining seams in zones of tectonic dislocations, mining seams with varying thickness, longwall mining using sets of mining equipment (70% of coal output), mining seams 0.71 to 1.25 m thick by the KM103 and the KD80 systems, mining seams 1.2 to 4.0 m thick by the UKP and the KMG systems, mining steep seams by the AShchM, the ANShch and the 2ANShch shield mining systems, manless mining of thick coal seams using scraper loaders and auger mining, hydraulic coal mining, mine drivage in coal seams and rock layers (the Soyuz and the KRT heading machines), mine surveying (using the ShSA-2 and the Tektonika seismic systems), effects of increasing mining depth on temperature in underground coal mines and air conditioning systems, coal dust control, prevention of rock bursts and methane control.

  18. Monitoring of surface deformation in open pit mine using DInSAR time-series: a case study in the N5W iron mine (Carajás, Brazil) using TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, José C.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Gama, Fabio F.; Santos, Athos R.; Galo, Mauricio; Camargo, Paulo O.; Silva, Arnaldo Q.; Silva, Guilherme G.

    2014-10-01

    We present an investigation of surface deformation using Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) time-series carried out in an active open pit iron mine, the N5W, located in the Carajás Mineral Province (Brazilian Amazon region), using 33 TerraSAR-X (TSX-1) scenes. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine (pit walls) have been done based on ground based radar. Two complementary approaches were used: the standard DInSAR configuration, as an early warning of the slope instability conditions, and the DInSAR timeseries analysis. In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles. The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of 107 interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares (LS) solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity. The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment.

  19. Coal mining technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, H. [Japan Coal Energy Center (Japan). Resources Dept.

    2006-03-15

    The paper consists of a two-page text plus a set of 25 slides/overheads outlining the presentation to the conference. It first discussed world coal resources and production trends and the issues of achieving a stable supply of coal. The main part of the paper discussed features of Japanese coal mining technology and coopertive projects carried out by JCOAL with China, Indonesia, Australia, Vietnam and elsewhere on topics including exploration techniques, prevention of explosions, monitoring and control of belt conveyors and other mine equipment, dust control, coal mine methane recovery and utilization, and coal cleaning.

  20. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  1. Automatic Coal-Mining System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Coal cutting and removal done with minimal hazard to people. Automatic coal mine cutting, transport and roof-support movement all done by automatic machinery. Exposure of people to hazardous conditions reduced to inspection tours, maintenance, repair, and possibly entry mining.

  2. UNA APROXIMACIÓN A LA PLANEACIÓN MINERA A CIELO ABIERTO DESDE UN ENFOQUE BASADO EN DECISIONES BAJO INCERTIDUMBRE / AN APPOXIMATION TO THE OPEN PIT MINE PLANNING APPROACH BASED ON DECISIONS UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GIOVANNI, FRANCO SEPÚLVEDA; JOHN WILLIAN, BRANCH BEDOYA; PATRICIA, JARAMILLO ÁLVAREZ.

    2010-11-30

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta en primer lugar una descripción del proceso de planeamiento minero desde un punto de vista clásico y su relación con los actuales procesos de planeamiento minero que tienen como base la optimización en sus diferentes etapas. Seguidamente, se realiza un acercamiento a los [...] procesos de planeación minera a cielo abierto desde un enfoque basado en decisiones bajo incertidumbre. Por último, se lleva a cabo un análisis crítico de los artículos encontrados clasificándolos en cinco categorías: Modelamiento geológico; Planeamiento minero; Evaluación financiera; Decisiones bajo incertidumbre y modelos de optimización. Abstract in english This article first presents a description of the mine planning process from a classical view and its relation to existing mine planning processes that are based on optimization in its various stages. Then be made an approach to planning processes open pit mining from an approach based on decisions u [...] nder uncertainty. Finally, it performs a critical analysis of the items found divided into five categories: geological models, mine planning, financial evaluation, decisions under uncertainty and optimization models.

  3. Piast black coal mine - a mining giant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelner, C.; Cudzik, W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses coal reserves of the Piast mine, mine design, construction and operation. Black coal from the mine has a calorific value of 2,500 kJ/kg, ash content is 10-15%, sulfur content is 0.9-1.4%. Water influx is high; in 1984 it amounted to 18 m/sup 3//min. Five coal seams were opened by a system of 5 shafts. Two mining levels at depths of 500 m and 650 m supply 24,000 t/d. Longwall mining with caving is used. The faces are from 1.5 to 3.0 m high and on the average 134 m long. Average coal output per face is 1,350 t/d. The faces are equipped with: KWB-3RDU or KWB-3RNS shearer loaders, Glinik or Fazos powered supports and Rybnik-73 and Rybnik-80 chain conveyors. Coal output increase from 1976 to 1984 is shown in 2 tables. Prospects for mine development are also discussed. 1 ref.

  4. Automated Coal-Mining System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangal, M. D.; Isenberg, L.; Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed system offers safety and large return on investment. System, operating by year 2000, employs machines and processes based on proven principles. According to concept, line of parallel machines, connected in groups of four to service modules, attacks face of coal seam. High-pressure water jets and central auger on each machine break face. Jaws scoop up coal chunks, and auger grinds them and forces fragments into slurry-transport system. Slurry pumped through pipeline to point of use. Concept for highly automated coal-mining system increases productivity, makes mining safer, and protects health of mine workers.

  5. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  6. Methane emissions from coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines some of the problems associated with the prediction of levels of methane emission from underground and surface coal mines. Current knowledge of coal mining emissions sources is outlined. On the basis of this information the methodology proposed by the IPCC/OECD Programme on National Inventories is critically examined and alternatives considered. Finally, the technical options for emissions control are examined together with their feasibility. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Software development for geologic information management system on open-pit production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, K.; Tian, A.; Ren, Z.; Pang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technomogy, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2001-09-01

    A software, including geological data gathering and processing, deposit modelling, reserves calculating and mine map plotting, for geologic information management of open-pit production was developed. Based on the interactive technique, CAD, the object-oriented simulation, and the characteristics of geologic structures, all the geologic information databases and geologic mapping sub-systems have been established for open-pit production, planning and management. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Coal Mining, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This simulated natural color ASTER image in the German state of North Rhine Westphalia covers an area of 30 by 36 km, and was acquired on August 26, 2000. On the right side of the image are 3 enormous opencast coalmines. The Hambach opencast coal mine has recently been brought to full output capacity through the addition of the No. 293 giant bucket wheel excavator. This is the largest machine in the world; it is twice as long as a soccer field and as tall as a building with 30 floors. To uncover the 2.4 billion tons of brown coal (lignite) found at Hambach, five years were required to remove a 200-m-thick layer of waste sand and to redeposit it off site. The mine currently yields 30 million tons of lignite annually, with annual capacity scheduled to increase to 40 million tons in coming years.The image is centered at 51 degrees north latitude, 6.4 degrees east longitude. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial advances and retreats, potentially active volcanoes, thermal pollution, and coral reef degradation; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; evaluating wetlands; mapping surface temperature of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

  9. Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Notesco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at ? = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

  10. Cost of mining Eastern coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, Chapter 7.2.3 of the 'surface mining' reference book, gives an example of how the cost of mining a ton of coal is calculated. Conditions set down are for a coal tract of 50.6 ha in West Virginia, USA to be mined by the contour surface method, the seam being 101.6cm thick. Elements of the costing are: permitting and bonding costs, engineering and construction costs, equipment and other operating expenses (such as hauling and wheeling), royalties, direct taxes and fees, costs of revegetation, and employment costs (payroll and medical expenses). 5 tabs

  11. Environmental Reconnaissance of Shivee-Ovoo Coal Mine, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battogtokh, B.; Woo, N. C.; Nemer, B.

    2011-12-01

    Mining sector is one of most rapidly developing industries in Mongolia for the last several decades. However, environmental monitoring and protection measures have been left out. An exploratory investigation was conducted to evaluate potential impacts of the mining activities on the soil and water environment at the Shivee-Ovoo surface coal mine. Water samples were collected from the mine dewatering boreholes, discharge lakes and drinking water sources around the mine area. High levels of electrical conductivity, ranging from 325?S/cm to 2,909?S/cm, indicate significant contents of dissolved solids in water. In general, Mg, Fe, F and EC levels in drinking water exceed the level of Mongolian and WHO guidelines for drinking water, and they appear to result from water-rock interaction along the groundwater flow paths. Hierarchical cluster analysis implies that the waters from the mine area and those from public water-supply wells be originated from the same aquifer. However, the water from the spring, dug well and artesian well are grouped separately, indicating different geological effects due to the shallow groundwater system with relatively short period of water-rock interaction. Groundwater dewatering for open-pit mine excavation causes significant water-level decline, and subsequently, the residents nearby areas happen to be provided with water from the deeper aquifer, which has with higher dissolved solids probably through longer period of water-rock interaction. Soil samples were collected from the top, middle and lower soil layers of excavation bench, mine-waste dump sites, topsoil and subsoil from nearby area of the mine. To evaluate potential of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD), samples were analyzed for chemical composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results show 0.36% of sulfur in only one sample, collected from waste dumping site of low quality coal. Since sulfur component were not detected in other samples, there appear no apparent threat of ARD for this mine at present. In addition, particle size distribution (PSD) analysis and fractal dimensions of PSD were performed to evaluate desertification degree. Fractal dimensions (Dm) show the high sensitivity to the coarsening of the soil samples, and values decrease with increasing content of the sand. The soil samples from nearby area of the mine contained high percentage of sand, indicating desertification prone- area. Based on active and increased number of mining operation in Mongolia, we suggest that this kind of environmental study and continuous monitoring be performed at each mine area.

  12. Project design of an open pit colliery in Terkidag, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this manuscript, first of all, the status of Turkey in terms of energy production and consumption is given and the need to rely on domestic sources, namely lignite deposits, is emphasized rather than importing fuels from abroad. Then, a thorough literature work concerning open pit design and production planning is explained in detail. On this basis, the project design and production planning of Tekirdag-Saray open pit colliery are conducted. According to the selected production technique, machinery-equipment that will be utilized in the coal winning system is determined and in the final part, the investment cost and unit production cost regarding the project are computed and the importance of constructing a power plant in the region operating with domestic fuels is expressed. (authors)

  13. Project design of an open pit colliery in Terkidag, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kose

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, first of all, the status of Turkey in terms of energy production and consumption is given and the need to relyon domestic sources, namely lignite deposits, is emphasized rather than importing fuels from abroad. Then, a thorough literature workconcerning open pit design and production planning is explained in detail. On this basis, the project design and production planningof Tekirdag-Saray open pit colliery are conducted. According to the selected production technique, machinery-equipment that willbe utilized in the coal winning system is determined and in the final part, the investment cost and unit production cost regardingthe project are computed and the importance of constructing a power plant in the region operating with domestic fuels is expressed.

  14. Proposal of an environmental sustainability index for open-pit mines using landscape fragmentation indicators / Proposta de um índice de sustentabilidade ambiental para minas a céu aberto com o uso de indicadores de fragmentação de paisagem

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe Vargas E, Silva; Rodrigo, Peroni.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A percepção dos impactos ambientais das atividades econômicas pela sociedade é subjetiva e muitas vezes afeta negativamente a imagem de certos setores econômicos como a mineração. Para não ser subjetiva, a avaliação de impactos ambientais deve se embasar em indicadores ambientais claros e criteriosa [...] mente selecionados. Para demonstrar que a sustentabilidade da mineração a céu aberto é comparável a outras atividades econômicas, foi criado um índice de sustentabilidade ambiental composto do consumo de água e energia combinado com um indicador de fragmentação de paisagem construído com o uso de sensoriamento remoto e geoprocessamento. Para ilustrar a metodologia, foi realizado um estudo comparativo em um período de 10 anos entre a maior mina de minério de ferro brasileira, N5W, com o maior município produtor de soja, Sorriso, no Mato Grosso. Abstract in english The perception of the environmental impacts caused by economic activities is subjective and usually negatively affects the image of an extractive sector such as mining. In order to avoid this, the environmental impact assessment must be supported by clear and well-selected environmental indicators. [...] An index of sustainability was created to demonstrate that open-pit mining is comparable to other economic activities. The index is composed by of environmental indicators like water and energy consumption combined with an indicator of landscape fragmentation, using remote sensing data and geoprocessing. A comparative study considering a ten-year period was carried out with the biggest iron ore mine in Brazil, N5W, and the largest Brazilian soybean producer, the Sorriso County, in the Mato Grosso State to illustrate the methodology.

  15. Radioactivities related to coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddeek, Mostafa K; Sharshar, Taher; Ragab, Hossam S; Badran, Hussein M

    2005-08-01

    Natural radioactivity concentrations due to the coal mining in Gabal El-Maghara, North Sinai, Egypt, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Coal, water and soil samples were investigated in this study. The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in coal before extraction were 18.5 +/- 0.5, 29.5 +/- 1.2 and 149.0 +/- 8.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively. These concentrations were reduced to 18-22% after extraction due to the clay removal of the coal ore. The activity contents of the water and soil samples collected from the surrounding area did not show any evidence of enhancement due to the mining activities. Absorbed dose rate and effective dose equivalent in the mine environment were 29.4 nGy h(-1) and 128.0 microSv a(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations in the mine environment and the surrounding areas (5 km away from the mine) are similar to that found in other regions in North and South Sinai. Based on the measurements of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides, the mine activity does not lead to any enhancement in the local area nor represents any human risk. PMID:16049576

  16. Complementarities Between Coal Mining Machinery Industry and Coal Mining Industry: Evidence from China 1991-2006

    OpenAIRE

    He Xiao-yan; Wang Fei; Bai Yu-hui; Yang Xiao

    2013-01-01

    This study used VAR model to analyze and verify the complementaries between Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises and coal mining enterprises from the perspective of static state and dynamic state, it concluded that: there is a co-integration relationship between the actual output value of Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises and the actual value of Chinese coal mining enterprises, namely, there is a long-term and stable equilibrium; Chinese coal mining machinery enterprises have adv...

  17. Major new Colombian coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    1998-09-01

    Amcoal with partners Rio Tinto and Glencore, is developing a new large coal export operation in Colombia, following an agreement last year to combine the Cerrejon Centrale and Oreganal coal properties. Three major groups have been awarded a contract to develop the Cerrejon Sur block. Five new mining concessions in the Guajira region south of El Cerrejon will be developed. Colombia has proven and inferred coal reserves amounting to more than 20,000 Mt and hopes to be producing 50 Mt/y by 2005. 1 tab., 1 map.

  18. Novel techniques related with coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasyuchkov, Yu.; Vorobjev, B.; Vais, K.; Vasyuchkov, M.; Vorobjev, S. [Moscow State Mining University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Mineral Ltd.

    1999-07-01

    Complex methods of geotechnical, physical-chemical and biological treatment of coal are discussed. Underground coal gasification/combustion combined with coal bed methane drainage from the coal mass and physical-chemical-microbiological coal mass treatment are considered as one of the most ecologically clean and resource saving technologies. A new approach to coal electricity generation on the basis of borehole coal mining (coal gasification/combustion in situ) with coal bed methane drainage integrated with mine mouth combined cycle power plant is promoted. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Calibration of Numerical Model Applied to a Shear Zone Located on a Slope in an Open Pit Mine—Case History

    OpenAIRE

    Evandro Moraes da Gama; Da Silva, Bruno C. R.

    2012-01-01

    The instability of a pit mine slope diagnostic caused by the slipping of a localized deep shear zone is described. The slope was designed on ultra basic, serpentine and metabasite rock formations with an angle varying from 40 to 45 de- grees. The perturbed slope zone was classified as RMR 12 and the non-perturbed zone as RMR 75. The boundary of these zones is defined as the shear zone. The pit slope was field mapped in detail and the mechanical properties of the rock were obtained through a l...

  20. Opencast coal mining at Kriel colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchan, I.F.

    1980-01-01

    The opencast coal mining operation at Kriel, which is situated midway between the towns of Ogies and Bethal in the eastern Transvaal, is described. The coal is mined by the Coal Division of the Anglo American Corporation from the No. 4 Seam in the Witbank coalfield: it is planned to produce 4.1 million tons from an underground mine and 4.5 million tons by opencast mining. Particular reference is made to the water problems encountered during operation.

  1. First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  2. Patrones de sucesión vegetal sobre los depósitos de material residual en minas de gravas - Santa Fe de Bogotá Plant succession patterns on residual open-pit gravel mines deposits Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora Goyes Ricardo A.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Con Base en el estudio de la composicion y estructura de las comunidades vegetales y el analisis de las caracteristicas fisicoquimicas de los desechos, se determinaron los patrones iniciales de sucesion primaria, presentes en tres depositos de material residual de 18, 36, 120 meses de abandono, provenientes de la explotacion minera de gravas a cielo abierto al sur de Santafe de Bogota. La composicion, riqueza y diversidad floristica fueron maximas a los 36 meses de abandono del deposito. La dominancia alcanzo los maximos valores en el deposito de 120 meses. Los dos primeros parches de vegetacion presentaron un mejor ajuste al modelo de distribucion especie-abundancia logaritmico, y el tercero a un normal logaritimico. El azar es el patron de distribucion espacial-horizontal que mas abunda entre todas las especies,. seguido por patrones de micro y macroheterogeneidad. Las formas de crecimiento dominantes pasan de hierbas acaulirrosulas y postradas, en la comunidad pionera, a hierbas rastreras y arbustos, en el parche de 120 meses de edad. Las estrategias de historias de vida y las relaciones intraespecificas propuestas por Grime (1989, permitieron determinar que las plantas en la colonizacion de los primeros ambientes, se comportan como ruderales tolerantes a restricciones, y hacia el final del periodo sucesionall, como competidoras tolerantes a restricciones. Los modelos establecidos por Connell y Slatyer (1977 y Noble y Slatyer (1980, y los mecanimos de sucesion vegetal: arribo, establecimiento, facilitacion, tolerancia, inhibicion, extincion y maximo dominio, explican claramente los patrones de sucesion vegetal establecidos a traves de la dinamica de colonizacion y establecimiento de las especies vegetales sobre estos depositos. Cambios a traves del tiempo en la disponibilidad de condiciones y recursos en los sustratos expuestos a la colonizacion vegetal, medidos a partir de la caracterizacion de N, P, K, Ca, Na, Mg, porcentaje de arcillas, textura, pH, cBased on both: the study of composition and structure of plant communities and the analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of mining wastes, the initial patterns of primary succession were determined. These patterns were present in three deposits of waste material abandoned during 18, 36 and 120 months respectively. Sue materials were originated in open-pit gravel mines located to the south of Bogota (Colombia. This study pretends to contribute to the knowledge of the meehanlsms of natural restauration of tropical ecosystems subjected to man-borne degradation.

  3. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  4. Design and construction of coal mining enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burego, N.S.; Sheremet, V.M.; Soldatov, V.I. (Donetskshakhtostroi (Ukraine))

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the need for design and construction of new black coal mines in the Ukraine. The backwardness and under-investment in mine resources is pointed out, along with mine construction capacity down by 20% in the last three years. The need for mine reconstruction is stressed. Construction of 21 new underground mines, 1 surface mine, 4 coal preparation plants and the doubling of capital investment is postulated. Reconstruction of 21 mines and 7 coal preparation plants by 2005 is regarded as necessary. About 750 million rubles are thought to be necessary to enlarge the basis for mine construction during the next 5-year period. The capacity of Ukrainian mine design institutes is regarded as sufficient. Modern mine design solutions are described (e.g. horizontal technological flow).

  5. Optimum Coal Mine: striving towards a 'zero effluent' mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V.E., Cogho.

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Optimum Coal Mine comprises numerous defunct, active, and future mining sections. The mine is primarily a large opencast coal mine; however, underground mining activities will be increasing steadily over the next five years. Opencast and underground mining activities have a significant impact on sur [...] face and groundwater resources. To ensure that the mine will be able to continue with its mining operations in the catchment, the extent of this impact requires that substantial intervention and mitigation measures need to be implemented to ensure the environmental integrity and economic use of the catchment's water resources. In developing a sustainable long-term mine water management strategy, numerous scenarios had to be analysed. The various scenarios are a combination of water and land management activities. The main components of the mine's integrated water management strategy include: Management of water recharge by continual and appropriate rehabilitation of disturbed land Beneficial re-use of impacted mine water for coal plant process water and mining operations Reclamation and desalination of remaining excess impacted mine water to potable standard. From the mine's long-term water balance, it is evident that the continued implementation of numerous water management actions is required to mitigate the water resources impact in a sustainable manner. In addition, the installation of a water reclamation plant at Optimum Coal Mine (15M?/day) is a key step for the mine to achieve a zero impact target.

  6. Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Paul C. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston VA 20192 (United States); Martinez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 3895, Caracas 1010 A (Venezuela)

    2007-08-01

    About 7 Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13 m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10 km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7 m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Tachira and Merida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It is postulated that slower subsidence rates dominated during the Paleocene while greater foreland basin subsidence rates during the Eocene-Miocene resulted from the loading of nappe thrust sheets as part of the main construction phases of the Andean orogen. South-southeastward advance and emplacement of the Lara nappes during the oblique transpressive collision of the Caribbean and South American tectonic plates in the Paleocene was further removed from the sites of peat deposition, resulting in slower subsidence rates. Slower subsidence in the Paleocene may have favored the growth of raised mires, generating higher inertinite concentrations through more frequent moisture stress. Consistently low ash yield and sulfur content would be due to the protection from clastic input in raised mires, in addition to the leaching of mineral matter by rainfall and the development of acidic conditions preventing fixation of sulfur. In contrast, peat mires of Eocene-Miocene age encountered rapid subsidence due to the proximity of nappe emplacement, resulting in lower inertinite content, higher and more variable sulfur content, and higher ash yield. (author)

  7. Coal Mining in Southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    After graduating from high school in 1936, C. William "Doc" Horrell received a $12 camera from his mother. Horrell was immediately bitten by the photography bug, and created a dark room in his mother's walk-in-closet. He attended Southern Illinois Normal University (now the Southern Illinois University Carbondale), and after his time in the armed services, he opened up his own photography studio in Anna, Illinois. In the 1960s, Doc began wandering around southern Illinois to document the region's coal mining industry. Over the next few years, he took thousands of photographs, some of which formed the heart of his 1973 book, "The Land Between the Rivers". The good folks at SIU Carbondale have created this online exhibit to introduce users to Horrell's work. Visitors can make their way through the exhibit, and they may find themselves gravitating to the complete online collection, which contains over 750 items. It's a tremendous find, and it includes images of abandoned coal mining facilities, men at work, and coal trains.

  8. A study of natural recovery in an aquatic ecosystem affected by mining: the Rodrigatos stream (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacal, M.; Herrero, T.; Rodriguez, V.; Alberruche, E.; Vadillo, L.

    2009-07-01

    This work takes place into the Bierzo Region, located in northeast of the province of Leon (Spain). In this area numerous open-pit and underground coal mines exist. Some of them are still in activity but almost have been abandoned. In any case, mining implies the presence of coal adits, spoil dumps, tailing dams, and coal-washing plants at the river bank. Most of them persist when mining have finished. (Author)

  9. Obed Mountain Coal railcar loading automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, J.C. [Hinz Consulting Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Coal from Obed Mountain Coal`s open pit mine near Hinton, Alberta is carried 11 km. by conveyor from the plant to the train loadout facility. The loadout facility is equipped with an upgraded computer system. The bin weighing system and the train car scale are connected directly to the loadout computer. The operator has complete information to collect, enter, and access information and to produce manifest and summary reports, in addition to controlling the loadout facility. 7 figs.

  10. Mining challenges to deal with the land, forestry and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of a report of the IMA Business Commission dealing with mining development planning in Indonesia as related to land matters, forestry and environmental aspects. A summary of land matter management of an open pit coal mine is included

  11. Attendance control in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, J.P.

    1982-10-01

    Focuses on the problem of miners who do not report to work (AWOLs) because, although the problem represents only 3% of total available work hours, it is an intolerable situation in a modern mining operation. Points out that AWOLs are very costly in terms of overhead dollars; there is a significant impact on productivity, production continuity and stability; and there are very definite safety concerns. Reports that absentee control programs, with built-in progressive discipline, led in many cases to direct labor-management confrontation. Discloses that miners working under the 1981 National Bituminous Coal Wage Agreement will be absent from the job a total of six million days annually, excluding regular vacation periods. Emphasizes that the 1981 Agreement contains very explicit language covering absentee control programs: that a coal company has a right to have an absentee control program, and that such a program could involve a series of steps that could result in discharge.

  12. Coal Mine Methane in Russia [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  13. Development of coal mining in Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jise, J.

    1987-10-01

    Gives a general review of Yugoslav coal industry, which is aiming to produce 315 Mt per annum by 2020 (25 Mt brown coal and 290 Mt lignite). This compares with 1985 figures of 69 Mt (total), 0.5 Mt (bituminous coal), 12 Mt (brown coal) and 56.5 Mt (lignite) and represents an increase in proportion of energy requirements met by home produced coal from 27% to 44%. Bituminous coal has a mean calorific value of 24,800 kJ/kg, seams are shallow and 400-600 m below surface; brown coal has a mean calorific value of 17,500 kJ/kg in seams 1-40 m thick (usually 1.5-10 m) and 200-500 m deep; lignite has a mean calorific value of 8,200 kJ/kg in seams up to 100 m thick. Largest coal mining companies are REIK Kolubara (30 Mt per annum from 3 surface mines), Tito (20 Mt per annum brown coal and lignite from 8 underground and 5 surface mines), RHMK Kosovo (13 Mt per annum from 2 surface mines). There are 40 coal preparation plants with a total throughput of 11,179 t/h. Biggest users of coal are electric power plants, many of which have been built close to surface lignite mines. Also a pressurized lignite gasification plant using the Lurgi system has been built to supply steel works in Skopje. 4 refs.

  14. Pioneer Coal Limited's coal mine reclamation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, P.; Mattie, M. [Pioneer Coal Limited, Antigonish, NS (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation outlined the land reclamation efforts at former surface mining sites in Pictou County Nova Scotia, notably the Stellarton Pit Mine; the Drummond Mine in Westville; and the Thorburn Mine. In August 1994 Pioneer Coal limited submitted a request for mine rehabilitation. The environmental approval to proceed was granted in 1995 and industrial approval was granted in 1996. The presentation included maps indicating the locations of the 3 mining sites as well as numerous aerial views and photographs depicting the mine operations as well as the results of the reclamation efforts. figs.

  15. Coal Mining Safety Monitoring Using WSN

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Kumar, Kriti Singh

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose was to provide an implementable design scenario for underground coal mines using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main reason being that given the intricacies in the physical structure of a coal mine, only low power WSN nodes can produce accurate surveillance and accident detection data. The work mainly concentrated on designing and simulating various alternate scenarios for a typical mine and comparing them based on the obtained results to arr...

  16. Impact of Coal Mining on Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. On the unstable earth, the unresting mankind constantly uses a variety of resources for daily lives. Coal is recognized to have been the main source of energy in India for many decades and contributes to nearly 27 % of the world’s commercial energy requirement. Coal is mainly mined using two methods- surface or ‘opencast’ and underground mining. The geological condition determines the method of mining. Coal mining is usually associated with the degradation of natural resources and the destruction of habitat. This causes invasive species to occupy the area, thus posing a threat to biodiversity. Huge quantities of waste material are produced by several mining activities in the coal mining region. If proper care is not taken for waste disposal, mining will degrade the surrounding environment. The method of waste disposal affects land, water and air and in turns the quality of life of the people in the adjacent areas. This paper throws lights on the burning issues of coal mines and its impact on the environment.

  17. FY 2000 international exchange project on exchanges of engineers - Coal mine technology field. Overseas workshop (Indonesia); 2000 nendo gijutsusha koryu jigyo (tanko gijutsu bun'ya) kokusai koryu jigyo. Kaigai workshop (Indonesia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of making effective technology exchanges and surveying levels of technology in Indonesia and the needs and possibilities of technology transfer from Japan, workshop was held in Jakarta city on March 1, 2001. Subjects were the following seven: subjects on coal resource and technical strategy in the 21st century, challenge in coal development in Indonesia, geological structure survey at Tanjung Enim coal mine, waste water treatment in Indonesia, outlook for underground mining coal mines, joint research on the centralized monitoring system, and introduction of the optimum high wall coal mining system into open pit mining coal mines in Indonesia. The coal production amount in Indonesia was 75 million tons, and the domestic demand was 22 million tons. Japan imported 14 million tons from Indonesia. In coal mines in Indonesia, most of the coal preparation plants have no waste water treatment facilities. Considering that waste water treatment facilities are necessary for the plants in future, the joint research was made on the simple coal preparation waste water treatment system. (NEDO)

  18. The practical considerations regarding coal mine rehabilitation and closure

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, Abri

    2010-01-01

    Coal mine closure is an important subject for the coal mining industry and the community within SA. The coal mine closure process begins with planning during the project feasiblility assessment phase and concludes with the surrender of tenure. Where a coal mine has not developed a closure plan, early commencement of closure planning is the best insurance for achieving surrender.

  19. Underground coal gasification in abandoned mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinderman, M.S. [Coal N.R.G. Development, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A method of underground coal gasification to utilize coal reserves of abandoned mines is discussed. The feasibility of the method, called lowest pressure underground gasification, for extraction of coal of a protective pillar is demonstrated. Comparison with other methods included environmental safety, conversion and thermal efficiencies of the technology of the method and exergy of the end products. Coal is burned in situ to produce hot water and steam to be used as local energy sources. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Hospitalization patterns associated with Appalachian coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M.; Nurkiewicz, T.R. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (USA). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this study was to test whether the volume of coal mining was related to population hospitalization risk for diseases postulated to be sensitive or insensitive to coal mining by-products. The study was a retrospective analysis of 2001 adult hospitalization data (n = 93,952) for West Virginia, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania, merged with county-level coal production figures. Hospitalization data were obtained from the Health Care Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample. Diagnoses postulated to be sensitive to coal mining by-product exposure were contrasted with diagnoses postulated to be insensitive to exposure. Data were analyzed using hierarchical nonlinear models, controlling for patient age, gender, insurance, comorbidities, hospital teaching status, county poverty, and county social capital. Controlling for covariates, the volume of coal mining was significantly related to hospitalization risk for two conditions postulated to be sensitive to exposure: hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The odds for a COPD hospitalization increased 1% for each 1462 tons of coal, and the odds for a hypertension hospitalization increased 1% for each 1873 tons of coal. Other conditions were not related to mining volume. Exposure to particulates or other pollutants generated by coal mining activities may be linked to increased risk of COPD and hypertension hospitalizations. Limitations in the data likely result in an underestimate of associations.

  1. Injury experience in coal mining, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This Mine and Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  2. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  3. Open-pit production and control at Roessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years metal prices have been severely depressed and most companies have directed efforts to controlling costs in order to stay in business. Roessing Uranium has consistently kept uranium production cost increases well below the domestic inflation rate and this has been the result of a firm commitment to production and cost control, which is the main theme of this paper. The subject of cost analysis is briefly presented and the paper then gives more technical detail under the main headings of grade control, production control and engineering projects. The main communication channels, which are used to ensure that different departments on the mine are all working for the same objectives, are mentioned. The paper, however, is intended to be a general overview of the engineering aspects of open-pit cost control

  4. Dewatering of planned Key Lake open pits in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The engineering design and experience gained so far with a dewatering system for an open-pit uranium mine planned at Key Lake in Northern Saskatchewan are presented. An extensive unconfined overburden aquifer is hydraulically connected with the underlying Athabasca Formation and basement rocks, both of relatively low hydraulic conductivity. The overburden aquifer is embedded in a bedrock trough, with the deepest depression between the planned pits. Hydrogeological data were used in a numerical dewatering model simulating groundwater flow at different stages of the pit development. Based on the model results, the enginering design had to provide for different pumping rates, varying between 1.0 and 0.21 m3/sec. This problem was solved by using a double line pressure system. The design concept for the complete peripheral discharge system and the well design used for 26 dewatering wells are discussed. (auth)

  5. Science for black coal mining. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moj, K.

    1985-01-01

    Development of underground black coal mining and effects of research and development on mining are discussed. The following problems are evaluated: increasing role of longwall mining (from 38% in 1947 to 94% in 1984), mining in protective pillars left under industrial plants and towns (30% of coal output comes from support pillars), developing efficient methods for forecasting rock burst hazards, utilizing mine stones for stowing, utilizing fly ash and slags from power plants for hydraulic stowing, development of monitoring systems for early detection of coal spontaneous combustion, increasing power of mining equipment, increasing voltage of power systems in mines, and development of automatic control systems for face equipment (e.g. the ASI and the BESTA systems). Equipment developed in Poland and manufactured on a commercial scale since 1984 is discussed: KGS-320 shearer loaders, PZ 2675 vibration screens, Rybnik-80 chain conveyors, GLINIK 066-16 Ozk powered supports for thin seams, OP-18/32 P1 light powered supports for longwall mining with stowing, and support systems for junctions of working faces with gate roads. Tasks for research and development for the next years are discussed: development of mining equipment for thin seams (up to 1.0 m thick) and seams with dip angles exceeding 35 degrees, reducing coal losses, and increasing reliability and service life of mining equipment.

  6. Overseas transfer project on coal mining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamuro, S. [Japan Coal Energy Center (Japan). International Cooperation Department

    2002-09-01

    The Council on Coal Mining Industry, advisory organ to the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) stated in its final report that training for large-scale coal producing national in Asia should be conducted and that Japan's coal mining technology should be transferred by effectively utilizing domestic mines in order to secure a stable supply of overseas coal as a matter of Japan's long-term energy policy. Upon the report, METI formulated the '5-year Plan on Mining Technology transfers', as a matter of coordination with related nations, which led to the implementation of the 'Overseas' Transfer Project on Coalmining Technology' (2002 to 2006). This paper outlines this project. 8 tabs., 4 photos.

  7. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  8. Gray Correlation Analysis of Coal Mine Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Yan Tian; Zeng-Shou Dong; Ze-Min Li

    2013-01-01

    Based on the statistics of 2008-2012 State Administration of study safety coal mine accident,a grey relational analysis model of coal mine accidents was established,and the grey correlation matrixes were established according to the grey relevance degree of data series. The gas accident, roof accident and flood accident were considered as the main influential factors according to the advantage analysis method. The analysis method provides scientific basis for further prevention an...

  9. International opportunities to reduce coal mine methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses opportunities to increase the recovery and use of methane from coal mines throughout the world. It presents information on resource estimates in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Russia, Ukraine and the People's Republic of China and discusses coalbed methane's role in helping these countries meet their energy and environmental goals. Existing barrier to expanded methane recovery and utilization at coal mines and some possible activities to overcome these barriers are also discussed

  10. The environmental conditions in coal mining regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is devoted to the analysis of the main directions of Coal industry damage influence upon the environment. In particular the values of different harmful pollution into air and water are given, and also ground damage from coal mining enterprises is described. The perspectives of the situation improvement are overviewed. 2 refs

  11. 30 CFR 49.40 - Requirements for large coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Requirements for large coal mines. 49.40 Section 49.40 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

  12. 30 CFR 49.30 - Requirements for small coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Requirements for small coal mines. 49.30 Section 49.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINE RESCUE TEAMS Mine Rescue Teams for...

  13. Characteristics of coal mine ventilation air flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shi; Chen, Hongwei; Teakle, Philip; Xue, Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Coal mine methane (CMM) is not only a greenhouse gas but also a wasted energy resource if not utilised. Underground coal mining is by far the most important source of fugitive methane emissions, and approximately 70% of all coal mining related methane is emitted to the atmosphere through mine ventilation air. Therefore, research and development on mine methane mitigation and utilisation now focuses on methane emitted from underground coal mines, in particular ventilation air methane (VAM) capture and utilisation. To date, most work has focused on the oxidation of very low concentration methane. These processes may be classified based on their combustion kinetic mechanisms into thermal oxidation and catalytic oxidation. VAM mitigation/utilisation technologies are generally divided into two basic categories: ancillary uses and principal uses. However, it is possible that the characteristics of ventilation air flows, for example the variations in methane concentration and the presence of certain compounds, which have not been reported so far, could make some potential VAM mitigation and utilisation technologies unfeasible if they cannot cope with the characteristics of mine site ventilation air flows. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows. Moreover, dust, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, and other possible compounds emitted through mine ventilation air into the atmosphere are also pollutants. Therefore, this paper presents mine-site experimental results on the characteristics of mine ventilation air flows, including methane concentration and its variations, dust loadings, particle size, mineral matter of the dust, and other compounds in the ventilation air flows. The paper also discusses possible correlations between ventilation air characteristics and underground mining activities. PMID:17239518

  14. Mobile Robot in Coal Mine Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.TejaRam#1 , Smt. M. Nalinisri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the largest coal production and consumption countries in the world, many countries are having related accidents occurred frequently such as gas explosion, flood, breaking out of fire during the exploitation of coal mine. Hazardous Gas Detection Robot is required to detect various kind of gas in coal mines. Multiple data can be detected and calculated simultaneously, so the response is fast using the same reference value. The range of the measurement is wide and it can accurately detect the gas content.

  15. Japan-Australia `technology exchange workshop in coal mine productivity`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    An account of papers at this workshop is given, with brief details of the attendees. An opening address covered coal production in Australia, demand in Asia, and opportunities for cooperation. Other papers covered: use of coal in the 21st century; underground mining in Australia; systems integration in mine roadways; mine roadway developments; shearers; other mining technologies; control systems; conveyors; mine communications; mine draining; mine planning and exploration; thick seam mining; and gas management. 3 photos.

  16. ????????????????? The Building of Environmental Cost System in Coal Mining Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available ???????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Coal resource is China’s main energy. Coal mining enterprises in the coal mining process cause serious, environmental pollution not only in the mining area, but also outside the mining area. Analyze the production characteristics of coal mining enterprise and its requirements for environmental cost accounting. First, the concept and structure of the environmental costs in coal mining enterprises is defined and the environmental costs of coal mining enterprises are divided into six categories, including the costs of natural resources depletion, the cost of environmental prevention, the cost of environmental maintenance, the cost of environmental damage, the cost of environmental improvement and other necessary environmental spending. Second, make a detailed analysis for the recognition, measurement, recording and reporting of the environmental costs of coal mining enterprises. Third, design environmental cost accounting system for coal mining enterprise.

  17. Coal Mining Safety Monitoring Using WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar, Kriti Singh, Dr. Debmalya Bhattacharya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available -The main purpose was to provide an implementable design scenario for underground coal mines using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. The main reason being that given the intricacies in the physical structure of a coal mine, only low power WSN nodes can produce accurate surveillance and accident detection data. The work mainly concentrated on designing and simulating various alternate scenarios for a typical mine and comparing them based on the obtained results to arrive at a final design. In the Era of embedded technology, the Zigbee protocols are used in more and more applications. Because of the rapid development of sensors, microcontrollers, and network technology, a reliable technologicalcondition has been provided for our automatic real-time monitoring of coal mine. The underground system collects temperature, humidity and methane values of coal mine through sensor nodes in the mine; it also collects the number of personnel inside the mine with the help of an IR sensor, and then transmits the data to information processing terminal based on ARM.

  18. Development of the mining works in Troyanovo-1 coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinov, G.; Hristov, S.; Markov, I.; Ivanova, V. [University of Mining and Geology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1999-07-01

    The basic characteristics of the development of the mining operations at the Troyanovo-1 mine from their commencement to 1997 are presented. The average development rates and their geometric mean values have been calculated on the basis of the quantities of extracted coal and overburden. An analytical expression has been found for the time series of the rates of coal and overburden extraction for the studied period. It is a step function which describes the historical facts of the mine development and permits the prediction of the future development rates. The proved irregular development of the mining operations requires the choice of a proper strategy for the mine development under market economy conditions. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  19. Health care challenge in coal mines community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, M S

    1992-01-01

    The present paper depicts salient features of environment and living conditions with the comparison of various diseases prevalent among underground coal miners, surface workers, asbestos mine workers and general population of Jharia-Dhanbad coalfield as conducted by CMRS during the past few years. The investigations on coal miners' community comprise of different morbid conditions with respiratory (22%), Pneumoconiosis (11.6%), Skin (35%), Eye (29%), Intestinal parasitic infestation (44.6%), Anaemia (42%), Immunostatus (V.D.R.L. Positive-19.9%), Status of injuries and Blood pressure, Water-borne diseases, housing facilities and excreta disposal. The paper also includes the analysis of disease pattern obtained from hospital records of two coal mines which depicts 19.1%, 24.7% and 16% members of coal miners' families suffering from disorder with respiratory, gastro-intestinal and fever respectively. With speedy industrialization of the country, the mining of coal resource comes first in the chain of socio-economic development. The speedy human industrial activities are based on 80% steam, metallurgical and thermal electrical energy which hinges on coal wings. The coal has also gradually occupied all the phases of social life, our clothes, books, newspapers, cooking gas, chemical paints, dye stuff, oil phenyl, Benzene, Naphthalene, Coal tar, scents and various types of unaccountable products come out from coal derivatives and pushed to serve in the today's market for our daily exigencies. Every day one finds a new coal based industry is coming up in the area. The coal is utilized in two hundred ways in our various walks of social life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10130926

  20. 30 CFR 716.6 - Coal mines in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.6 Coal mines...in a manner that, at a minimum, meets the performance standards of this chapter. ...the applicability of a performance standard to a coal mine in...

  1. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  2. Geotechnical Risks in Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shahriar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a quantitative approach and decision tree were employed in order to assess and manage roof fall risks as only major problem bring about geotechnical issues in Iranian coal mines. For the objectives, risk was assessed due to the determination of likelihoods and cost of consequences (outcomes by the analysis of assembled roof fall data from 5 different coal regions comprising several underground coal mines in Iran. In addition, the cost of consequences is considered by a relative cost. Then, it was concluded that the annual average accidents in the all investigated mines are high and it is economically admissible to serve the proposed solutions for reducing the accidents.

  3. Exposure of workers in Tusnica coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to identify potential exposure of the workers in the coal mine Tusnica. The results of the investigation showed increased activity of brown coal up to 1060±88 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 976±30 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra and 118±31 Bq kg-1 for 232Th. Dose rate measurements ranged from 0.07 to 0.25 ?Sv h-1. The annual effective dose, taking into account external exposure to ambient gamma radiation and internal exposure due to inhalation of the resuspended dust, would be 1.6 mSv a-1. The results presented lead to the conclusion that Tusnica coal mine contains brown coal with significant radioactivity, indicating that the working hours in the area should be regulated and the use of respiratory protective equipment is obligatory. (authors)

  4. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN...Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor....

  5. 75 FR 20918 - High-Voltage Continuous Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR...Mining Machine Standard for Underground Coal Mines Correction In rule document 2010-7309...correction: PART 18--ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Appendix I...

  6. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN...Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor....

  7. Coal mine helps endangered wallaby survive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    A central Queensland coal mine is being used to help save one of Australia`s most endangered species from extinction. BHP`s Gregory open-cut coal mine near Emerald has been chosen as a site to undertake a breeding programme for the Bridled Nailtail Wallaby. The Gregory/Crinum mine is an ideal location for the recovery programme because it has a considerable area of nature mixed brigalow and grassland south of mining operations that provide a suitable habitat for the wallabies. 16 nailtails were transferred to a half-acre enclosure at Gregory in early 1997; numbers had doubled to 32 by November 1998. The small wallaby is so named after its distinctive `bridal` marking on its shoulders and the horny projection at the tip of its tail. 2 photos.

  8. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 RIN 1219-AB79 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor....

  9. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 7 and 75 RIN 1219-AB79 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor....

  10. FY 2000 survey report on the supplementary project for feasibility survey of overseas coal development. Kendisan area, Loa Janan coal mine, East Kalimantan, Indonesia; 2000 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hojo jigyo chosa hokokusho. Indonesia Higashi Kalimantan shu Loa Janan Kendisan chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    For the purpose of studying feasibility of coal development in the Kendisan area south of the Loa Janan coal mine, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, the geological structure survey including topography making, surface survey, test boring, physical logging, etc. was conducted to grasp the outline of the coal seam and coal amount. Together with the surface survey, the test boring was carried out in a total of 27 holes and in a total length of 4,495.30m. Out of the cores collected from core boring, 128 were sampled/analyzed. As a result of the survey, 47 coal seams with coal thickness of 1m or more were confirmed out of a total of 114 coal seams. As a result of the analysis of coal quality, the values obtained were favorable as follows: the coal seam in the lower Puluh Balang seam was 5% or lower in ash, 6,000 kcal/kg or more in calorific value, and 0.5% or lower in sulfur content; the coal seam in the upper Balikpapan seam was 10% or lower in ash, 5,000-6,300 kcal/kg in calorific value, and 0.5% or lower in sulfur content. As a result of the calculation made for coal seams with coal thickness of 1m or more, the coal amount was estimated at approximately 2.5 million tons, assuming that it is possible to drill down to 100m of surface length by open pit mining. (NEDO)

  11. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 816.87 Section...816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal...extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed...

  12. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, Coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.)

  13. Development and testing of methods for in-situ-monitoring the environmental problems in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. Final report; Entwicklung und Erprobung von Methoden zur In-situ-Langzeitueberwachung fuer Probleme der Folgelandschaften des Braunkohlenbergbaus. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoedel, K.; Koenig, F.

    1999-06-15

    In the project a concept and prototypes have been developed and tested for an automatic, computer-based monitoring of sites suspected to be hazardous in areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines. In-situ measurements with milieuparameter probes and an optical sensor system in observation wells are combined with measurements between the wells using an electromagnetic system. Methods are being developed for monitoring the vadose and saturated zones. The areas of abandoned open-pit lignite mines in eastern Germany are not in a steady-state condition. Considerable changes are occurring due to redistribution and aeration of the sediments during removal of the overburden, due to disposal of solid and liquid wastes in the mine area, as well as to the re-establishment of normal groundwater levels. Monitoring will help to better understand the system. Precautionary and remedial measures must also be monitored as well as natural attenuation of pollutants. The results of the project are encouraging with regard to the range of the electromagnetic monitoring system as well as with regard to the long-term stability. Hence, the efficiency will be tested at a reference object in a long time test. (orig.) [German] Im Vorhaben sind ein Konzept und Prototypen fuer die vollautomatische, rechnergestuetzte Langzeitueberwachung (Monitoring) von Altlastenstandorten in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften entwickelt und getestet worden. Das Konzept basiert auf der Kombination lokaler Messungen mit Milieuparametersonden und einem System zur optischen Spektrometrie mit raeumlichen Ueberwachungsmethoden eines elektromagnetischen Ueberwachungssystems. Dabei wurden Loesungen sowohl fuer ein Monitoring in der wassergesaettigten als auch in der ungesaettigten Zone entwickelt. Derartige Ueberwachungssysteme werden kuenftig benoetigt, um zu einem besseren Verstaendnis und zur Loesung der Probleme in den Braunkohlenbergbaufolgelandschaften zu kommen, die durch die Belueftung und Umstrukturierung der Gesteinsschichten, durch das Einbringen und Ablagern fester und fluessiger Abfaelle sowie durch den Wiederanstieg des Grundwassers verursacht werden. Ausserdem dient die Monitoringtechnologie zur Kontrolle der Wirksamkeit von Sicherungs- und Sanierungsmassnahmen sowie zur Untersuchung der Prozesse der natuerlichen Selbstreinigung (Natural Attenuation) in diesen Gebieten. Die Ergebnisse des Projektes sind sowohl hinsichtlich der Reichweite des elektromagnetischen Ueberwachungssystems als auch bezueglich der Langzeitstabilitaet so ermutigend, dass die Leistungsfaehigkeit an einem Referenzobjekt im Langzeitversuch getestet werden soll. (orig.)

  14. Liquidation of technological waste by mining method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining activities are unfavourably influencing the environment. On the other hand known that it is possible to fill-in the mine spaces by waste material of non-mining origin, the technological waste coming from other processing plants. At present time some examples can be found in the coal mines where the inert technological waste is put to the open pit spaces. It is believed that the new legislation will open new possibilities for elimination of some of technological waste by its depositing into abandoned parts of the mine areas. (author)

  15. Noise exposures in US coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, J.P.; Valoski, M.P.; Crivaro, M.A.

    1994-05-01

    Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) inspectors conduct full-shift environmental noise surveys to determine the occupational noise levels to which coal miners are exposed. These noise surveys are performed to determine compliance with the noise standard promulgated under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977. Data from over 60,000 full-shift noise surveys conducted from fiscal year 1986 through 1992 were entered into a computer data base to facilitate analysis. This paper presents the mean and standard deviation of over 60,000 full-shift noise dose measurements for various underground and surface coal mining occupations. Additionally, it compares and contrasts the levels with historical noise exposure measurements for selected coal mining occupations that were published in the 1970`s. The findings were that the percentage of miners surveyed that were subjected to noise exposures above 100%, neglecting personal hearing protectors, were 26.5% and 21.6% for surface and underground mining, respectively. Generally, the trend is that the noise exposures for selected occupations have decreased since the 1970`s.

  16. Game Analysis between Government and Coal Mine Enterprise in Coal Resource Exploitation Environmental Impact Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENG Zhao-jian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available From the angle of compensation subject and compensation object, the interest involved with stakeholder was analyzed. Based on game theory, the relation between government and coal mine enterprise was analyzed. Through the research, the government should constraint the coal mine enterprise behavior, set up coal resources development environmental impact compensation incentive mechanism, increase coal resources exploitation and environmental compensation violations punishment, and incentive the coal mining enterprises.

  17. Survey of nine surface mines in North America. [Nine different mines in USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, L.G.; Brackett, R.D.; Floyd, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents the information gathered by three mining engineers in a 1980 survey of nine surface mines in the United States and Canada. The mines visited included seven coal mines, one copper mine, and one tar sands mine selected as representative of present state of the art in open pit, strip, and terrace pit mining. The purpose of the survey was to investigate mining methods, equipment requirements, operating costs, reclamation procedures and costs, and other aspects of current surface mining practices in order to acquire basic data for a study comparing conventional and terrace pit mining methods, particularly in deeper overburdens. The survey was conducted as part of a project under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023 titled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  18. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  19. Game Analysis between Government and Coal Mine Enterprise in Coal Resource Exploitation Environmental Impact Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Zhao-jian

    2013-01-01

    From the angle of compensation subject and compensation object, the interest involved with stakeholder was analyzed. Based on game theory, the relation between government and coal mine enterprise was analyzed. Through the research, the government should constraint the coal mine enterprise behavior, set up coal resources development environmental impact compensation incentive mechanism, increase coal resources exploitation and environmental compensation violations punishment, and incentive the...

  20. Changes in soil physical properties of a coal mining site influenced by liming, poultry manure and revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A.L.; Albuquerque, J.A.; de Almeida, J.A.; Mafra, A.L.; Medeiros, J.C.; Alberton, A. [UDESC, Lages (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    The physical, chemical and biological properties of soils of reconstructed areas after coal mining are altered. This study aimed to evaluate liming, mineral and organic fertilizers and revegetation effects on the physical properties of a reconstructed soil after open-pit mining. The experiment was carried out in a former mine in Lauro Muller County - SC, in southern Brazil, from 2001 to 2005. The site was mined in 1991 and reconstructed in 1995. A randomized complete block design was used, with three replications. The treatments consisted of. (1) Control; (2) 'dregs' (alkaline residue); (3) Lime; (4) Lime + Brachiaria brizantha; (5) Lime + Brachiaria brizantha + poultry litter. Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus saligna seedlings were transplanted to subplots of all treatments. Dolomitic limestone and dregs were incorporated in the soil at a depth of 10 cm. Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous fertilizers were added on the soil surface of all plots according to the official recommendation. Soil samples were collected in February 2005 (from the layers 0-5 and 5-10 cm), and their physical and chemical properties evaluated. The treatments had no effects on soil bulk density, particle density, total porosity, macroporosity and microporosity. Liming increased pH, caused clay dispersion and reduced aggregates stability in water, while dregs increased pH without dispersing clay. Poultry litter and Brachiaria brizantha increased the aggregate stability and volumetric water content, thus favoring the recovery of soil physical quality in degraded areas.

  1. Determinants of coal mine labor productivity change. [1950 to 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. G.; Stevenson, W. L.

    1979-11-01

    Coal mine labor productivity (tons per miner-shift) has been falling yearly since 1970. The decline in labor productivity since 1970 has implications for the coal industry's labor demand, cost of production, and injuries and could hinder the ability of the industry to meet the coal output goals of the National Energy Plan. The purpose of this research study was to identify and measure the causes of labor productivity decline. Concise answers are given to three questions: Why is coal mine labor productivity important. What are the causes of labor productivity decline in deep and surface coal mines. What are the implications of these findings for future coal mine labor productivity. Coal mine labor productivity is important for three reasons: (1) it affects the cost of coal production, (2) it affects coal industry labor demand, and (3) it affects injuries and injury rates in coal mining. Labor productivity is the link between output levels and employment requirements. The period of declining productivity coincides with major changes in the coal industry's environment: (1) change from a largely unregulated industry to a highly regulated industry (the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969; implementation of many state surface mine reclamation laws, etc.) and (2) change from a declining, marginal profits industry to a growing, profitable industry (increasing coal prices and demand in the 1970s). A major conclusion of the study is that a portion of the high labor productivity of the 1960s was possible because some of the costs of coal mining - worker injuries, black lung disability, and environmental damage - were not being paid for by the coal industry and coal consumers. Once these costs were forced internally on the mine operators by legislation, productivity fell and the cost of production increased.

  2. Environmental damage and countermeasures in Chinese coal mine areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses three aspects of the ecological environmental damage in China: ground subsidence due to underground coal mining, pollution of mine refuse from underground, and release of fly ash from power plants within coal mine areas. The paper proposes the comprehensive countermeasures for solving these problems. The author puts forward several ways and applications of disposal which could help alleviate the problems, and introduces the subsidence prediction principle in long wall mining. This technology calculates the subsidence, displacement and deformation at every point according to mining schedule. It provides a very useful tool for subsidence control. Finally, the author provides some suggestions to improve the environment in Chinese coal mine areas

  3. Smoother and more effective each day. [Polish underground coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janik, J.

    1985-04-01

    The Vice Minister of Mining and Power Generation, Marian Gustlik, is interviewed on problems of underground coal mining in Poland. From January to March 1985 coal output reached 47.9 Mt, daily coal output increased to 634,000 t/d, coal output per miner increased by 12 kg and reached 2044 kg. Investment in underground coal mining in 1984 increased to 65,200 million zlotys and exceeded planned investment by 11.4%. In 1985 investment should reach 68,500 million zlotys, of which about 20,000 million zlotys will be spent on construction of new coal mines. The Czeczott mine should start operation in 1985, and the Kaczyce mine should start operation in 1986. Investment in the Budryk, the K-2 and the Warszowice area of the XXX-Lecia PRL mine is restricted to the minimum. Occupational safety in underground mining has decreased. The number of fatal accidents has increased. New mining equipment which will be manufactured on commercial scale in 1985 is discussed: the KGS-150, KGS-160 and KGS-190 shearer loaders with trackless haulage systems for thin coal seams, the KGS-320 and the KGS-560 shearer loaders with trackless haulage systems for medium coal seams, the Glinik powered supports for thin coal seams, the Rybnik-71 chain conveyors for thin seams, and support systems for longwall mining with caving and stowing and for junctions of working faces with gate roads.

  4. Aspects of operational mine safety assurance at the 4 south mine, Quinsam coal mining operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivokuca, P. [Hillsborough Resources Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Quinsam Coal Corp., Campbell River, BC (Canada); DuBois, C.J. [Quinsam Coal Corp., Campbell River, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Mine safety management strategies at the Quinsam coal mine were discussed. The Quinsam mine is located 25 km from the Campbell River in Alberta. The mine has won several safety awards. A checkerboard de-pillaring design was used at the mine, which is also currently applying for a bulk sample permit. Some of the mine's seams are prone to spontaneous combustion and hard cutting coal. Accidents have tended to occur at extended cuts in structurally complex coal deposits. Structural mapping is used to identify and assess structural data as well as to develop ground support plans. Structural visualization and wedge stability analyses are also used. Customized training is provided to ensure that mining personnel are knowledgeable about rock mechanics, mine planning, depillaring practices, and ground support. On-site specialized ground training sessions are also provided. It was concluded that the variability of mining environments must be understood in order to make mines safer. Details of the mine's employees were provided, including details of the average age of employees, average hours worked, and their work experience. tabs., figs.

  5. Monitoring equipment productivity improvements in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, P.J.; Spathis, A.T.; Sengstock, G.W. [ICI Australia Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia); International Society of Explosive Engineers

    1995-12-31

    Benchmarks of mine equipment involved in the excavation process of coal mines would suggest that such equipment is not always operating at an optimum level. Drag-line operations and truck/shovel operations rely on efficient use of their plant in order to maintain high mine throughput. The first process which affects the material to be excavated is the drilling and blasting process. Drilling and blasting delivers a fragmented material with a given disposition ready for excavation by mine equipment. As mine operators demand more productivity from their major excavating equipment, many sites are considering the use of productivity monitors to measure their outputs. Some of these productivity improvements will be directly related to the drilling and blasting process, so that as the monitoring systems improve, the opportunities to evaluate all drilling and blasting variables will also improve. This paper reviews current and newer methods for monitoring equipment productivity in mines. These include simple time and motion studies obtained by either manual timing of processes or by automated data collection equipment being adopted by the industry. Case studies for truck/shovel operations are discussed and the productivity improvements are compared with typical industry standards. These improvements relate specifically to parts of the load, haul and dump cycle and the potential for significant improvements are identified. Particular opportunities for drilling and blasting improvements are also presented. (author). 1 tab., 7 figs., 15 refs.

  6. Production quality and cooperation with coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosiba, M.; Zukiewicz, E.

    1983-10-01

    Problems associated with quality assurance and quality control of supports and other mining equipment produced by the GLINIK plant as well as service of equipment used in underground coal mines in Poland are discussed. Organizational models of development programs of new mining equipment, assessment of tests of the experimental units of equipment and evaluating test results are described. Methods for materials testing of elements supplied by other firms to the GLINIK plant are reviewed. Laboratory equipment and measuring instruments are evaluated. Testing procedures used during equipment assembling are discussed. Methods for corrosion protection and for evaluating efficiency of corrosion protection and its effects on equipment wear and service life are described. Systems for cooperation and exchange of information on equipment operation and performance between the GLINIK plant and coal mines which are customers of the plant are reviewed. Effects of this cooperation on equipment quality and on design improvements introduced after consulting customers are evaluated. Examples of improving design of powered supports and hydraulic props are given. Research activities of the GLINIK plant aimed at standardization, increasing service life of major elements of equipment and at reducing equipment weight are discussed.

  7. Biodesulfurization of Subbituminous Coal by Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Coal Mine Soil of South Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    Megga Ratnasari Pikoli; Sugilubin; Dea Indriani Astuti; Akhmaloka; Pingkan Aditiawati

    2013-01-01

    Coal as fuel should be necessarily pre-treated by desulfurization in order to prevent excessive emissions of sulfur dioxide, a precursor of acid rain. Organic sulfur in coal can be eliminated by microbial action through the technology known as biodesulfurization. Source of microorganisms in the present study was coal mine soil in which microorganisms have been adapted to use the sulfur in coal. Coal mine in South Sumatra was choosen as source of microorganisms in this study, because it is an ...

  8. Productivity performances of surface coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moolman, C.J.; Fourie, G.A. [CSIR Miningtek, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    This paper studies the effect of labour utilization, capital investment and operational procedures on the total production output, expressed as the total volume of coal and overburden moved per year, for various mining operations selected in South Africa, the USA and Australia. It concludes that good management of the few critical things results in the best-practice operations. The units of capital invested in the mining operation's digging capacity were the same irrespective of the size of the operation. The difference lies in the way the various mines focus on working practices and the critical measuring points they use. The areas in which the best performing operations outperformed the moderately performing operations are: work practices; paying attention to details and planning and evaluation of blasting blocks. These are the areas that the moderately performing operation needs to improve in order to become more competitive in the international market environment. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C1) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C1 to C5), while only C1 and C2 were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C1 to C4 were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C1 (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C2-C3, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presencetions from confined coals and the presence of C2 was detected in all samples while C3-C5 were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

  10. 30 CFR 933.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. 933... § 933.764 Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. ...chapter, State Processes for Designatng Areas...for Surface Coal Mining...

  11. 30 CFR 903.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. 903... § 903.764 Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. ...chapter, State Processes for Designating...for Surface Coal Mining...

  12. 30 CFR 910.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. 910... § 910.764 Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. ...chapter, State Processes for Designating...for Surface Coal Mining Operations,...

  13. 30 CFR 905.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. 905... § 905.764 Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. ...chapter, State Processes for Designating...for Surface Coal Mining...

  14. 30 CFR 937.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. 937... § 937.764 Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. ...chapter, State Processes for Designating...for Surface Coal Mining...

  15. 30 CFR 912.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. 912... § 912.764 Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. ...chapter, State Processes for Designating...for Surface Coal Mining...

  16. 30 CFR 941.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. 941... § 941.764 Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. ...chapter, State Processes for Designating...for Surface Coal Mining Operations,...

  17. 30 CFR 921.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. 921... § 921.764 Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. ...chapter, State Processes for Designating...for Surface Coal Mining Operations,...

  18. 30 CFR 922.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. 922... § 922.764 Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. ...chapter, State Processes for Designating...for Surface Coal Mining Operations,...

  19. 30 CFR 947.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. 947... § 947.764 Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. ...chapter, State Processes for Designating...for Surface Coal Mining...

  20. 30 CFR 939.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. 939... § 939.764 Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. ...chapter, State Processes for Designating...for Surface Coal Mining Operations,...

  1. Subsidence and reclamation in coal mine areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal mining has caused widespread ground surface subsidence and deterioration of soil structure in China. Approximately 8,500,000 hectares of land have been affected by subsidence. Two major causes of subsidence are the mining technique used and the pumping of ground water to facilitate coal extraction. About 60% of all coal mines in China have been included in a reclamation study. This study includes filling underground mines with gangue, coal ash, and garbage and use of subsided areas as fish ponds and wastewater treatment ponds

  2. 4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen-Feng; Peng, Su-Ping

    2014-06-01

    In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions.

  3. Microbial ecology of coal mine refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R. E.; Miller, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Baseline microbial and ecological studies of samples obtained from two abandoned coal mine refuse sites in the State of Illinois indicate that the unfavorable nature of refuse materials can be a very limiting factor for survival and growth of organisms. Despite the ''foothold'' obtained by some microorganisms, especially acidophilic fungi and some acidotolerant algae, the refuse materials should be amended or ameliorated to raise the pH, provide needed nutrients, especially nitrogen, and provide biodegradable organic matter, both for physical and biological purposes. Finally, the role of microbial populations, responses, and interactions in acid mine wastes must be put into larger perspective. Acid mine drainage amounts to over 4 million tons per year of acidity from active and abandoned mines. Microorganisms appear to be significantly responsible for this problem, but they also can play a beneficial and significant role in the amelioration or alleviation of this detrimental effect as abandoned mines are reclaimed and returned to useful productivity.

  4. 77 FR 62266 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration [OMB...Collection; Daily Inspection of Surface Coal Mines; Certified Person; Reports of Inspection (Pertains to Surface Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health...

  5. 77 FR 26046 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration [OMB Control...Collection; Ground Control for Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health...

  6. Investigation of the long-term behaviour of residues of brown coal upgrading processes in an underground deposit in the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining. Text volume. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residues of brown coal upgrading processes are problematic substances that require extensive monitoring. In East Germany, these residues were usually stored above ground in abandoned open pits and industrial waste dumps. In the Land of Thuringia, the most urgent poblems are posed by the ''Neue Sorge'' abandoned open pit near Rositz and the Rusendorf industrial waste dump. In both cases, large volumes of highly polluted waste materials must be disposed of. The method of choice recommended for disposal is the combustion in a hazardous-waste incinerator in accordance with the specifications of the Waste Management Technical Guide (TA Abfall). Preliminary studies are currently being made for the construction of a waste incinerating plant in this region. An alternative option for disposal would be underground storage in an abandoned salt mine. Thuringia has a number of abandoned potassium mines that appear to be well suited for this purpose. On the other hand, there have been no systematic investigations so far on the long-term behaviour of hazardous waste under the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining, so that further studies will be necessary. (orig.)

  7. Floor design in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria Santos, C.; Bieniawski, Z. T.

    1989-10-01

    Floor failure and excessive heave in underground coal mines can jeopardize the stability of the whole structure, including the roof and pillars, due to differential settlements and redistribution of stress concentrations. Besides, floor failure is detrimental to haulageway operation and can lead to unacceptable conditions of high deformation. Thus, the design of any underground opening must consider roof/pillar and floor as one structural system. This paper presents guidelines for the design of mine floors, including the necessary field and laboratory investigations and the determination of the bearing capacity of floor strata. The design methodology is based essentially on a modified Hoek-Brown rock mass strength criterion. The main modifications are the introduction of the concept of the point of critical energy release to account for the long term strength, the inclusion of tensile strength and the adoption of a lithostatic state of stress in the rock mass. The determination of the dimensionless parameters m and s result from correlations with the RMR (“rock mass rating”) of the Geomechanics Clasification. Nine case histories, both in longwall and room and pillar coal mining, were analyzed with the proposed methodology.

  8. Good prospects for Indonesia's coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhala, S. [APBI-ICMA (Indonesia)

    2010-05-15

    Indonesia's new mining law will help provide investment opportunities for mining companies looking to the country's abundant coal and mineral reserves. An essential part of the new Mining Law No. 4/2009 is the change of the mining contract scheme by the mining permit. Previous contracts and license are replaced by Izin Usaha Pertambangan (IUP)/Mining Permit (P). Also under the new law the Domestic Market Obligation (DMO) will be applied to all mineral and coal producers to ensure the availability of mineral and coal as raw materials and energy sources to meet domestic demand. APBI-ICMA, the Association of Indonesia mining companies, reports that Indonesian produced 283 mt of coal in 2009 and exported 230 mt. 2 photos.

  9. Kriel Colliery mines coal from above and below

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-05-01

    The paper describes Anglo-American Coal Corporation's operation at Kriel Colliery in South Africa where underground and surface coal mining both take place for the No. 4 seam. Underground, the No. 4 seam is mined by room and pillar methods.

  10. Research on an intelligent managerial attendance machine for coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, F.; Yu, H.; Ma, X.; Qian, J. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Information and Electrical Engineering

    1998-07-01

    The paper introduces the design of an Intelligent Managerial Attendance Machine (IMAM) for coal mines. In the system, data communication is carried by optical fibre communication, including industrial control computer on the ground and a card reader in the coal mine. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Equipment selection for high selective excavation surface coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aykul, H.; Yalcin, E.; Ediz, I.G.; Dixon-Hardy, D.W.; Akcakoca, H. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey)

    2007-03-15

    The choice of which mining method to use at many large surface coal mines is often dicated by what machinery is available or what experience the mine management can offer. One of the most significant surface coal mines in Turkey is owned and operated by the Turkish National Coal Board, located to the west of the city of Kutahya. The Seyitomer Lignite Enterprise (SLE) extracts low quality coal, the majority of which is supplied to an adjacent power station. The coal seams at SLE contain bands of ash which under normal mining conditions are extracted with the coal. This increases the ash content of the run of mine coal and results in lower efficiency at the power station and financial penalties for SLE. In this paper, therefore, selection of the best possible equipment and production method was identified to achieve high selective mining at SLE. The research found that two different high selective mining methods were suitable for selective excavation of the B3 seam, which were hydraulic excavator and truck and surface miner and truck combinations. It was also found that high selective excavation could provide the desired coal quality at 52% lower costs when the whole process (excavation, transportation, processing, etc.) was considered.

  12. COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

  13. Gas drainage in Australian underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogilvie, M.L. [Kembla Coal & Coke Pty Ltd., Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of gas drainage systems in Australian underground coal mines. Drainage systems are increasingly being used as the prime means of controlling outbursts. Systems covered include: predrainage; post drainage roof and floor holes; and goaf holes from the surface. Systems being investigated include hydrofracing from the surface, fracing from underground, angle drilling and horizontal holes from the surface. Gas extraction is expensive with the capital cost of a gas drainage system varying from 4 million Australian dollars to 6 million Australian dollars. 1 tab.

  14. Recultivation of the cavity of the closed open pit Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili? Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper ore is one of the most important raw materials for industrial production. Increasing demands have been increasing its extraction generally. Shallow deposits with higher copper grade are mostly exhausted and the open pits become deeper, also the amount of overburden and the problems of its disposal are increased. In some cases large quantities of overburden can solve the problem of recultivation of degraded areas. This is the case of recultivation of degraded areas on the location of the closed open pit Bor. Here, the overburden from another open pit, Veliki Krivelj, is disposed into the cavity of the open pit Bor. In this way the overburden is disposed without further area degradation and the cavity is primarily, technically recultivated. When the filling process is finished, waste depot will have a flat top at the level K+450 [2], which is above the neighboring terrain, and the slopes height will vary. This problem was not especially considered up to date, so the experiences in this field are humble. This paper intends to be the basis for further research.

  15. Soil eco-physiological indicators from a coal mining area in El Bierzo District (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Puente, Fco. Javier; Mejuto Mendieta, Marcos; Cardona García, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Gallego, Vergelina; García Álvarez, Avelino

    2010-05-01

    CIEMAT. Avda. Complutense, 22. 28040 Madrid. Spain. The El Bierzo carboniferous basin (León, N.W. of Spain) is placed in a tenth of the surface of this district, in the area called "Bierzo Alto". Coal has been mined in El Bierzo from the late XVIII century, having been intensely exploited during the XX century. The mining activity has left a heritage of withdrawed mining structures. Nowadays some mining activity remains in the area, and new exploitations based on open pit processes, cause the burial of natural soil with overlaying mine tailings. Characterization and study of the edaphic landscapes in the area is a necessary activity within the framework of its overall restoration planning, also providing fundamental information for the design and monitoring of waste coal recovery activities. For this work eight zones were chosen, representing the spatial variability within the upper basin of the Rodrigatos river, into the Bierzo Alto, including reference areas not affected by mining activities. In addition three mine tailings outside the area are included in this work to cover the variability of restoration processes. After a first study, based on physical, physico-chemical and chemical characteristics of soils, we have continued the study including some eco-physiological parameters. The objective of this work is to identify potential soil disruption, its extent and causes. Soil microbial activity is influenced by a wide set of soil characteristics. Eco-physiological parameters analysed in this work are: • Microbial Biomass carbon • Basal Respirometry • Maximum respiratory rate Microbial biomass carbon was analysed according the Substrate Induced Respirometry (SIR) method. Relational parameters such as metabolic quotient (CO2-C/Cmic) and the Cmic/Corg ratio have been obtained from these variables. Our results shown that soil microbial biomass carbon is strongly influenced by the water holding capacity (WHC) of the samples (R=0,895) as well as by organic matter (O.M.) content (R=0,801), in addition, WHC and O.M. are also strongly related (R=0,794), so O.M. seems to be the key variable in the soils studied. Recovery stage of the studied plots may be stablished with each of the mentioned parameters. All the correlations mentioned were significant at Pmine tailings in the Rodrigatos river basin. Results obtained for Cmic/Corg ratio show difficulties to be interpreted in the case of mine tailings. The practice of burying soils with coal mining debris has provided this new surface with relatively high inputs of organic carbon, in excess of this provided from fresh organic matter. In our study eco-physiological parameters are usefull tools in order to clasify the restoration level of mine tailings, specially those parameters having a high correlation with the organic matter content, Nevertheless some of those parameters then present some added difficulties to be interpreted that will be discussed in this work. Acknowledgement: We appreciate technical support in the field from Mr. Luis del Riego Celada, as well as the financial support from the Fundación Ciudad de la Energía.

  16. Regulations enforcing better environment protection in Polish coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polish coal mining industry is unprofitable. In 1998 year the Council of Ministers launched the 'Reform of coal mining industry in Poland in the years 1998 - 2002'. This 'Reform' assumes a deep restructuring of the industry with the aim to make it economically efficient and sounder to environment. After one year of the 'Reform' realization it occurred that mainly because of the dramatic change in the coal market in Poland, some additional legal regulation are needed to achieve the aims of the reform. In the 'Correction' of the reform, in spite of deeper technical restructuring of the industry, including additional mines closing, a special stress is put on regulations concerning investments for environmental protection. The paper describes general regulations concerning environment protection in mineral industry and the specific solutions proposed for coal mines in restructuring process in a wide view of the present economic situation of coal mines. 4 refs

  17. Evaluation of mining under safe water pressure of aquifer in deep Zhaogezhuang coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jian-min; Zhang Zhuang-lu; Zhang Rui-xi [Kailuan Group Corp., Tangshan (China)

    2005-05-15

    Based on the study of the thickness and impermeability of coal floor aquiclude, using inrush coefficient method and mechanic method to evaluate the feasibility of mining in deep above aquifer, this research found that mining is feasible in area where the coal floor aquiclude is whole and the inrush coefficient is smaller the O.15 MPa/m at - 1200 m level in Zhaogezhuang coal mine. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianwei, Lan; Hongwei, Zhang; Sheng, Li; Weihua, Song; Batugin, A. C.; Guoshui, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits.

  19. Surface coal mining equipment: bigger and more sophisticated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Mining equipment manufacturers are responding to growing global demand for coal by developing larger and more advanced machines to ensure that supply can meet this demand. Caterpillar Inc. is the largest manufacturer of surface coal mining equipment. The article describes some of the company's products including its mining trucks, large wheel loaders, crawler dozers, wheel dozers, motor graders and wheel tractor scrapers. 3 photos.

  20. ANÁLISIS Y DISEÑO DE LA OPERACIÓN DE PERFORACIÓN Y VOLADURAS EN MINERÍA DE SUPERFICIE EMPLEANDO EL ENFOQUE DE LA PROGRAMACIÓN ESTRUCTURADA / ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DRILLING AND BLASTING OPERATION ON OPEN PIT MINING USING FOCUS ON STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JUAN CARLOS, DÍAZ-MARTÍNEZ; MELISSA ANDREA, GUARÍN-ARAGÓN; JOVANI ALBERTO, JIMÉNEZ-BUILES.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta el análisis y el diseño de la operación de perforación y voladuras en minería de superficie empleando el enfoque de la programación estructurada. El propósito de este trabajo es crear una interfaz, por medio de la cual se ingresan la densidad del explosivo, diámetro e in [...] clinación de la perforación, resistencia a la compresión de la roca y dimensiones del banco. Luego se obtiene el valor de las variables más importantes que acondicionan el diseño de la operación de perforación y voladuras, tales como: altura del banco, burden, espaciamiento, taco, carga del barreno, numero de barrenos, factor de carga, entre otras. Esta aproximación permite diseñar la operación de perforación y voladuras en menor tiempo y disminuir el error humano que se tiene por el uso repetitivo de las fórmulas para cálculos de los parámetros involucrados en el diseño de la perforación y voladura en minería de superficie. Abstract in english This article show analysis and design drilling and blasting operation on surface mining it focus on structured programming. The idea about this article a program where you can introduce different variables like, explosive density, diameter, inclination drilling, compressive strength rock and rock ma [...] ss design, after that, we get most important variables for this design like rock mass height, burden, spacing, hole charging , hole number, load factor. This article has allowed design drilling and blasting operation a lower time and get down mistake of the people that get it for repetitive use of calculation for parameter used in this design in drilling and blasting operation on surface mining.

  1. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration [OMB Control No...Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor....

  2. Environmental impacts of brown coal surface mining and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 9 contributions, out of which 2 have been inputted in INIS. These are concerned with the impacts of mining in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Mining District on the air quality and public health, and with the effect of mined-out land reclamation on the environment. (M.D.). 8 tabs., 5 figs., 6 refs

  3. The Three-Dimensional (3D) Numerical Stability Analysis of Hyttemalmen Open-Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ca?a, Marek; Kowalski, Micha?; Stopkowicz, Agnieszka

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to perform the 3D numerical calculations allowing slope stability analysis of Hyttemalmen open pit (location Kirkenes, Finnmark Province, Norway). After a ramp rock slide, which took place in December 2010, as well as some other small-scale rock slope stability problems, it proved necessary to perform a serious stability analyses. The Hyttemalmen open pit was designed with a depth up to 100 m, a bench height of 24 m and a ramp width of 10 m. The rock formation in the iron mining district of Kirkenes is called the Bjornevaten Group. This is the most structurally complicated area connected with tectonic process such as folding, faults and metamorphosis. The Bjornevaten Group is a volcano-sedimentary sequence. Rock slope stability depends on the mechanical properties of the rock, hydro-geological conditions, slope topography, joint set systems and seismic activity. However, rock slope stability is mainly connected with joint sets. Joints, or general discontinuities, are regarded as weak planes within rock which have strength reducing consequences with regard to rock strength. Discontinuities within the rock mass lead to very low tensile strength. Several simulations were performed utilising the RocLab (2007) software to estimate the gneiss cohesion for slopes of different height. The RocLab code is dedicated to estimate rock mass strength using the Hoek-Brown failure criterion. Utilising both the GSI index and the Hoek-Brown strength criterion the equivalent Mohr-Coulomb parameters (cohesion and angle of internal friction) can be calculated. The results of 3D numerical calculations (with FLA3D code) show that it is necessary to redesign the slope-bench system in the Hyttemalmen open pit. Changing slope inclination for lower stages is recommended. The minimum factor of safety should be equal 1.3. At the final planned stage of excavation, the factor of safety drops to 1.06 with failure surface ranging through all of the slopes. In the case of a slope angle 70° for lower stages, FS = 1.26, which is not enough to provide slope stability. Another series of calculations were therefore performed taking water table lowering into consideration, which increases the global safety factor. It was finally evaluated, that for a water table level of 72 m the factor of safety equals 1.3, which is enough to assure global open-pit stability.

  4. Coal mining situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. First half-year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides up-to-date information on the German coal mining industry for the reporting time period. Data on coal mining as well as on brown coal mining cover: Production, stocks, productivity, employes, sales, imports and exports of coal and coal products. (orig.)

  5. Fractionation of chemical elements including the REEs and 226Ra in stream contaminated with coal-mine effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water draining from abandoned open-pit coal mines in southeastern Ohio typically has a low pH and high concentrations of Fe, Al and Mn, as well as of trace metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, etc.) and of the rare earth elements (REEs). The cations of different elements are sorbed selectively by Fe and Al hydroxide precipitates which form with increasing pH. As a result, the trace elements are separated from each other when the hydroxide precipitates are deposited in the channel of a flowing stream. Therefore, the low-energy environment of a stream contaminated by mine effluent is a favorable site for the chemical fractionation of the REEs and of other groups of elements with similar chemical properties. The interpretation of chemical analyses of water collected along a 30-km-stretch of Rush Creek near the town of New Lexington, Perry County, Ohio, indicates that the abundances of the REEs in the water appear to change downstream when they are normalized to the REE concentrations of the mine effluent. In addition, the Ce/La ratios (and those of all REEs) in the water decrease consistently downstream. The evidence indicates that the REEs which remain in solution are enriched La and Ce because the other REEs are sorbed more efficiently. The solid Fe(OH)3 precipitates in the channel of Rush Creek upstream of New Lexington also contain radioactive 226Ra that was sorbed from the water. This isotope of Ra is a decay product of 238U which occurs in toduct of 238U which occurs in the Middle Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) coal and in the associated shale of southeastern Ohio. The activity of 226Ra of the Fe(OH)3 precipitates increases with rising pH, but then declines farther downstream as the concentration of Ra remaining in the water decreases

  6. Environmental radioactivity around the former coal mine in Kocevje (Slovenia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity in the environment arising from the high uranium content of brown coal from the former coal mine in Kocevje was investigated. Enhanced levels of gamma dose-rate and radionuclide content were found on the tailings and in deposited coal, respectively. Outdoor radon concentrations were found to be probably the highest in the country, due to the high radon potential in background soil and in the coal tailings area, as well as the topographical and climatic characteristics of the site. (author)

  7. Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

  8. Wetlands in the NB coal mine expansion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, K. [Gemtec Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Peck, D. [Debby Peck Botanical, Island View, NB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation outlined the requirements of the New Brunswick Wetland Conservation Policy as they relate to the NB Coal Mine Expansion Project at Albright's Corner. Issues concerning wetland delineation, functional assessment and mitigation for project area wetlands were discussed. The expansion project was initiated as a result of recent complications with the coal seam at the Salmon Harbour Western Extension Mine. The increasing depth of the cuts and high incidence of slumping was affecting coal production at the site. This presentation described the project components as well as 2 mine options as determined by the technical expertise from wetland consultants. tabs., figs.

  9. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  10. Hydrochemical characteristics of the natural waters associated with the flooding of the Meirama open pit (A Coruna, NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vazquez, A.; Falcon, I.; Canal, J.; Hernandez, H.; Padilla, F.; Rodriguez-Vellando, P.; Delgado, J.L. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama ceased extraction of brown lignite. Since then operations have begun which will lead to the formation of a big mining lake (about 2 km{sup 2} surface and up to 180 m deep) after controlled flooding of the open pit. In the process of flooding, both surface and ground waters are involved, each with their own chemical signature. According to the information available, the diversion of surface waters towards the pit hole should lead to the formation of a water body of acceptable quality. However, all unassisted flooding process could eventually form all acidic lake.

  11. Open pit slope deformation monitoring by fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoquan; Xiong, Daiyu; Duan, Yun; Cao, Xiaoshuang

    2015-01-01

    With microstrain resolution and the capability to sample at rates of 2000 Hz or higher, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor offers exciting new possibilities for in situ deformation monitoring induced by blasting load in an open pit slope. Here, we are developing a new technology for measuring deformation in real time on the microstrain in an open pit slope during the blasting. A fiber optically instrumented rock mass strain sensor measured strain at 100-cm intervals along a two anchor rock bolt grouted in the slope intact rock mass. In field testing, a number of transient signals have been observed, which in some cases were large enough to trigger rapid sampling. The combination of short- and long-term observation offers new insight into the slope stability and blasting cumulative effects. Therefore, FBG sensors are a useful tool for measuring in situ strain in intact rock masses.

  12. Analysis of job stress in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, R.; Hurrell, J.J. Jr.

    1977-05-01

    A sample of 486 miners and mine foremen was investigated via a questionnaire to determine whether job stresses would be a real hazard to their psychological well-being. Evidence indicated that job stresses clustered together and had identifiable effects on responses among miners. When compared with a national occupational sample in which a cluster of stressors among low status jobs have been identified, miners reported no greater job stress, but indicated significantly more affective strains - anxiety, depression, irritation, somatic complaints - than workers in a number of other blue collar jobs. Among miners, perceived stressors and work load features were reflected in the relationship between conflicting role demands and relations with supervisory personnel. Poor relations with foremen and conflicting role demands fed dissatisfaction and encouraged worker discontentment. Results also showed that underground coal miners reported a substantial amount of strain, and those who did were more likely to report problems with their health.

  13. Environmental geochemistry of acid mine drainage water at Indus coal mine at Lakhra, Sindh Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual coal production of Pakistan is about 3,637, 825 tones which is about 6% of the country's energy resources, out of this 1,241, 965 tones of coal was produced/ mined from the Lakhra coal field, District Dadu, Sindh which after the Thar coal field is the second largest coal field of Pakistan. At this coal field more than 58 mining companies are engaged in exploring the hidden wealth of the country. The problem of acid mine drainage, is caused by the passage or seepage of water, through mines where iron disulfides, usually pyrites, are exposed to the oxidizing action of water, air and bacteria, is the main problem faced by the mining companies. The geochemical analysis of acid mine drainage water collected from Indus coal mine no. 6 shows that beside its higher pH, total Dissolved Solids and Sulfates, it also posses higher amount of heavy metals like Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Fe. This acid mine drainage water not only damages the mine structures but is also harmful to soil and ecology. (author)

  14. Operation and manning of the Rietspruit opencast coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, T.; Ive, J.I.

    1982-02-18

    Four coal seams, with a total thickness of 16 m, are in production at this opencast mine in the Transvaal; the first coal was mined in 1978. The overburden is stripped by three draglines, and the coal is worked with one shovel and three front-end loaders. Daily production capacity is 28 000 t of coal. The preparation plant has a rated throughput of 1750 t of run-of-mine coal per hour. 5 mt of coal were mined in 1981 and dispatched to Richards Bay, from where the coal is shipped to Western industrial nations. Some 200 million R were invested in the opencast mine, the preparation plant and the infrastructure. Company policy is much concerned with the training and education of the people on the mine; 25% of the personnel attended training courses last year. Pay categories are established in relation to the Peterson evaluation plan; jobs are graded from Group 1 (the lowest) to Group 15 (the grade of the General Manager). The current minimum wage is 214 to 231 R and is well above the living level and the cost of living. The employees live in Company one-family houses, or in bachelor accommodation in the case of unmarried employees. The quality of housing is exactly the same for Blacks and Whites. The housing estates include recreational facilities, sportsfields, a primary school, a clinic, a central restaurant and shops. The present article also gives details of leave entitlements and pensions.

  15. The role of the state coal mining enterprise in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam is now becoming one of the 3 State Mining Enterprises in Indonesia which is dealing specifically with coal minings and their developments, while the other 2 are PT Tambang Timah for tin and PT Aneka Tambang for miscellaneous minerals. However, there are actually 3 other more State Enterprises under the umbrella of the Department of Mines and Energy, namely PERTAMINA which is dealing with oil and natural gas exploitation, PLN which is the State Electricity Corporation and the State Gas Corporation. The process of merging into one State Coal Mining Enterprise was only happening on October 30, 1990 by the issuance of the Government Regulation Number 56, 1991 whereby the then called Perum Tambang Batubara was merged into PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam, which was then operating only in Tanjung Enim, South Sumatra. The new scope of operation and management of the PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam is now including not only the management of coal mines at Tanjung Enim South Sumatra, but also the coal mines at Ombilin, West Sumatra and the supervision of all contract of works in coal which up to now amount to 11, mostly spread in East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and one in West Sumatra. The amount of coal produced by PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam in 1990 was 4,854 million tons, while the coal production from all contract of works was 4,059 million tons for the same year

  16. Mining simulation for room and pillar coal operation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.P, Pereira; J.F.C.L, Costa; P, Salvadoretti; J, Koppe.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The mechanized mining cycle using loaders and shuttle cars had its peak in terms of usage in the mining industry during 1950 through 1960. In Brazil, this system is still used at underground coal mines in southern Santa Catarina coal basin. With the aim of investigating the benefits of a new mining [...] scheme using the room and pillar method for these local mines, a computational simulator model was developed in order to investigate the mining cycle. This paper presents the methodology used to develop the simulator and the results that the simulation shows regarding impact of the proposed new scheme on mining productivity.

  17. New methods of land reclamation in brown coal mine ''Adamow''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown coal mine ''Adamow'' is located in Central Poland and fuels power plant ''Adamow'' (600 MW). Every year 4.5-5.0 million tons of coal is extracted from 3 mines of this mine. In 1991 one of the mines ''Bogdanow'' was closed and the new one ''Kozmin'' was started. Then the problem appeared whether collect capping on external dump located 520 meters from the new mining or whether use it to fill up the closed mine located at a distance of 3700 meters. The second solution was chosen despite of the fact that was more expensive. Due to it 164 hectares of agricultural area were preserved, 116 hectares were reclaimed and water reservoir was done. The realization of this project was financed by mine and the National Fund for Environment Protection and Water Economics. 3 ills, 1 tab

  18. The enviornmental assessment of a contemporary coal mining system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutzi, E. J.; Sullivan, P. J.; Hutchinson, C. F.; Stevens, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    A contemporary underground coal mine in eastern Kentucky was assessed in order to determine potential off-site and on-site environmental impacts associated with the mining system in the given environmental setting. A 4 section, continuous room and pillor mine plan was developed for an appropriate site in eastern Kentucky. Potential environmental impacts were identified, and mitigation costs determined. The major potential environmental impacts were determined to be: acid water drainage from the mine and refuse site, uneven subsidence of the surface as a result of mining activity, and alteration of ground water aquifers in the subsidence zone. In the specific case examined, the costs of environmental impact mitigation to levels prescribed by regulations would not exceed $1/ton of coal mined, and post mining land values would not be affected.

  19. 75 FR 17511 - Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ...frequency ranges and signal strengths encountered in coal mines...3-foot drops onto a bare concrete surface (one drop testing...or isopropyl alcohol. The strength and surface characteristics...in-use 1 drop per axis (3 concrete surface....

  20. Barrier pillar between production panels in coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zingano, Andre Cezar; Koppe, Jair Carlos; Costa, Joao Felipe C.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    The function of the barrier pillar is to protect the mining panel in activity from the abutment load of adjacent mining panels that were mined. In the case of underground mines in Santa Catarina State, the barrier pillar has functioned to protect the main entries of the mine against pillar failure from old mining panels. The objective of this paper is to verify the application of the empirical method to design barrier pillars as proposed by Peng (1986), using numerical simulation following the mining geometry of the coal mines in Santa Catarina State. Two-dimensional numerical models were built taking into account the geometry of the main entries and mining panels for different overburden thickness, and considering the geomechanical properties for the rock mass that forms the roof-pillar-floor system for the Bonito coal vein. The results of the simulations showed that the empirical method to determine the barrier pillar width is valid for the studied coal vein and considered mine geometry. Neither did the pillar at the main entry become overstressed due to adjacent mine panels, nor did the roof present any failure due to stress redistribution. 9 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Monitoring light hydrocarbons in Brazilian coal mines and in confined coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rosangela [Pos-Graduation Program in Materials Engineering and Technology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Pires, Marcal [Pos-Graduation Program in Materials Engineering and Technology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Faculty of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Azevedo, Carla M.N. [Faculty of Chemistry, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Fagundes, Leandro [P and D Consultoria (Brazil); Garavaglia, Luciane; Gomes, Cleber J.B. [SATC, Associacao Beneficente da Industria Carbonifera de Santa Catarina, CTCL, Technological Center of Clean Coal (Brazil)

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring light hydrocarbons (LHCs) in coal mines, particularly methane, is important not only because of their implications for global climate change but also for economic and safety reasons. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of LHCs in coal mine air samples and desorbed from confined coal may contribute to a better understanding of coal seam characteristics. The paucity of information about the levels of methane in Brazilian underground coal mines can be attributed to their difficult access and a lack of adequate procedures for correct gas sampling. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply standard gas chromatography procedures to determine LHC levels in the air of coal mines and in confined coal from five mines under operation, three underground (A, B, C) and two surface (D, E) mines, in southern Brazil. The results indicate methane (C{sub 1}) levels varying from 3 ppm to 27% in the atmosphere of the underground mines. Mine A presented high levels of all LHCs analyzed (C{sub 1} to C{sub 5}), while only C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} were detected in mine B, and hydrocarbons ranging from C{sub 1} to C{sub 4} were found in mine C. On the other hand, surface mines presented narrow concentration range for C{sub 1} (3 ppm to 470 ppm) and C{sub 2}-C{sub 3}, with higher levels observed for puncture explosive points. Among LHCs, methane is desorbed in higher concentrations from confined coals and the presence of C{sub 2} was detected in all samples while C{sub 3}-C{sub 5} were only observed in coals from underground mines. These data are consistent with those obtained from the air gas samples collected in the mines under study. Geological events such as faulting and intrusions can accelerate the release of gas or the trapping of large amounts of previously released methane. The LHC emissions from coal mines were found to be highly variable, indicating the need for a comprehensive survey of Brazilian coal mine emissions. (author)

  2. Highly-productive mechanization systems for coal mining in the Polish coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of mechanization on underground coal mining in Poland from 1960 to 1980 and mining equipment used in Poland is reviewed. In 1983 black coal output increased to 191.1 Mt. There were 765 working faces, 442 of which with powered supports. Six hundred thirty-four shearer loaders were in use. About 82.7% of coal output fell on faces mined by sets of mining equipment (shearer loaders, powered supports and chain conveyors). The average coal output per working face amounted to 889 t/d. About 50% of mine roadways was driven by heading machines (346 heading machines were in use). The average coal output per face mined by a set of mining equipment amounted to 1248 t/d. About 86% of shearer loaders fell on double drum shearer loaders. Types of mining equipment used in underground mining are reviewed: powered supports (Pioma, Fazos, Glinik and the SOW), shearer loaders (drum shearer loaders and double-drum shearer loaders with chain haulage and chainless haulage systems for unidirectional and bi-directional mining), chain conveyors (Samson, Rybnik). Statistical data on working faces with various sets of equipment are given. 3 references.

  3. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

  4. GSM Based Flexible Calling System For Coal Mining Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Prof Himanshu K Patel, Deep H. Desai

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an emergency flexible calling system consists of GSM module, solar panel, vibration sensor, battery sensor and fire sensor which are connected with centralized control room by wireless communication. Proposed system may be installed near coal mine where even basic emergency services are not available. It will be totally based on GSM signal strength. In case of medical & accidental emergency happen in the coal mine, particularly when the workerdoesn’t have the mobile phon...

  5. Geologic considerations in underground coal mining system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilli, F. A.; Maynard, D. P.; Mangolds, A.; Harris, J.

    1981-01-01

    Geologic characteristics of coal resources which may impact new extraction technologies are identified and described to aid system designers and planners in their task of designing advanced coal extraction systems for the central Appalachian region. These geologic conditions are then organized into a matrix identified as the baseline mine concept. A sample region, eastern Kentucy is analyzed using both the developed baseline mine concept and the traditional geologic investigative approach.

  6. Threat or opportunity? Landscape genetics in a coal mining area

    OpenAIRE

    Skottvoll, Bente Sved

    2013-01-01

    Aknowledgment The area of Sveagruva have experienced several periods of coal mining. This study aim to evaluating changes in vegetation composition, species distributions and genetic structure using a combination of field and molecular analyses, to identify whether or not coal mining have effected plant life in Svea. Investigations on species and gene level were done on two Luzula species, L. confusa Lindeb. and L. nivalis (Laest.) Spreng. No direct correlation was found, and the soil...

  7. Mine simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotou, G.N.; Sturgul, J.R. [eds.] [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    1997-12-31

    The technical sessions covered: simulation - open pit mining operations; simulation - underground mining operations; general topics; expert systems - genetic algorithms; neural networks; mine safety - training; modelling, planning and production scheduling; rock mechanics; and mine equipment. The book contains abstracts of the papers. The full papers are included on the enclosed CD-ROM.

  8. Mining of coal pillars using the drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of possibilities of utilizing other coal mining methods not used yet under conditions of rock and gas outburst hazard in the Ostrava-Karvina Coalfield (henceforth referred to as OKR) in the Czech Republic is one of outputs of the research project 'Protection of Employees against Consequences of Rock and Gas Outbursts'. These methods were to supplement a single method that had been in common use by then - longwall mining along the strike, and were to ensure the better recovery of coal reserves. Specifically, it was the case of mining of residual pillars blocking a considerable quantity of coal. What was chosen was a promising mining method utilising long large diameter boreholes. In the article the experience of application of this mining method abroad as well as under conditions of OKR in seams with a hazard of rock and gas outbursts is presented. (authors)

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment of Coal Mining: Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining is a development activity, which is bound to damage the natural ecosystem by all its activities direct and ancillary, starting from land acquisition to coal beneficiation and use of the products. This is so because environmental degradation has affected especially the common property resources such as land and water on which depend the subsistence and well-being of the local community. The study area being the foremost coal producing region of the country also ranked high in the record of environmentally degraded region. Huge areas in the Raniganj and Jharia coalfield in India have become ruined due to abandoned and active mine surface and underground mines. In open cast mines, waste resources are usually stacked as huge dumps in the surroundings. These, coupled with coal dumps, cause noteworthy visual impact. Large vicinity of forest, farming land, and pasture land has been transformed into colliery colonies or into uncultivated land due to rapid expansion of the coal mines. As a result, land use pattern has been changed considerably over last three decades. This study is pursued to assess the impact of coal mining activities on local community and environment.

  10. System for coal seam mining by crushing seam rib side

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhurba, A.N.; Girs, A.A.; Momot, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute for Geophysics of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR is developing a new mining system for coal seams from 0.4 to 1.2 m thick with dip angles ranging from 35 to 90 degrees. The seams are mined along the strike. Coal resistance to cutting is reduced by explosive fracturing (the charges are placed in long boreholes parallel to the face drilled from one of the gate roads). The mining system consists of a plow-type cutting element and a system of pneumatic balloons. Coal is cut by a wedge-shaped cutter with wedge angles from 10 to 30 degrees and wedge spacing from 300 to 500 mm. A coal layer is separated from the face by the wedge which causes intensive fissure formation, separation of the coal layer and its fracturing by the moving wedge-shaped cutter. Pneumatic balloon system guarantees efficient strata control at a working face, control of balloon position at the face and balloon advance in groups. Balloon design is shown in a scheme. Pneumatic balloons are advanced by increasing or reducing air pressure in 3 groups of balloons used in each support unit. The system is used for manless mining of thin coal seams. A set of mining equipment costs 2.5 times less than conventional systems for thin seam mining. It is assumed that the pneumatic balloons will guarantee support strength from 1200 to 1500 kN per meter of working face.

  11. STABILITY ANALYSES OF FOOTWALL SLOPES IN OPEN PIT MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO R. ALEJANO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En éste artículo se analizan diferentes mecanismos de rotura típicamente asociados a taludes de muro, con el objetivo de poder evaluar su estabilidad, mediante el código numérico UDEC (Código de Elementos Distintos Universal. Se analizan, también, mediante métodos de equilibrio límite (MEL, comparándose los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos, a fin de determinar la validez del código UDEC como herramienta de análisis de la estabilidad de taludes de muro. Se incluye además, el análisis de dos casos reales, en los que la rotura del talud se produjo por mecanismos complejos.

  12. Trust and safety in the coal mining sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Gunningham; Darren Sinclair [Gunningham and Associates (Australia)

    2008-08-15

    This report examines the relationship between trust (and mistrust) and occupational health and safety (OHS) in the Australian coal mining sector. Previous research in Australian coal mining companies indicated that mistrust is deep-seated at a number of mines, and that these mines are usually the worst performers in terms of OHS. Mistrust also handicaps the ability of inspectors to worker together with mines sites to improve OHS outcomes. Given this, there is a compelling need to understand how mistrust comes about, and to identify practical steps that can be adopted by companies, mines sites and the inspectorate to foster the development of trust. The report builds on these earlier findings by investigating trust in a much more detailed and sophisticated fashion, drawing on an in-depth analysis at mines, across a number of coal mining companies, and in two state jurisdictions. Research revealed that a 'cluster of characteristics' are associated with the formation and maintenance of mistrust at mines with a lower OHS track-record. These findings, together with an analysis of the characteristics of mines with better OHS outcomes, enabled the report to outline a variety of ways in which mines may build trust within and between management and the workforce. It also considers the at times fractious relationship between trade unions and management, and flags some of the challenges confronting these two groups in working together to improve OHS performance in the coal mining sector. Finally, the report examines the rise and impact of mistrust on the operations of the New South Wales and Queensland inspectorates, and suggests ways in which a fairer and more just enforcement policy may help foster greater trust between inspectors and mines.

  13. Peculiarities of radiation safety evaluation in regions coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary investigation with determining external gamma radiation, radon level and decay products of radon and thoron, dust radiation factor at the main working places was performed at 30 coal miners, of them 3 underwent detailed study. Annual effective and equivalent doses of irradiation of the miners were evaluated. Air radon concentration was determined in 245 houses and flats of a typical coal mining town

  14. Teck Coal's reclamation research program : a synthesis of 40 years of experience in mountain mine reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); O' Brien, B.; Jones, R. [Teck Coal Limited, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Teck Coal has undertaken a project to compile data and interpretations from reclamation research conducted at the company's various open-pit metallurgical coal mining operations in British Columbia and Alberta. The reclamation research synthesis project aims to compile into a single document all the reclamation research done on Teck Coal properties, to synthesize the findings of the research in a single reference, to clearly articulate research findings and optimum reclamation practices, and to shape future reclamation and monitoring efforts according to identified challenges or high-priority issues. The implementation involves reproducing all the documents as digital appendices to the synthesis document, creating summaries of every report, and categorizing according to topic area. An in-progress sample of the summary and synthesis completed to date was presented. It focused on the reclamation of ungulate habitat in southeast British Columbia. The sample involved identification of preferred elk browse and forage species, the reclamation of preferred forage species (both grass/forb and tree/shrub), the relative advantages of native and naturalized and introduced grass and forb species, techniques for survival, and nutritional characteristics. The priorities identified were to develop seed mixes to improve performance and meet changing reclamation objectives, to replicate the benefits of individual plant protectors with less cost/effort, and to determine the quantity or proportion of ungulate browse shrub species necessary for high-quality winter-range habitat. The synthesis document is to guide future reclamation work, educate new reclamation practitioners, and contribute more widely to overall reclamation knowledge. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Analysis on Backfill Mining of “Under Three” Coal in Zhouyuanshan Mine and Strata Movement Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of "under three" (under railways, buildings and water bodies coal pillar mining, analysis on backfill mining and strata movement law is carried on in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine. First of all, according to the engineering geology and strata occurrence condition in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, FLAC2D software be used to establish a two-dimensional numerical model and to analyze and calculate the full caving method, strip method and backfill method and then gaining that backfill mining method is beneficial to improve the protection level of surface buildings and facilities. Then, using the theory of strata control and method of related mechanics to analyze the strata movement law and strata control principle of backfill mining, considering that supporting role of backfill body is mainly on lateral reinforcement of coal pillar and vertical supporting role of overlying strata, forming a cooperative control system of "bearing strata + coal pillar + backfill body" and deducing the equilibrium equations when it is in steady state. At last, using the numerical analysis method, respectively analyzing the surface subsidence of the corresponding important buildings of the three profiles of C-8 exploration line ,C-6 exploration line and A-A (cross section of the profile of C-8 exploration line after using backfill coal mining in 24 mining district. The results show that: the surface subsidence and horizontal deformation basically control within 30 mm and the surface deformation curvature of buildings generally in 0.1×10-3 /km in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, which accord with the relevant standards and requirements.

  16. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. 817.87 Section 817.87 Mineral...MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine waste fires...

  17. Radioactive contamination of food chain around coal mine and coal-fired power stations

    OpenAIRE

    Vitorovi? Gordana S.; Mitrovi? Branislava M.; Andri? Velibor ?.; Stojanovi? Mirjana D.; Lazarevi?-Macanovi? Mirjana V.; Vitorovi? Duško P.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the coal mine in Lazarevac, and the coal-fired power stations in Obrenovac, on the activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs in some parts of human food chain of people living in the surrounding area. The obtained results showed that natural environment around the examined coal mine and the coal-fired power stations are not significantly affected by the emission of primordial radionuclides. The activi...

  18. Surface coal mine reclamation enhancement initiative : status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, D. [Nova Scotia Dept. of Natural Resources, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The coal industry has played a major role in the economy of Cape Breton and northern Nova Scotia since the late 1800s. A total of 450 million tonnes of coal has been produced from the 310 underground coal mines in the region, although production has varied due to changing market requirements and depletion of resources. This presentation focused on surface coal mining activity in Nova Scotia and the development of surface coal mine reclamation projects that support land-use strategies. Fourteen surface mines have been reclamation mining projects aimed at improving environmental conditions without incurring public expense by recovering remaining resources. Some sites may not be economic for reclamation mining. Examples of negative impacts from historical coal mining were presented. An oversight committee representing academia, government, industry and the public has conducted site assessments at former surface mine sites to establish parameters for the research needed to evaluate past reclamation efforts in Cape Breton County. This paper outlined the comprehensive vegetation surveys and test plots that were established to evaluate the ecological response to different vegetation amendments. Many sites were found to be acidic, lacking in organic matter and associated nutrients. Four different treatment applications were tested to increase organic matter and to accelerate naturally regenerated growth. These included fertilizer; fertilizer and lime; fertilizer, lime and seed; and spreading forest floor grubbing material from off-site. The committee has concluded that previously mined lands will eventually return to Acadian Forest ecology. However, the common restoration objective of developing a stable, non-eroding grassland cover, may actually delay the subsequent succession of trees and other local plant species. tabs., figs.

  19. Agriculture and brown coal surface mining. The example of the Rhenish brown coal mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive surface mining in the Rhenish brown coal exploitation area has led to marked changes to the environment and living conditions there. This applies particularly to agriculture, which now has to subsist with a competitor for land. The progressive sacrifice of farmland and widespread relocation compaigns are grossly interfering with the business of farming. Only in exceptional cases do farms move as part of the relocation of whole villages. New sites are often found in hamlets and group settlements. This happens in connection with farming of newly reclaimed land or recultivated land reorganised and returned in land consolidation campaigns. (orig.)

  20. Rockbursts provoked by destress blasting in hard coal longwall mining.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koní?ek, Petr; Sou?ek, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír

    London : CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, Balkema, 2013 - (Singh, P.; Sinha, A.), s. 193-202 ISBN 978-0-415-62143-4. - (Fragblast. 10). [International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting. New Dehli (IN), 26.11.2012-29.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102014034 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : destress blasting * rockburst hazard * mining industry Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining http://www.crcnetbase.com/doi/abs/10.1201/b13759-25

  1. Coal in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Wankie Colliery, Zimbabwe`s only coal producer, is celebrating its centenary year. It operates an open pit and an underground mine. Equipment used for opencast mining is described. Wankie is investigating a plant upgrade to unlock the full potential of its coking coal. Its washing plant has been modified to permit the mine to produce a lower ash coking coal with an ash content of less than 6%. The processing plant is described in the article. At present 25,000 t/m of washed, blended coal is fed into two coke ovens at Wankie and 65,000 t/m is supplied to Zirco`s coking operation. Osborn MMD has been commissioned to design and build a dry screening plant for Wankie Colliery. Multotec Manufacturing has supplied screening ponds for the upgrading of the coal processing plant. The shortage of coking coal in South Africa enhances the importance of coking coal from Wankie, primarily for the iron and steel and ferro-alloy industries. An updated bankable feasibility study for Wankie`s No. 3 Main shaft should be completed in early 2000. Meanwhile the `M-Block` underground project is intended to be a `bridge` between the No. 3 colliery which recently closed and the No. 3 Main Shaft project. Developments will be affected when a decision is reached on the Gokwe North power station project. 2 figs., 5 photos.

  2. Coal in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-01-01

    Wankie Colliery, Zimbabwe's only coal producer, is celebrating its centenary year. It operates an open pit and an underground mine. Equipment used for opencast mining is described. Wankie is investigating a plant upgrade to unlock the full potential of its coking coal. Its washing plant has been modified to permit the mine to produce a lower ash coking coal with an ash content of less than 6%. The processing plant is described in the article. At present 25,000 t/m of washed, blended coal is fed into two coke ovens at Wankie and 65,000 t/m is supplied to Zirco's coking operation. Osborn MMD has been commissioned to design and build a dry screening plant for Wankie Colliery. Multotec Manufacturing has supplied screening ponds for the upgrading of the coal processing plant. The shortage of coking coal in South Africa enhances the importance of coking coal from Wankie, primarily for the iron and steel and ferro-alloy industries. An updated bankable feasibility study for Wankie's No. 3 Main shaft should be completed in early 2000. Meanwhile the 'M-Block' underground project is intended to be a 'bridge' between the No. 3 colliery which recently closed and the No. 3 Main Shaft project. Developments will be affected when a decision is reached on the Gokwe North power station project. 2 figs., 5 photos.

  3. Anthropogenic soils on spoil rock banks in North Bohemian Coal Basin, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of the North Bohemian Coal Basin is devastated by the extensive exploitation of brown coal by open pit mining. Knowledge of newly formed soils, their properties, development and contamination is important from the point of view of biological regeneration of the landscape. The mineralogy of anthropogenic soils from the mining area is presented together with the geochemistry of nutrients and trace elements. Attention is paid to the soil-forming processes in the non-reclaimed spoil rock banks with the development of spontaneous vegetation. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Necessity of scientific-technical development of underground coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur' yanov, V.V. (Gosudarstvennyi Komitet Soveta Ministrov SSSR po Nauke i Tekhnike (USSR))

    1989-10-01

    Discusses the state and role played by underground coal mining in the USSR and its prospects, and presents relevant numerical data. Production was about 770 Mt in 1988. The demand for coal is expected to rise by 1.8-2 times in 2010 as compared to 1985. Production cost of coal increased by 14% over 1981-1986. Twelve percent of mining equipment corresponds to world level while 27% of the equipment is outdated. Imported mining equipment amounts to 4.7% of the total (e.g. longwall equipment sets Pioma, Glinik, Westfalia Luenen sets, Gwared-1000 conveyors and Scharf equipment). The level of mine work technology is estimated by the percentage of coal won from longwalls equipped with powered supports (100% in the UK, 99.5% in the FRG, 88% in Poland and 74.7% in the USSR) and by the average labor effectiveness expressed in tons of coal per worker and month (66.1, 62.5, 48.3 and 33.2 respectively). Scientific and technical measures that should be taken in order to raise the technological level are discussed. Development trends are recommended in view of the fact that after 2000 about half of all Soviet mines will have to extract coal from thin seams at depths of 600-1,500 m and with methane emission over 10 m{sup 3}/t. 3 refs.

  5. Comparison of Methane Drainage Methods Used in Polish Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szl?zak, Nikodem; Borowski, Marek; Obracaj, Dariusz; Swolkie?, Justyna; Korzec, Marek

    2014-10-01

    Methane drainage is used in Polish coal mines in order to reduce mine methane emissions as well as to keep methane concentration in mine workings at safe levels. This article describes methods of methane drainage during mining used in Polish coal mines. The first method involves drilling boreholes from tailgate roadway to an unstressed zone in roof or floor layers of a mined seam. It is the main method used in Polish mining, where both the location of drilled boreholes as well as their parameters are dependent on mining and ventilation systems of longwalls. The second method is based on drilling overlying drainage galleries in seams situated under or over the mined seam. This article compares these methods with regard to their effectiveness under mining conditions in Polish mines. High effectiveness of methane drainage of longwalls with different ventilation and methane drainage systems has been proven. The highest effectiveness of methane drainage has been observed for the system with overlying drainage gallery and with the parallel tailgate roadways. In case of classic U ventilation system of longwall panel, boreholes drilled from the tailgate roadway behind the longwall front are lost.

  6. Fugitive powder in mining operations of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particles in the air range from 0.005 to 500 um, where the human eye can distinguish only particles greater than 50 um. If particles ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 um are inhaled, they deposit in the thoracic region, affecting human health. Air quality standards for particulate matter in Colombia as geometric annual average should be less or equal than 100 ug/m3 and a 24-hr maximum of 400 ug/m3 as measured by high volume samplers. These standards have been designed to protect air quality and human health in urban areas, where particulate matter is mainly produced by combustion and coagulation processes and has an average diameter of 2.5 um. Mining operations at El Complejo Carbonifero el Cerrejon, Zona Norte produce particles by mechanical and grinding processes with mean diameter greater than 10 um, therefore the high volume sampler, that captures particles smaller than 40 um, is not the best measurement device to identify particulate matter impact on human health. The pm-10 respirable air sampler is very efficient in measuring particles smaller than 10 pm, representing those particles that deposit in the thoracic region. In Colombia there is not a respirable air standard. The Cerrejon north zone coal complex has tried and verified that it meets easily respirable air standards issued by the environmental protection agency of the United States

  7. Utilization of coal ash/coal combustion products for mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Society's demand for an inexpensive fuel, combined with ignorance of the long term impacts, has left numerous scars on the Pennsylvania landscape. There are over 250,000 acres of abandoned surface mines with dangerous highwalls and water filled pits. About 2,400 miles of streams do not meet water quality standards because of drainage from abandoned mines. There are uncounted households without an adequate water supply due to past mining practices. Mine fires and mine subsidence plague many Pennsylvania communities. The estimated cost to reclaim these past scars is over $15 billion. The beneficial use of coal ash in Pennsylvania for mine reclamation and mine drainage pollution abatement projects increased during the past ten years. The increase is primarily due to procedural and regulatory changes by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). Prior to 1986, DEP required a mining permit and a separate waste disposal permit for the use of coal ash in backfilling and reclaiming a surface mine site. In order to eliminate the dual permitting requirements and promote mine reclamation, procedural changes now allow a single permit which authorize both mining and the use of coal ash in reclaiming active and abandoned pits. The actual ash placement, however, must be conducted in accordance with the technical specifications in the solid waste regulations

  8. Experimental Approach to Measure Stress and Stress Changes in Rock ahead of Longwall Mining Faces in Czech Coal Mines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sou?ek, Kamil; Koní?ek, Petr; Staš, Lubomír; Ptá?ek, Ji?í; Waclawik, Petr

    Wollongong : The University of Wollongong - Mining Engineering, 2013 - (Aziz, N.; Kininmonth, B.; Nemcik, J.; Ren, T.; Hoelle, J.), s. 115-123 ISBN 978-1-921522-83-3. [2013 Coal Operators´Conference. Wollongong (AU), 14.02.2013-15.02.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MV VG20102014034 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : stress in rock mass * mining geomechanics * longwall coal mining * Upper Silesian Coal Basin Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2105&context=coal

  9. Biodesulfurization of Subbituminous Coal by Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Coal Mine Soil of South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megga Ratnasari Pikoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal as fuel should be necessarily pre-treated by desulfurization in order to prevent excessive emissions of sulfur dioxide, a precursor of acid rain. Organic sulfur in coal can be eliminated by microbial action through the technology known as biodesulfurization. Source of microorganisms in the present study was coal mine soil in which microorganisms have been adapted to use the sulfur in coal. Coal mine in South Sumatra was choosen as source of microorganisms in this study, because it is an area in Indonesia with the largest of subbituminous coal reserves. The microorganisms were activated as mixed culture by culturing the soil sample in mineral salt medium containing subbituminous coal as the sole sulfur. Desulfurization activities were examined by using three variations of the initial coal concentration, i.e., 10, 15 and 20% weight per volume. Growth and activity of the mixed culture on the subbituminous coal were monitored by measuring of medium pH, cell concentration, sulfate and organic sulfur concentration. The result showed that desulfurization activity of the mixed culture on 15% of coal was able to reduce sulfur up to 82.36%. Isolation and identification of the mixed culture based on genotypic and phenotypic characterizations revealed that members of the mixed culture were identified as genera of Enterobacter, Lelcersia and Bacillus. Observation on growth curves showing that the culturable isolates grew in at least three overlapping stages when using coal as sulfur source suggested that the members of the consortium worked alternately on coal as substrate.

  10. An intelligent hybrid system for surface coal mine safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, N.; Obradovic, I.; Cvjetic, A. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-06-15

    Analysis of safety in surface coal mines represents a very complex process. Published studies on mine safety analysis are usually based on research related to accidents statistics and hazard identification with risk assessment within the mining industry. Discussion in this paper is focused on the application of AI methods in the analysis of safety in mining environment. Complexity of the subject matter requires a high level of expert knowledge and great experience. The solution was found in the creation of a hybrid system PROTECTOR, whose knowledge base represents a formalization of the expert knowledge in the mine safety field. The main goal of the system is the estimation of mining environment as one of the significant components of general safety state in a mine. This global goal is subdivided into a hierarchical structure of subgoals where each subgoal can be viewed as the estimation of a set of parameters (gas, dust, climate, noise, vibration, illumination, geotechnical hazard) which determine the general mine safety state and category of hazard in mining environment. Both the hybrid nature of the system and the possibilities it offers are illustrated through a case study using field data related to an existing Serbian surface coal mine.

  11. 77 FR 50165 - Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Escape and Evacuation Plans for Surface Coal Mines, Surface Facilities and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health...

  12. Evaluation of the mine gases hazard in the closed hard coal mine „Niwka-Modrzejów”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Zawisza

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Closing of hard coal mines, especially stopping the process of mine water pumping, results in a reconstruction of the Carboniferous water-bearing horizon, leading to the intensification of gas flux to the near-surface zone („piston effect”. Stopping the fans considerably enhances the movement of mine gases towards the surface in closed mines. Stopping the fans results in an accumulation of gases in workings and old workings.The results of geochemical analyses performed in the area of the hard coal mine „Niwka-Modrzejów” are presented in the paper. The obtained results and their comparison with the existing geological-reservoir model prove that the intensification of the mine gases flow towards the surface continues through the zones of tectonic discontinuities, crackings, and loosened zones in the Upper-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. The thickness and lithology of the onlying overburden plays a decisive role in the limitation of the mine gases migration.

  13. Evaluation of the mine gases hazard in the closed hard coal mine 'Niwka-Modrzejow'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Closing of hard coal mines, especially stopping the process of mine water pumping, results in a reconstruction of the Carboniferous water-bearing horizon, leading to the intensification of gas flux to the near-surface zone ('piston effect'). Stopping the fans considerably enhances the movement of mine gases towards the surface in closed mines. Stopping the fans results in an accumulation of gases in workings and old workings. The results of geochemical analyses performed in the area of the hard coal mine 'Niwka-Modrzejow' are presented in the paper. The obtained results and their comparison with the existing geological-reservoir model prove that the intensification of the mine gases flow towards the surface continues through the zones of tectonic discontinuities, cracking, and loosened zones in the Upper-Carboniferous sedimentary rocks. The thickness and lithology of the onlying overburden plays a decisive role in the limitation of the mine gases migration. (authors)

  14. Mineralogic and element association of coals from the Gevra mine, Korba coal field, Madhya Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of a project to study the content and distribution of trace elements in coals and coal by-products from coal mining areas of India, the mineral and elemental composition of the whole coal and concentration of the selective elements in the whole coal mined from the Gevra mine of the Korba coal field in Madhya Pradesh are studied. The vertical trend of the selected elements are defined and possible relationships of these elements to the minerals present in or associated with the above coal are examined. The Gevra Coals have ash contact ( 3 times world average) and low sulphur content (1/4 of world average). Most elements are found to be positively correlated with ash indicating an inorganic association. Elements which show organic affinity include S, Cl, I and In. Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb occur in sulfide phases, the dominant Fe phase identified is siderite which also contain Mn and Mg. Th and U along with varying proportions of rare earths, Ce, Dy, La and Y have been identified with discrete phosphate minerals. Most trace elements have been found to be concentrated in the upper and lower portions of the coal seam exposed in Gevra mine and in partings. It is, therefore, suggested that selective mining and removal of high ash/inorganic material, particularly the upper and lower portion of the seam, will greatly reduce the mobilization of Al, As, Co, Fe, Hf, Sc, Si, Ti and to a lesser degree Cr, La, Mn, Th U and V during combustion of coal in power plants and consequention of coal in power plants and consequently will reduce the influx of trace elements to the environment. (M.G.B.). 23 refs., 5 figs

  15. Mined land in the Ruhr area: Geological assessments to bound the environmental consequences of coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction, transportation, and processing of coal has severe environmental impacts. The development of the highly mechanized underground mining has resulted in the displacement of very large quantities of coal and waste rock at the surface and underground. This has led to land subsidence, changes in groundwater flow, soil erosion, air pollution, and local climatic effects. Thus, in the Ruhr area more than 4,000 km2 is subject to subsurface mass displacement. The surface undergoes a mobile trough-shaped subsidence. The resulting deformations produce a range of different effects on geomorphology and hydrology/geohydrology. Abandoned coal mines have to be taken under long term drainage, pumping stations have to regulate the groundwater levels. The devastated areas have to be restored, hazardous waste materials from mining activities must be treated, and the long term risks of coal mining must be assessed as part of long range planning and the protection of natural resources. (orig./HP)

  16. Success story of a semi-mechanised underground coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, T.K.; Bhattacharya, R.M.; Karmakar, N.C. [Eastern Coalfield Ltd. (India). Satgram Project

    2001-07-01

    Satgram Project of Eastern Coalfield Limited at present is producing 650 T of coal from the development districts deploying six LHDs which can be considered as a success in comparison to other mines with similar degree of mechanisation. This has been possible due to adoption of a planned programme at various stages of mining activity. The success achieved in Satgram Project could be considered as an exemplary one to many LHD operated mines working under similar geo-mining conditions. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Preliminary report on LLNL mine seismicity deployment at the Twentymile Coal Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the preliminary results of a just completed experiment at the Twentymile Coal Mine, operated by the Cyprus Amax Coal Company near Oak Creek, CO. The purpose of the experiment was to obtain local and regional seismic data from roof caves associated with long-wall mining activities and to use this data to help determine the effectiveness with which these events can be discriminated from underground nuclear explosions under a future Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

  18. Alunites in the red beds of the “Marcel” coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Wyszomirski; Marek Muszy?ski; Ireneusz Lipiarski

    2004-01-01

    Within the so-called red beds of the “Marcel” coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB),the authors have recorded the presence of alunite and natroalunite using XRD, IR and SEM/EDS. Both ofthem contain probably isomorphic substitutions of barium, strontium, phosphorus and, possibly, thehydronium ion. These two minerals preferably occur at the bottom of the red beds, in clay laminae overlyinga partly preserved coal seam; they are cryptocrystalline: their rhombohedral crystals, with a cub...

  19. Present conditions and trends of the development in coal processing at the Kolubara coal mine – Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Tomanec; Andja Spasic; Zoran Djordjevic

    2005-01-01

    The economic development of Yugoslavia and later the development of Serbia in the period of economic sanction, have defined the situation in the industrial branch of energy supply and, therefore, the situation in the coal processing at the Kolubara Coal Mine, Serbia. The accelerated growth of production capacities, the development and the use of devices and machines of ever greater unit capacities,the investigation of the use of coal in other fields, (not only for thermal power plants) is the...

  20. Study of Natural Radioactivity in Coal Samples of Baganuur Coal Mine, Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal and soil samples from Baganuur Coal Mine (BCM) of Mongolia have been investigated. The activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K have been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using shielded HPGe detector. Contents of natural radionuclide elements (U, Th and K) have been determined. Also the activities and contents of radionuclide of ashes were determined which generated in Thermal Power Plant 3 of Ulaanbaatar from coal supplied from BCM.

  1. Study of Natural Radioactivity in Coal Samples of Baganuur Coal Mine, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altangerel, M.; Norov, N.; Altangerel, D.

    2009-03-01

    Coal and soil samples from Baganuur Coal Mine (BCM) of Mongolia have been investigated. The activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K have been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using shielded HPGe detector. Contents of natural radionuclide elements (U, Th and K) have been determined. Also the activities and contents of radionuclide of ashes were determined which generated in Thermal Power Plant ?3 of Ulaanbaatar from coal supplied from BCM.

  2. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. PMID:23324038

  3. 30 CFR 785.12 - Special bituminous surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS FOR SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF MINING § 785.12 Special bituminous...

  4. Study on regional stratagem for coal mine disasters control and prevention in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, B.; Lei, Y. [China Coal Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    A regional strategy study was aimed at coal mine disaster control and prevention, which deepens and enriches the macro-strategy of coal mine disaster control and prevention, and provides an important support for the rapid and healthy development of China's regional coal industry. The country was divided into 4 regions: Northeast, North, South and Xinqing. In view of the regional status of coal mine disasters, the regulation and development trend of regional coal mine disasters was analysed, the outstanding problems and key factors were identified, and general thoughts on regional coal mine disaster control and prevention are put forward. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Coal extraction without a mine shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorin, A.N.

    1980-02-01

    This paper proposes a new method of extracting coal from deposits located at depths too great for exploitation by conventional methods (shaft). It is based on the tendency of coal in situ, subject to powerful hydrostatic pressures, to disaggregate under the action of ultrasounds in particular. Description of laboratory tests carried out on coal samples embedded in concrete cubes and subject to a pressure of 250 bar is presented. Satisfactory results were obtained using a frequency of 15 kHz. Fragmentation increased when the compressed coal is saturated by a gas. An extraction system for coal fragmentation in situ remains to be developed. (In Russian)

  6. Exploration drilling for pre-mining gas drainage in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubina, E. A.; Brylin, V. I.; Lukyanov, V. G.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    High natural gas content in coal seams and low gas drainage efficiency are the basic issues to be addressed in order to ensure coal mining safety. A great number of wells being drilled within various gas drainage techniques significantly increase the costs of coal mining and do not reduce the gas content levels within the coal beds up to the required parameters in a short period of time. The integrated approach toward exploration well spacing applied at the stage of project development could make it possible to consider coal seam data to provide more effective gas drainage not only ahead of mining but also during further gas content reduction and commercial production of methane. The comparative analysis of a closely spaced grid of exploration program compiled in accordance with the recommendations on applying mineral reserves classification and inferred resources of coal and shale coal deposits and currently effective stimulation radius proves the necessity and possibility to consider exploration well data for gas drainage. Pre-mining gas drainage could ensure the safety of mining operations.

  7. Study of radioactivity effect of mining and utilizing bone-coal mine on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and utilization of the bone-coal is a man-made activity that may bring a important effect on the environment around the mine and on radiation dose of public living in the mine area. The paper introduces investigation methods and main results about the pollution source term of bone-coal, which was caused by mining and utilizing in Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang and Anhui provinces. The store amount of bone-coal in five provinces is above 90% of the total store amount in our country. It was measured that the ?-radiation level and the annual average concentration of 222Rn indoors and outdoors in the bone-coal mine areas in the five provinces. The specific activities of radionuclides in the bone-coal, bone-coal cinder, bone-coal cinders brick et al. were analyzed. The additional dose to the public living in the bone-coal cinder brick house and the other people working in the bone-coal mine area was estimated. The investigation results showed that the mean specific activities of 238U, 226Ra in the bone-coal of the five provinces is 1.3 kBq/kg and 0.9 kBq/kg in the bone-coal cinder brick, respectively. The mean specific activities of 238U, 226Ra in the soil of bone-coal mine area are 0.37 kBq/kg and 0.24 kBq/kg, which are 8 times and 5 times higher than the average background value for the five provinces, respectively. The mean value of ?-radiation dose rate and the annual average concentrations of 222Rn in the bone-coal cinder brick houses in the five provinces are 0.3 ?Gy/h and 0.15 Bq/m3, respectively. The additional annual average doses, which are caused by ?-radiation and potential alpha rays of 222Rn in the bone-coal cinder brick house indoors and outdoors of the five provinces, are 1 mSv and 3 mSv, respectively. The additional collective dose (50 years), which were caused by bone-coal cinder brick house in 25 year, is some 1.5 x 105 person·Sv. Most of bone-coal cinder might not be used in constructional materials when its mass fraction is more than 20%

  8. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  9. USER'S MANUAL FOR PREMINING PLANNING OF EASTERN SURFACE COAL MINING. VOLUME 6. MINE LAND PLANNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume is the sixth in a series of six reports designed to provide the surface coal mining industry and its regulators with a comprehensive review of the best available methods for extracting coal while protecting the environment. The six-volume report examines the surface m...

  10. Pedological characteristics of open-pit Cu wastes and post-flotation tailings (Bor, Serbia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Lili& #263; ; S, Cupa& #263; ; B, Lalevi& #263; ; V, Andri& #263; ; M, Gaji& #263; -Kvaš& #269; ev.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To gain a better knowledge of mining areas and potential remediation processes, some characteristics (morphological, physical, chemical and microbiological) of soils formed on open-pit Cu mine waste (OPW) and Cu post-flotation tailings (PFT) dumps were investigated. Soil profiles and surface samples [...] were studied. In general, the investigated soils are characterized by large proportion of coarse soil particles, degraded structure, low humus content, low pH, high As and Cu concentrations, and low soil microbial activity. In all investigated profiles there is no recognizable topsoil layer containing in situ formed humus probably due to soil age, lack of plant cover and organic litter, as well as other unfavorable soil conditions. The specificity of investigated soils is an irregular distribution of some soil characteristics (porosity, humus content, microbiological activity) over depth, which is a result of their technogenic origin. By establishing correlations between the studied surface sample parameters, using principal component analysis (PCA), poorer aggregate properties of PFT than of OPW soils were found, resulting most likely from aggressive mining, i.e., flotation processes. Both OPW and PFT soils compared with control natural soils are characterized by lower clay and humus content, and poorer aggregate properties.

  11. Cavities as the sources of acid mine process in the Niwka-Modrzejow Coal Mine (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid mine process is one of the most significant sources the pollution of surface water. The intensive process was discovered in the Niwka-Modrzejow Coal Mine at the level 100-130 m. In this paper the method of prevention by the filling cavities of wastes from energy plants was proposed. (authors)

  12. 30 CFR 942.764 - Process for designating areas unsuitable for surface coal mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. 942...TENNESSEE § 942.764 Process for designating...for surface coal mining operations. ...this chapter, State Process for Designating Areas...for Surface Coal Mining Operations,...

  13. A study on coal mining under large reservoir areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiong; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Duan, Qing-Wei; Sun, Yan-Dong; Tian, Hong; Jia, Zhi-Xin

    2009-04-01

    At present, the easily mineable coal resources have been depleted in China, and it is very necessary and urgent to mine under hydraulic projects for continuous production and sustainable development of the society. In this paper, the coal field of Shenjiazhuang Colliery, which mostly lies under the Yuecheng reservoir area, is studied. By using a comprehensive study involving field engineering geologic survey, indoor rock mechanics test, in situ test, statistical analysis of mine well discharge, water quality analysis, theoretical calculation and numerical simulation, it is concluded that coal mining would not affect safe operation or bring any secondary geological hazard to the reservoir area. This paper provides an important scientific basis for achieving double profits for both departments of water and coal resources and helping departments related make further decisions. In addition, the research reported in the current paper can be served as a reference for similar projects, such as the coal mines under the Xiaolangdi reservoir area, under the Xifeihe Dam and under the mid-route South-to-North Water Transfer Project.

  14. Recycling the slagheap of an old coal mine (Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmane, Y.; Alaoui, A.; Kitane, S.; Bennajah, M.; Daramy, A.; Cherkaoui, M. [ENIM, Rabat (Morocco)

    2009-06-15

    A slagheap of the Jarada coal mine (Morocco) was recycled using the following ore processing operations: sifting, gravimetry and flotation. This abandoned coal mine has greatly evolved over the years. The oxidation of its pyrite content is the most remarkable change. The only remains are iron oxides which are concentrated within the fine particles of the slagheap. This study shows that the recovery efficiency of iron(III) oxide depends on the particle size, pH and the collector concentration. When recycled under optimum conditions, a commercial product containing 35% iron(III) oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) used in paint and enamelling was obtained.

  15. Object oriented fuzzy multimedia database in coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Z.; Yu, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Information and Electrical Engineering

    2001-01-01

    As the variety of media for storing coal mine database increases, and the storage capacity is getting bigger and bigger, this paper studies in detail the multimedia database of coal mine. Based on the object-oriented concept and fuzzy technology, a new database model and a new system structure were built up. The significance of developing the multimedia database and the structure of the former database as well as the data model were discussed. Experimental results show that this new system is very powerful in multimedia data management and is really an open system. Finally, some possible aspects were pointed out for further study. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Extraction of remaining coal reserves in worked-out mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreinin, E.V.; Blinderman, M.S.; Starosel`skii, A.V. [Institut Gornogo Dela im. A.A. Skochinskogo (Russian Federation)

    1993-05-01

    Presents the technology of extraction of coal reserves left in pillars in worked-out mines. The technology is based on in-situ gasification and vacuum removal of gas from gas generators. About 50 Mt of coal (13% of production) was left in mines of the Russian Federation during 1991. The essence of the suggested technology depends on extracting gases from in-situ gas generators. Effect of hydrodynamic parameters on gas leakage and reduction in total energy losses depending on pressure at extracting boreholes is shown in graphs.

  17. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takla, G.; Froml, K. [OKD, DPB, Paskov (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  18. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  19. Environmental aspects of hard coal mines closure in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental problems that arise during the closure processes of hard coal mines in Poland are undertaken in the paper. The problems of changes in water balance in rock mass are described with a stress put on underground water management. Regulation concerning ground reclamation and utilisation and removal of existing heat and power plants which after the mines closure will continue to supply surrounding consumers are stressed and the possible solutions are shown. 13 refs

  20. Fire hazard and its control in Polish coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szlazak, N.; Szlazak, J.; Borowski, M.; Obracaj, D. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    Underground fires are regarded as the greatest mining hazards, as they have often led to tragic mining disasters. The main hazard connected with an underground fire is a fast spreading of gases and smoke in workings. These gases are usually not dispersed enough; therefore they may cause miners' poisoning or suffocating, even at a great distance from the centre of the fire. In most Polish mines there is longwall working with caving and mined seams are characterised by a great fire hazard. The intensity of ventilation gob or longwall with caving is the main factor which decides how great a fire hazard is. The main reasons for these fires are, first of all, coal losses in gob or coal from non-commercial resources getting into gob and also air permeating that gob under the influence of the main fans. This article presents some general information about fire hazards in Polish coal mines and early detection methods of spontaneous combustion. The statistics of fires which occurred in the recent years, as well as factors influencing a fire hazard, are presented. Methods helpful in reducing the fire hazard in gob of longwall with caving, used in Polish mines are also discussed. Finally, methods for combating underground fires are also presented. 13 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. 77 FR 25205 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Roof Control Plans for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...suitable to the roof conditions and mining system of each coal mine be first approved by the...associated with: 75.215--Longwall mining systems 75.220(a)(1)--Roof...control plans for underground coal mines. MSHA is particularly...

  2. 76 FR 35801 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines and Pattern of Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts...Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines and Pattern of Violations AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor....

  3. 76 FR 25277 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines and Pattern of Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts...Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines and Pattern of Violations AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor....

  4. (2) Layerwise coal mining technology at Miike coal mines. (2) Miike tanko ni okeru enso hosshin gijutsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terai, I. (Mitsui Coal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-10-25

    Mitsui Coal Mines, Miike Plant has reduced its production scale, since 1987, from 4.5 million ton scale down to 2.5 million ton scale, thus aiming to secure the maintenance and safety and energy saving by adoopting two-entry system, a high output mining unit and the mechanization of the digging operation. This report describes the following items: Mechanization of layerwise coal mining operation. Development of a mobile stage loader system (Construction and energy-saving effect). Materials transportation (3 ton crawler, mono-rail, LHD, fork lift system truckless, man-less transportation). Environment measures. Present mining situation. The target of monthly 300 m extension was attained, but the efficiency enhancement by reduction of working time is at a horizontal level. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Diffuse soil degassing from abandoned underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, D.; Ruiz, V.

    2003-04-01

    Southeastern Ohio has been extensively coal mined. The coal in this region and associated rocks are high in sulfur and generate acid mine drainage when exposed to air and water. Poor water quality in rivers and streams is a common problem in this region. Water recharge to the underground coal mines occurs preferentially throughout subsidence features in areas where the overburden is thinner than around 60 feet, usually close to river and streams. Gases released from the coal beds such as methane and carbon dioxide, as well as radon generated in the rocks can diffuse throughout the overlying rocks and soils and discharge to the atmosphere. The soils of an area covering around 151 km2 close to the town of Corning, Ohio, were investigated. Around half of the study area has been coal mined. Soil gas samples were taking every 600 to 1000 m using a sonde and extracting the gas with a syringe. Samples were also extracted with a vacuum pump and analyzed for radon in a Pylon AB-5 Radiation Detector. Soil gas samples were analyzed in a Arizona Mercury Analyzer. Additional samples were stored in vaccutainers and analyzed in a gas chromatograph to determine the partial pressures of carbon dioxide and methane. Our results indicate that gas concentrations are significantly higher in regions of thin overburden compared to regions of thick overburden and non-mined areas. These results suggest that gases are diffusing throughout fractures and subsidence features of the rocks overlying the exploited coal seams and are discharged more easily to the atmosphere when the overburden is thinner.

  6. Use of natural gamma radiation in the coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of delineating coal seams by the use of natural gamma borehole logging sondes has been known for many years. The principle of the technique is that the gamma fluxes in shales are higher than in coals as the abundance of naturally occurring radionuclides is some twenty times greater in the former. This paper discusses other applications where the differeing natural gamma properties of coals and shales can be used. These are: (a) To distinguish between stone (shale) and run-of-mine coal on conveyor belts. A common situation underground is one in which stone from development headings and normal run-of-mine coal have to be batched along the same conveyor system. A natural gamma device capable of distinguishing between such batches of material, and thus allowing suitable mechanical separation, will be described. (b) To provide an accurate measurement of roof coal thickness by measuring the natural gamma flux penetrating the roof coal. To illustrate this examples will be given where this technique is used to provide automatic controlled steering of Long Wall Shearers and to provide manually assisted steering of In-seam Heading Machines

  7. Why investors shy away from coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Why do investors shy away from coal? This may sound like a strange question given the change in ownership of many major coal companies in recent years, but the ongoing consolidation within the coal industry is quite different from any actual new investment in the industry. To begin to understand why, one must return to the early '70s, a time of low-cost, abundant energy. The price of oil was about $2-4/bbl until 1973. The price of natural gas was about 60 cents/M ft3, and coal was approximately $7/st. This, however, was before the first Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) shock. The price of coal declined throughout the 1980s, and continues its downward path in some markets. Many coal investments have not achieved their expected return, such as the case of a 1M st/yr mine in West Virginia, which was developed in the early '80s only to be put immediately on a care-and-maintenance basis, where it languished until it was sold in 1990. Other mines, such as the large open-pit mines in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming, never reached their targeted production rates. Some of these large mines had equipment that remained in crates for years, only later to be sold at a loss. The extent of losses on investments in coal mines is discussed

  8. Coal Mine Safety Evaluation with V-Fold Cross-Validation and BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A suit of coal mine safety evaluation indexes have been propounded under the study of current situation about coal mine safety assement. Coal mine safety evaluation system based on BP neural network has been established by employing MATLAB neural network toolbox, and the actual index data will be utilized to validate marking effect through using V-fold Cross-validation technique, and then this will be applied to coal mine safety evaluation system to provide grounds for safety production and management in coal mine.

  9. Changes in coal mining society in contemporary West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Government of India has, in recent years, taken multiple steps to encourage private sector participation, adopt a more holistic approach towards expanding its coal base, and improve efficiency in the sector as a whole. However, the existing regulatory framework in India is not adequately developed or in tune with international standards that the extractive industries sector have been putting together. It is thus crucial for the Indian coal industry to consider changes in its regulatory environment to make it a par with the international standards to meet the critical requirement for energy security. In fact coal mining society is passing though havoc changes due to Government’s newly introduced multifold policies. The industrial relation now has changed immensely than the previous practices. Coal industry, which contributes 67 percent of total energy requirements of our country. After two phases nationalization the industry witnessed certain developments, which have implications for the human recourses management and industrial relation. In the beginning of the 90s one important event was the introduction of the new economic policy and this has a great influence over the coal mine sector. Impact of the policy Change is the introduction of a number of private operators in the coal production. Broadly, new economic policy initiated the gradual withdrawal of state from the control of basic industry and infrastructure. Coal mines are no exception in this regard. So the effect of new economic policy in the consequence of globalization also falls on the coal sectors. We now see what sort of impact of policy change has taken place upon the coal sector and coal workers. This article tires to examine the changes taken place due to policy changes and changes in general outlook of the people of coal mines in which they live. Now the industrial relation as well as the mechanism of work has been changed drastically. The traditional practice of work and mental outlook is gradually replacing with global method. It was noticed that people associated in this industry has started accepting the wider scope of work culture.

  10. Radioactive contamination of food chain around coal mine and coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorovi? Gordana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the coal mine in Lazarevac, and the coal-fired power stations in Obrenovac, on the activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs in some parts of human food chain of people living in the surrounding area. The obtained results showed that natural environment around the examined coal mine and the coal-fired power stations are not significantly affected by the emission of primordial radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 238U in the soil around the open coal mine and the coal processing installations (66.4-76.0 Bq/kg and in the soil around the coal-fired power stations (55.5-61.2 Bq/kg were not significantly higher than the average values in Serbia. The significant increase in the activity concentrations of natural radioisotopes in the samples of soil, vegetation, and animal products, was not confirmed. Food of animal origin used in human consumption is safe, i. e. not contaminated by radiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003 i br. TR34013

  11. Coal mining in the Republic of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, N.M.; Granville, A.B.

    1982-02-18

    87 collieries were in production in South Africa coal mining in 1980; 21 of these produced 80% of the saleable coal. ROM production amounted to 137.9 mt, of which 22.8 mt were washery tailings. The saleable output of 115.1 mt is predominantly bituminous coal, and to a lesser extent anthracite. 73% of the total mined production stems from deep mines. The major collieries are Bosjesspruit (27.5 mt/y). Kriel (8.5), Optimum (6.0), Sigma and Arnot (5.5 mt/y)each. Investment amounts to between 20 and 50 R per t annual production. Half of the rom product is washed. In 1980, 51 collieries had their own washeries, the largest being at Grootegeluk which puts through 3000 t/h. Home consumption in 1980 accounted for 82.2 mt, of which 63% was burnt in power stations. 29.1 mt went for export, with the Richards Bay Terminal handling 26 mt of this total. Capacity at this port is to be raised to 44 mt/y by 1986. The future looks good for the South African coal mining industry. Home demand is expected to reach 250 mt by the year 2000, with exports ranging from 122 through 146 mt and total production of 330 mt.

  12. GSM Based Flexible Calling System For Coal Mining Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Himanshu K. Patel#1, Deep H. Desai*2, Tanvi G. Badheka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an emergency flexible calling system consists of GSM module, solar panel, vibration sensor, battery sensor and fire sensor which are connected with centralized control room by wireless communication. Proposed system may be installed near coal mine where even basic emergency services are not available. It will be totally based on GSM signal strength. In case of medical & accidental emergency happen in the coal mine, particularly when the workerdoesn’t have the mobile phone or having no tower in coal mine, this system may be very much helpful.System has flexible timer for calling to the control room. The System will be protected from theft attempts using different alarm circuits like vibration sensor, fire sensor and battery sensor. This system will be continuously powered through a solar panel. This system will be useful even for illiterate people as well as for coal mining worker. The purpose of this project is to help people in emergency in remote location as early as possible. This system can useful in villages having no electricity.

  13. CMEOC - an expert system in the coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.; Zhao, G.H. [China University of Mining and Metallurgy, Xuzhou (China). Dept. of Computer Science and Technology

    1999-05-01

    The architecture of the Coal Mining Expert and Optimization Consultation System (CMEOC) is described. This includes the knowledge base, inference engine, and relevant optimization techniques. The techniques include multi-objective programming, fuzzy sets, and integer programming. The application results show the usefulness of the system.

  14. Application of stable isotopes to hydrogeology in coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotopes including Oxygen-18 and Deuterium have been applied to investigation of hydrogeology in main coal mines. By determination of stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen together with water analysis, the following studies have been developed: Identification of the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the groundwater from varied aquifers; Analysis of the hydraulic relationship between varied aquifers; Interpretation of the probable recharge source of mine water. The research results mentioned above reveal that: 1. The groundwater from main aquifers at coal mines in north China is of meteoric origin, which is recharged from hilly area surrounding the coal mine. Its isotopic composition differs slightly from that of the local precipitation. 2. There is a mutual hydraulic relationship between the Ordovician and Quarternary aquifers, so the difference of isotopic composition is very small. 3. By way of the variation of isotopic composition of groundwater from coal-bearing strata, we can infer the hydraulic relationship extent between overlaid alluvial layer and underlaid Ordovician limestone. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs

  15. Environmental issues in coal mining: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India, among the first five coal producing countries in the world, has a coal mining history of over 220 years. The environmental problems accumulated due to yester year and current mining and other industrial activities have led to the various environmental issues related to societal development, ecology, land, water regime and air quality. There has been no definite goal of industrial activities and environmental management. The environmental status in most coal mining complexes and around is far from satisfactory. It has been located that the environmental issues be defined with reference to the desired quality of life for all. Hence, the quality of life criteria be defined for various coal mining regions based on which the actions on the environmental issues be planned. The task of environmental management is mammoth and no single agency can be expected to take care of these tasks. The planning jobs may be assigned to specially formed multi-faceted teams and the final developmental scenario be detailed with due consent of the public. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Research on the Factors of Fatigue of Coal Mine Workers and Its Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing-Gang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available China is the largest coal producer in the world, it play a important role in the international field of coal production, but due to the frequent occurrence of coal mining accidents, it cause a enormous damage to the state's manpower and material resources. This article on research of the cause of the coal mining accident, it describes the fatigue of the coal mine workers assignment is the main cause of the accident and the threat to the safety of workers, and points out the important factors in ergonomics. MMEC theory is introduced and using for reference MMEC theory, finding out influence the cause of the coal mine worker fatigue, and combined with the relevant laws and regulations system to control and reduce the proposed method of coal mine worker fatigue to reduce and prevent the occurrence of coal mine accidents have some guidance Significance.

  17. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  18. Fighting endogenous fires during mining of thick, steep coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igishev, V.G.; Lagutin, V.I.; Mal' tsev, D.I.; Petrenko, V.I.

    1982-03-01

    This paper evaluates methods for fire prevention and fire fighting used in the Ziminka coal mine. Coal seams prone to spontaneous combustion and rock bursts are from 0.8 to 19 m thick, have gradients from 50 to 80 degrees, and are located at 240 to 320 m depth. Mining with caving is used. From 1970 to 1975 the VNIIGD Institute developed a new version of fire prevention which consists in use of a foam mixed with clay (foaming agent, clay, water and compressed air). Clay foam is supplied to the goaf from the surface by a borehole system. Foam supply system is equipped with at least two pumps: one operating and one reserve pump. When increasing carbon monoxide content in the air and increasing temperature indicate a developing endogenous fire center the rate of clay foam supply is increased by activating the reserve pumps and by increasing operation time. Use of the clay foam fire fighting system is described on some examples from the Ziminka mine. Borehole location in relation to mine roadways, coal faces and fire centers is shown in a scheme. Investigations carried out in Kuzbass mines show that introduction of the clay foam fire fighting and fire prevention schemes reduces the number of endogenous fires by about 20%.

  19. Access tunnel convergence prediction in longwall coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majdi, A.; Hassani, F.P. (McGill University, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The paper describes theoretical and {ital in situ} studies of tunnel deformation in longwall coal mining. It develops a method to predict tunnel convergence profiles from the faceline in longwall mining. The method accounts for the effect of panel width, extracted seam height, deformation moduli of the goaf material and coal pillar, depth of cover, {ital in situ} structural defects, tunnel shape and tunnel size in addition to the strength characteristics of surrounding strata. The analytical technique has been validated by reference to {ital in-situ} deformation measurements in 26 face-access tunnels in Cape Breton Coalfield mines. Based on this method a series of vertical convergence profiles for different depths and extracted panel widths have been presented. 25 refs., 12 figs.

  20. Construction of Safety Performance Management System for Coal Mine Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, You-jun

    2010-01-01

    The bad coal mine natural environment, safety investment deficiency, insufficiency safety performance management system are the main causes leading to the coal mining accident frequently nowadays, building-up safety performance management system is importance to coal enterprises safety work. This paper analyses the security status and the reasons of coal mine enterprises, the important role played by safety performance management system during the course of safe production, and the problems e...

  1. Mining project of the Taja Margaritas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the study of a mining project designed to determine the feasibility of open-pit mining in uranium deposits along the Pena Blanca mountain ridges in Taja Margaritas, is presented. (author)

  2. Method of binding dust in mine roadways of coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griyetsinger, B.Ye.; Grinberg, T.A.; Karpenko, V.I.; Malashenko, Yu.R.; Shinkovskiy, V.A.; Shishatskiy, A.G.; Volkov, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    The method consists of covering the walls of mine shafts with wetting agent. In order to improve the effectiveness of binding of dust, the wetting agent used contains methane oxidizing bacteria Methylomonas Rubra VMK-15Sh.

  3. Cartels, managerial incentives, and productive efficiency in German coal mining, 1881-1913

    OpenAIRE

    Burhop, Carsten; Lu?bbers, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the impact of cartelisation and managerial incentives on the productive efficiency of German coal mining corporations. We focus on coal mining in the Ruhr district, Germany’s main mining area. We use stochastic frontier analysis and an unbalanced dynamic panel data set for up to 28 firms for the years 1881-1913 to measure productive efficiency. We show that coal was mined with decreasing returns to scale. Moreover, it turns out that cartelisation did not affec...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...false Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the operator; requirements...Section 75.1721 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION,...

  5. Powder River Basin: mother lode of the nation`s compliance coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weakly, L.A. [Power River Coal Company, Gillette, WY (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Powder River Basin (PRB) of northeastern Wyoming and southcentral Montana contains the largest strip mineable reserve of compliance coal (0.27 kg or less of sulphur per billion Btu) in the United States. In mining parlance it is the mother lode. The article discusses production of coal since 1993 and goes on to highlight the more important developments in open-pit mining technology that have contributed to the basin`s consistent gain in productivity. These include developments in design of mining equipment, installation of in-pit crushing and conveying systems, investment in train loading facilities, emphasis on equipment maintenance, high use of computers, consolidation of mining companies, and upgrading low-rank SPRB coal by three technologies: thermal drying, pyrolysis and reforming. 1 fig., 1 tab., 4 photos.

  6. Correlation of Risk Analysis Method Results with Numerical and Limit Equilibrium Methods in Overall Slope Stability Analysis of Southern Wall of Chadormalu Iron Open Pit Mine-Iran / Korelacja wyników analizy ryzyka z wynikami oblicze? numerycznych oraz wynikami uzyskanymi w oparciu o metod? równowagi granicznej zastosowanych do badania stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego na po?udniowej ?cianie odkrywkowej kopalni rud ?elaza w chadormalu w Iranie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Kaveh; Paji, Arman Gholinezhad; Behdani, Alireza Siami

    2013-06-01

    Slope stability analysis is one of the most important factors in designing open pit mines. Therefore an optimal slope design that supports both aspects of economy and safety is very significant. There are many different methods in slope stability analysis including empirical, limit equilibrium, block theory, numerical, and probabilistic methods. In this study, to analyze the overall slope stability of southern wall of Chadormalu iron open pit mine three numerical, limit equilibrium and probabilistic methods have been used. Software and methods that is used for analytical investigation in this study are FLAC software for numerical analysis, SLIDE software and circuit failure chart for limit equilibrium analysis and qualitative fault tree and semi-quantitative risk matrix for probabilistic analysis. The results of all above mentioned methods, was a circular failure occurrence in Metasomatite rock zone between 1405 to 1525 m levels. The main factors of failure occurrence in this range were heavily jointing and existing of faults. Safety factors resulted from numerical method; Circular chart method and SLIDE software are 1.16, 1.25 and 1.27 respectively. Regarding instability and safety factors in Metasomatite rock zone, in order to stabilize the given zone, some considerations such as bench angle and height reduction should be planned. In results of risk matrix method this zone was mentioned too as a high risk zone that numerical and limit equilibrium methods confirmed this. Badanie stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego jest jednym z najwa?niejszych czynników uwzgl?dnianych przy projektowaniu kopalni odkrywkowych. Optymalne zaprojektowanie wyrobiska pochy?ego z uwzgl?dnieniem czynników ekonomicznych oraz bezpiecze?stwa jest niezmiernie wa?ne. Istnieje wiele metod badania stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego, mi?dzy innymi metody empiryczne, metoda równowagi granicznej, teoria bloków oraz metody numeryczne i probabilistyczne. W pracy tej omówiono zastosowanie trzech spo?ród tych metod: metody numerycznej, równowagi granicznej oraz metody probabilistycznej, do analizy stabilno?ci wyrobiska pochy?ego na po?udniowej ?cianie kopalni rud ?elaza w Chadormalu w Iranie. Oprogramowanie wykorzystane w badaniach analitycznych to pakiet FLAK przy metodzie numerycznej, oprogramowanie SLIDE oraz wykresy ko?owe przy metodzie równowagi granicznej oraz jako?ciowe drzewa okre?laj?ce wyst?powanie uskoków i pó?-jako?ciowe macierze ryzyka przy metodzie probabilistycznej. Wyniki uzyskane w oparciu o trzy wy?ej wymienione metody wykaza?y wyst?pienie zawalenia si? ska? metasomatycznych na poziomie od 1405 do 1525 m. G?ównymi czynnikami warunkuj?cymi zawalenie si? ska? w tym regionie by?a obecno?? licznych p?kni?? oraz uskoków. Wska?niki bezpiecze?stwa uzyskane przy pomocy metod numerycznych, wykresu ko?owego oraz oprogramowanie SLIDE wynios?y kolejno: 1.16, 1.25, 1.27. W odniesieniu do niestabilno?ci w rejonie ska? metasomatycznych, aby uczyni? t? stref? bardziej stabiln? nale?y uwzgl?dni? takie czynniki jak k?t nachylenia ?awy oraz obni?enie wysoko?ci. Analiza przeprowadzona w oparciu o macierze ryzyka wykaza?a, ?e strefa ta jest stref? wysokiego ryzyka, za? wyniki analizy numerycznej oraz wyników uzyskanych przy pomocy metody równowagi granicznej w pe?ni ten wniosek potwierdzi?y.

  7. Development of manufacturing equipment for mining and technological progress in black coal mining in Poland from 1974 to 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchowiecki, R.; Reich, K.

    1984-09-01

    There are 18 large plants manufacturing equipment for underground black coal mining in Poland. The plants are members of the POLMAG association. Research and development of new mining equipment is coordinated by the KOMAG center for mechanization of mining. About 70% of mining equipment manufactured by the POLMAG plants was developed by the KOMAG center. Since 1981 research programs of the KOMAG center have concentrated on: mining thick coal seams with stowing, mining thin steep coal seams by sets of mining machines, mechanization of mining coal seams prone to rock bursts, mechanization of coal preparation plants, reducing energy and metal consumption by the plants manufacturing equipment for mining. Types of mining equipment developed and manufactured in Poland are reviewed: shearer loaders (the KWB-3RDU, the KGS-320 shearer loader with the POLTRAK chainless haulage system), powered supports (FAZOS, GLINIK, PIOMA), chain conveyors (GROT and RYBNIK), equipment for mine drivage (heading machines, e.g. the AM-50 and K-160, drilling equipment, materials handling equipment, loaders), mine haulage equipment (belt conveyors), equipment for mechanization of auxiliary operations, equipment for coal preparation plants.

  8. TESTING PROGRAM FOR MINING COAL IN AN OXYGEN FREE ATMOSPHERE. VOLUME 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systems evaluation was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of miners wearing life support systems to operate conventional mining equipment and to mine coal at a test section in an active ventilated mine. Their ability to operate mining equipment and to perform other in-mine t...

  9. TESTING PROGRAM FOR MINING COAL IN AN OXYGEN FREE ATMOSPHERE. VOLUME II - APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systems evaluation was undertaken to demonstrate the ability of miners wearing life support systems to operate conventional mining equipment and to mine coal at a test section in an active ventilated mine. Their ability to operate mining equipment and to perform other in-mine t...

  10. Design and realization of ES for the pattern selection of coal mining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.; Zhang, X.; Tu, S. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1996-06-01

    An expert system (ES) for the pattern selection of multi-level coal mining technology is established in this paper. The coal depositing condition, geological structure, personnel quality, the capability of the external linkages of working face, and the design of its knowledge bank and inference engine is introduced. The ES, which has been realized preliminarily with TURBO PROLOG, provides not only the theoretical basis for the determination of coal mining technology in new mines, but also the technical guidance for the comment on the coal mining technology in established mines. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Integrated Positioning for Coal Mining Machinery in Enclosed Underground Mine Based on SINS/WSN

    OpenAIRE

    Qigao Fan; Wei Li; Jing Hui; Lei Wu; Zhenzhong Yu; Wenxu Yan; Lijuan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance i...

  12. Coal Mine Roadway Stability in Soft Rock: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Baotang

    2014-11-01

    Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines where the surrounding rock strata and coal seams are weak and the in situ stresses are high. Under the high overburden and tectonic stresses, roadways could collapse or experience excessive deformation, which not only endangers mining personnel but could also reduce the functionality of the roadway and halt production. This paper describes a case study on the stability of roadways in an underground coal mine in Shanxi Province, China. The mine was using a longwall method to extract coal at a depth of approximately 350 m. Both the coal seam and surrounding rock strata were extremely weak and vulnerable to weathering. Large roadway deformation and severe roadway instabilities had been experienced in the past, hence, an investigation of the roadway failure mechanism and new support designs were needed. This study started with an in situ stress measurement programme to determine the stress orientation and magnitude in the mine. It was found that the major horizontal stress was more than twice the vertical stress in the East-West direction, perpendicular to the gateroads of the longwall panel. The high horizontal stresses and low strength of coal and surrounding rock strata were the main causes of roadway instabilities. Detailed numerical modeling was conducted to evaluate the roadway stability and deformation under different roof support scenarios. Based on the modeling results, a new roadway support design was proposed, which included an optimal cable/bolt arrangement, full length grouting, and high pre-tensioning of bolts and cables. It was expected the new design could reduce the roadway deformation by 50 %. A field experiment using the new support design was carried out by the mine in a 100 m long roadway section. Detailed extensometry and stress monitorings were conducted in the experimental roadway section as well as sections using the old support design. The experimental section produced a much better roadway profile than the previous roadway sections. The monitoring data indicated that the roadway deformation in the experimental section was at least 40-50 % less than the previous sections. This case study demonstrated that through careful investigation and optimal support design, roadway stability in soft rock conditions can be significantly improved.

  13. The reclamation of former coal mines and steelworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is a result of studies undertaken on behalf of the European Commission and examines the current 'state of the art' techniques for the restoration of despoiled lands arising from the coal and steel industries. Chapters are entitled: introduction; site assessment; investigation and treatment of mine workings and unstable ground; demolition and site clearance; colliery spoil heap characteristics; colliery spoil heap stability; colliery spoil heap combustion; colliery spoil washing; steel industry raw materials and wastes; coal carbonisation; treatment of contaminated soils; water quality; landform and earthworks; the establishment and care of vegetation; management of reclaimed land; a framework for site generation; and case studies. 266 refs

  14. Bituminous Coal Underground Mining: 1997 Economic Census

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 31-page report offers economic data on the mining industry as part of the 1997 economic census. Tables include "Industry Statistics on NAICS Basis With Distribution Among the 1987 SIC Based Industries: 1997," "Industry Statistics for Selected States and Offshore Areas: 1997," and "Selected Supplies, Minerals Received for Preparation, Purchased Machinery, and Fuels Consumed by Type: 1997."

  15. Modeling of gas extraction from closed coal mines

    OpenAIRE

    Lagny, Candice; Pokryszka, Zbigniew; Prince, Marc

    2004-01-01

    The closed coal mines carry on releasing firedamp. In some cases, the quantity of gas released is not negligible and it can induce an overpressure in old works. A means to avoid hazards related to these gas emissions at the surface is to put in drainage installations and to keep the pressure of the underground reservoir under the atmospheric one. This practice has been used in several mines in France like in the Lorraine basin. A mathematical model has been developed by INERIS in order to imp...

  16. Distributed fiber optic microseismic monitoring system for coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Binxin; Liu, Tongyu; Wang, Jinyu; Song, Guangdong

    2013-09-01

    Microseismic monitoring is essential for rock burst predication in coal mines. However, the existing monitoring instruments based on electric geophone have inherent limitations and hardly progress further. This paper presents the design and implementation of a novel microseismic monitoring system using fiber optic sensing and distributed data acquisition techniques. The technical details including seismic sensor, interrogation system, and seismic substation are introduced. The results show that the system achieves a bandwidth of 0.5-400 Hz and a dynamic range of 80 dB. The location accuracy reaches 10 m by reasonable configuration of sensors, and so it is particularly suitable for precision mine microseismic monitoring.

  17. Corrosion of rock anchors in US coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylapudi, Gopi

    The mining industry is a major consumer of rock bolts in the United States. Due to the high humidity in the underground mining environment, the rock bolts corrode and loose their load bearing capacity which in turn reduces the life expectancy of the ground support and, thus, creates operational difficulties and number of safety concerns[1]. Research on rock anchor corrosion has not been adequately extensive in the past and the effects of several factors in the mine atmosphere and waters are not clearly understood. One of the probable reasons for this lack of research may be attributed to the time required for gathering meaningful data that makes the study of corrosion quite challenging. In this particular work underground water samples from different mines in the Illinois coal basin were collected and the major chemical content was analyzed and used for the laboratory testing. The corrosion performance of the different commercial rock anchors was investigated by techniques such as laboratory immersion tests in five different corrosion chambers, and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated ground waters based on the Illinois coal basin. The experiments were conducted with simulate underground mining conditions (corrosive). The tensile strengths were measured for the selected rock anchors taken every 3 months from the salt spray corrosion chambers maintained at different pH values and temperatures. The corrosion potential (Ecorr ), corrosion current (Icorr) and the corresponding corrosion rates (CR) of the selected commercial rock bolts: #5, #6, #6 epoxy coated and #7 forged head rebar steels, #6 and #7 threaded head rebar steels were measured at the solution pH values of 5 and 8 at room temperature. The open circuit potential (OCP) values of the different rock anchors were recorded in 3 selected underground coal mines (A, B & C) in the Illinois coal basin and the data compared with the laboratory electrochemical tests for analyzing the life of the rock anchors installed in the mines with respect to corrosion potential and corrosion current measured. The results of this research were statistically validated. This research will have direct consequence to the rock related safety. The results of this research indicate that certain corrosive conditions are commonly found in mines but uniform corrosion (around 0.01-0.03mm loss per year across the diameter) is generally not considered a serious issue. From this study, longer term research for longterm excavation support is recommended that could quantify the problem depending on the rock anchor used and specific strata conditions.

  18. Characterizing a fractured aquifer in Mexico using geological attributes related to open-pit groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Enrique; Garfias, Jaime

    2013-09-01

    A multivariable analysis of the Rock Quality Designation ( RQD) and its relation with the hydraulic conductivity of 17 dewatering wells in an open-pit mine (central Mexico) is presented as a tool for groundwater exploration in fractured aquifers. A solid model was constructed with the RQD data using three sizes for each grid cell and four interpolation methods. The inverse-distance method with a small grid gives the best results. The resulting RQD solid model was used to locate 22 pilot holes, on which an air-lift test was performed as a qualitative assessment of their usefulness. The results showed a lower water production (1.8 l/s) in shale that has low alteration, whereas in highly altered shale, breccias, and intrusive rock, the flow rate was 3.9 l/s. This implies an important relationship between the pilot-hole performance, the lithology, and the rock alteration, but it was also found that some fractures or faults, which cannot be detected clearly by the RQD, play an important role in the hydrodynamics of the aquifer. In conclusion, it is necessary to consider all available factors that can help to identify the hydrodynamic behavior of the aquifer because using only RQD data can lead to errors in prospecting for groundwater.

  19. Ground movement and deformation due to dewatering and open pit excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the application of stochastic medium theory, it is assumed that ground movement process has the property of Markov Process. Based on superposition principle and rock consolidation principle, the ground movement and deformation due to dewatering and open pit excavation can be calculated. The comparison between the field measurements in Morwell Open Pit, Latrobe Valley (Victoria, Australia) and the calculated results shows the validity of the method in this paper. 5 refs

  20. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: area strip coal mining, Peabody Universal Mine, Universal, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guernsey, J L; Tiller, M E; LaFevers, J R

    1977-02-01

    An integrated surface mining and reclamation program typical of those found at large scale surface coal mining operations in the Midwest and West is examined in this case study, which focuses on Peabody Coal Co.'s Universal Mine in west central Indiana. A high volatile, bituminous coal is extracted and processed at the Universal site, which opened in 1969 and is now one of the largest producing surface mines in the state. Careful planning for effluent control during mining has resulted in a nearly ''pollution-free'' area stripping operation at Universal, and most of the mined land has been graded for and seeded as pasture. The mine is about 10 miles from the city of Terre Haute; this proximity offers opportunities for developing reclaimed surface mines for higher land uses than those required by the state (forestry, rangeland, pasture, or cropland), due to high demand for housing and recreation sites. Surveys of area residents show such development would be well-received; however, there is no public planning effort underway to promote these types of land use. This situation is representative of many mines, where progressive companies have generated land use strategies without seeking or being offered much input from public planners. While mining companies may be capable of good reclamation planning, public benefit could be maximized by a concerted effort by planners and mining companies to work together in integrating reclamation and land use planning.

  1. Use of roof bolting during coal mining without leaving coal pillars. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, A.P.; Garbuz, P.I.

    1982-09-01

    The paper evaluates use of roof bolting for strata control in mine roadways in underground black coal mines in the Kuzbass. Coal seam thickness ranges from 0.8 to 1.3 m, seam gradient from 4 to 12 degrees, mining depth from 150 to 350 m. The direct roof consists of argillites and aleurites with compression strength coefficient from 3 to 4 degrees on the Protod'yakonov scale. Mine roadways are from 2.8 to 3.2 m wide. The ShK-1p and the AK-8u roof bolts are used for strata control in gate roads of longwall faces mined by shearer loaders. The gate roads are used repeatedly. A gate road used for ventilation is later used for coal haulage from the second longwall face. Roof bolt use is combined with steel props, wooden props and arched steel supports. Steel props are used for reinforcing support systems close to junctions of gate roadways and longwall faces. After rock strata stress decreases the steel props are removed and used in another roadway section in a zone of increased rock strata stress. Roof bolt installation is evaluated. Distribution of roof bolts and ways of combining them with other support types are shown in 3 schemes. Roof bolt use for strata control reduces support deformation, reduces repair cost and increases longwall advance rate.

  2. Mechanism of Reinforcement on Inwall of Coal Mine Shaft Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of elasticity, the analytic solution of temperature stress on shaft wall of coal mine with reinforcement on inwall is deduced. It is shown that with the increment of reinforcement stress Pa, the radial compressive stress &sigmar become larger, the vertical compressive stress &sigmaz become less, while the circumferential stress &sigma &theta changed from compressive stress to tensile stress. The stability of shaft wall enhanced with vertical stress reduced by reinforcement on inwall of shaft wall. Compressive steel plate could be used to reinforce the inwall, characterized with low-cost, short time and construction easy. While the intelligent equipment should be developed further to provide everlasting and greater reinforcement on in wall of coal mine shaft wall.

  3. Damage to underground coal mines caused by surface blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the potential damage to underground coal workings as a result of surface blasting at an opencast coal mine is described. Seismometers were installed in a worked out area of an underground mine, in the eastern Transvaal region of South Africa, and the vibration caused by nearby surface blasting recorded. These measurements were used to derive peak particle velocities. These velocities were correlated with observed damage underground in order to establish the allowable combination of the two blasting parameters of charge mass per relay, and blast-to-gage point distance. An upper limit of 110mm/sec peak particle velocity was found to be sufficient to ensure that the damage to the particular workings under consideration was minimal. It was further found that a cube-root scaling law provided a better fit to the field data than the common square-root law. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  4. [Ecological reconstruction of large opencut coal mine through ectomycorrhizal biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guiyun; Sun, Tieheng; Li, Peijun; Zhang, Chungui; Zhang, Haiyong; Yiao, Deming

    2002-09-01

    Pot experiment with discarded greenish mudstone from large opencut coal mine as test soil was conducted to study the application of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the ecological reconstruction of fragile ecological belt of large opencut coal mine of Huolinhe region, Inner Mongolia. The result showed that after the greenish mudstone was inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi, the rates of seedling infection and survival were 1.21-2.78 higher in treatment with no fertilizer application than in that with fertilizer application. The test ectomycorrhizal inoculum 010, A and B had a stronger regulation ability in infertile and low penetration coefficient soil. The ammonification of the mudstone could improve its physical and chemical properties, but shorten the survival duration of seedling on account of the accumulation of ammonia and phosphorus in it. PMID:12561181

  5. Environmental impact assessment and selenium transformation in coal mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.

    1991-06-01

    This quarterly report addresses the continued field investigation of a selected coal mining site in Oklahoma. Table 1 (appendix) portrays all the data (field measurements) taken at the Henryetta experimental site. An analysis of this data would be useful in providing information for potential Se migration from a coal mining site and the distribution of Se in a soil profile of land reclaimed to its pristine state. Also addressed is the methodology developed (1) for SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} and SeO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}} adsorption on selected soils, (2) leachate migration through a cell column using soil samples from the Henryetta reclamation site, and (3) chemical transformation of SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} under harsh chemical and conditions.

  6. Spatial analysis of neural tube defects in a rural coal mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.L.; Wang, J.F.; Wu, J.L.; Driskell, L.; Wang, W.Y.; Zhang, T.; Xue, G.; Zheng, X.Y. [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China)

    2010-07-01

    Shanxi province in northern China has one of the highest reported prevalence rates of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the world. The current study selected Heshun, the county with the highest rate of NTDs in Shanxi, as a study area and tested whether residence in a coal mining area was a contributing factor. A NTD cluster was detected in an area within 6km of the coal mines for almost every year during 1998-2005. Poisson regression analysis revealed that there may be an association between production in coal mines and prevalence of NTDs in coal mine areas. Future work identifying factors independently correlated with NTDs in coal mining regions may provide further insights into the health effects of coal mines on NTDs.

  7. Presentations from the 1992 Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    On May 20 and 21, 1992, the MSHA Coal Mining Impoundment Informational Meeting was held at the National Mine Health and Safety Academy in Beckley, West Virginia. Fifteen presentations were given on key issues involved in the design and construction of dams associated with coal mining. The attendees were told that to improve the consistency among the plan reviewers, engineers from the Denver and Pittsburgh Technical Support Centers meet twice annually to discuss specific technical issues. It was soon discovered that the topics being discussed needed to be shared with anyone involved with coal waste dam design, construction, or inspection. The only way to accomplish that goal was through the issuance of Procedure Instruction Letters. The Letters present a consensus of engineering philosophy that could change over time. They do not present policy or carry the force of law. Currently, thirteen position papers have been disseminated and more will follow as the need arises. The individual paper were not even entered into the database.

  8. Efficiencies of the Passive Treatment Facilities for Mine Drainages from Abandoned Coal Mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Y.; Choi, S.; Yim, G.; Ji, S.

    2006-05-01

    The overall drainage rates from abandoned coal mines reaches up to 80,000 ton/day in Korea. Consequently, various passive treatment facilities, including the successive alkalinity producing systems (SAPS), oxidation pond and aerobic wetland, have been applied for coal mine drainage with small flow rates since 1996. The total number of passive treatment facilities under operation in Korea is about 30. Most frequent treatment facilities in Korean coal mines are the oxidation pond, SAPS and aerobic wetland. This study was undertaken to investigate the variation of flux and removal efficiencies of the passive treatment facilities installed at Honam, Samwang, Dongbock, and Gapjung coal mines. Influent and effluent water samples were collected for chemical analysis, and the pH, Eh and TDS were measured twice on site, in 2001 and 2005. The main constituents of metallic contaminants in the mine drainage were iron and manganese, with small amount of aluminum. The flow rates of mine drainage were over 2,000 ton/day at Honam and Gapjung mines, and below 1,000 ton/day at other mines. The total content of Fe, Al and Mn in mine drainage from Honam mine was 69,710 g/day, which was the greatest among these mines. By the chemical analyses, no significant difference in pH values of the influent and effluent water samples, collected in 2001 and 2005, were observed. The pH was maintained from slightly acid to neutral during the period of 5 years. The area adjusted removal rates showed that 0.41g ~ 7g of Fe per square meter was removed in SAPS in 2001, while 0.17 ~ 4 g of Fe was removed in 2005. This result indicates that the Fe removal capacity and overall efficiency of the SAPS has dropped substantially. Overflows in most SAPS can be attributed mainly to the precipitation of metal compounds, and also to the reduction in permeability of substrates. It may be concluded that some measure is required to maintain the normal water flow and to prevent overflow in SAPS.

  9. Expectations of coal mine personnel with respect to products of the GLINIK Factory of Drilling and Mining Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustek, M.

    1983-10-01

    Mining equipment produced by the GLINIK plant is reviewed. About 15% of the production of the POLMAG association (association of firms producing mining equipment) is from the GLINIK plant. The plant produces powered supports for thin, level and inclined coal seams, and specializes in shield supports for coal seams from 0.6 to 1.5 m thick or from 0.8 to 2.2 m with dip angles to 35 degrees. The shield supports are used for longwall mining with caving employing shearer loaders or coal plows. The company also produces SHC-40 hydraulic props (17 height intervals) for coal mining using a number of mining systems. Plans for development of the company are evaluated: development of a double-stage telescopic hydraulic prop, gear boxes for mining equipment, production of a suspended monorail for transport of materials and manriding in underground workings, etc.

  10. Moving up down in the mine: Sex segregation in underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study employs both individualist theories of human capital and sex-role spillover and structuralist theories from the socialist feminist perspective, emphasizing the formal and informal organizational factors operating within a patriarchal capitalist society to explain job-level sex segregation among underground coal miners. Both quantitative and qualitative data on women in coal mining are used to evaluate these theories. A logistic regression analysis performed on data obtained in 1986 by the US Bureau of Mines demonstrates that while human capital variables are predictive of a miner's job rank, variation in job rank attributed to gender is even greater. For men, training and experience in mining combine to increase the probability of being in a more skilled job in a coal mine. Age and seniority are curvilinearly related to the variation in men's job rank. For women, only age accounts for their advancement such that younger, not older women who have slightly more mining experience, occupy the more skilled positions in the work place. These findings suggest that, in terms of job advancement, men enjoy a greater return on their human capital investments than women, and that factors other than those representing a miner's human capital are affecting women's positions underground more than men's

  11. FY 2000 report on the survey of geological structures overseas, etc. Volume 1. 'Tanjung Enim IV Coal Exploration Project between Japan and Indonesia'; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. 1. Nippon Indonesia sekitan kyodo tansa Tanjung Enim project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summarized the results of the surveys in the final fiscal year (FY 2000) and in the past five years of the Tanjung Enim IV Coal Exploration Project between Japan and Indonesia. In FY 2000, conducted in the South Arahan area were the surface reconnaissance (50km+ACI-2), boring survey (11 holes, 1,847m), borehole physical logging (11 holes), reflection method seismic survey (3 traverse lines), pumping test, coal analysis (112 specimens), etc. As a result of the exploration/study made during 5 years, coal reserves in the South Arahan area were 223 million tons in north block (proved coal reserves: 213 million tons) and 332 million tons (proved coal reserves: 303 million tons) in south block. The coal in the area is in the depth of {+-}0m from surface, and the coal reserve is enough for large scale open pit mining. Further, coal reserves in the Banjarsari area were 442 million tons (proved coal reserves: 330 million tons) in the whole area and 223 million tons (proved coal reserves: 214 million tons) in the syncline part. About the syncline part promising as that for open pit mining, the overburden ratio was divided into three for calculation: 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 or below. (NEDO)

  12. Quality of coal - base for optimal electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitola Mines Plant and Energy Combine is the largest electric power producer in the Republic of Macedonia. It is established on two separately production units: coal (lignite) open pit mine 'Suvodol' and the power plants 'Bitola'. The lignite from the mine is used only for electric power generation in the thermal power plants. The coal quality is the first, basic point in the production line, while the electric power, transformed to the high tension transmission system is the last , final production point. Between the two points, there are all equipment, production units, materials and very hard work to get optimal and economical solutions as well as production. This material gives a short explanation between that two points. (Author)

  13. Comprehensive mechanization of faces mined with pneumatic stowing in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzeminski, J.; Student, Z. (Centralna Stacja Ratownictwa Gorniczego, Bytom (Poland))

    1988-12-01

    Longwall mining with stowing in Poland is of marginal significance. Output of faces mined with pneumatic stowing decreased from 13.1% in 1960 to 1.4% in 1987. There were 12-16 longwall faces mined with pneumatic stowing in 11 mines in 1987, of them, 5 faces were mined by sets of mining equipment consisting of shearer loaders, chain conveyors and powered supports (FAZOS, GLINIK, MV, BV). Operation of special versions of FAZOS and GLINIK powered supports for faces mined with pneumatic stowing is analyzed. The following stages of longwall mining are evaluated: coal cutting, haulage, advancing chain conveyor, advancing powered support units, stowing. Use of special screens or supports with a shield protecting them from packings is described. Manless pneumatic stowing with the FAZOS-17/27-POp and stowing with miner presence in the stowing area with the FAZOS -19/34-Op and GLINIK-08/26-Op is compared. The tested equipment guaranteed economic mining and high occupational safety.

  14. Geomorphological Analysis of Gare Pelma Sector – III for the Environmental Impact Assessment due to Coal Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Iyengar, Bhargava K.; Dr. Ninad Bodhankar2

    2014-01-01

    The land use in the Gare pelma sector III will undergo gradual changes during mine life due to mine development. The associated activities of coal extraction, storage, washing, loading/ unloading, transportation, reclamation and rehabilitation , needs space beyond the mining area . It is the need of the hour to analyze the landscape usages and the need in future perspective of the environmental impact assessment. Raigarh area has abundant coal and the extraction of coal deposi...

  15. Respirable quartz hazard associated with coal mine roof bolter dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneumoconiosis has been reported to be increasing among underground coal miners in the Southern Appalachian Region. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a study to examine the particle size distribution and quartz content of dust generated by the installation of roof bolts in mines. Forty-six bulk samples of roof bolting machine pre-cleaner cyclone dump dust and collector box dust were collected from 26 underground coal mines. Real-time and integrated airborne respirable dust concentrations were measured on 3 mining sections in 2 mines. The real-time airborne dust concentrations profiles were examined to identify any concentration changes that might be associated with pre-cleaner cyclone dust discharge events. The study showed that bolter dust is a potential inhalation hazard due to the fraction of dust less than 10 ?m in size, and the quartz content of the dust. The pre-cleaner cyclone dust was significantly larger than the collector box dust, indicating that the pre-cleaner functioned properly in removing the larger dust size fraction from the airstream. However, the pre-cleaner dust still contained a substantial amount of respirable dust. It was concluded that in order to maintain the effectiveness of a roof bolter dust collector, periodic removal of dust is required. Appropriate work procedures and equipment are necessary to minimize exposure during this cleaning task. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.gs.

  16. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of a flooded underground coal mine groundwater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomo, M.; Vermeulen, D.

    2014-04-01

    Hydrogeochemical processes have an important influence on evolution of the groundwater chemistry and its quality. An investigation was conducted to assess the hydrogeochemical processes in a flooded underground coal mine located in a typical Karoo Basin of Southern Africa. The study utilises scatter plots, PHREEQC hydrogeochemical model and the expanded Durov diagram as complimentary tools to analyse the groundwater chemistry. 144 Samples were collected from 16 piezometers drilled into the flooded underground coal mine during a three year monitoring period (2000-2002). Field results indicate that the groundwater system is characterised by a Ca-SO4 main hydrochemical groundwater type that evolved from acid mine drainage (AMD) buffering by calcite and dolomite carbonate minerals. The carbonate AMD buffering process is hindering the leaching of metals into the flooded mine groundwater system. Hardness in at least 85% of the samples exceeded 1200 mg/L as CaCO3 and the groundwater was classified as excessively hard. Modelling results using PHREEQC suggests that increase of Ca2+ and SO42- concentration that evolve from carbonate AMD buffering process can only occur up to certain point until which the aqueous solubility of these ions becomes indirectly limited by gypsum saturation.

  17. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors used in coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinyu; Liu, Tongyu; Song, Guangdong; Xie, Hongjing; Li, Lianqing; Deng, Xiaolin; Gong, Zhijie

    2014-06-01

    The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors were used for on-line monitoring of the stress variation of the lined wall in the gateway retained along the goaf of No. 3203 coal mining face in Dongtan Mine. The results showed that the FBG strain sensor with the wide measuring range could measure the stress variation accurately during the support process of the gateway retained along the goaf and could provide the basis to further optimize the support structure and to determine the support plan of the gateway retained along the goaf. The FBG micro-seismic sensors were used in Xinglong Mine to detect the micro-seismic signal. The signals were well received and analyzed to determine the location and energy level of the source of the micro-seismic event warning. The FBG sensors and detecting system show a significant potential for micro-seismic detection and geological disasters detection.

  18. Changes in the coal mining industry in the ex-Federal Republic Germany and outlook for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the changes in the coal mining industry in Federal Republic of Germany. In a first part, the state of the coal mining industry is given: coal resources and coal production between 1960 and 1990; coal requirements for power generation; employment; financial aspects. In the second part, the first measures to rationalize the coal mines are described. In a third part, some redevelopment possibilities with private investors to the rescue are studied. 2 figs

  19. Underground lighting in West German coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, R.; Voss, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    The authors recall West German regulations on lighting equipment for use in mines and then proceed to give the criteria for lighting quality, studying in particular the level of illumination, the distribution of brightness, the limitation of dazzle, the direction of light and shade, the luminous colour and colour reproduction. They describe various types of lighting systems used at shaft access points, in roadways, underground workshops and drivages and on the face. Conclude with a brief summary of the results expected from the investigations being conducted. (In French)

  20. Brine disposal process for Morcinek coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.H. [Aquatech Services, Inc., Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a commercial brine disposal process for the Morcinek mine, located 45 km south of the city of Katowice in Poland. Currently, brine is discharged into the Odra river and methane from the mine is released into the atmosphere. The process would use the released methane and convert a large percentage of the brine into potable water for commercial use. Thus, the proposed process has two environmental benefits. The brine salinity is about 31,100 ppm. Major brine components are Na (10,300 ppm), Ca (1,170 ppm), Mg (460 ppm), Cl (18,500 ppm) and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (252 ppm). Present in smaller amounts are K, S, Sr, B, Ba and NO{sub 3}. The process integrates a reverse osmosis (RO) unit and a submerged combustion evaporator. Extensive studies made at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory established the pretreatment method of the brine before it enters the RO unit. Without adequate pretreatment, mineral phases in the brine would become super-saturated and would precipitate in the RO unit. The pretreatment consists of first adding sodium carbonate to increase both the pH and the carbonate concentration of the brine. This addition causes precipitation of carbonate solids containing Ca, Mg, Sr, and Ba. After filtration of these precipitates, the fluid is acidified with HCl to prevent precipitation in the RO unit as the brine increases in salinity.

  1. Ecological impact produced by hard coal mining in Petrosani coal basin and pollution reduction at Jiu River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economical development of the coal basin Petrosani based on exploitation and processing of hard coal unit now a dynamic character without taking into account the environmental aspects. The major environmental problem induced, consists in the pollution of Jiu river as a consequence of the effluent ejected in his waters. The present paper highlights some aspects of environmental impact induced by hard coal mining in coal basin Petrosani

  2. To the problem of coal mines damping in Ostrava - Karvina basin

    OpenAIRE

    Dvo?á?ek Jaroslav

    1998-01-01

    The damping of inefficient mines caused the closure of 4 underground coal mines in the Ostrava-Karviná basin. A time span between the beginning of damping and mining activity finishing can be very short or, on the other hand, relatively long. There are positive and negative consequences in economic and social field in both cases. The contribution analyses the way of damping of these closed underground coal mines on the basis of statistical information.

  3. Limit value assessment for respirable coal mine dust in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfeld, P.; Vautrin, H.-J.; Koesters, A.; Lampert, K.; Piekarski, C. [Ruhrkohle AG, Dortmund (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeitswissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Occupational limit values for airborne noncarcinogenic substances are defined as threshold limit values in Germany. This concept presumes a `hockey stick` relationship between mean shift concentrations and health effects. A population-based threshold limit value (the MAK value) is defined as the maximum value on the exposure scale below which a constant baseline risk is observed. The incidence of profusion category 1/1, International Labor Organization (ILO) 1980 of coal workers` pneumoconiosis (CWP) is used as the outcome measure to evaluate the health effects of respirable coal mine dust. The basic concept is modified both to analyze the dependence of disease incidence on the mean long-term concentration, allowing for linear and nonlinear effects of time since first exposure, and also to handle incomplete clearance in terms of a time-dependent threshold. Moreover, an adaptation factor is introduced to transform long-term threshold value estimates into shift limit proposals. This concept is applied to German CWP studies. Long-term thresholds are estimated by switching linear regression modeling. Exposure variability of shift-based static gravimetric dust measurements is analyzed in comparison to indirectly determined long-term personal average respirable dust exposure intensity to estimate the adaptation factor. By this procedure, an epidemiologically based range of 1.5 to 6 mg/m{sup 3} is derived for the long-term limit proposal for the respirable coal mine dust concentration at the underground work sites of the German coal mining industry. A corresponding range of 5 to 20 mg/m{sup 3} is calculated for the 8-hour shift limit proposals. 58 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Unattached fraction of radon progeny in Polish coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of the monitoring of the radiation hazard in Polish coal mines is based on the monitoring of the workplaces. This system works since 1989 in all coal mines. It gives a very good basis for further epidemiological investigation and assessment of the health detriment within the population of the mines as a result of the exposure for natural radiation. It is very important problem, due to the fact of the presence in the mines another factors, which probably have a synergetic effects on the respiratory tracts. As the routine instrument, a device called ALFA-31 sampling probe was developed in our laboratory. This device was accomplished to regular dust sampler and simultaneous measurements of dust content and potential alpha energy concentration of radon progeny are obligatory in all underground mines in Poland. But the microcyclone used a separator of the respirable fraction which causes the cut-off of unattached fraction of radon progeny, On the other hand measurements of the unattached fraction of short lived radon progeny play a very important role in the investigations of the adequate dose from this source of radiation hazard. During field experiments the use of the alpha spectroscopy system is necessary, while measurements are done not in the vacuum chambers but under normal pressure. It leads to situation, when particular peaks in alpha spectrum are very wide and interfere with other peaks of another alpha-emitting radionuclides. Such instrumentation was designed and completed, and a survey in several underground mines was performed. The analysis of the obtained results must be done very carefully; in other case it may cause a very big uncertainty of the result. In this paper a new approach to the analysis of the alpha spectra has been described. This approach can be used also in other applications of alpha spectroscopy, in which the analysis of energy of alpha peaks in spectrum is needed. The method of the analysis is based on a non-linear regression. The results of the approximation were tested by the method of non-linear regression and very good fitting have been found. Results of the survey show, that the average ratio of unattached and attached fractions is in Polish coal mines at level 3-5%. But it may cause the significant increase of the dose equivalent, due to our calculations at least 15-20% in comparison with dose equivalent caused by attached fraction. (author)

  5. Prediction of groundwater rebound at an abandoned coal mine in Korea using GRAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Choi, Y.; Baek, H.; Shin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Cessation of dewatering generally results in groundwater rebound after closing an abandoned underground coal mine since the mine voids and surrounding strata flood up to the levels of decant points such as shafts and drifts. Several models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW have been developed to predict the timing, magnitude and location of discharges resulting from groundwater rebound. This study developed a GRAM model-based program was developed for ground water rebound modeling in abandoned deep mine systems after mine closure. An application of the program to the Dongwon coal mine in Korea showed that the groundwater level modeled at the shaft of Dongwon coal mine is similar to the observed one in the field. The GRAM model-based program is transferable to other mining areas in both industrialized and less-developed countries. Therefore, the program could reduce the time and effort for predicting mine groundwater rebound and to support mine reclamation planning.

  6. Impact of coal mining subsidence on farmland in eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses damage characteristics of farmland due to coal mining subsidence in eastern China. The landscape of the mining subsidence trough has been divided into three zones; central zone, trough margin zone an dinner-edge zone. Each zone had a specific characteristic of deformation. The water accumulation, prone (downward sloping) land and fissures are typical damage characteristics of the subsidence landscape in eastern China. Based on soils analysis at different positions of the subsidence trough, the impact of mining subsidence on soil properties was identified. The physical properties of soil sensitive to mining subsidence were bulk density, water content and hydraulic conductivity, and they showed worsening form the top to the centre of the subsidence trough. Except for soil electrical conductivity, the tested soil chemical properties were not so sensitive to mining subsidence. They may however change after subsidence. An accumulation of salt was found in both new and old subsidence areas and the old subsidence area had a higher salt content. The soil biomass C in newly subsided land showed a decreasing trend from the top to the centre of the subsidence trough, but no obvious trend was observed in the old subsidence areas. Based on the soil analysis of subsided land, soil erosion was identified as a serious problem, most severe in the middle of the prone land. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Fiscal 1997 report on the survey of overseas geological structures, `the Tanjungenim Coal Exploration Project between Japan and Indonesia`; 1997 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozonado chosa `Nippon Indonesia sekitan kyodo tansa Tanjungenim project`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The basic survey for coal mine development was conducted in the Banjarsari area of Tanjungenim, Sumatra, Indonesia. In the survey, Japan deals with ground surface exploration, borehole physical survey, VSP survey and seismic survey, and Indonesia exploratory drilling, topographical mapping, measurement, hydrologic/hydraulic survey, access road formation, etc. The boreholes drilled are 35 in number and 4004m in total drilling length. The borehole physical survey was conducted in all 35 holes. The seismic survey was conducted on 5 traverse lines and in a total length of 10.19km, and the VSP survey in two boreholes. As a result of the survey, it was found out that there existed a large amount of coal reserve in a comparatively shallow area in the south-central part of the Banjarsari area. There exist faults, which has no great effects on the open pit mining. There is a high possibility of developing large-scale coal mines of open pit mining type with a comparatively low soil removing ratio. Concerning the coal quality, the heating value is comparatively low, the latter half of a 4000 kcal/kg level. It can be expected to realize a pit-mouth power plant which is low in coal carrying cost. 129 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. Statistical Analysis of Sino-U.S. Coal Mining Industry Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiling Wei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Both China and the United States are large countries in coal production and consumption, however, the safety conditions of coal mining production in China are much worse than that of the U.S.. Although the Chinese Administration of Coal Mine Safety improved safety measures to tighten control on coal mining industry, the number of accidents, death toll and fatality rate per million tons were much higher than those of the U.S. in recent years. Based on the statistical analysis of Sino-U.S. coal mining accidents, the paper first came up with the caution from the comparison of Sino-U.S. coal mining industry accidents, then analyzed the reasons for China’s coal mining industry being accident-prone, and then pointed out that the Chinese government should learn from the management experience of American coal mining industry. At last, it brought forward some conclusions and prospects for the development of China’s coal mining industry.

  9. Purification of mine water of radium - The implementation of the technology in a coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In underground coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin there are inflows of highly mineralised waters containing radium isotopes. These waters cause radioactive pollution of the natural environment in mining areas. Therefore cleaning of saline waters of radium is very important. Two types of radium-bearing waters were distinguished - one type containing radium and barium ions, but no sulphates (type A) and another one in which radium and sulphate ions are present but no barium (type B). A very efficient and inexpensive method of purification of saline waters, of Ba2+ and Ra2+ ions was developed and implemented in two coal mines. As the result of used technology, based on application of phosphogypsum as the cleaning agent, a significant decrease of radium discharge was achieved - daily of about 120 MBq of 226Ra and 80 MBq of 228Ra. Another type of radium waters does not contain barium ions, but contains sulphate ions SO42-. There is no carrier for co-precipitation of radium so radium is transported with discharged waters to main rivers. Different method of purification from radium must be applied for such waters. Laboratory and field experiments were performed, and a cleaning method was chosen. For purification of saline waters - waste products from other industrial processes are applied. The method of purification have been applied in full technical scale in coal mine with very good results - of about 6 m3/min of radium-bearing waters is cleaned. Whole this process takes place in underground old workings without any contact of mining crew with radioactive deposits, which are produced during the process. As a result radium amount released to the natural environment was significantly diminished - approximately of about 90 MBq of 226Ra per day and 150 MBq of 228Ra. (author)

  10. Quantitative estimates of greenhouse gas emission from coal mines in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagisaka, M. [Safety Engineering Department, National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Inaba, A. [Energy Resources Department, National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The authors investigated the amount of carbon dioxide and methane release from coal mines in Japan. As the results, 99.5kg-CO2/t-Coal (4.15g-CO2/MJ-Coal) is discharged by the extraction of coal. More than 90% of carbon dioxide discharge by the extraction is caused by energy consumption. Methane emission from coal mine is 11.5kg-CH4/t-Coal (0.480g-CH/MJ-Coal or 16.1m3-CH4/t-Coal). If GWP (Global Warming Potential) is considered, the methane emission gives larger effect to the global warming than the carbon dioxide emission. Comparing the obtained results with foreign data considering the emission by the transportation, it is known that domestic coal has potential to be competitive to imported coal from the point of carbon dioxide emission. 11 refs.

  11. Differential radon measurements for outburst prediction in coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some areas, coal mines are subject to occasional outbursts consisting mainly of carbon dioxide or methane and coal dust. These vary widely in severity, but can cause loss of life. There are several techniques which may permit prediction of the outbursts. These include monitoring acoustic signals or continuous measurement of methane, carbon dioxide or radon concentrations. While it is not expected that any one will be adequate on its own, each technique is being studied so that a combination of all can be evaluated. This paper presents an experiment in which the concentration of radon in underground air is measured with high precision upon entry to and leaving a work face. This was considered the most practicable way to detect any radon flux anomalies preceding an outburst in a working mine. There are many practical difficulties in mounting an experiment in an active mine because of the dusty, wet conditions and because of the need for rigorous safety requirements in an environment which may contain an explosive mixture of air and methane. Details of the development of suitable equipment are given, and an analysis made of the first two months of operation. (author)

  12. Study of waste after quality management in Illawarra coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.N.; Dharmappa, H.B.; Sivakumar, M. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Civil, Mining and Environmental Engineering

    1998-12-31

    This paper is concerned with two case histories of wastewater quality management in underground coal mines in the Illawarra region. The first investigation briefly presents an analysis of mine water discharge having an extremely high concentration of suspended solids and consistently high barium concentrations, averaging 14.4 mg/l Barium, over the sampling period. A laboratory study of chemical precipitation processes has indicated that about 91% of barium could be removed by using ferric sulphate and lime. On the basis of the information obtained from the environmental admit process an alternative water treatment and reuse system incorporating 51% reduction in the water consumption with 32% less off-site discharge has been suggested. The second case history is concerned with the storm water management at a mine situated in the Illawarra escarpment where only 20% of the wastewater generated in the colliery is discharged off-site. Computer modelling of the storm water system showed that 75% of the clean runoff becomes contaminated through poor management practices and causes the process wastewater treatment system to fail in wet weather. Suggested improvements include relatively simple alteration to the coal wash filtration dams which are expected to reduce the periods of inefficient operation of these dams by 95%. The use of storm water diversion channels and detention basins can reduce the overflow volumes by 70-100% for a ten year ARI (Average Recurrence Interval) storm event. 22 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Protocols for the remediation of lands impacted by former coal mining operations, Sydney coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgeron, S. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Abandoned underground coal mines can pose health and safety risks to persons working in close proximity to the former mining operations. This paper described protocols used to address potential coal mining hazards at the Sydney coal field in Nova Scotia (NS). The protocols document was developed by a mine workings group consisting of government agencies, consultants, and the owners of the mine site. Hazards at the mine included unstable ground caused by the collapse of abandoned coal mine workings; unsecured abandoned mine openings; potential accidental discharges of untreated mine waters; and the potential release of hazardous mine gases. A 5 remediation protocol process was established to include (1) information gathering, (2) an initial mine site investigation, (3) a mine workings report, (4) a detailed mine site investigation, and (5) a mine openings remediation. The protocols can be used to identify the potential hazards posed during investigations and remediation activities. 26 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Landscaping after brown coal mining, illustrated by the example of the Rhenish brown coal district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitz, W. von; Moehlenbruch, N.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the older abandoned brown coal mines have become biotopes recommended as landscape preserves in an expert's opinion of 1970. After a long and controversial licensing procedure, a total of 75 ha (31 ha of water and 44 ha of forest) were protected in 1984. The ecological value of the preserves is in the diversity of the biotopes, which are used by birds for breeding, resting, and feeding.

  15. Utilization of open pit burned household waste ash--a feasibility study in Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Obaidul; Sharif, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Informal incineration or open pit burning of waste materials is a common practice in the peripheral area of Dhaka, one of the fastest growing mega-cities in the world. This study deals with the effect of open pit burned (i.e. open burned) household waste bottom ash on ?red clay bricks. Between 0 to 50% (by weight) of open pit burned household waste bottom ash was mixed with clay to make bricks. The molded specimens were air-dried at room temperature for 24 h and then oven dried at 100 °C for another 24 h to remove the water. The raw bricks were fired in a muffle furnace to a designated temperature (800, 900 and 1000 °C, respectively). The firing behaviour (mechanical strength, water absorption and shrinkage) was determined. The microstructures, phase compositions and leachates were evaluated for bricks manufactured at different firing temperatures. These results demonstrate that open pit burned ash can be recycled in clay bricks. This study also presents physical observations of the incinerated ash particles and determination of the chemical compositions of the raw materials by wet analysis. Open pit burned ash can be introduced easily into bricks up to 20% wt. The concentrations of hazardous components in the leachates were below the standard threshold for inert waste category landfill and their environmental risk during their use-life step can be considered negligible. PMID:24646568

  16. One year water chemistry monitoring of the flooding of the Meirama open pit (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J.; Juncosa, R.; Vázquez, A.; Fernández-Bogo, S.

    2009-04-01

    In December, 2007, after 30 years of operations, the mine of Meirama finished the extraction of brown lignite. Starting in April 2008, the flooding of the open pit has started and this is leading to the formation of a large mining lake (~2 km2 surface and up to 180 m depth) in which surface (river and rain water) and ground waters are involved. Since the beginning of the flooding, lake waters are weekly sampled and analyzed for temperature, pH, redox, EC, TDS, TSS, DO,DIC, DOC, turbidity, alkalinity/acidity as well as nearly 40 inorganic chemical components. Stable water isotopes (deuterium and oxygen) are also being recorded. In order to better understand the dynamic chemical evolution of lake waters, the chemical characteristics of rain water as well as a series of lake tributaries and ground waters are also being measured. Since the beginning of the flooding process, the chemical quality of lake water has experienced an interesting evolution that obeys to a variety of circumstances. The silicic geologic substratum of the catchment determines that both ground and surface waters have a rather low alkalinity. Moreover, the presence of disseminated sulfides (mainly pyrite) within the schistous materials of the mine slopes and internal rock dumps provokes a significant acidic load. From April to October 2008, the lake waters had only the contribution of rain and ground waters. Since the beginning of October, a significant volume of surface waters has been derived to the mine hole. Taking pH as indicator, the first water body had a rather acidic pH (~3) which was progressively amended with the addition of a certain amount of lime to reach an upper value of ~8 by late August. The diminution in the addition of lime up to its elimination, in December, has conducted to the progressive acidification of the lake. At present, an instrumented floating deck is being deployed in the lake. This device will serve as a base point where it is planned to locate a series of instrumentation (complete weather monitoring station, multiparametric probe, sediment trap line) that will complement with depth profiles the surficial sampling performed so far.

  17. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4 (2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself. PMID:25800369

  18. Coal Mining vis-â-vis Agriculture in India: A Question of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. It is important to conduct suitable assessment studies to learn the potential adverse impact of mining on agriculture. In the subsequent discussions an attempt has been made to clarify the coal mining activities and its residual impact on environment and agricultural activities.The leaseholds for the underground mines are procured from the land lords who grant mining authority the right for underground coal mining. The land for houses, dwellings and the associated activities are purchased piecemeal from different sources while large portion of the surface right remained under the control of farmers and landlords. Underground mining in these areas is conducted with full responsibility of the surface protection by the operators who normally maintain pillars as the natural support to the surface features. Increasing demand for open caste mining process requires huge land. These lands sometime are acquired at the cost of cultivable land. Coal mining has direct impact over agriculture in the study region and residual impacts of mining bring far reaching consequences. The present study is explanatory in nature based on empirical facts collected from various formal sources from Coal India office. The task is to bring out the issues related to coal mining activities and their impact on vegetation and agriculture in adjoining areas in Raniganj and Jharia coalfields in India through this study.

  19. Coal Seams in the Horna Nitra Valley – the Cigel Mining Area

    OpenAIRE

    Jozef Fazekaš

    2009-01-01

    According to the statistics data, coal will become with no doubt the most important energy source in the 21-st century. The HornaNitra Valley represents one of the main fuels – energy centre of Slovakia. Deposits of caustobioliths – brown coal and lignite presentsignificant raw material potential. The mining companies, along with run-in extraction methods of coal reserves, are giving their timeto a research of untraditional coal processing technologies. An in-situ monitoring of coal seams...

  20. Mining`s new frontier: the Fording Coal G.P.S. experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wusaty, E.; Paulhus, L. [Fording Coal Limited, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    Fording Coal entered into several Global Positioning System (GPS) mining related research and development projects and undertook to develop GPS survey, drill positioning, and shovel locating systems. Fording commissioned a GPS based mine dispatch in December 1994. GPS uses triangulation of radio signals from three (of 24) orbiting satellites to compute the position of the receiver. Atomic clocks provide highly accurate time information to radio encoded signals. Differential systems are required to achieve accuracies of better than 20 metres. Application of GPS based ground survey has increased productivity in four main categories: setup, mobility, availability (i.e. weather does not interfere), and reliability. 15 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Assessment of effective parameters on dilution using approximate reasoning methods in longwall mining method, Iran coal mines

    OpenAIRE

    Owladeghaffari, H.; Shahriar, K.; Saeedi, G. H. R.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately more than 90% of all coal production in Iranian underground mines is derived directly longwall mining method. Out of seam dilution is one of the essential problems in these mines. Therefore the dilution can impose the additional cost of mining and milling. As a result, recognition of the effective parameters on the dilution has a remarkable role in industry. In this way, this paper has analyzed the influence of 13 parameters (attributed variables) versus the de...

  2. Coal mining and the resource community cycle: A longitudinal assessment of the social impacts of the Coppabella coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two social impact assessment (SIA) studies of Central Queensland's Coppabella coal mine were undertaken in 2002-2003 and 2006-2007. As ex post studies of actual change, these provide a reference point for predictive assessments of proposed resource extraction projects at other sites, while the longitudinal element added by the second study illustrates how impacts associated with one mine may vary over time due to changing economic and social conditions. It was found that the traditional coupling of local economic vitality and community development to the life cycle of resource projects-the resource community cycle-was mediated by labour recruitment and social infrastructure policies that reduced the emphasis on localised employment and investment strategies, and by the cumulative impacts of multiple mining projects within relative proximity to each other. The resource community cycle was accelerated and local communities forced to consider ways of attracting secondary investment and/or alternative industries early in the operational life of the Coppabella mine in order to secure significant economic benefits and to guard against the erosion of social capital and the ability to cope with future downturns in the mining sector.

  3. Rehabilitating closed mining sites in North Rhine Westphalia's coal basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ruhr is a German region undergoing a reconversion. In recent years, several thousand jobs have been lost in the coal, iron and steel industries, especially in coal mines. This trend is going to continue. Rehabilitating former industrial sites so that they can welcome new industries and businesses, is decisive for this region. A rapid and financially advantageous reconversion requires coherence and continuity in the rehabilitation measures undertaken by the companies that serve as receivers, by local authorities and by investors who want to launch new projects. All these parties must manage the various phases of this process in a spirit of coordination. Germany can boast of a series of successful reconversions into industrial areas, exhibition facilities, nature reserves, tourist centers and leisure and rest places

  4. Reflotation of Coal Slurries from OKD company, Mine Lazy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Èernotová L.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the work is a verification of selective flotation on the black coal slurries sampled from slurry ponds of Mine Lazy, OKD company. Reflotation was realized with 6 collectors: Flotakol NX, Flotalex Ekofol 440, Montanol, MP 125 and AF 2. The technology of main flotation was applied. The variance analysis was used for the selectivity evaluation of particular collectors, whereby both the yield and flotation concentrate quality were tested. The goal of the flotation experiments was to achieve the flotation concentrate quality under 10% of ash. From the results follows that by using basic flotation it is possible (with the slurry samples to reach the marketable coal concentrates with the ash content under 10% by Flotalex collector application.

  5. Mechanical and electrical properties of mined coal filled polyethylene and polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rojek

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present paper is to present results of basic mechanical properties research of high-density polyethylene and polyamide 6 filled with two kinds of mined coal particles. Because composites with carbon are expected to poses low electric resistance also surface resistivity was measured.Design/methodology/approach: Dependences of tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength, ball hardness and surface resistivity on volume content of mined coal in polymeric matrix are measured and discussed.Findings: Introduction of mined coal fine particles to polyethylene did not cause significant changes in tensile strength, while the same property of polyamide composites decreased significantly. Brinell ball hardness of all polyethylene and polyamide composites increased almost proportionally to coal content. Pronounced lowering of deformability (elongation at break with increasing coal content was observed for all formulations. Also impact strength significantly decreased after mined coal filling. Significant lowering of surface resistivity was noticed especially for coal-polyamide composites.Research limitations/implications: Obtained results showed that mined coal fine particles can be applied as a filler of thermoplastic polymers but poor adhesion between polymer matrix and filler particles was achieved. Additional research on mined coal fine particles modification by coupling agents is needed to develop better adhesion.Practical implications: Obtained results showed that mined coal fine particles can be applied as a filler of thermoplastic polymers but poor adhesion between polymer matrix and filler particles was achieved. Additional research on mined coal fine particles modification by coupling agents is needed to develop better adhesion.Originality/value: Polymer composites with carbon as a modifier has been used for many years but there have been only a few experiments on introducing fine particles of mined coal into thermoplastics.

  6. Improving rockbolt installations in US coal mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.J.S., Spearing; B., Greer; M., Reilly.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of the roughly 100 million rock anchors installed in mines in the USA each year use resin cartridges1. About 4.5 million of these bolts are installed using a mechanical shell in addition to the resin to create an active (pre-tensioned) bolt. Over 1 million of the bolts are passive [...] cable bolts and typically have an effective grout length of 1.2 m, regardless of the cable length, which could be as long as 6 m. The successful performance of the resin grouted bolts depends on several parameters, including the annular gap between the bolt and hole wall, which should be relatively small, ideally from 3 mm to 5 mm. This requirement, combined with the high viscosity of the resin, produces a high back-pressure that can cause the bolt being installed to buckle or not be installed to standard. It is this back-pressure that limits the effective grout length with passive cable bolts and causes the mechanically anchored bolt failures (typically called 'spinners' where the mechanical shell does not anchor). This creates potentially unsafe conditions and wastes time and money. A purpose, built rig was used to mimic underground installations and record the back pressures during full scale applications in the laboratory. This information was used, and is still being used, to reduce the failures and sub-standard installations by producing improved designs. In addition, a flow model was calibrated that can act qualitatively to estimate the back-pressures and can be used as a crude screening process before full scale prototypes are built and tested. To date, the results obtained have been used to stop the use of a mechanical shell due to the proven higher rate of failures. A new, improved mechanical shell is being field tested and another system is under development. The use of the rig is therefore ongoing to develop improved mechanical anchor systems. It is too early for real data; however, anecdotal evidence seems to indicate that significant improvements can and will be made.

  7. COAL AND THE ENVIRONMENT ABSTRACT SERIES. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON MINED-LAND RECLAMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume is the third to appear in the 'Coal and the Environment Abstract Series' and is a new edition of 'Reclamation of Coal Mined-Land: A Bibliography with Abstracts.' The other volumes in the series are 'Mine Drainage Bibliography 1910-1976' and ' A Bibliography on Disposa...

  8. Socio-Economic Impact of Coal Mining Industry in Assam (1826-1947)- A Historical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Sen

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on both primary and secondary sources which highlight the origin and growth of coal mining industry in Assam and also highlight the socio-cultural and economic changes due to industrialization in coal sector during colonial period. Key words: Mining Industry, Industrial Revolution, Legacies, agency, Naga-Patkai belt.

  9. Gas migration from closed coal mines to the surface. Risk assessment methodology and prevention means

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokryszka, Z.; Tauziede, Ch.; Lagny, C. [INERIS, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Guise, Y.; Gobillot, R.; Planchenault, J.M.; Lagarde, R. [Charbonnages de France, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    2005-07-01

    French law as regards renunciation to mining concessions calls for the mining operator to first undertake analyses of the risks represented by their underground mining works. The problem of gas migration to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate to the earth's surface, then present significant risks: explosion, suffocation or gas poisoning risks. As part of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national mining operator Charbonnages de France, a general methodology for assessing the risk linked to gas in the context of closed coal mines. This article presents the principles of this methodology. An application example based on a true case study is then described. This is completed by a presentation of the preventive and monitoring resources recommended and usually applied in order to manage the risk linked to gaseous emissions. (authors)

  10. Gas migration from closed coal mines to the surface. Risk assessment methodology and prevention means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French law as regards renunciation to mining concessions calls for the mining operator to first undertake analyses of the risks represented by their underground mining works. The problem of gas migration to the surface is especially significant in the context of coal mines. This is because mine gas can migrate to the earth's surface, then present significant risks: explosion, suffocation or gas poisoning risks. As part of the scheduled closure of all coal mining operations in France, INERIS has drawn up, at the request of national mining operator Charbonnages de France, a general methodology for assessing the risk linked to gas in the context of closed coal mines. This article presents the principles of this methodology. An application example based on a true case study is then described. This is completed by a presentation of the preventive and monitoring resources recommended and usually applied in order to manage the risk linked to gaseous emissions. (authors)

  11. Structural characteristics of coal mine steel arch supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitri, H.S.; Hassani, F.P. (McGill University, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    Strength and stiffness characteristics of mine roadway arch supports fabricated from open steel H-sections are examined. A numerical modelling technique based on nonlinear finite element analysis is employed to simulate three types of steel arch supports which are widely used in coal mining operations. The technique is verified through a comparison of the model response with test results available in the literature. Numerical results are found to provide excellent agreement with experimental results. A comprehensive parametric study which covers both geometric and loading functions involved is then undertaken. Particular emphasis is placed on the influence the load distribution has on ultimate strength and deformational response of the support. Other parameters considered included the support diameter, its shape, the splay leg angle and the section size. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 13 figs.

  12. Cardowan coal mine explosion: experience of a mass burns incident.

    OpenAIRE

    Allister, C.; Hamilton, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    A coal mine explosion 1700 feet (516 m) underground and two miles (3.2 km) from the pit head resulted in 40 casualties. Two hours elapsed between the explosion and the arrival of patients at hospital. Six patients suffered mechanical injuries, only one of which was life threatening. Thirty six suffered burns; in 18 over 15% of the total body surface area was affected. Nineteen patients had a mild respiratory upset requiring oxygen treatment. The average length of inpatient stay in those admit...

  13. Development and improving the effectiveness of full mechanization and automation of face work in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidenvarg, V.E.; Razumnyak, N.L.; Bushuev, N.P. (Minugleprom SSSR (USSR))

    1991-08-01

    Reviews the degree of mechanization in individual coal basins in the USSR in 1960-1990. Characteristics of coal seams mined and of 17 types of longwall equipment sets used are provided. The Glinik, Fazos and Pioma sets imported from Poland are characterized. Thickness, inclination, roof controllability and stability of coal seams that can be worked, support resistance of the sets and their productivity are given. Goals to be achieved in the process of mining mechanization are named. They are: increase in longwall length, development of coal plow and face end equipment, stableless longwall mining and application of ways and means of loosening basic roofs difficult to cave. 3 refs.

  14. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez; Di?az-aguado, Mari?a B.

    2014-01-01

    Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as we...

  15. Coal-Mac, Inc. Phoenix No. 1 mine provides wildlife haven. 2007 Wildlife West Virginia Award

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, A.

    2007-07-15

    Coal Mac, Inc.'s Harless Wood Industrial Park off Holden 22 Mines Road in Logan Country, West Virginia is an award-winning reclamation site in the mountains frequented by geese, wild turkey, deer and black bears. Orchard grass and rye is a temporary cover for the timothy, clover and other seedlings. The area was mined several years ago. Some 40,000-50,000 tons of coal per month are surfaced mined with the current permit that takes in 1,500-2,000 acres. After removing the coal, valleys are backfilled as part of the mining and reclamation plan. 10 photos.

  16. Preliminary study on regulatory limits of coal mines associated with radionuclides in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, limits of radon concentration and gamma radiation dose rate of coal mines associated with radionuclide in Xinjiang were studied to provide theoretical bases in developing scientific and practical regulatory standards of radiation protection for coal mines associated with radionuclides. It is meaningful in strengthening the supervision to coal mines associated with radionuclides, boosting their development of exploitation and utilization, as well as the protection to the health of worker and public and the environment. It may also provide references in defining the limits of regulatory standards for NORMs associated mining and processing of ore resources. (authors)

  17. Mining in Austria in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral production of Austria, in 1992 - as far as under the supervision of the Austrian Mine Inspectorate, run up to about 50 million t of solid minerals, 1.2 million t of oil and 1.4 billion m3 of natural gas. 88% of the solid minerals comprised industrial minerals, 4% metals, 4% salt and 4% coal. The solid minerals were produced by 352 open pits and 15 underground mines. 3 of the operations worked both on surface and underground and one mine is a well field operation. In total around 8000 people were employed in the field of mining and mineral processing. The minerals produced represent a value of about 15 billion Austrian Schillings (about 1.25 billion US $), the major part being the industrial minerals sector with a share of 7 billion Austrian Schillings and oil and gas with around 4 billion Austrian Schillings. The industrial minerals sector does not play only in Austrian an important role, but contributes also remarkably to the world production. This comprises mainly magnesite, talc, kaolin and graphite where Austria produces more than 1% of the world production. Summarizing, it can be said that the future of the Austrian mining sector is quite prosperous, perhaps better than in some other traditional mining countries in Europe, where the change from the coal and base metals sector towards the industrial sector has not come so far. (orig.)

  18. Rock displacement in mine roadways during mining without leaving coal pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.I.; Mironyuk, O.V.

    1982-10-01

    This paper evaluates convergence of roof and floor in gate roads of working faces during and after longwall mining in the Karaganda basin. The average coal seam thickness was 1.25 m, the direct roof (from 1 to 1.5 m) consisted of aleurites and the main roof (from 3 to 7 m) of sandstone with compression strength from 20 to 35 MPa. The average mining depth was 160 m. The two mine roadways were driven by heading machines. Arched yielding supports were used for strata control in mine roadways. Support spacing was 1 support set/m. Surface of roadway crosscut was 8.1 m/sup 2/. The roadways were driven close to a geologic fault. Convergence of the floor and the roof was analyzed during working face advance and after longwall mining when a mine roadway was used for the second time by the following working face. The results are shown in two diagrams. In one of the gate roads the maximum convergence was 500 mm and in another 251 mm. Rock strata movement caused by caving and by layer separation is evaluated.

  19. Mine soils associated with open-cast coal mining in Spain: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different situations that may be found after the closure of coal mines range from the simple abandonment of pits and spoil tips to areas where reclamation work has led to the creation of artificial soils on a reconstituted surface composed of layers of rock and soil or both types of material. Soils of this type are known as mine soils, amongst which those generated by coal mining have been studied most extensively, both to assess their potential for reclamation and to learn more about their pedogenetic evolution. We present here a review of some of the more important works devoted to this subject. We have found evidence to show that in Spain, just as in other countries, the physical and chemical properties of these anthropogenic soils are changing rapidly and so the mine-soil profiles described can be considered as belonging to very young soils still undergoing incipient but rapid development. We have also found that an analysis of information obtained from the soil parameters of surface samples and its interpretation is of great practical use in restoration processes. Nevertheless, the sampling and description of soil profiles has proved to be of much greater interest, allowing us to reach a clearer understanding of the internal processes and properties that are unique to these types of anthropogenic soil. (Author) 64 refs.

  20. The study of coal mine equipment's comprehensive evaluation index system and evaluation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Shi, G. [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China). Inst. of Economics and Management

    2004-12-01

    Equipment management is one of the important parts of business administration of coal. Most of coal mines take no account of their equipment management, and have no comprehensive and effective evaluation index system. Based on the analysis of the equipment evaluation measures of reform and the applications, the paper builds up a comprehensive and effective evaluation index system of coal mine equipment, and improves the evaluation method with the use of fuzzy theory, analytic hierarchy process and entropy method. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  1. The external costs of coal mining : the case of colleries supplying Kusile power station

    OpenAIRE

    Nkambule, Nonophile P.; Blignaut, James Nelson

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to quantify the external costs of mining and transporting coal to the Kusile coal-fired power station in eMalahleni. Monetary values were estimated for a number of impacts including its contribution to climate change, human health effects of classic air pollutants, mortality and morbidity, impacts of water pollution and water consumption. The results of the study disclosed that coal mining and transportation will inflict costs to both the e...

  2. Development trends in the Lusatian brown coal mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusatia has lived on and with brown coal for over 200 years. Brown coal changed what was once a region in which forestry and agriculture predominated into an industrial region. Thanks to its good combustion properties and high energy yield brown coal very soon became known and popular. It was always the driving force for a rapid development which resulted in an economically sound and technically up-to-date industry in Lusatia. This powerful status of brown coal was however soon exploited for aims which were bound to lead to the downfall of two social structures (during the years from 1933 to 1990) by reason of a regime of unconditional autarchy. The economic and technical development thus initiated certainly brought many advantages, but it also had serious diadvantages. Constant increases in production, as a result of which planned rated outputs were intentionally disregarded, were the rule because production targets had to be met or exceeded. Economic inefficiency led to a scarcity of labour and a shortage of finances. Environmental aims had no priority since production was the absolute, primary objective. Consequently, this regime of economic autarchy ended in an one-way street as far as industry was concerned, a situation which was accompanied by an unexampled destruction of the natural basic living conditions and direct, threatening health hazards to man and nature. The year 1990 saw the beginning of the transition from planned controlled economy to free market ecanned controlled economy to free market economy. The reorganization of the former large combines as corporations was not however merely a formal change, but internally also represented a transformation. The brown coal mining industry manifested its new intention and determination to be economically competitive and unsubsidized in future, to operate in such a way as to be compatible with the environment and to exploit reserves carefully, as well as to render its activities socially compatible. (orig.)

  3. Air pollution problems of dust and trace elements in coal mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presence of dust containing trace elements in ambient air due to coal mining operation is a source of major health threat. The coal and overburden from coal fields have been observed to contain significant concentration of trace elements. The air borne fly ash is enriched with toxic trace element during burning operation in air environment. The suspended and respirable dusts are produced due to dust blasting, drilling, transportation and coal screening operation in coal minings. Control strategy and preventive measures to mitigate disaster due to dust and trace elements are delineated. (author). 11 refs., 6 tabs

  4. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 3: Western Coal Provinces. [More than 1000 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, L.K.; Boyd, C.A.; Daniels, T.F.; Kann, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Western Coal Provinces. This bibliography contains more than 1000 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  5. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  6. Forecast and Prevention of Coal and Gas Outbursts in the Case of Application of a New Mining Method - Drilling of a Coal Pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Hude?ek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Coal and gas outbursts are one of risk factors accompanying the mining of coal in low seams in the Ostrava-Karviná Coalfield.At the use of the method of longwall mining, all coal reserves have not been mined out owing to tectonic faults. For mining outthe residual reserves, the application of a new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar was proposed.The method of mining of a coal seam utilizing long large diameter boreholes is verified in the Paskov Mine (company OKD, JSC –Czech Republic under conditions of rock mass with hazard of rock and gas outbursts in localities of residual pillars left in seams afterfinishing the mining operations performed with using the classical method of longwall working along the strike. [5]Forecast and preventive measures applied to the verification of the new method were based on previous experience withthe mining of seams with hazard of coal and gas outbursts. They accepted fully valid legislation, i.e. Ordinance of Ostrava RegionalMining Authority No. 3895/2002 and supplementary materials (Instructions and Guidelines. The proposed measures respectedthe character of the method being verified. [4]For all areas being mined, projects containing also chapters specifying the problems of ensuring the safety of mining worksand operation under conditions of hazard of coal and gas outbursts were prepared.In the contributions, basic proposals for the principles of coal and gas outburst forecast and prevention when applying the newmining method – drilling of a coal pillar are presented

  7. Proceedings, 95th regular meeting: The Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to the nine convention papers published in these proceedings, information is given on the membership and organization of the Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute. The papers are concerned with the economics and management of coal companies, occupational safety of their employees, public anxiety of the environmental impacts of surface mining, and contracting for mining equipment maintenance. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  8. Reclamation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field studies were carried out to restore the fertility and productivity of coal mine spoil using primary clarifier sludge from paper mill effluent treatment plant and use of specialised culture of biofertilizers and mycorrhizal fungi. Plants namely Tectona grandis, Delbergia sissoo, Gmelina arporea, Emblica officinalis and Cassia seamea were grown. Sludge amendment enhanced the survival rate of plants to 80% compared to 20% in unamended spoil. Plants grown on unamended spoil showed stunted growth. Growth of plants increased by 188-484% when sludge was applied at the rate of 100 tonnes per hectare. At 100 tones per hectare sludge amendment, biofertilizer and mycorrhizae treatment there were 83.7 nodules in shishum as against only 4.6 nodules in case of spoil alone. Further root length was 276% and 281% more respectively in case of shishum and teak. Inoculation of plant saplings with respective biofertilizers and mycorrhizae further increased the plant growth by 144-198%. At Durgapur coal mine, 56,000 saplings of Tectona grandis, Gmelina arporea, Delbergia sissoo, Emblica officinalis, Azadirachta indica, Acacia ariculiformis, Prosopis etc were successfully planted on spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. 10 refs., 5 tabs

  9. 30 CFR 942.20 - Approval of Tennessee reclamation plan for lands and waters affected by past coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...lands and waters affected by past coal mining. 942.20 Section 942.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE...

  10. 77 FR 43721 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR...Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration,...

  11. 76 FR 11187 - Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR...Examinations of Work Areas in Underground Coal Mines for Violations of Mandatory Health or Safety Standards AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration,...

  12. Tanjung Enim IV coal exploration project. Volume III. Preliminary mining plan for South Arahan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Based on the results of the survey carried out at Tanjung Enim in South Sumatra, a mining plan in the South Arahan area was studied. The plan was studied with geological structure, coal quality and social basement facilities as restriction conditions, with the mining amount, selling price and land transportation expenses as fluctuation factors, and using the optimum mining area determination method (pit optimizer), etc. The results of the survey were classified into the following 11 items: 1) assumptions; 2) pit optimization; 3) pit design; 4) long term scheduling; 5) detailed scheduling; 6) waste dumping; 7) mining equipment model case simulation; 8) mine facilities; 9) mine economics; 10) investigation of coal transportation; 11) conclusion. In 1), study was made on geological modeling, coal quality data and mining economics. (NEDO)

  13. Study on Integrated Command Platform for Emergency Rescue in Coal Mines Based on WebGIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the actual needs of the Chinese national emergency rescue base in mining areas, and in order to effectively carry out emergency rescue in coal mine disasters, this article studies the response process of emergency rescue in coal mines, the analysis and calculation methods required in the relief work for mine disasters, the functional requirements of the integrated command platform and relationships between various subsystems. WebGIS is introduced to the mine rescue and combined with the response process of emergency rescue to develop the integrated command platform of emergency rescue in coal mines. At present, the system is successfully applied to the emergency rescue base in Kailuan (located in Tangshan, Hebei Province, and its operational results show that the system can effectively organize emergency rescue in mine disasters, and timely process the disaster data in order to provide technical supports for emergency rescue.

  14. Study on structuring the supervision system of coal mine associated with radionuclides in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinjiang is one of China's rich coal provinces (areas) and it accounts for about 40% national coal reserves. In the long-term radioactive scientific research, monitoring and environmental impact assessment works, we found parts of Yili and Hetian's coal was associated with higher radionuclide, and parts of coal seam even reached nuclear mining level. However the laws and regulations about associated radioactive coal mine supervision were not perfect, and the supervision system is still in the exploration. This article mainly started with the coal mine enterprises' geological prospecting reports, radiation environmental impact assessment and monitoring report preparation for environment acceptance checking and supervisory monitoring, controlled the coal radioactive pollution from the sources, and carried out the research of building Xinjiang associated radioactive coal mine supervision system. The establishment of supervision system will provide technical guidance for the enterprises' coal exploitation and cinders using on the one hand, and on the other hand will provide decision-making basis for strengthening the associated radioactive coal mine supervision for Xinjiang environmental regulators. (authors)

  15. The feasibility of underground pumped storage plants in the active coal mines in the Ruhr district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the expiration of the coal mining in 2018, the mining is leaving an extensive infrastructure. Shaft depths of up to 1200 m, numerous linings at depth and a large area drainage open perspectives for subsequent use as a subsurface pump storage plant. This could be at the current mining locations a contribution to the energy storage problem.

  16. Public drinking water violations in mountaintop coal mining areas of West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop coal mining (MTM) has adverse impacts on surface and ground water quality. Instances of domestic well water contamination from mining activities have been documented, but possible mining impacts on public water treatment systems are unknown. We analyzed the U.S. Envir...

  17. SITE SELECTION AND DESIGN FOR MINIMIZING POLLUTION FROM UNDERGROUND COAL MINING OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine how best to select a layout and mining system and also to develop and operate an underground coal mine while at the same time minimizing pollution of the environment. The pre-mining environment was assessed by sampling Cedar Creek 3 ...

  18. Practice and prospects of fully mechanized mining technology for thin coal seams in China

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Wang; S., Tu; Q., Bai.

    Full Text Available In China, thin coal seams are rich in resources but are technically challenging. The mineable reserves in these seams account for 20.4% of the total coal resources, while the current production accounts for only 10.4% of the total annual production. Characteristics such as narrow mining space, low l [...] evel of mechanization, poor working environment, and high cost of mining, restrict the development of mining safety and efficiency. Recently, fully mechanized mining technology has developed rapidly for thin coal seams, the level of yield and efficiency has reached or exceeded the international standard, and some state-owned key coal mines are considering automation of their mining process. In thin coal seams with hard stone bands that contain concentrations of pyrite, a specialized software, LS-DYNA, is used to calculate the rational blasting parameters that are used in the deep-hole pre-splitting blasting. Using this method the hard stone bands are fractured effectively, and hence increasing the coal productivity. In addition, mining advance rate were increased by enhancing the level of fully mechanized equipment and safety improved by increasing gas drainage from the gas outburst prone seam located some 7 m below the coal horizon. At present, thin coal seam mining technology faces many challenges, including the low level of equipment automation, the low advance rate in mixed coal-rock ground, and the large number of the mine personnel underground. By lowering the labour intensity and improving efficiency through automation and other measures, more efficient working faces can be implemented in thin coal seams.

  19. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  20. Accurate thermodynamic characterization of a synthetic coal mine methane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Accurate density data of a 10 components synthetic coal mine methane mixture are presented. • Experimental data are compared with the densities calculated from the GERG-2008 equation of state. • Relative deviations in density were within a 0.2% band at temperatures above 275 K. • Densities at 250 K as well as at 275 K and pressures above 10 MPa showed higher deviations. -- Abstract: In the last few years, coal mine methane (CMM) has gained significance as a potential non-conventional gas fuel. The progressive depletion of common fossil fuels reserves and, on the other hand, the positive estimates of CMM resources as a by-product of mining promote this fuel gas as a promising alternative fuel. The increasing importance of its exploitation makes it necessary to check the capability of the present-day models and equations of state for natural gas to predict the thermophysical properties of gases with a considerably different composition, like CMM. In this work, accurate density measurements of a synthetic CMM mixture are reported in the temperature range from (250 to 400) K and pressures up to 15 MPa, as part of the research project EMRP ENG01 of the European Metrology Research Program for the characterization of non-conventional energy gases. Experimental data were compared with the densities calculated with the GERG-2008 equation of state. Relative deviations between experimental and estimated densities were within a 0.2% band at temperatures above 275 K, while data at 250 K as well as at 275 K and pressures above 10 MPa showed higher deviations

  1. Genotoxic effects in wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) in an open coal mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Grethel; Pérez, Lyda Espitia; Linares, Juan Carlos; Hartmann, Andreas; Quintana, Milton

    2007-06-15

    Coal is a mixture of a variety of compounds containing mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to coal is considered as an important non-cellular and cellular source of reactive oxygen species that can induce DNA damage. In addition, spontaneous combustion can occur in coal mining areas, further releasing compounds with detrimental effects on the environment. In this study the comet assay was used to investigate potential genotoxic effects of coal mining activities in peripheral blood cells of the wild rodents Rattus rattus and Mus musculus. The study was conducted in a coal mining area of the Municipio de Puerto Libertador, South West of the Departamento de Cordoba, Colombia. Animals from two areas in the coal mining zone and a control area located in the Municipio de Lorica were investigated. The results showed evidence that exposure to coal results in elevated primary DNA lesions in blood cells of rodents. Three different parameters for DNA damage were assessed, namely, DNA damage index, migration length and percentage damaged cells. All parameters showed statistically significantly higher values in mice and rats from the coal mining area in comparison to the animals from the control area. The parameter "DNA Damage Index" was found to be most sensitive and to best indicate a genotoxic hazard. Both species investigated were shown to be sensitive indicators of environmental genotoxicity caused by coal mining activities. In summary, our study constitutes the first investigation of potential genotoxic effects of open coal mining carried out in Puerto Libertador. The investigations provide a guide for measures to evaluate genotoxic hazards, thereby contributing to the development of appropriate measures and regulations for more careful operations during coal mining. PMID:17419090

  2. Financial Incentives to Restructure Coal Mining Industry. Comparative Case Study Romania and State of Michigan, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger HAMLIN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Former coal mining sites have always raised environmental and economic challenges for the areas where they were located, especially for those communities that were highly dependent on the coal mining industry. The present paper will explore the factors leading to the decline of coal mining industry in Romania and State of Michigan, U.S., the social, economic and environmental impact that occurred after closing coal extractions and the approaches that the two states took to reconstruct the economy of the former mining areas. The paper attempts to make recommendations of financial incentives that can be used to foster the economic redevelopment of former coal mining sites in Romania.

  3. Underground coal mine subsidence impacts on surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that subsidence from underground coal mining alters surface water discharge and availability. The magnitude and areal extent of these impacts are dependent on many factors, including the amount of subsidence, topography, geology, climate, surface water - ground water interactions, and fractures in the overburden. There alterations may have positive and/or negative impacts. One of the most significant surface water impacts occurred in July 1957 near West Pittston, Pennsylvania. Subsidence in the Knox Mine under the Coxton Yards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad allowed part of the discharge in the Susquehanna River to flow into the mine and create a crater 200 feet in diameter and 300 feet deep. Fourteen railroad gondola cars fell into the hole which was eventually filled with rock, sand, and gravel. Other surface water impacts from subsidence may include the loss of water to the ground water system, the gaining of water from the ground water system, the creation of flooded subsidence troughs, the increasing of impoundment storage capacity, the relocation of water sources (springs), and the alteration of surface drainage patterns

  4. Petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry of mined coals, western Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Warwick, Peter D. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Gonzalez, Eligio [INGEOMIN, Torre Oeste Parque, Central Piso 8, Caracas 1010 (Venezuela)

    2005-07-20

    Upper Paleocene to middle Miocene coal samples collected from active mines in the western Venezuelan States of Tachira, Merida and Zulia have been characterized through an integrated geochemical, mineralogical and petrographic investigation. Proximate, ultimate, calorific and forms of sulfur values, major and trace element, vitrinite reflectance, maceral concentrations and mineral matter content have been determined for 16 channel samples from 14 mines. Ash yield generally is low, ranging from <1 to 17 wt.% (mean=5 wt.%) on a dry basis (db). Total sulfur content is low to moderate, ranging from 1 to 6 wt.%, db (average=1.7 wt.%). Calorific value ranges from 25.21 to 37.21 MJ/kg (10,840-16,000 Btu/lb) on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis (average=33.25 MJ/kg, 14,300 Btu/lb), placing most of the coal samples in the apparent rank classification of high-volatile bituminous. Most of the coal samples exhibit favorable characteristics on the various indices developed to predict combustion and coking behavior and concentrations of possible environmentally sensitive elements (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Th and U) generally are similar to the concentrations of these elements in most coals of the world, with one or two exceptions. Concentrations of the liptinite maceral group range from <1% to 70 vol.%. Five samples contain >20 vol.% liptinite, dominated by the macerals bituminite and sporinite. Collotelinite dominates the vitrinite group; telinite was observed in quantities of |1 vol.% despite efforts to better quantify this maceral by etching the sample pellets in potassium permanganate and also by exposure in an oxygen plasma chamber. Inertinite group macerals typically represent <10 vol.% of the coal samples and the highest concentrations of inertinite macerals are found in distantly spaced (>400 km) upper Paleocene coal samples from opposite sides of Lago de Maracaibo, possibly indicating tectonic controls on subsidence related to construction of the Andean orogen. Values of maximum reflectance of vitrinite in oil (R{sub o max}) range between 0.42% and 0.85% and generally are consistent with the high-volatile bituminous rank classification obtained through ASTM methods. X-ray diffraction analyses of low-temperature ash residues indicate that kaolinite, quartz, illite and pyrite dominate the inorganic fraction of most samples; plagioclase, potassium feldspar, calcite, siderite, ankerite, marcasite, rutile, anatase and apatite are present in minor or trace concentrations. Semiquantitative values of volume percent pyrite content show a strong correlation with pyritic sulfur and some sulfide-hosted trace element concentrations (As and Hg). This work provides a modern quality dataset for the western Venezuela coal deposits currently being exploited and will serve as the foundation for an ongoing coal quality research program in Venezuela.

  5. Economy, environmental issues and market requirements. The example of coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domestic coal mining is in a recession stage now. The cost of mining increases and the European market is saturated. The projection of the needs for solid fuels till 2000 was analyzed based on an investigation made among 80 large-scale customers and in the municipal and household sphere. Demands for bituminous coal for power plants exhibit an increasing trend. From the environmental point of view it is unfavourable that, as the district authorities suppose, brown coal and bituminous coal sludges will continue to be used by the households and communities after 2000. The problem of the mining and processing costs and of the related coal prices is a crucial issue in the future development of fuel mining in the Czech Republic. (M.D.). 3 refs

  6. Study of coal mine belt conveyor state on-line monitoring system of based on DTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yubin; Wu, Wenming; Liu, Tongyu; Sun, Yajun

    2013-09-01

    Coal mine belt transport system is the most important transportation system, directly determines the normal operation of coal mine production safety, so it is necessary to secure real-time online monitoring of running status. Based on distributed optical fiber temperature measurement technology, developed a coal mine belt conveyor running state online monitoring system, achieved to monitor the Real-time temperature of mainly electromechanical device and all the belt line. Field data analysis showed that coal mine belt conveyor state on-line monitoring system of based on DTS can real-time accurately monitor the temperature and belt conveyor running state, to guarantee the coal belt conveyor safe operation and offer a strong support.for the realization of the state maintenance of equipment.

  7. The grey interrelation analysis and trend prediction on the safety accident in Kailun Coal Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z.; Ding, Y.; Zhao, C. [Kailun (Group) Limited Liability Corporation, Tangshan (China)

    2003-02-01

    The man-machine-environment systems in Kailuan Coal Mines is taken as the object of study to make the grey interrelation analysis for coal mine accidents and related factors by integrating the Grey System Theory with actual coal mine production. It also forecasts the accident development trend in coalmine in accordance with the accident statistics of coalmine by means of the grey forecast method. The injury rate per 1000 persons in Jinggezhuang Coal Mine in 2001 and 2002 was forecast and the results were 8.1043 and 7.7033 respectively. The process and the result in the analysis and forecast indicate that the method is simple and easy to use, and the result is reliable. The method and result of the study provide the theoretical reference for the quantitative study in coalmine accidents, as well as the basis for decision-making on safety management of coal enterprise. 3 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Alunites in the red beds of the “Marcel” coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wyszomirski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the so-called red beds of the “Marcel” coal mine, Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB,the authors have recorded the presence of alunite and natroalunite using XRD, IR and SEM/EDS. Both ofthem contain probably isomorphic substitutions of barium, strontium, phosphorus and, possibly, thehydronium ion. These two minerals preferably occur at the bottom of the red beds, in clay laminae overlyinga partly preserved coal seam; they are cryptocrystalline: their rhombohedral crystals, with a cube-like habit,are below 1 m. The sulphates coexist mainly with clay minerals (illite, halloysite, kaolinite-D, smectite andhematite, while quartz, siderite and sphalerite are subordinate or occur in traces. The genesis of the aluniteand natroalunite has been linked to the final stage of the alteration of Carboniferous rocks and coal into thered beds in complex weathering and diagenetic-epigenetic processes. Both minerals must have been formedby metasomatosis of a clay precursor, affected by sulphuric acid resulting from supergenic oxidation ofsulphides (mainly pyrite dispersed in the Carboniferous strata.

  9. Black coal mining in the Ruhr area - development, political framework, regional involvement and diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whenever mention is made of public budget cost cutting measures by reducing subsidies, the German black coal industry also attracts attention. The ensuing discussions general consist of at least two explosive aspects: Energy policy, because hard coal-along with brown coal - is the only energy source largely available in the Federal Republic of Germany; regional policy, because the nature of coal mining makes is very concentrated in certain areas. The resolutions made in November 1991 towards a new concept of coal mining are secure grounds enough to take stock of the meaning of hard coal mines in the largest German coal reserve - The Ruhr Area. There are four main aspects: Firstly, the development of the Ruhr mines since the end of the war is sketched out (Section I); the related political implications will be explored in Section 2; due to the particular importance of coal mines in the Ruhr area, Section 3 is concerned with the sector's regional relationship; the final section (No. 4) explores the question of diversification in the production programme at Ruhrkohle AG, one of the several Ruhr mining industry businesses. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of remediation of coal mining wastewater by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benassi, J.C.; Laus, R.; Geremias, R.; Lima, P.L.; Menezes, C.T.B.; Laranjeira, M.C.M.; Wilhelm, D.; Favere, V.T.; Pedrosa, R.C. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the remediation of mining wastewater effluents by chitosan microspheres using biomarkers of exposure and effect. DNA damage (Comet assay) and several biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as lipoperoxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), were measured in blood and liver of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed for 7, 15, and 30 days to dechlorinated tap water, 10% coal mining wastewater (CMW), and coal mining wastewater treated with chitosan microspheres (RCM). The results obtained indicated that the use of oxidative stress biomarkers were useful tools for the toxicity evaluation of coal mining effluents and also suggest that chitosan microspheres may be used as an alternative approach for remediation of coal mining wastewaters.

  11. The review of the production of the drilling and mining machine plant GLINIK in Gorlice for coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmura, C. (Fabryka Maszyn Wiertniczych i Gorniczych GLINIK, Gorlice (Poland))

    1989-08-01

    Discusses types of equipment manufactured by the GLINIK plant for drilling and mining. The following equipment types are evaluated: GLINIK powered supports for thin or medium coal seams, powered supports for longwall faces mined with hydraulic stowing, pneumatic stowing or with caving, powered supports with a mobile stowing screen, light walking supports for high longwall faces with weak floors, GLINIK powered supports with a swing-sliding canopy, SHC hydraulic props, SWS-38S coal plows, equipment cooperating with coal plows. Technical specifications of each equipment type are discussed.

  12. The natural radioactivity in vicinity of the brown coal mine Tusnica - Livno, BiH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal mine Tusnica is located in South-West part of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the municipality Livno. Coal mine Tusnica consists of two surface coal mines. The first one is brown coal surface deposit called Drage and second one is lignite deposit called Table. The brown coal deposit shows increased levels of natural radionuclides. The highest absorbed dose rate is recorded in the center of the surface coal mine Tusnica-Drage (500 nGy h-1) as result of the increased content of uranium and radium in coal (average specific activity of U-238 is 623 ± 23 Bq kg-1 and Ra-226 is 1191 ± 5 Bq kg-1). Levels of natural radionuclides in the vicinity of the surface deposit Drage in agricultural soil (about 3 km of the centre mine) are slightly increased due to the use of the coal ash and coal dust for fertilization of the land (U-238 is 142 ± 11 Bq kg-1 and Ra-226 is 197 ± 2 Bq kg-1). Obtained results in soil-plant-animal products chain does not show significantly increased levels of natural radionuclides due to the fact that mentioned radionuclides, in general, have a low transfer factors in soil-plant-animal products chain. (author)

  13. Coal Seams in the Horna Nitra Valley – the Cigel Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Fazekaš

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics data, coal will become with no doubt the most important energy source in the 21-st century. The HornaNitra Valley represents one of the main fuels – energy centre of Slovakia. Deposits of caustobioliths – brown coal and lignite presentsignificant raw material potential. The mining companies, along with run-in extraction methods of coal reserves, are giving their timeto a research of untraditional coal processing technologies. An in-situ monitoring of coal seams geo-technological propertiescontributes in a significant way to obtain some complex knowledge on interactions of certain determining factors which influencethe coal gases formation underground.

  14. Geomorphological Analysis of Gare Pelma Sector – III for the Environmental Impact Assessment due to Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava K. Iyengar*

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The land use in the Gare pelma sector III will undergo gradual changes during mine life due to mine development. The associated activities of coal extraction, storage, washing, loading/ unloading, transportation, reclamation and rehabilitation , needs space beyond the mining area . It is the need of the hour to analyze the landscape usages and the need in future perspective of the environmental impact assessment. Raigarh area has abundant coal and the extraction of coal deposit is going on rampantly at the stake of environment.

  15. Neuronet Modelling of the Processes of Budgeting and Use of Labour Resources at Coal Mining Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hl?nska Olha M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues of efficient budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises. It proves expediency of use of modern neuronet, namely, multilayer perceptron, for solution of tasks of modelling the process of budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises. It shows that Statistika is the best software package for creation of neuronets of the multilayer perceptron architecture. On the basis of analysis and comparative characteristic the article selects the topology and builds a neuronet model of budgeting and use of labour resources at coal mining enterprises.

  16. Identification of Security Status of Production Logistics System in Coal Mine Based on RS–SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of security status of production logistics system in coal mine is important to analyze the weak links and improve the safety level of coal mine safety production. Combining with the particularity and complexity of production logistics system of coal mine, this paper established an identification model of safe state by using the rough set theory (RS and support vector machine method (SVM. It selected key safety index with the theory of rough set, and used SVM to identify safety status. It showed that identification model of security state based on RS-SVM simplified the computational complexity and improved the identification accuracy of security state.

  17. Water quality of coal deposits and abandoned mines, Saginaw County, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Coal was last mined in Saginaw County, Michigan in 1950. Water from abandoned mines and from undisturbed coal-bearing beds in the Saginaw Formation is highly mineralized and contains high concentrations of iron. Compared to streams in the area, the water contains higher concentrations of at least 15 constituents including boron, phenol, lithium, strontium, and manganese. Water from abandoned mines and coal-bearing beds is a poor source of water for domestic, public, or agricultural uses. Large amounts of this highly mineralized ground water reaching local streams would have a deleterious effect on surface-water quality. (USGS)

  18. Safety Psychology Applicating on Coal Mine Safety Management Based on Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baoyue; Chen, Fei

    In recent years, with the increase of intensity of coal mining, a great number of major accidents happen frequently, the reason mostly due to human factors, but human's unsafely behavior are affected by insecurity mental control. In order to reduce accidents, and to improve safety management, with the help of application security psychology, we analyse the cause of insecurity psychological factors from human perception, from personality development, from motivation incentive, from reward and punishment mechanism, and from security aspects of mental training , and put forward countermeasures to promote coal mine safety production,and to provide information for coal mining to improve the level of safety management.

  19. Plan for injection of coal combustion byproducts into the Omega Mine for the reduction of acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Omega Mine Complex is located outside of Morgantown, West Virginia. The mine is in the Upper Freeport Coal, an acid-producing coal seam. The coal was mined in a manner that has resulted in acid mine drainage (AMD) discharges at multiple points. During the 1990's, the West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) assumed responsibility for operating a collection and treatment system for the AMD. Collection and treatment costs are approximately $300,000 per year. Injecting grout into the mine workings to reduce AMD (and thus reducing treatment costs) is proposed. The procedure involves injecting grout mixes composed primarily of coal combustion byproducts (CCB's) and water, with a small quantity of cement. The intention of the injection program is to fill the mine voids in the north lobe of the Omega Mine (an area where most of the acidity is believed to be generated) with the grout, thus reducing the contact of air and water with potentially acidic material. The grout mix design consists of an approximate 1:1 ratio of fly ash to byproducts from fluidized bed combustion. Approximately 100 gallons of water per cubic yard of grout is used to achieve flowability. Observation of the mine workings via subsurface borings and downhole video camera confirmed that first-mined areas were generally open while second-mined areas were generally partially collapsed. The injection program was developed to account for this by utilizing closer injection hole spacing in tilizing closer injection hole spacing in second-mined areas. Construction began in January 1998, with grout injection expected to commence in mid-April 1998

  20. Geophysical control system of radiation-hygienic coal quality, to be mined by open method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to the system of geophysical control of radiation-hygienic quality of Urtuisky brow-coal deposit coal, created in Priargunsky industrial mine-chemical association. Coal of the above-mentioned deposit is characterized by high content of natural radionuclides. The system is noted for monitoring of natural radionuclide level in initial coal and in products of its burning at all stages of technological process of mining, transportation and utilization of fuel, with the use of gamma methods (logging, sampling, rapid analysis

  1. In-seam drilling technologies for underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Dunn, P.; Hatherly, P. [Cooperative Research Centre for Mining Technology and Equipment, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    There are several in-seam coal research projects currently under investigation by the Cooperative Research Centre for Mining Technology and Equipment (CMTE). The overall aim of the projects is to produce new technologies to enhance safety and the efficiency of in-seam gas drainage drilling. Results from high pressure waterjet rotary drilling trials indicate that by applying high pressure water to a rotary drill bit, the hole can be drilled to follow the planned trajectory very closely. Steerable drill bits for drilling long holes {gt} km) have been produced and trialed. A flexible high speed drilling system provides a capacity for rapid in-seam drilling, particularly suited to cross panel drainage. Geophysical tools are being developed to provide a geological steering capability and a better understanding of potential gas outbursts zones. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  2. WORKPLACE AS AN OBJECT OF ACCOUNTING AT COAL MINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Nikolaevich Kuletskoy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to evaluating the effectiveness of the workplace on the coal-mining enterprise based on an integrated consideration of three aspects: organizational, technological, social, labor, organizational and economic. In accordance with the definition given to aspects of the workplace: as part of the organization of production, the labor process, organizational and economic relations. Shows the structure of the workplace as an object of accounting, including: objective function, the subject of labor, means of labor, the subject of labor.Defined parameters describing the results obtained in the workplace, and the cost of its operation.The experience in the organization poobektnogo accounting efficiency in the use of jobs in the "Cut Tugnuisky."

  3. Slope stability of rectify coal waste embankments on mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is of a theoretical and experimental character, focusing on the results of field tests on the load-bearing capacity and stability of high (> 20m.) transportation embankments rectified with coal waste. The embankments are located in industrial areas subjected to the intense impact of underground mining. Such phenomena are also accompanied by essential changes in the water conditions of the subsoil. The results of model tests by SIR geo-radar used to non-damaging estimation of the suffusion occurring in the embankment constructed on non-waste materials are discussed. The numerical assessment of the filtration process has been based on the MFE and MBE programs, which are extended calculation procedures enabling the overall estimation of the redistribution of all the stress-strain components in the structure, in consideration of any hypothesis of the boundary state

  4. Cardowan coal mine explosion: experience of a mass burns incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allister, C; Hamilton, G M

    1983-08-01

    A coal mine explosion 1700 feet (516 m) underground and two miles (3.2 km) from the pit head resulted in 40 casualties. Two hours elapsed between the explosion and the arrival of patients at hospital. Six patients suffered mechanical injuries, only one of which was life threatening. Thirty six suffered burns; in 18 over 15% of the total body surface area was affected. Nineteen patients had a mild respiratory upset requiring oxygen treatment. The average length of inpatient stay in those admitted was 24 days. Early assessment and treatment in the accident and emergency department was relatively simple because of the large proportion of burn injuries. Lack of communication between site and hospital made administration of the disaster difficult. PMID:6409324

  5. A quarter century of coal mining and hydrogeologic research in southeastern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two valuable natural resources coexist in eastern Montana--coal and ground water. Water related issues are the major concerns during coal mine permit decisions. Due to the concerns about mining related impacts, ground water in the vicinity of coal mines has been continuously monitored since 1970. The continuity and duration of the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology monitoring program under a variety of geologic, mining, and post-mining conditions have provided a fundamental knowledge on impacts to water levels and water quality. Coal beds are among the most dependable and utilized aquifers in eastern Montana, due to their lateral continuity and fracture-related transmissivity. In response to coal strip mining, water levels in coal-bed aquifers have dropped at distances as far as 2 miles away from mines near Colstrip, and as far as 15 miles from mines near Decker. Water levels typically return to pre-mining levels within several years after pits are backfilled. Mining-induced drawdown in stratigraphically deeper aquifers exceed those in mined aquifers in some areas, and relate to inadequately plugged boreholes from older exploration drilling programs. Dissolved-solids concentrations of water in the spoils aquifers have increased by 50 to 200% due to the dissolution of newly available salts of calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfate. However, in some sites freshening of the water appears to be occurring as initial salt loads are flushed through the systems. Water-qualit flushed through the systems. Water-quality impacts are expected in off-site and deeper aquifers due to normal ground-water flow, and in deeper aquifers due to poorly plugged exploration drill holes. However, downgradient impacts to water quality are rarely observed. Future ground-water monitoring should document stable water levels and improving water quality as spoils aquifers reach equilibrium with local undisturbed hydrologic systems

  6. Tracing the interaction of acid mine drainage with coal utilization byproducts in a grouted mine: Strontium isotope study of the inactive Omega Coal Mine, West Virginia (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to ameliorate acidic discharge, the inactive Omega Coal Mine, West Virginia was partially filled by injection of a grout consisting of 98% coal utilization byproducts (CUB), including fluidized bed combustion ash and fly ash, and 2% Portland cement. In this study, discharge chemistry and Sr isotope ratios were determined to identify and quantify the extent of interaction between mine waters and the CUB-cement grout. Eight sampling sites were monitored around the downdip perimeter of the mine. The major and trace element chemistry of the discharges was generally not sufficient to distinguish between discharges that interacted with grout and those that did not. Elements that showed the most separation include K and As, which were elevated in some waters that interacted with CUB-cement grout. In contrast, the Sr isotope ratios clearly distinguished discharges from grouted and non-grouted areas. Discharges that bypassed the grouted portions had 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.71510 to 0.71594, while two discharges that interacted with grout had ratios in the range of 0.71401-0.71456. The Treatment Inlet, which includes both grouted and ungrouted discharges, yielded intermediate isotopic ratios. Leaching experiments on CUB-cement grout, coal and surrounding rocks are consistent with the isotopic trends observed in the discharges. Based on these results, waters that interacted with grout received 30-40% of their Sr from the CUB-cement grout ma% of their Sr from the CUB-cement grout material. These results suggest that the grout material is chemically eroding at a rate of approximately 0.04% per year. This novel application of the Sr isotope system illustrates its ability to sensitively track and quantify fluid interaction with coal and CUB-based grout.

  7. The impact of mining activities at the North Bohemian Brown Coal Mines on public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface mines are a major source of dust. Dust particles contribute to fogs and pose a hindrance to solar radiation. Spontaneous fire often breaks out during mining. Power plants and households burning brown coal produce sulfur dioxide from which H2SO4 aerosol can form. Dust and SO2 enter the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and contribute to the development of bronchoconstriction and tracheobronchitis and bronchospasm in asthmatics. Oxides of nitrogen can cause, e.g., changes in the metabolism of prostaglandin, lung cell damage, lung edema, and changes in cellular lipids. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as benzopyrene and benzanthracene, which can induce cancer, are also emitted. Observed pollutant levels in air are reported and remedial actions are proposed. (M.D.). 5 figs., 6 tabs., 6 refs

  8. Rehabilitating mine land in urban environments the coal mine `Minister Achenbach`, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genske, D.D.; Noll, P. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering

    1995-06-01

    The recycling of an abandoned deep coal mine, the 100 year old `Minister Achenbach`, in the German Ruhr District is described. Procedures for a rapid, cost-effective remediation are indicated. The correct interpretation of historical information and the results of a field study to locate contamination and inhomogeneities in the ground were important considerations in planning the project. Public and private cooperation and funding are required for this redevelopment. The redevelopment will be completed in 1996. More than twenty firms will be located on the site. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  9. USGS compilation of geographic information system (GIS) data representing coal mines and coal-bearing areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Dai, Shifeng; Tewalt, Susan J.; Chou, Chiu-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled geographic information system (GIS) data representing the known coal mine locations and coal-mining areas of China as of 2001. These data are now available for download, and may be used in a GIS for a variety of energy resource and environmental studies of China. Province-scale maps were also created to display the point locations of coal mines and the coal-mining areas. In addition, coal-field outlines from a previously published map by Dai and others (2012) were also digitized and are available for download as a separate GIS data file, and shown in a nation-scale map of China. Chemical data for 332 coal samples from a previous USGS study of China and Taiwan (Tewalt and others, 2010) are included in a downloadable GIS point shapefile, and shown on a nation-scale map of China. A brief report summarizes the methodology used for creation of the shapefiles and the chemical analyses run on the samples.

  10. Gas seepage equation of deep mined coal seams and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo-zhong Hu; Hong-tu Wang; Hai-xiang Tan; Xiao-gang Fan; Zhi-gang Yuan [Chongqing University, Chongqing (China). Key Lab. for Exploitation of China Southwestern Resources and Environmental Disaster Control Engineering

    2008-12-15

    In order to obtain a gas seepage law of deep mined coal seams, according to the properties of coalbed methane seepage in in-situ stress and geothermal temperature fields, the gas seepage equation of deep mined coal seams with the Klinkenberg effect was obtained by confirming the coalbed methane permeability in in-situ stress and geothermal temperature fields. Aimed at the condition in which the coal seams have or do not have an outcrop and outlet on the ground, the application of the gas seepage equation of deep mined coal seams in in-situ stress and geothermal temperature fields on the gas pressure calculation of deep mined coal seams was investigated. The comparison between calculated and measured results indicates that the calculation method of gas pressure, based on the gas seepage equation of deep mined coal seams in in-situ stress and geothermal temperature fields can accurately be identical with the measured values and theoretically perfect the calculation method of gas pressure of deep mined coal seams. 24 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Recent advances in remote coal mining machine sensing, guidance, and teleoperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralston, J.C.; Hainsworth, D.W.; Reid, D.C.; Anderson, D.L.; McPhee, R.J. [CSIRO Exploration & Minerals, Kenmore, Qld. (Australia)

    2001-10-01

    Some recent applications of sensing, guidance and telerobotic technology in the coal mining industry are presented. Of special interest is the development of semi or fully autonomous systems to provide remote guidance and communications for coal mining equipment. The use of radar and inertial based sensors are considered in an attempt to solve the horizontal and lateral guidance problems associated with mining equipment automation. Also described is a novel teleoperated robot vehicle with unique communications capabilities, called the Numbat, which is used in underground mine safety and reconnaissance missions.

  12. Overview of recent developments by USBM in coal mine design using numerical modeling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kripakov, N.P.; Sun, M.-C.; Oelfke, S.M. [US Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Research Center

    1995-10-01

    Numerical modelling methods in coal mine design being developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines are described. Two computer programs (MULSIM/PC and MULSIM/NL), which are based on boundary element techniques, are described, with examples given to show their application to ground control during coal mining. A method is described using boundary element and finite element models to analyze the potential progressive failure of a yielding pillar gate road system. The procedure allows simulation of a three-dimension problem by coupling two models that are two-dimensional. The relevance of the results are considered with regard to practical mine design. 24 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Response of surface springs to longwall coal mining Wasatch Plateau, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-extraction longwall coal mining creates zones in the overburden where strata bend, fracture, or cave into the mine void. These physical alterations to the overburden stratigraphy have associated effects on the hydrologic regime. The US Bureau of Mines (SBM) studied impacts to the local hydrologic system caused by longwall mining in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Surface springs in the vicinity of two coal mines were evaluated for alterations in flow characteristics as mining progressed. Fourteen springs located above the mines were included in the study. Eight of the springs were located over longwall panels, four were located over barrier pillars and mains, and two ere located outside the area disturbed by mining. Flow hydrographs for each spring were compared to climatic data and time of undermining to assess if mining in the vicinity had influenced flow. Heights of fracturing and caving in the overburden resulting from seam extraction were calculated using common subsidence formulas, and used in conjunction with elevations of springs to assess if fracturing influenced the water-bearing zones studied. One spring over a panel exhibited a departure from a normally-shaped hydrograph after being undermined. Springs located over other mine structures, or outside the mine area did not show discernible effects from mining. The limited response of the springs was attributed to site-specific conditions that buffered mining impacts including the elevation of the springs abovncluding the elevation of the springs above the mine level, and presence of massive sandstones and swelling clays in the overburden materials

  14. Redox processes in a eutrophic coal-mine lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman-Ross, G.; Charlet, L.; Tisserand, D.; Glemme, M. [University of Grenoble, Grenoble (France)

    2005-10-15

    The water column chemistry of lake St Eloy (St Eloy-les Mines, Allier, France) was monitored over a period of a year. This is a small stratified lake created by subsidence of an underground coal mine. The results show a permanent stratification and the development of two water bodies with contrasting chemistry. The superficial oxic layer (i.e. the upper 5 m) is of high water quality and the water, not affected by seasonal changes, is suitable as a source of drinking water. In contrast, the deeper layer is permanently anoxic and the waters have a conductivity which is six times greater than in the epilimnion. Due to density difference and the small size of the lake, no turn-over occurs and all elements that diffuse from bottom sediments are strongly concentrated in the hypolimnion. Arsenic concentrations are very low in the epilimnion, but they increase quickly with depth below the oxycline, to reach up to 7 {mu} M below 8 m depth. Different solid phases could control the fate of arsenic in this lake such as gypsum for As(V) in the hypolimnion, mackinawite for As(V) and As(III) in the hypolimnion, and close to the oxycline, Fe(III) oxyhydroxides are possible hosts for both As(III) and As(V).

  15. Developing hydraulic coal mining technology in China today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.L.

    1979-10-01

    China can draw upon over 20 years of experience in hydromining technology. Hydrobreaking of coal with large-diameter jets at high pressure is the leading feature of hydromining as practiced in China today. Monitor jet mining with a peak outlet pressure of 200 kilograms per square centimeter and a flow-rate of 250 to 300 cubic meters per minute is in use. For breaking the harder seams, the mining capacity can be up to 200 tons per hour with a power consumption of about 7 kilowatt hours per ton. The EMS1 - 30-type mechanical - hydraulic roadheader with an advance rate of 1000 meters or greater per month ensures the required speed of development to keep up with the rate of extraction, thus providing high and stable production. Through experimental investigations of monitor jet parameters and properties, laws governing the variations of monitor jet dynamic parameters as well as the monitor design criteria have been defined. As a result of the experience gained in relation to the various process links and equipment involved in a hydromining system, China is now capable of designing large-scale hydromines as well as manufacturing complete sets of hydromining equipment and putting them effectively into production.

  16. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of safe mining to heavy and steep coal seam under complex geophysics environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ning-bo; Li, Li-bo; Lai, Xing-ping; Chai, Xin [Xi' an University of Science and Technology, Xi' an (China). School of Energy and Resource

    2008-09-15

    In virtue of effect of N-S intensive ground stress and mining disturbance to the +579E2EB{sub 1+2} mining site at Weihuliang Mine, the dip angle and section height being 65{sup o} and 52 m, respectively, collapses happened frequently during mining. Firstly, mining conditions, spatial structure and parameters were investigated. Then physical simulation and dynamic numerical tracing and elaborate simulation relating roof and top-coal were applied based on 2D-Block Program and quantitative regularity of stress at variable depths had been estimated. Furthermore, it was manifested that effective measures, i.e., fast mining, control symmetrical top-coal-caving at dip and strike directions, optimizing and the ventilation system were performed successfully in mining practice. Ultimately, the derived dynamic hazard was prevented. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Methodology for monitoring land reclamation of coal mining dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of reclaiming coal mining dumps is to create a stable and self-sustaining land surface that can, in the long term, be put to some productive use. The relationship that is established between the soil and vegetation is the starting point for the newly created ecosystem to enter into a dynamic evolution. In order to know this evolution, it is necessary to develop a methodology for monitoring systematically the reclaimed surfaces. This monitoring methodology should make it feasible to continuously evaluate the obtained results and serve to clarify the potential uses of the reclaimed lands. This paper explains a monitoring methodology implemented at the mining waste dump at the Puentes Mine in Spain. It consists of the selection of 11 plots on the basis of the time the spoils have been exposed to weathering, the type of reconstructed soils, the reclamation system applied, and the revegetation success. Furthermore, an attempt was made to include every possible situation in the dump. Over a period of 3 years, the evolution of the physicochemical conditions of the reconstructed soils, the soil organisms, the herbaceous species, mycorrhizae, tree species, and vertebrates in these plots were studied. The paper also defines the parameters that need to be controlled within each phase of the study. The results obtained reveal the necessity to place the spoils selectively in the dump, the possibilities offered by the ashes as amendments, and the importance of apes as amendments, and the importance of applying organic fertilizers, seeding herbaceous species as a first phase, selecting tree species, and introducing the vertebrates, soil organisms, and mycorrhizae gradually

  19. Mine planning and equipment selection 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardygora, M.; Paszkowska, G.; Sikora, M. (eds.) [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following subject headings: open pit and underground mine planning, modelling and design; geomechanics; mining and processing methods; design, monitoring and maintenance of mine equipment; simulation, optimization and control of technological processes; management, mine economics and financial analysis; and health, safety and environmental protection.

  20. Proceedings of the fourth WVU conference on coal mine electrotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, M.D. (ed.)

    1978-10-01

    Thirty-nine papers from the Proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered included mine power systems, mine instrumentation, mine illumination, mine communications, automatic control and monitoring, regulations, power distribution instrumentation, power distribution equipment, electrical systems for mine trolleys, on-line computer control of mines and monitoring using microprocessors. (LTN)

  1. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ...than 12 hours, and that dust sampling devices generally last for...appropriate timeframes to switch out sampling devices, Coal Mine Dust Personal...is based on improvements in sampling technology, MSHA experience, updated data, and...

  2. 67 FR 3370 - Coal Mining Point Source Category; Amendments to Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-23

    ...2. Western Alkaline Coal Mining Subcategory C. Costs and Cost Savings of the Final...Pennsylvania's remining sites in the estimation of costs or benefits. EPA's cost...estimates EPA used in the estimation of costs and benefits (these...

  3. 76 FR 24918 - Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation Proposed Renewal of Existing Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ...Coal Mine Workers' Compensation administers the Black Lung Benefits Act (30 U.S...administer the Black Lung Benefits Act. Agency: Office of Workers' Compensation Programs. Type of...Miner's Claim for Benefits under the Black...

  4. 76 FR 24919 - Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation Proposed Renewal of Existing Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ...Office of Workers' Compensation Programs is soliciting...Coal Mine Workers' Compensation administers the Black Lung Benefits Act (30 U.S...administer the Black Lung Benefits Act. Agency: Office of Workers' Compensation Programs....

  5. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs

  6. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagioni, K. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs.

  7. 76 FR 45612 - Notice of Availability of the Buckskin Mine Hay Creek II Coal Lease-by-Application Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...Availability of the Buckskin Mine Hay Creek II Coal Lease-by-Application Final...availability of the Buckskin Mine Hay Creek II Coal Lease-by-Application (LBA...gov. Please include ``Hay Creek II Coal FEIS--Teresa Johnson''...

  8. Feasibility study on underground coal gasification of No. 15 seam in Fenghuangshan Mine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W.G., Huang; Z.T., Wang; L., Xin; T.H., Duan; G.J., Kang.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english To recover the coal resources of high-sulphur anthracite in Jincheng Mining Area, underground coal gasification (UCG) of No.15 seam in Fenghuangshan Coal Mine was proposed. The feasibility of the project was confirmed by investigations of occurrence conditions, coal properties, and roof conditions, [...] as well as experimental studies and theoretical analysis. It was found that UCG technology is appropriate to be adopted in the mining of the No. 15 seam, due to the stable rock conditions, simple geological structure and hydrogeology, the high carbon content of the coal, non-cohesiveness, medium-thermal stability, high ash fusion temperature, and weak reactivity with CO2. Further factors are the characteristics of the immediate roof, which consists of 9.11 m of limestone and mudstone with a compact structure and low permeability, and 4.27 m of dominantly mudstone with low permeability.

  9. The Use of Fuzzy Systems in the Designing of Mining Process in Hard Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzychczy, Edyta; K?sek, Marek; Napieraj, Aneta; Sukiennik, Marta

    2014-10-01

    This article presents examples of solutions supporting the design of certain elements of the mining process in coal mines. The focus is on two fuzzy systems: the first supports the selection of equipment for longwall faces (FSES); and the second supports the estimation of production results (FSOE). System FSES generates proposals for equipment in designed longwall faces. The module of fuzzing in this system enables a fuzzing operation for the following quantitative variables: longwall length; longwall height; longitudinal and crosswise incline of the longwall, workability of the coal and thickness of rock vein in a given section of the longwall. The knowledge base includes over 100 fuzzy rules indicating possible options for equipment under specified site conditions. After a proposal of equipment is generated, it is then possible to insert the values obtained into the second system FSOE, which estimates output for a given shift time using the chosen parameters. The module of fuzzing in system FSOE includes 9 variables, which are crucial in determining shift output for the given longwall face. The knowledge base in this system contains over 2000 rules. As a result of the operation of both systems, the designer receives both a proposal of equipment for the designed longwall face and the size of shift output under the given conditions. Operation of the two systems has been presented using a case study.

  10. Results of the coal mines by long wall mining in Australia (1997); Australia no long wall hori tanko jisseki (1997 nen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The paper classified each of the mines by the following items, presenting the statistics: state/area, name of coal beam and thickness, mining depth, minable reserve, mining amount of raw coal (classified into long wall and others), predicted mining amount of raw coal for 1998, size of long wall working face (length of working face, length of operation, and coal minable ability per hour) and lost-time injury frequency rate (number of disaster causing shutdown over 24 hours/million working hours). The number of mines surveyed was 33. Mines having large minability are Dartbrook (4000 tons/hour), South Bulga and Crinum (3500 each) and Gordonstone and Kenmare (3000 each). Mines having small minability are Gretley (600 tons/hour), Okadale (800), etc. The largest drilling depth is 550m. Mines having large minable amount are Gordonstone (190 million tons), Appin (135) and Newstan (130) and Wyee (110)

  11. Reality and prognosis of development of Brown Coal Mine ''Turow'' -historical outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of excavation in Brown Coal Mine ''Turow'' located in South-West Poland is shown together with its prognosis up to 2015. The coal sale structure (power plant ''Turow'', internal market and export) is also presented. The present economic conditions of the mine is assessed on the base of financial results. The information on investment, equipment service life, personnel and accidents is given. 1 ill., 5 tabs

  12. Mechanical and electrical properties of mined coal filled polyethylene and polyamide

    OpenAIRE

    Rojek, M.; Stabik, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present paper is to present results of basic mechanical properties research of high-density polyethylene and polyamide 6 filled with two kinds of mined coal particles. Because composites with carbon are expected to poses low electric resistance also surface resistivity was measured.Design/methodology/approach: Dependences of tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength, ball hardness and surface resistivity on volume content of mined coal in polymeric mat...

  13. 30 CFR 785.21 - Coal preparation plants not located within the permit area of a mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal preparation plants not located within the permit area of a mine. 785.21 Section 785...CATEGORIES OF MINING § 785.21 Coal preparation plants not located within the permit area of a mine. (a) This...

  14. 14C tracing in water from deep coal mines of Rybnik coal region and Legnica-Glogow copper fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are shown of measuring 14C in coal mine and copper mine ground water, and CO2 sample preparation from carbonates dissolved in the water is described. In 1964 to 1967, 14 samples were measured from boreholes in the Legnica-Glogow copper basin. The results of 14C content measurements are shown as are the general characteristics of geological structure of the Rybnik coal field northern region. In 69 samples taken in 15 places of the Rybnik coal field, the activity of 14C samples taken in a depth of 400 m in an area of major tectonic disturbances was low, amounting to only 1.8+-0.3%; sample activity in the coal exploitation region showed considerable variability. The results show that flooding of the exploited bed and its contact with shallow waters may yield information needed for exploitation control. (J.P.)

  15. Comparative study on efficiency performance of listed coal mining companies in China and the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continually rising energy prices in global markets highlights a serious concern about the need to improve energy efficiency and the efficiency in energy sector in many countries. China, as one of the fastest growing countries in the world and the largest coal producer, has high coal consumption but a low recovery rate of coal utilization. Coal efficiency and the efficiency in coal industry have therefore attracted a great deal of attention from Chinese policy makers, coal firms and academics. This study attempts to compare the relative technical efficiency performance of listed coal mining companies in China and the US using CCR and BCC models in the advanced DEA linear programming. The results show that the level of relative efficiency in Chinese coal mining enterprises, regardless of total technical efficiency or decomposed pure technical and scale efficiency, is much lower than in American coal firms. The study also highlights the input resources that cause the inefficiency of Chinese coal mining companies. Furthermore, in-depth discussion and analysis of how the institutional environments of the two countries could cause the differences are provided.

  16. Comparative study on efficiency performance of listed coal mining companies in China and the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continually rising energy prices in global markets highlights a serious concern about the need to improve energy efficiency and the efficiency in energy sector in many countries. China, as one of the fastest growing countries in the world and the largest coal producer, has high coal consumption but a low recovery rate of coal utilization. Coal efficiency and the efficiency in coal industry have therefore attracted a great deal of attention from Chinese policy makers, coal firms and academics. This study attempts to compare the relative technical efficiency performance of listed coal mining companies in China and the US using CCR and BCC models in the advanced DEA linear programming. The results show that the level of relative efficiency in Chinese coal mining enterprises, regardless of total technical efficiency or decomposed pure technical and scale efficiency, is much lower than in American coal firms. The study also highlights the input resources that cause the inefficiency of Chinese coal mining companies. Furthermore, in-depth discussion and analysis of how the institutional environments of the two countries could cause the differences are provided. (author)

  17. A computational fluid dynamics model for investigating air flow patterns in underground coal mine sections

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.D, Ndenguma; J, Dirker; N.D.L, Burger.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation compares the results from an experimental and numerical study of air flow in a scaled-down underground coal mine model. This was done in order to determine if numerical analysis can be relied upon when searching for ventilation solutions to control high concentration of coal dust [...] and methane gas in underground coal mines. Steady state analyses were used to identify flow patterns and recirculation regions within the mining section while transient state analyses were used to determine the time taken to extract the initial air from the model. The agreement between the experimental and numerical results indicates that numerical modelling is useful in this regard. The study went further to devise a method of determining the optimum position of the jet fan that is responsible for mine-gas dilution at different stages of mining.

  18. A study of trends in occupational risks associated with coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal industry is well known as a major source of specific types of risk and harmful effects including, for instance, harm to the environment, pollution from various surface installations and hazards associated with the actual task of mining. We shall confine our attention to the third group and discuss only the occupational risks facing miners and ex-miners. Unlike the nuclear and oil industries, coal-mines employ very large work-forces, and the risks associated with mining therefore have a considerable impact. Mining is also a highly integrated industry: a mine's own work-force carries out all the underground engineering work (preparatory excavations, installation work, etc.) as well as maintenance. In this narrow field, a distinction should immediately be drawn between two main areas: industrial accidents; and occupational diseases, which include silicosis or, more precisely, coal-miner's pneumoconiosis

  19. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  20. Effects of longwall coal mining on the hydrology of two appalachian stream valleys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to quantify the effects of longwall mining on local hydrology, an intensive data collection program was undertaken at two sites in the Northern Appalachian coal field where the depth of mining is 500-600 feet. Wells were drilled prior to mining at both sites so that water level, water quality, and aquifer transmissivity data could be obtained before and after mining. Streamflow measurements were also taken before and after mining to evaluate effects of mining on surface water. Water levels in wells dropped a maximum of 15 feet during undermining and then recovered to levels at or above premining levels. Groundwater quality was not degraded as a result of mining at either site. Aquifer transmissivity increased an order of magnitude after mining at both sites. Impacts of mining on streamflow at both sites were minimal

  1. Coal mine dust exposure and cancer mortality in German coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfeld, P.; Lampert, K.; Ziegler, H.; Stegmaier, C.; Dhom, G.; Piekarski, C. [Ruhrkohle AG, Dortmund (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeitswissenschaften

    1997-12-01

    Exposure to quartz dust or quartz-containing dusts is suspected to initiate or promote the development of cancer, especially lung cancer. In Germany, coal miners of the Saar area are exposed to respirable coal mine dust with a quartz content of about 12%. An historical follow up study was conducted on a group of 4628 Saar coal miners who worked at least 5 years underground. External comparisons with the male Saar area population were performed by standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and relative standardized mortality ratios (RSMR) analyses. Three hundred and seventeen deaths occurred in the study period between 1 January 1980 and 31 December 1991. The SMR was estimated as 0.63 for overall mortality, 0.65 for cancer mortality, 0.70 for lung cancer mortality, 0.62 for stomach cancer mortality, and 1.27 for malignancies of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue. RSMRs were not significantly different from expected except for malignancies of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue. Breaking down RSMRs by time since first exposure indicates a rising risk for malignancies of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue, but no association was found for cancer or lung cancer risk. Although smoking is frequent among coalminers than in the general male population of the Saar area, no indication of an increased cancer or lung cancer risk in coal miners was found. These results are in line with findings from Great Britain, the United States, and The Netherlands. Not-significant results for stomach cancer and malignancies of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue suffer from small numbers. A further follow up and a more detailed analysis of the healthy worker selection effects are necessary to validate these results. 37 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  2. Lightweight monitoring and control system for coal mine safety using REST style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Cheng, Xin; Chen, Junliang

    2015-01-01

    The complex environment of a coal mine requires the underground environment, devices and miners to be constantly monitored to ensure safe coal production. However, existing coal mines do not meet these coverage requirements because blind spots occur when using a wired network. In this paper, we develop a Web-based, lightweight remote monitoring and control platform using a wireless sensor network (WSN) with the REST style to collect temperature, humidity and methane concentration data in a coal mine using sensor nodes. This platform also collects information on personnel positions inside the mine. We implement a RESTful application programming interface (API) that provides access to underground sensors and instruments through the Web such that underground coal mine physical devices can be easily interfaced to remote monitoring and control applications. We also implement three different scenarios for Web-based, lightweight remote monitoring and control of coal mine safety and measure and analyze the system performance. Finally, we present the conclusions from this study and discuss future work. PMID:25109543

  3. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  4. Hydraulic fracturing technology for improving permeability in gas-bearing coal seams in underground coal mines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B.X, Huang; C.M, Huang; Q.Y, Cheng; C.H, Huang; W.C, Xue.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Hydraulic fracturing technology is presented as a solution to improve permeability and thus solve the extraction problem of coal seam gas in low-permeability gas-bearing coal seams. Given an existing group of original cracks, the propagation of main hydraulic cracks and hydraulic wing cracks was sim [...] ulated using realistic failure process analysis software. The process represents the structural transformation of hydraulic fracturing and permeability improvements caused by it. In addition, a field test for improving the permeability of gassy coal seams by hydraulic fracturing was also conducted. The propagation of the main cracks and wing cracks by hydraulic fracturing forms a network of original joint cracks, hydraulic wing cracks, and main hydraulic cracks, which improve the permeability of the coal seam. High-pressure water in the drill hole and in the main hydraulic cracks permeates the two flanks of the hole, forming the permeating water pressure. With an increase in drill water pressure and an extension of the main hydraulic cracks, the permeating water pressure on both sides of the main hydraulic cracks in the coal mass also increases. Hydraulic cracks tend to form connections through rock bridges. The extension of hydraulic wing cracks through connections in the rock bridges between the cracks transforms the rock mass to a fractured structure and improves its permeability. Hydraulic fracturing technology for improving permeability in underground conditions can increase the amount of gas drainage by a factor of 15. A stress relief area develops at a radial distance of 10-20 m from the hydraulic fracturing drill hole, while an area of rising stresses, called the pressurized area, develops a further 15 m away from the pressurized hole. Practice has proved the existence of the stress transfer phenomenon and the high stress area after fracturing. This kind of hydraulic fracturing technology is more effective in holes drilled from underground than in surface drill holes, with respect to costs and controllability, and is therefore the major trend in gas drainage development in coal mines.

  5. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric and X-ray studies of respirable dusts in Indian coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, N S; Sinha, J K; Sahoo, B

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative determination of 10 minor and 8 trace elements in respirable coal dust by atomic absorption spectrophotometry is described herein. The coal dust samples were collected in the mine atmosphere during drilling in coal seams. A "Hexhlet" apparatus specially designed and fitted with a horizontal elutriator was used to collect the respirable coal dust fraction. After destruction of organic matter by wet oxidation and filtering off the clay and silica, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, manganese, zinc, copper, cadmium, and nickel were determined directly in the resulting solution by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The studies relate to the respiratory disease-pneumoconiosis-affecting coal mine workers. X-Ray diffraction studies have shown the presence of kaolin, quartz, pirrsonite and beidellite clay minerals in the coal dust. PMID:7059229

  6. Assessment of contaminant load changes caused by remining abandoned coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of contaminant loading changes caused by remining of abandoned coal mines requires knowledge of the characteristics of the hydrologic data before and after remining. Under an approved remining program, a coal mine operator can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming treatment responsibilities of the previously degraded water, as long as these discharging waters are not further degraded. Normality tests performed on the hydrologic data from 57 mine discharges from 24 remining operations indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness (toward the smaller values). Analysis of the differences among medians indicates that the water quality of underground mines was more highly degraded than that of surface mines. Analyses of pre- and post-remining mine discharge water quality and flow rates of the 57 discharges illustrate that most the sites exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in contaminant rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining pollution load was observed to be significantly better or worse than the pre-remining load, as was shown with the correlation and other analyses. Generally, when the mine discharges were degraded as a result of remining, this was caused by short-term changes in flow and/or concentration that occurred shortly after reclamation. Reduction of recharge from the surface and adjacent unmined strata should decrease the mine dischined strata should decrease the mine discharge flow rate and in turn the contaminant load

  7. Seasonal factors controlling mineral precipitation in the acid mine drainage at Donghae coal mine, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring over a 12 month period in the Sanae creek flow in acid mine drainage, Donghae coal mine area, demonstrates that the concentrations of dissolved metals and sulphate are highest during autumn when water flow in the creek is at its lowest. The highest pH values of the stream were measured in April and May, whereas the lowest pH was recorded in October. The Fe concentration of stream water rapidly decreased downstream due to the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxide and/or oxyhydroxysulfate phases in the stream. Mineral precipitates in the creek in the Donghae mine area show various colours such as brownish yellow (Munsell colour 9.5 YR hues), reddish brown (Munsell colour 3.5 YR hues) and white depending on seasons and distance from the pollution source in the creek. Such phenomena are attributed to the variation in pH and chemical composition of stream water caused by seasonal factors. The measured pH ranges in stream water of the brownish yellow, white and reddish brown precipitates are pH 3.2-4.5, 4.5-6.0 and 5.3-6.9, respectively

  8. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2010; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2010. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  9. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2013; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2013. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  10. Method for Prediction of Coal and Gas Outburst Based on Data Mining Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Zhai; Xu Yu; Bai-Quan Lin; Wei Yang

    2013-01-01

    Coal and gas outburst is one of the main disasters in coal mine, the outburst forecasting is the main part of prevention work which affects the prevention measures establishment and production plan directly. However, only several factors such as ground stress, gas pressure or coal structure is taken into account, the forecasting results can not be very accurate. It’s urgent to get more kinds of parameters into consideration and enhance the outburst foreca...

  11. Forecast and prevention of coal and gas outbursts in the case of application of a new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal and gas outbursts are one of risk factors accompanying the mining of coal in low seams in the Ostrava-Karvina Coalfield. At the use of the method of longwall mining, all coal reserves have not been mined out owing to tectonic faults. For mining out the residual reserves, the application of a new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar was proposed. The method of mining of a coal seam utilizing long large diameter boreholes is verified in the Paskov Mine (company OKD, JSC - Czech Republic) under conditions of rock mass with hazard of rock and gas outbursts in localities of residual pillars left in seams after finishing the mining operations performed with using the classical method of longwall working along the strike. Forecast and preventive measures applied to the verification of the new method were based on previous experience with the mining of seams with hazard of coal and gas outbursts. They accepted fully valid legislation, i.e. Ordinance of Ostrava Regional Mining Authority No. 3895/2002 and supplementary materials (Instructions and Guidelines). The proposed measures respected the character of the method being verified. For all areas being mined, projects containing also chapters specifying the problems of ensuring the safety of mining works and operation under conditions of hazard of coal and gas outbursts were prepared. In the contributions, basic proposals for the principles of coal and gas outburst forecast and prevention when applying the new miningnd prevention when applying the new mining method - drilling of a coal pillar are presented. (authors)

  12. Development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems. Technical progress report, October 1- October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-19

    A bibliography on various aspects of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems is included. Relevant federal and state legislation and regulations have been identified. Mines of interest to the project have been identified and listed for field visits. Seven regions of different climates, hydrology, geology, etc., are being studied individually. (LTN)

  13. 68 FR 10784 - Verification of Underground Coal Mine Operators' Dust Control Plans and Compliance Sampling for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-06

    ...assumed in NIOSH's estimation of an APF for PAPRs are...underground longwall mining operations, where high...including net reduced penalty costs) of $5.1 million to the underground coal mining industry. IX. Preliminary...Economic Analysis A. Costs and Benefits:...

  14. The Expansion of Coal Mining in the Depression Areas - A Way to Development?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinát, Stanislav; Navrátil, J.; Dvo?ák, Petr; Klusá?ek, Petr; Kulla, M.; Kunc, J.; Havlí?ek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 8, ?. 1 (2014), s. 5-15. ISSN 1843-6587 R&D Projects: GA TA ?R(CZ) TD020259 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : coal mining * perception of mining * Karviná * Orlová * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://humangeographies.org.ro/articles/81/8_1_14_1_martinat.pdf

  15. Historical overview and future directions of the microbial role in the acidic coal mine drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteria have been implicated and analyzed at every step in the production of acidic coal mine drainage (AMD). This review paper provides detailed information about microbial studies in mines, laboratory settings, waste piles, ground water, receiving streams, and downstream rivers and lakes. Research on AMD treatment, beneficial uses, and seasonal variability is also reviewed. 102 refs

  16. EFFECTS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINING ON GROUND WATER IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report addresses the past effects and the possible future effects of underground coal mining activities on ground-water resources in the region east of the 100th meridian. Such effects are highly dependent on the location of the mine with respect to natural flow system. Rech...

  17. Proceedings of the twenty-second annual institute on coal mining health, safety and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the proceedings of the 22nd Annual Institute on Coal Mine Health, Safety, and Research. Topics covered include: air quality, control of toxic materials, job safety analysis, diesel emission control and monitoring, risk assessment for cancer prevention, and longwall mining

  18. Environmental impact of surface coal mining and reclamation in the Plains region of Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1979 and 1988, the Plains Hydrology and Reclamation Project (PHRP) studied the impacts of surface coal mining in the plains of Alberta on the hydrology and agricultural capability of reclaimed landscapes. The most important adverse hydrologic impact of surface mining is removal of the shallow aquifers that provide the majority of agricultural water supplies. In some areas, replacement water supplies are available from beneath the base of mining. Chemical quality of groundwater in mine spoil is degraded significantly relative to that in pre-existing coal aquifers. Surface mining has essentially no impact on water quality outside of mined areas. The agricultural capability of reconstructed soil landscapes generally is equivalent to, although less variable than, that of unmined landscapes. Physical and chemical properties of well-drained reconstructed soils are improved through downward leaching of sodium and through a decrease in bulk density. Surface wetness and soil salinity result in degradation of agricultural capability in small areas of reclaimed sites

  19. Airborne radon and its progeny levels in the coal mines of Godavarikhani, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In India, out of about 0.7 million miners, nearly 0.5 million persons are directly engaged in coal operations. Radon and its progeny levels have been quantified in the coal-mining environment of Godavarikhani, Andhra Pradesh, India using solid-state nuclear track detectors. Seasonal and mine depth variations in radon levels have been recorded resulting in the identification of locations with a high radon level as areas with no mining activity, active mining operational zones and return air ventilation paths. All these radon levels were below the permissible levels. The average concentrations of radon and its progeny levels were found to be 144±61 Bq m-3 and 20±11 mWL (working level) respectively in the two-incline mine, and these values for the five-incline mine are recorded as 315±71 Bq m-3 and 30±9 mWL respectively. (author)

  20. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.